AeA?AEAAIA AEAAeAI?ss EAAEI? I?IIENEIAINO? OE?A?IE

OAeE 677.842.4:677.862

NA??A?EIAA Ae?AIA AAI?A??AIA

?IC?IAEA OAOIIEIA?? OA?AOAAIIss OEAIEI ?c noi?o?

oeaetheicieo oa iie?ao??ieo aieieii I?AIAIOAIE,

II?AeIAII? C CAEETH*IITH IA?IAEITH

05.19.03 — oaoiieia?y oaenoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

EE?A – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?niinueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?,
I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? I?uaiei Aaiia
Aieiaeeie??aia, Oa?niinueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e o?i?/ii? oaoiieia?? aieieienoeo iaoa??ae?a

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iaee?i Aaeoa?ae
Naiaiiae/, ?inoeooo oaoi?/ii? oaieio?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie, caa.
eaai?aoi???th;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeia?e ni?a?ia?oiee A?eai?yi Aai?a?e
Na?a?eiae/, Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo oaenoeeueii?
i?iieneiaino?, aee?aeoi?

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

Oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao Iiae?eey, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i.
Oiaeueieoeueeee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “21” ea?oiy 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.102.02 i?e Aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai??
eaaei? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252011, i. Ee?a-11, aoe.
Iaie?iae/a-Aeai/aiea, 2

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Aea?aeaaii?
aeaaeai?? eaaei? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie (252011, i. Ee?a-11, aoe.
Iaie?iae/a-Aeai/aiea, 2)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “17” aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

Oa?anaiei A.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A aeaiee /an a Oe?a?i? ? iiooaeia
oaenoeeueia aaeocue, i?ioa /a?ac a?aenooi?noue a?o/eciyii? oaenoeeueii?
ne?iaeie, aeniei? oe?ie ia na?oiaiio ?eieo ia aaaiaio ? aeinoaoiuei
aenieeo aeo?ao ia aia?aiiin??, oeaieie, ae?iaeai? ia oaenoeeueieo
i?aei?e?inoaao Oe?a?ie, ia eiieo?aioiini?iiiaei?. Oiio ?ic?iaea iiaeo
?ano?nicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e, ? oaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/eo noi?nieo
niinia?a oa?aoaaiiy ? caeeth/ii? ia?iaee oeaieie, ye? aeicaieyoue
cieceoe nia?aa?o?noue i?iaeoeoe??, ? aeooaeueiith.

C iaeyaeo ia no/ani? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo oaenoeeueii? i?iieneiaino? o
na?o?, iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei iai?yieii, ui ni?ey? caa?aaeaiith
?ano?n?a, ? noi?uaiiy ie?aieo i?ioean?a a iaeei, cie?aia i?ioean?a
oa?aoaaiiy ? caeeth/ii? ia?iaee. I?e oeueiio iaea?eueoa iaa?oioiaaiei ?c
oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo iiceoe?e ? noi?uaiiy i?ioean?a oa?aoaaiiy
i?aiaioaie ? iaeicieiaeueii? ia?iaee (IC).

Eiaeai ?c cacia/aieo i?ioean?a — oa?aoaaiiy i?aiaioaie ? iaeicieiaeueio
ia?iaeo — iiaeia a?aeianoe aei /enea iaea?eueo no/anieo, i?ia?aneaieo
oaoiieia?e: i?aiaioio oaoiieia?th — /a?ac ?? aeiiii?/i?, aeieia?/i? ?
oaoiieia?/i? ia?aaaae, a IC ia?iaeo — aiane?aeie iniiaiiai aianeo
oeueiai i?ioeano o oi?ioaaiiy iaiao?aeiiai eiiieaeno iieaciee?a yeino?
i?iaeoeoe??.

I?ioa, ye iieacaa aiae?c iaoeiai? ? iaoaioii? e?oa?aoo?e, a oaeiae
aeina?ae aeei?enoaiiy cacia/aieo oaoiieia?e, inoaii? iathoue ?yae
?noioieo iaaeie?e?a, ui ia?aoeiaeaeothoue oe?ieiio ai?iaaaeaeaiith
i?aiaioii? oaoiieia?? ia o?eueee i?e noi?niiio oaoiieia?/iiio i?ioean?,
aea ? ye naiino?eii? oaoiieia??.

Iniiai? c oeeo iaaeie?e?a oae?:

— oaoiieia?y aeei?enoiao?oueny o?eueee aeey iaea?aeaiiy caaa?aeaiue
na?oeeo oii?a (eiioeaio?aoe?y i?aiaioo cae/aeii ia ia?aaeuo? 1-2 a/e,
oiio ui i?e ?? i?aeaeuaii? ia caaacia/o?oueny a?aeiia?aeia
Aea?aenoaiaea?oai i?oei?noue caaa?aeaiue);

— neeaaee ia iniia? a?aeiieo eaoaen?a iaeeiathoue ia ae?eyiee
oaoiieia?/iiai onoaoeoaaiiy ? i?aeoe/ii ia aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e
oa?aoaaii?;

— oaenoeeuei? iaoa??aee, ia?iaeai? ii noi?ni?e oaoiieia??, iathoue
aei?noeee a?eo, oiio oaoiieia?y canoiniao?oueny o?eueee aeey aeoaea
iaiaaeaiiai ani?oeiaioo oeaiei;

— ia??ai?noue caaa?aeaiiy, iia’ycaia c i?a?aoe??th i?aiaioiiai aa?aieea
a i?ioean? noo?iiy oeaieie;

— aeniea eiioeaio?aoe?y i?aaeeiiaeainao?a oa?ii?aaeoeaieo niie (IO?N) o
i?ini/oaaeueieo aaiiao aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaiao?aeiiai aoaeoo ia?iaee ?
aiane?aeie oeueiai aenieee ai?no a?eueiiai oi?iaeueaeaa?aeo ia aioiaeo
oaenoeeueieo iaoa??aeao;

— ao?aoa iaoai?/ii? i?oeiino? oeaieie i?e iaeicieiaeuei?e ia?iaoe?
noaiiaeoue a?ae 25 aei 40%, o oiio /ene? i?e noe?aii? aei 40%.

Ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue ia noai?ai? oaoiieia?? iaeicieiaeueii? ia?iaee,
aac noiooiueiai ia?iaoe? cieaeaiiy iaoai?/ii? i?oeiino? oaenoeeueiiai
iaoa??aeo.

O oeueiio ca’yceo aaee/aciee ?ioa?an iiaeooue iaoe oaoiieia??, caniiaai?
ia canoinoaaii? iie?o?aoai?a (IO). Oi?eaeuei? aeanoeaino? iie?o?aoai?a
iieyaathoue o ii?aeiai? a iaeiiio iie?ia?? aeniei? i?oeiino? e
aeanoe/iino?. Oea iaiao?aei? aeanoeaino? ie?aie ca’ycoth/iai, ye?
cae/aeii aeinyaathoueny ia’?aeiaiiyi o oa?aoaaeueiiio neeaae? ??cieo
iie?ia??a aai oeyoii neioaco niiie?ia??a.

A inoaii? ?iee neioaciaaia iiaa a?oia iie?o?aoai?a: iie?o?aoaiia?
?iiiia?e c aiaei?ic/eiiith a?oiith a eaioethc? iie?ia?o, ui iaaea? eiio
aeiaeaoeiaeo iiceoeaieo aeanoeainoae c iiceoe?e oeo aeiia, ui
i?aae’yaeythoueny aei ca’ycoth/eo. Iie?ia? c ?iiiith a?oiith a
iae?iiieaeoe? ia? aeey oaenoeeueii? oaoiieia?? aeiyoeiaee ?ioa?an, oiio
ui ia eiai iniia? iiaea aooe noai?aia oaoiieia?y, ni?iiiaeia
caaacia/eoe:

— i?oei?noue caaa?aeaiue, i’yeee a?eo oeaieie, aenieo no?ee?noue aei
noe?aiiy, ui iniaeeai aaaeeeai aeey ni?i/a/ii? a?oie oeaieie,
“i?aoethth/i?” ia noe?aiiy,

— i?i?iaeueia cieaeaiiy ao?aoe iaoai?/ii? i?oeiino? ii iniia? ? ooeo,

-cieaeaiiy ai?noo a?eueiiai oi?iaeueaeaa?aeo ia oeaiei? ? i?aeaeuaiiy
nooiaiy aeieia?/ii? /enoioe oaenoeeueii? i?iaeoeoe??, oiio ui
iie?o?aoaie a?aeiinyoueny aei aeieia?/ii /enoeo i?iaeoeo?a.

Oaeei /eiii, aeooaeuei?noue oe??? ?iaioe caaacia/o?oueny iaiao?aei?noth
?icoe?aiiy ianyao aeei?enoaiiy iaea?eueo aoaeoeaii? i?aiaioii?
oaoiieia?? a iii?yaeaeoaaeueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?, cie?aia, ca ?aooiie
aeei?enoaiiy iie?o?aoaiiaeo ca’ycoth/eo o oi?i? ?iiiia??a, a oaeiae
ii?aeiaiiyi i?ioeano oa?aoaaiiy c caeeth/iith ia?iaeith oeaiei, ui
caaacia/o? ?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?n?a ? aeione oaenoeeueii?
i?iaeoeoe?? c iaiao?aeieie niiaeea/eie aeanoeainoyie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa a?aeiia?aea? iai?yieo aeine?aeaeaiue Oa?niinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, a naia iai?yieo “?ic?iaea ?ano?nicaa??aath/eo
oaoiieia?e iii?yaeaeoaaiiy oaenoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a” oa caaaeaiiyi, ye?
aeeeaaeaii o Aea?aeaai?e i?ia?ai? ?icaeoeo eaaei? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie
ia ia??iae aei 2000 ?.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoith ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea
?ano?nicaa??aath/i? i?aiaioii? oaoiieia?? oa?aoaaiiy, ii?aeiaii? c
caeeth/iith ia?iaeith oeaiei ia iniia? canoinoaaiiy iie?o?aoaiiaeo
?iiiia??a ye ca’ycoth/iai i?aiaioieo neeaae?a oa i?aia?aoo aeey
caeeth/ii? ia?iaee, yea a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy oa
caaacia/o? aeione ye?nii? i?iaeoeoe??.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aoei iai?/aii ? ?ica’ycaii oae?
caaaeaiiy:

— aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? iiaaae?iee iie?o?aoaiiaeo ?iiiia??a i?e oa?aoaaii?
i?aiaioaie, o oiio /ene? a i?enooiino? iniiaieo eiiiiiaio?a i?aiaioieo
oa?aoaaeueieo aaii, a naia: aeania i?aiaioo ? ??ciiiai?oiiai oeio
i?aaeeiiaeainao?a oa?ii?aaeoeaieo niie, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey
iaaeaiiy oeaieiai iacieiaeueiino?;

— anoaiiaeoe iiaeeea?noue cieaeaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith iie?o?aoai?a ao?ao
iaoai?/ii? i?oeiino? aaaiaiyiieaanaiiaeo oeaiei i?e iaeicieiaeuei?e
ia?iaoe?, ye? ca?aeii c a?aeiieie caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie oaoiieia?yie
neeaaeathoue 25-40%;

— ca?eueoeoe no?ee?noue oeaieie aei noe?aiiy ?c caa?aaeaiiyi a?a??i?/ieo
aeanoeainoae oaenoeeueiiai iaoa??aeo i?e iaeicieiaeuei?e ia?iaoe?;

— caanoe aei i?i?ioio ai?no a?eueiiai oi?iaeueaeaa?aeo ia oeaiei?, ui
i?aeeyaa? iaeicieiaeuei?e ia?iaoe?;

— ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue cai?iiiioaaoe oaoiieia?th
oa?aoaaiiy, yea a caaacia/oaaea aenieo i?oei?noue caaa?aeaiiy ?
iaiao?aeio ye?noue caeeth/ii? ia?iaee c i?i?iaeueiei cieaeaiiyi
iaoai?/ii? i?oeiino? oaenoeeueiiai iaoa??aeo;

— ia?aa??eoe cai?iiiiiaaio oaoiieia?th o ae?iaieoeoa?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

— aia?oa iieacaii, ui a i?enooiino? i?aiaioiiai aa?aieea aaeaac?y
iie?o?aoaiiaeo ie?aie aei oaenoeeueiiai iaoa??aeo cieaeo?oueny, i?e/iio
oei o a?eueoiio nooiai?, /ei a?eueoo noeeuei?noue aei aca?iiae?? c
iie?o?aoaiii aeyaey? i?aiaio, i?e oeueiio iie?o?aoaiia? ie?aee,
iaiiaiai? i?aiaioieie aa?aieeaie, iathoue a?eueo iecueeo aaeaac?th, i?ae
iie?ia?i? ie?aee ?ioeo oei?a ca’ycoth/iai;

— anoaiiaeaii, ui a i?enooiino? i?aaeeiiaeainao?a oa?ii?aaeoeaieo niie
aaeaac?y iaiiaiaieo i?aiaioiei aa?aieeii iie?o?aoaiiaeo ie?aie aei
oaenoeeueiiai iaoa??aeo ca?eueoo?oueny, i?e oeueiio a?eueoiio
i?aeaeuaiith i?oeiino? ni?eythoue i?aaeeiiaeainaoe oa?ii?aaeoeaieo niie,
noeeuei? ia aei coeaaiiy, a aei niieiooai?aiiy;

— cai?iiiiiaaii iaoai?ci i?aeaeuaiiy aaeaac?eii? i?oeiino?
iie?o?aoaiiaeo ie?aie a i?enooiino? i?aaeeiiaeainao?a oa?ii?aaeoeaieo
niie, ui a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo oyaeaiue i?i
aca?iiae?th ca’ycoth/iai ? i?aaeeiiaeainaoo oa?ii?aaeoeaii? niiee oa
a?oioo?oueny ia ooai?aii? ae?oaiai iie?ia?o c i?aaeeiiaeainaoo
oa?ii?aaeoeaii? niiee a i?enooiino? iie?ia?o ca’ycoth/iai, oiaoi ia
iiaeeeaino? neioaco aca?iii?iieeath/eo iie?ia?ieo n?oie ? ie?aee
eiiiiceoe?eiiai oeio.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

— cai?iiiiiaaia oaoiieia?y noi?niiai oa?aoaaiiy ? caeeth/ii? ia?iaee
oeaiei, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy yei? aeicaieeoue ca?eueoeoe ia’?ie niiaeeaaiiy
i?aiaio?a o oa?aoaaii? ? ?icoe?eoe iaeanoue canoinoaaiiy
naiiaeenia?aoth/eo aiaeieo aeenia?n?e iie?o?aoai?a, i?aeaeueoe ye?noue
oaenoeeueii? i?iaeoeoe??, cieceoe nia?aa?o?noue ? i?aeaeueoe ??
eiieo?aioiicaeaoi?noue ia na?oiaiio ??ai?;

— anoaiiaeaia aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy IO ?iiiia??a c aeiaaaeaie
i?aaeeiiaeainao?a oa?ii?aaeoeaieo niie, ye? ni?eythoue i?aeaeuaiith
i?oeiino? caaa?aeaiue ? iaaeathoue oeaiei? caeaoiino? i?ioenoiyoe
cieiaiith i?e caa?aaeaii? i?oeiino? oeaieie;

— cai?iiiiiaaia nenoaia eaoae?caoi??a, yea aeicaiey? iie?ioeoe ye?ni?
iieacieee aioiai? oeaieie, cieceoe a 3 — 7 ?ac?a ai?no a?eueiiai
oi?iaeueaeaa?aeo ia oeaiei? oa i?aeaeueoe nooi?iue aeieia?/ii? /enoioe
i?iaeoeoe??;

— c?iaeaii i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei oe?eani?yiiaaiiai aeai?o ia?ie
i?aiaioieo aa?aiee?a, ye? caaacia/othoue iaea?aeaiiy iaea?eueo i?oeieo
caaa?aeaiue;

— i?iaaaeai? ia AAO “Oa?niinueeee AE” ae?iaie/? aei?iaoaaiiy
i?aeoaa?aeeee iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy IO ?iiiia??a a ia’?aeiaiiio
i?ioean?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? a iinoaiiaoe? ? iaa?oiooaaii? caaea/
aeine?aeaeaiiy; o e?eoe/iiio aiae?c? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?, iaoaioii?
?ioi?iaoe?? ? ae?iaie/iai aeina?aeo c ieoaiue oa?aoaaiiy i?aiaioaie ?
caeeth/ii? ia?iaee oeaiei; oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaii? ? aeiai??
eiiiiiaio?a eiiiiceoe??, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny i?e oa?aoaaii? i?aiaioaie
?c noi?niith ia?iaeith oeaiei; ?ic?iaoe? aeieia?/ii /enoi?,
eiieo?aioiini?iiiaeii?, iaeioi?iaeueaeaa?aeii? iaeicieiaeueii? ia?iaee
oeaieie; ?ic?iaoe? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii oe?eani?yiiaaiiio aeiai?o ia?ie
i?aiaioieo aa?aiee?a aeey noi?nieo niinia?a oa?aoaaiiy ? ia?iaee
oaenoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a; aeeiiaii? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue o
eaai?aoi??? ? ae?iaie/eo oiiaao; iaoeiaiio iaa?oiooaaii? io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a ? oi?ioethaaii? aeniiae?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeeny:

ia i?aeaoc?anuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo ? nooaeaio?a,
AeAEIO, Ee?a, 1996 ?.,

ia eiioa?aioe?? “?icaeoie aeiiii?/ii? iaoee a Oe?a?i? oa aeeeaaeaiiy
aeiiii?/ieo aeenoeeie?i”, Oa?nii, 1996 ?.,

ia iaoeiaiio nai?ia?? eaoaae?e o?i?/ii? oaoiieia?? aieieienoeo
iaoa??ae?a OAeOO, Oa?nii, 1997 ?.,

ia ?icoe?aiiio iaoeiaiio nai?ia?? oaoiieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo OAeOO,
Oa?nii, 1998 ?.,

ia ?icoe?aiiio iaoeiaiio nai?ia?? eaoaae?e oaoiieia?? o?eeioaaeiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa AeAEIO, Ee?a, 1998?.

Ioae?eaoe?? ii oai? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeth/athoue 7 iaeiaioaaiue,
o oiio /ene? noaoae o ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ? iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao —
5, oac aeiiia?aeae ia eiioa?aioe?yo — 2.

O ?iaioao, aeeiiaieo o ni?aaaoi?noa?, caeiaoaa/o iaeaaeeoue oai?aoe/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy ? ?ic?iaea ii?aeiaiiai niiniao oa?aoaaiiy i?aiaioaie c
caeeth/iith ia?iaeith ia iniia? IO ?iiiia??a [2,3]; anoaiiaeaiiy
caeiiii??iino? aieeao o?i?/ii? aoaeiae i?aiaio?a ia ye?ni? iieacieee
aioiai? oeaieie [4,7]; aea/aiiy iaoai?cio aca?iiae?? iie?ia?ieo
eiiiiiaio?a oa?aoaaeueii? aaiie i?ae niaith [5]; ocaaaeueiaiiy ia?aaaa
aeei?enoaiiy IO ?iiiia??a a eieuei?enoe/iiio ioi?ieaii? oeaiei [1];
aeiiii?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy aeioe?eueiino? ?icoe?aiiy ianyao niiaeeaaiiy
i?aiaio?a [6]; aeia?? iaoiaeee aeine?aeaeaiue, iaea?aeaiiy
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ? iaaiai?aiiy ?acoeueoao?a on?o
aeine?aeaeaiue.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c
anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae,
aeiaeaoe?a. Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue 115 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, 20
oaaeeoeue, 15 ?enoie?a, 147 iaeiaioaaiue a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo aeaea?ae.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ? caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iieacai? iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? cae?eniaii iaeyae aeine?aeaeaiue, iia’ycaieo c
canoinoaaiiyi i?aiaioii? oaoiieia?? aeey eieuei?oaaiiy oaenoeeueieo
iaoa??ae?a. Aeeeaaeai? ia?aaaae i?aiaioieo aa?aiee?a, iniiai? aeiiae,
ui i?aae’yaeythoueny aei ieo. ?ice?eoi i?iaeaio ca’ycoth/eo, ui
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey o?enaoe?? i?aiaio?a ? i?iaiae?ciaaii oeyoe
ae??oaiiy i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c o?enaoe??th i?aiaioo ? caa??aaiiyi
i’yeiai a?eoa oeaieie. Iienaii iiaee oei ca’ycoth/eo — IO ?iiiia??a ?
?o ia?aaaae, ? ni?iaiiciaaia aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy iie?o?aoaiiaeo
?iiiia??a i?e oa?aoaaii? i?aiaioaie oeaetheiciiiie?ao??ii? oeaieie. I?e
oeueiio a?aecia/aii a?aenooi?noue aeaieo i?i canoinoaaiiy IO ?iiiia??a o
oa?aoaaii? i?aiaioaie ? caeeth/i?e ia?iaoe? oeaiei.

Aea/ai? i?iaeaie caeeth/ii? ia?iaee oeaiei, cie?aia, iaeicieiaeueii?.
Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?eaia aeieia?/iei i?iaeaiai, iia’ycaiei c
aeei?enoiaoaaiiyi o oa?aoaaii? i?aiaioaie ? i?e iaeicieiaeuei?e ia?iaoe?
na/iaeiioi?iaeueaeaa?aeieo i?aia?ao?a, ye? ? aeaea?aeii a?eueiiai
oi?iaeueaeaa?aeo ia oeaiei?. E?eoe/ii i?iaiae?ciaaii oeyoe, ni?yiiaai?
ia cieaeaiiy eiai eiioeaio?aoe?? ia oeaiei?.

C?iaeaii i?eiouaiiy i?i iiaeeea?noue noai?aiiy ia iniia? IO ?iiiia??a
iaeioi?iaeueaeaa?aeii? iaeicieiaeueii? ia?iaee, ui iaeii/anii iiaea
caaacia/eoe aenieee nooi?iue o?enaoe?? i?aiaioo ia oeaiei? oa
iaea?aeaiiy no?eeeo caaa?aeaiue.

Iai?ee?ioe? ?icae?eo c?iaeaii aea?? iai?yie?a aeine?aeaeaiue.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaia caaaeueia iaoiaeeea ? iniiai? iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

C o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?/iiai caniao o?enaoe?? i?aiaio?a, a naia ca
?aooiie iie?ia?ii? ie?aee ca’ycoth/iai, i?e yeiio aecia/aeueio ?ieue
a?ae?a?athoue i?ioeane ia iiaa?oi? ?icae?eo ie?aea ca’ycoth/iai —
oaenoeeueiee iaoa??ae, ea?oaaeeny eiei?aeii — o?i?/iei i?aeoiaeii aeey
ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy i?oeiino? caaa?aeaiue. Oeae i?aeo?ae
a?oioo?oueny ia eiioeaioe?? iaiao?aeiino? ou?eueiaiiy ? ca?eueoaiiy
eiaac?? a?aie/iiai oa?o, cie?aia, oeyoii coeaaiiy iie?ia?o ca’ycoth/iai
aai neioaco ie?aie eiiiiceoe?eiiai oeio.

Iniiaieie ia’?eoaie aeine?aeaeaiue aoee IO ?iiiia?e ? IO?N. Iie?ia?i?
ie?aee ioe?ithaaee ca aaeaac?eiith ? eiaac?eiith i?oei?noth.

Niaeo?ioioiiao?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aie i?iaiaeeee ia niaeo?ioioiiao??
UR-20 (o??ia “Ea?e Oeaen”, I?ia//eia).

?ioaineai?noue caaa?aeaiiy iii?yaeaeaieo oeaiei ioe?ithaaee ii ooieoe??
Ao?aae/a — Eoaaeee — Ioiea. Eiao?oe??ioe a?aeaeooy c?ace?a oeaiei
aei??thaaee ia niaeo?ioioiiao?? Texflash (I?ia//eia). Eieuei?enoe/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee caaa?aeaiiy aecia/aee ca aeiiiiiaith aaoiiaoe/ii? nenoaie
ia’?eoeaiiai aei??o eieuei?o, aei neeaaeo yei? aoiaeeoue niaeo?ioioiiao?
Texflash (Datacolor 3880), IBM — noi?niee eiii’thoa?, iaeao o??iiaeo
i?ia?ai aeey ae??oaiiy caaea/ eiei?enoeee.

Ioe?ieo nii??aeiaiino? iiaeaeueieo i?aiaioieo aa?aiee?a aei iie?o?aoaio
cae?enithaaee iaoiaeii ??aiiaaaeii? oa?iiaeeiai?ee.

I?e aea/ai? aca?iica’yceo i?ae i?oei?noth caaa?aeaiue ? o?i?/iith
aoaeiaith i?aiaio?a aeei?enoiaoaaee iiaeaeue aeenia?nii — iaiiaiaiiai
iie?ia?o, cai?iiiiiaaio TH.N. E?iaoiaei ?c ni?a?ia?oieeaie.

O?ceei-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? oeaieie ioe?ithaaee a?aeiia?aeii aei /eiieo
Aea?aenoaiaea?o?a.

Aeei?enoiaoaaee oaeiae aiae?oe/i? iaoiaee i?e ioe?ioe? ai?noo a?eueiiai
oi?iaeueaeaa?aeo ia oeaiei?.

?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaio?a ia?iaeai? a?aeiia?aeii aei iaoiae?a no/anii?
iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee c aeei?enoaiiyi IBM — noi?niiai ia?niiaeueiiai
eiii’thoa?a ? Noaoenoe/ii? Nenoaie “Noaae?y” Aa?n?y 4.10.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e?, ui neeaaea?oueny c 5-oe i?ae?icae?e?a, iiaeaia
aenia?eiaioaeueia /anoeia ?iaioe.

O i?ae?icae?e? 3.1 aeine?aeaeaii aieea eiaac?? oa aaeaac?? IO ?iiiia??a
aei oaenoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a ia i?oei?noue caaa?aeaiue, io?eiaieo ca
aeiiiiiaith i?aiaio?a.

I?e ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?e oa?aoaaiiy noanoaioeaieie aa?aieeaie
iaeaaaeeea?oith oa?aeoa?enoeeith ? nii??aeiai?noue aa?aieea aei aieieia,
ine?eueee a?ae oe??? oa?aeoa?enoeee aaaaoi a /iio caeaaeeoue no?ee?noue
caaa?aeaiue aei o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aieea?a.

I?e oa?aoaaii? ae i?aiaioaie, ui ia aieiae?thoue nii??aeiai?noth aei
aieieia, aeii?ioth/o ?ieue a?ae?a?a? yaeua aaeaac?? iie?ia?ii? ie?aee
ca’ycoth/iai aei oaenoeeueiiai iaoa??aeo, ca ?aooiie /iai i?aiaio
o?eno?oueny ia aieiei?, a oaeiae ?? eiaac?y. C o?aooaaiiyi a?aecia/aiiai
i?e ioe?ioe? i?eaeaoiino? iie?ia?o a yeino? ca’ycoth/iai i?aiaioieo
oa?aoaaeueieo neeaae?a iaea?eueoa aaaeeeaei aa?oi aaaaeaoe aaee/eie
eiaac?? ? aaeaac?? iie?ia?o, a oaeiae aieea ia aaeaac?th ??ciiiai?oieo
oaeoi??a i?ioeano oa?aoaaiiy. Oe? aeai? aiinyoue iniiaiee aeeaae o
aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo oaoiieia?/ieo oiia oa?aoaaiiy i?aiaioaie.

A?aeiia?aeii aei aeuaa?aecia/aiiai iie?o?aoaiia? ?iiiia?e ioe?ithaaee ca
iieacieeaie i?oeiino? i?e ?ic?ea? e aeanoe/iino? a ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie
oeiaie ca’ycoth/eo.

Iieacaii, ui ie?aee c IO o oi?i? ?iiiia??a, oaeiae ye ? ie?aee c IO,
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaea?eueo aenieei cia/aiiyi aaeaac?eii? i?oeiino? ?
?ic?eaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy a ii??aiyii? c ie?aeaie ?ioeo oei?a
ca’ycoth/eo.

A ca’yceo c oeei iiaeia aoei i/?eoaaoe, ui iie?o?aoaiia? ie?aee, ye?
iathoue a?eueoa cia/aiiy aaeaac?eii? i?oeiino?, caaacia/aoue iaea?aeaiiy
caaa?aeaiue ?c i?aeaeuaiith no?ee?noth aei o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aieea?a.
I?ioa ioe?iea no?eeino? caaa?aeaiue, io?eiaieo i?e oa?aoaaii?
i?aiaioieie neeaaeaie ia iniia? ??ciiiai?oieo oei?a IO ?iiiia??a,
iieacaea, ui IO ?iiiia?e ye eao?iiaeoeai?, oae ? ai?iiaeoeai?,
iacaaaeath/e ia aenieo aaeaac?eio i?oei?noue, naiino?eii ia
caaacia/othoue a?aeiia?aeio aei Aea?aenoaiaea?o?a no?ee?noue caaa?aeaiue
(oaae.1). sse aeaeii c oaaeeoe?, IO oaeiae ni?eythoue iacia/iiio
i?aeaeuaiith iacieiaeueiino? oaenoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a.

Oaaeeoey 1

Iieacieee yeino? oa?aoaaiiy ? caeeth/ii? ia?iaee oeaieie

i?e oa?aoaaii? i?aiaioieie neeaaeaie ia iniia? IO ?iiiia??a

Oei iie?o?aoaiiai? aeenia?n?? Eiioe., a/e I?oei?noue caaa?aeaiiy,
aaee, aei aieeao ?ioaineai?noue, E/S ??ai?noue caaa?aeaiiy,

( K/S Noia eoo?a a?aeiiaeaiiy, a?aae.

oa?oy ?ic/eio ieea i?e 95IN

nooiai iie?iai

Eao?ii-aeoeaia (ION-EA) 25

50

75

100 5/3

5/3

5/4

5/4-5 5/2

5/2

5/3

5/3 5/4

5/4

5/4

5/4 3,48

3,12

2,37

3,23 0,013

0,074

0,017

0,018 180

187

203

204

Ai?ii-aeoeaia (ioeai) 25

50

75

100 5/4

5/4-5

5/4-5

5/4 5/3

5/3

5/3

5/3 5/4

5/4

5/4

5/4 2,58

2,07

3,12

3,49 0,042

0,022

0,035

0,018 178

177

180

177

I?ei?oea: o iaia?iaeaii? oeaieie noia eoo?a a?aeiiaeaiiy aei??aith?
165-170 a?aae.

Iaaeniea no?ee?noue i?aiaioieo caaa?aeaiue, cao?eniaaieo ca aeiiiiiaith
IO ca’ycoth/eo, ui iathoue aenieo aaeaac?th aei oaenoeeueiiai iaoa??aeo
o a?eueiiio a?ae i?aiaioo noai?, iiynith?oueny aieeaii i?aiaioiiai
aa?aieea ia ia?a?iciiae?e ca’yce?a i?ae oaa?aeeie iiaa?oiyie i?e
aaaaeaii? i?aiaioo. I/aaeaeii, ui IO ca’ycoth/a, iath/e aaeeeo
e?euee?noue aeoeaieo aei aca?iiae?? c oaa?aeith iiaa?oiath a?oi, a
a?eueo?e i???, /ei ?io? oeie ca’ycoth/eo, aca?iiae?? c i?aiaioiei
aa?aieeii, aiane?aeie /iai a?aeaoaa?oueny ineaaeaiiy aaeaac?eii?
i?oeiino? iie?o?aoaiiai? ie?aee i?e aaaaeaii? i?aiaioiiai aa?aieea a
a?eueoiio nooiai?.

O oaae. 2 iaaaaeai? cia/aiiy aaeaac?eii? i?oeiino? iie?o?aoaiiaeo ie?aie
? ie?aie ?c iie?a?i?eaoeaoaoii? aeenia?n?? (IAA-Ae) a i?enooiino?
i?aiaioo.

Oaaeeoey 2

Aieea i?aiaioo ia aaeaac?eio i?oei?noue iie?ia?ieo ie?aie

ca’ycoth/eo aei iiaa?oi? oaenoeeueiiai iaoa??aeo

Neeaae eiiiiceoe?? Aaeaac?eia i?oei?noue, I/i2

ioeai IAA-Ae

aaaiaia aaaiaia + IA aaaiaia aaaiaia + IA

aeenia?n?y aac aeiaaaie 6,5 7,1 5,0 4,1

aeenia?n?y c i?aiaioii /a?aiiei 2NOI 5,9 4,9 4,3 9,0

Aiae?c aeaieo oaae. 2 iieaco?, ui iayai?noue i?aiaioiiai aa?aieea a
iie?ia?i?e ie?aoe? ca’ycoth/iai ia iniia? IO ?iiiia??a cieaeo?
aaeaac?eio i?oei?noue ia oaenoeeueieo iaoa??aeao ye ?c aaaiaie, oae ?
noi?o? aaaiaie oa eaanaio. I?e/iio, ia aaaiaiyiieaanaiia?e oeaiei?
aaeaac?eia i?oei?noue cieaeo?oueny a a?eueoiio nooiai?. I?e
aeei?enoaii? a yeino? ca’ycoth/iai IAA-Ae aaeaac?y ia
aaaiaiyiieaanaiia?e oeaiei? a i?enooiino? i?aiaioo, iaaiaee,
i?aeaeuo?oueny. I/aaeaeii, cieaeaiiy aaeaac?eii? i?oeiino?
iie?o?aoaiiai? ie?aee iia’ycaii c a?eueo aenieith aeoeai?noth
iie?o?aoai?a ii a?aeiioaiith aei i?aiaioiiai aa?aieea.

Oaeei /eiii, iieacaii, ui i?aiaio, ia iath/e nii??aeiaiino? aei
oaenoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a, i?ioa, aieeaa? ia no?ee?noue caaa?aeaiue oeyoii
eiai aca?iiae?? ?c ca’ycoth/ei. I?e oeueiio, i/aaeaeii, ui /ei
neeuei?oa oey aca?iiae?y, oei ieae/a no?ee?noue caaa?aeaiue.

O i?ae?icae?e? 3.2 aea/aii aieea o?i?/ii? aoaeiae i?aiaio?a ia
aaeaac?eio i?oei?noue iie?o?aoaiiaeo ?iiiia??a ? ia ye?noue iaea?aeaieo
caaa?aeaiue.

Aeine?aeaeaii aaeaac?th ? i?oei?noue ?yaeo iie?o?aoaiiaeo ie?aie,
iaiiaiaieo i?aiaioieie aa?aieeaie. Aa?aieee i?e oeueiio ia?ai? oaeei
/eiii, uia aiie a?ae??ciyeeny ii o?i?/i?e aeoeaiino? ii a?aeiioaiith aei
IO. Iieacaii, ui a i?enooiino? i?aiaioo aaeaac?y iie?o?aoaio aei
oaenoeeueiiai iaoa??aeo cieaeo?oueny oei o a?eueoiio nooiai?, /ei
a?eueoo noeeuei?noue aei aca?iiae?? c iie?o?aoaiii ia? i?aiaio. I?e
oeueiio anoaiiaeaii, ui no?ee?noue caaa?aeaiiy aei o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo
aieea?a cieaeo?oueny oei o a?eueoiio nooiai?, /ei a?eueo aenieo
nii??aeiai?noue aei IO ia? i?aiaio.

A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai iayai?noue cai?niee?a o iieaeoe? i?aiaioo,
aeoeaieo aei aca?iiae?? c IO, cia/ii aieeaa? ia ye?noue caaa?aeaiiy, a
naia ni?ey? cieaeaiith iieaciee?a no?eeino? caaa?aeaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, iieacaii, ui, iacaaaeath/e ia oie oaeo, ui i?aiaioi?
aa?aieee ia iathoue nii??aeiaiino? aei oaenoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a, o?i?/ia
aoaeiaa i?aiaioo aieeaa? ia no?ee?noue caaa?aeaiue /a?ac ca’ycoth/a.
Io?eiai? aeai? aeicaieeee c?iaeoe i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeai?o
i?aiaio?a aeey oa?aoaaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi oeio ca’ycoth/iai ? iiaeeeai?
aca?iiae?? i?ae ca’ycoth/ei ? i?aiaioii. Anoaiiaeaii oaeiae, ui i?e
canoinoaaii? IO ?iiiia??a o yeino? ca’ycoth/iai i?aiaioieo neeaae?a
iaiao?aei? aeiaeaoeia? iaoiaee i?aeaeuaiiy aaeaac?eii? i?oeiino?,
iacaaaeath/e ia ?o aenieo aaeaac?th aei iiaa?oi? oaenoeeueiiai
iaoa??aeo.

O i?ae?icae?e? 3.3 aeeeaaeathoueny ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ii
i?aeaeuaiith aaeaac?eii? i?oeiino? iie?o?aoaiiaeo ?iiiia??a oeyoii
iiaeeo?eaoe?? ie?aie i?aaeeiiaeainaoaie oa?ii?aaeoeaieo niie ? c?iaeaii
aea?? iioeiaeueiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iie?ia??a o i?aiaioieo oa?aoaaeueieo
neeaaeao.

I?e aeai?? oeio aeiaaaie, ui i?aeaeuothoue aaeaac?eio i?oei?noue ?
a?aeiia?aeii no?ee?noue caaa?aeaiue, aeoiaeeee c aeaieo i?i
ni?iiiaei?noue IO aei iiia?a/iiai coeaaiiy ? ?o ni?iiiaeiino?
ooai?thaaoe n?o/ano? no?oeoo?e, aiane?aeie /iai oe? iie?ia?e
aeei?enoiaothoue aeey neioaco aca?iii?iieeath/eo iie?ia?ieo n?oie (AIN).
Neioac AIN — oea iiaee can?a iaea?aeaiiy iie?ia?iiai iaoa??aeo c
i?aeaeuaieie iaoai?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, yeee a?oioo?oueny ia
iaea?aeaii? ae?oaiai iie?ia?o a i?enooiino? aioiaiai iie?ia?o.

Iaeai?ii- oa na/iaeiioi?iaeueaeaa?aei? niiee, ye? aeei?enoiaothoue o
aeaeyae? i?aaeeiiaeainao?a, i?e oaieia?e ia?iaoe? iioa?aiaaii? oeaieie
iiaeooue caaacia/eoe neioac iie?ia?o e?i?eii? aai n?o/anoi? no?oeoo?e,
ui noai?th? ia?aaeoiiae aeey ooai?aiiy iie?ia?ii? ie?aee
eiiiiceoe?eiiai oeio iaoiaeii neioaco AIN.

Aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy aaeaac?eii? i?oeiino? iie?o?aoaiiaeo
?iiiia??a oeyoii iiaeeo?eaoe?? ie?aie i?aaeeiiaeainaoii oa?ii?aaeoeaii?
niiee aecia/aee aaeaac?th iie?o?aoaio a i?enooiino? IO?N.
Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? iaaaaeai? a oaae. 3.

Oaaeeoey 3

Aieea i?aaeeiiaeainaoo oa?ii?aaeoeaii? niiee ia aaeaac?eio i?oei?noue

iie?ia?o ca’ycoth/iai aei iiaa?oi? oaenoeeueiiai iaoa??aeo

Neeaae eiiiiceoe?? Aaeaac?eia i?oei?noue, I/i2

aaaiaia + IA aaaiaia

IO aeenia?n?y 7,1 6,5

IO aeenia?n?y + i?aiaio /a?aiiee 2NOI 4,9 5,9

IO aeenia?n?y + i?aiaio /a?aiiee 2NOI + ea?aaiie OeAN 3,0 5,7

IO aeenia?n?y + i?aiaio /a?aiiee 2NOI + ea?aaiie OeAN + NH4Cl 7,5 9,2

Oaeei /eiii, iaea?aeai? aeai? i?aeoaa?aeeee iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy
i?aaeeiiaeainaoo oa?ii?aaeoeaii? niiee aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aaeaac?eii?
i?oeiino? iie?o?aoaiiaeo ?iiiia??a a i?enooiino? i?aiaioo.

O oaae. 4 iaaaaeai? aeai? i?i aieea aeiaaaie IO?N ? ?o noi?oae, acyoeo o
ni?aa?aeiioaii? 1:1 c iie?o?aoaiii, ia ye?noue oa?aoaaiiy. Ine?eueee
iaiao?aeiith oiiaith aeey “?iaioe” IO?N ? iayai?noue eaoae?caoi??a, aoei
aeine?aeaeaii oaeiae aieea ??ciiiai?oieo eaoae?caoi??a ia ye?noue
oa?aoaaiiy ? caeeth/ii? ia?iaee.

Oaaeeoey 4

Aieea noi?o? iie?o?aoai — i?aaeeiiaeainao oa?ii?aaeoeaii? niiee ia

iieacieee yeino? caaa?aeaiiy ? caeeth/ii? ia?iaee oeaieie

Neeaae ? eiioeaio?aoe?y IO?N, a/e ?ioaineai?noue, E/S ??ai?noue
caaa?aeaiiy,

( K/S I?oei?noue caaa?aeaiiy, aaee, aei aieeao Noia eoo?a a?aeiiaeaiiy,
a?aae.

oa?oy nooiai oa?oy

iie?iai ?ic/eio ieea i?e 95 0N

NH4Cl

iaoacei 50 1,77 0,025 5/5 5/4-5 5/5 212

ea?aaiie OeAN 50 1,62 0,044 5/5 5/4-3 5/4 230

iaoacei 25

ea?aaiie OeAN 25

1,73

0,036

5/4

5/3

5/4

199

MgCl2 + CH3COOH

iaoacei 50 1,16 0,139 5/5 5/4 5/5 224

ea?aaiie OeAN 50 1,62 0,025 5/5 5/4-3 5/5 246

iaoacei 25

ea?aaiie OeAN 25

2,02

0,026

5/5

5/3

5/5

235

NH4NO3

iaoacei 50 1,53 0,030 5/5 5/5 5/5 233

ea?aaiie OeAN 50 1,46 0,015 5/4 5/3 5/5 239

iaoacei 25

ea?aaiie OeAN 25

1,93

0,025

5/4

5/3-4

5/5

226

C oaae. 4 aeaeii, ui i?e aeei?enoaii? iie?o?aoaio ?acii c
i?aaeeiiaeainaoaie oa?ii?aaeoeaieo niie, eiioeaio?aoe?y inoaii?o o aaii?
aeey i?ini/oaaiiy iiaea aooe ciaioaia a 2,5-3 ?ace a ii??aiyii? c
oeiiaeie ?aoeaioaie. I?e iayaiino? IO, i?e caaaeueiiio iaaenieiio ai?no?
niie (50 a/e) iiaeooue aooe io?eiai? aenieee aoaeo iacieiaeueiino?: noia
eoo?a a?aeiiaeaiiy — 246 a?aaeon?a oa no?eea aei o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo
aieea?a caaa?aeaiiy — 4-5 aae?a. Oaeee iieaciee yeino? iacieiaeueiino?
i?e a?aenooiino? IO aeinyaa?oueny i?e ai?no? IO?N 180-200 a/e. Cieaeaiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?? iaeai?ii- oa na/iaeiioi?iaeueaeaa?aeieo IO?N a
i?enooiino? IO ? ia?aaeoiiaith noai?aiiy iaeioi?iaeueaeaa?aeii?
iaeicieiaeueii? ia?iaee.

Iacaeaaeii a?ae iai?yieo ?aaeoe?? — coeaaiiy IO ca aeiiiiiaith IO?N aai
niieiooai?aiiy ?c neioacii AIN — i?e aecia/aiiio ni?aa?aeiioaii?
iie?ia??a oa a i?enooiino? eaoae?caoi?a ooai?th?oueny aaeaacea ?c
i?aeaeuaieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ? a?aeaoaa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy aaeaac?eii?
i?oeiino?.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? a?oioothoueny ia aiae?c? aaeaac?eii?
i?oeiino? aaeaac?eieo c’?aeiaiue oaenoeeueiee iaoa??ae — iiaeeo?eiaaia
ie?aea ca’ycoth/iai, aeicaieeee aea?aoe aoaeoeai? IO?N, ?o
eiioeaio?aoe?? ? oei eaoae?caoi?a, a oaeiae anoaiiaeoe ?o
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy.

Ia iniia? iaea?aeaieo aeaieo cai?iiiiiaaii neeaae i?ini/oaaeueiiai
?ic/eio aeey noi?niiai oa?aoaaiiy i?aiaioaie ? iaeicieiaeueii? ia?iaee
aaaiaiyiieaanaiiai? oeaieie, yeee caaacia/o? aenieo ye?noue aioiai?
oeaieie.

?aeiiaiaeiaaiee neeaae eiiiiiaio?a, a/e:

i?aiaio 10

ea?aaiie OeAN 50

ioeai 50

NH4Cl aai MgCl2 + CH3COOH 4

aiaea aei 1000

A i?ae?icae?e? 3.4 aeine?aeaeaii iiaeeeaino? cieaeaiiy a?eueiiai
oi?iaeueaeaa?aeo ia oeaiei? i?e canoinoaaii? IO.

Iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?iith ? aiaeii/an iaaaaeaiith a oiiaao aenieoaoaoe??
aeanoea?noth oeaiei, ia?iaeaieo oi?iaeueaeaa?aeiai?uoth/eie niieaie, ?
aeae?eaiiy oi?iaeueaeaa?aeo, yea aeyaey?oueny ye ia noaae?? iaaeaiiy
oeaieiai iacieiaeueiino?, oae ? i?e ?o caa?aaeaii?.

A?aeiii, ui oeyoii aeiai?o a?aeiia?aeiiai eaoae?caoi?a iiaeia aeinyaoe
aenieiai aoaeoo ia?iaee a niieo/aii? c? cia/iei ciaioaiiyi aeae?eaiiy
oi?iaeueaeaa?aeo. I?e oeueiio iniiaia caaea/a caiaeeoueny aei
caaacia/aiiy iiaeeeai a?eueoi? /anoeie o/ano? IO?N o ?aaeoe?yo coeaaiiy
aai niieiooai?aiiy, a oaeiae aei cieaeaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?e IO?N o aaiiao
aeey i?ini/oaaiiy aai ca’ycoaaiith oi?iaeueaeaa?aeo, ui aeae?ey?oueny,
niaoe?aeueieie aeiaaaeaie.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui, iacaaaeath/e ia ni?iiiaei?noue IO ca’ycoaaoe
oi?iaeueaeaa?ae, iie?ia? ia ciaioo? eiai ai?no, iaaoaeoeai? oaeiae ?
aeiaaaee na/iaeie, ye? o?aaeeoe?eii aeei?enoiaothoueny o iiae?aieo
aeiaaeeao, aiane?aeie neeueiiai cieaeaiiy noie eoo?a a?aeiiaeaiiy.

Aoaeoeaiiio cieaeaiith eiioeaio?aoe?? a?eueiiai oi?iaeueaeaa?aeo ni?ey?
eaoae?oe/ia nenoaia (oaae. 5), ui neeaaea?oueny c oei?eaeo iaai?th e
ioeoiai? eeneioe.

Oaaeeoey 5

Aieea IO?N ? eaoae?caoi??a ia e?euee?noue

a?eueiiai oi?iaeueaeaa?aeo ia oeaiei?

Neeaae oa?aoaaeueiiai ?ic/eio Iiia? aa??aioo

Aaciaee 1 2 3 4 5 6

Eiioeaio?aoe?y eiiiiiaio?a, a/e

i?aiaio 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

ioeai — 50 50 50 50 50 50

ea?aaiie OeAN 120 50 — 25 50 — 25

iaoacei — — 50 25 — 50 25

NH4Cl — 4 4 — — — —

NH4NO3 — — — 4 — — —

MgCl2 +CH3COOH (6:4) 7,2 — — — 3 3 3

Ai?no a?eueiiai oi?iaeueaeaa?aeo ia oeaiei?, iea/a

1120

500

340

340

263

215

151

Noia eoo?a a?aeiiaeaiiy, a?aae. 230 230 212 226 246 224 235

sse aeaeii c oaae. 5, ai?no a?eueiiai oi?iaeueaeaa?aeo ia oeaiei?
eieeaa?oueny a oe?ieiio ?ioa?aae? cia/aiue a?ae 1120 aei 151 iea/a.
Iaeiaioee ai?no a?eueiiai oi?iaeueaeaa?aeo ia oeaiei? (151 iea/a)
a?aecia/a?oueny i?e iayaiino? o oa?aoaaeuei?e aaii? ea?aaiieo OeAN ?
iaoaceio a e?eueeino? 25 a/e eiaeiiai a i?enooiino? noi?o? oei?eaeo
iaai?th e ioeoiai? eeneioe.

Oaeei /eiii, anoaiiaeaii, ui iie?o?aoai, iacaaaeath/e ia eiai
ni?iiiaei?noue coeaaoe oi?iaeueaeaa?ae, o cacia/aieo oiiaao iacia/ii
aieeaa? ia ai?no oi?iaeueaeaa?aeo ia oeaiei?. I?ioa a i?enooiino? IO
cia/ii ciaioothoueny ?iai/? eiioeaio?aoe?? oi?iaeueaeaa?aeiai?uoth/eo
i?aia?ao?a. Aeei?enoaiiy iie?o?aoaio e aoaeoeaia eaoae?oe/ia nenoaia
caaacia/eee noai?aiiy iaeioi?iaeueaeaa?aeii? ia?iaee.

A i?ae?icae?e? 3.5 iiaeaii ?acoeueoaoe ?*-niaeo?ineii?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo c iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy iaoai?cio aca?iiae??
iie?ia?ieo eiiiiiaio?a ? a?aeiia?aeii iaoai?cio i?aeaeuaiiy aaeaac?eii?
i?oeiino? iie?o?aoaiiaiai ca’ycoth/iai.

Aoee ciyo? ?*-niaeo?e iiaeeiaiiy iie?o?aoaio, ea?aaiieo OeAN, ?o noi?o?
? niaeo?e iaeeaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaieo ?a/iaei (?en.1).

Anoaiiaeaia a?aenooi?noue o?i?/ii? aca?iiae?? ae?iaoeeieaoeeaina/iaeie c
iie?o?aoaiii, ui aeicaieeei c?iaeoe aeniiaie ia ei?enoue ?aaeoe??
ooai?aiiy iie?ia?o ia iniia? ae?iaoeeieaoeeaina/iaeie e?i?eii? no?oeoo?e
a i?enooiino? iie?o?aoaio ? aca?iiiai i?iieeiaiiy ?o iae?iiieaeoe.
I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue ia ei?enoue ooai?aiiy AIN.

A?aecia/aii oaeiae, ui a i?enooiino? iie?o?aoaio ?aaeoe?y
iie?eiiaeainaoe?? ea?aaiieo OeAN i?io?ea? a?eueo ?ioaineaii. ?*-niaeo?e
ie?aie c ea?aaiieo OeAN c eaoae?caoi?ii NH4Cl, ie?aie, io?eiaieo ?c
noi?o? ea?aaiieo OeAN ? iie?o?aoaio a i?enooiino? aeaio eaoae?caoi??a
(NH4Cl ? ci?oaiiai MgCl2 + CH3COOH) iieacaee ciaioaiiy ?ioaineaiino?
nioae iiaeeiaiiy, ui a?aeiia?aea? -II a?oiai ea?aaiieo OeAN, a
i?enooiino? IO. Oea aeicaiey? c?iaeoe i?eiouaiiy i?i oa, ui iie?o?aoai
eaoae?oe/ii aieeaa? ia ?aaeoe?th iie?eiiaeainaoe?? ea?aaiieo OeAN, o
ca’yceo c /ei a eiai i?enooiino? a?aecia/a?oueny aeniea ye?noue ia?iaee
i?e iaaaeeeiio ai?no? IO?N o aaiiao aeey i?ini/oaaiiy ? a?aeiia?aeii ia
aieiei?.

?*-niaeo?e aeo?aeii? oeaetheice ? oeaetheice, ia?iaeaii? aiaeiith
aeenia?n??th IO ? ea?aaiieii OeAN a i?enooiino? eaoae?caoi??a oei?eaeo
aiii?th ? oei?eaeo iaai?th c ioeoiaith eeneioith iieacaee a?aenooi?noue
aca?iiae?? a?ae?ieneeueieo a?oi oeaetheice c i?aaeeiiaeainaoii
oa?ii?aaeoeaii? niiee, ui iiaea neoaeeoe i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi ooai?aiiy
AIN.

Oaeei /eiii, iie?o?aoai, caaacia/oth/e o/anoue a?eueoi? /anoee IO?N o
?aaeoe?? niieiooai?aiiy, ii?yae ?c eaoae?caoi?aie noai?th? oiiae aeey
iaeioi?iaeueaeaa?aeii? ia?iaee oeaieie.

Ioe?iea eiiieaeno iieaciee?a yeino? oa?aoaaiiy ? caeeth/ii? ia?iaee, a
naia no?eeino? caaa?aeaiue aei oa?oy ? iie?eo ia?iaie, noie eoo?a
a?aeiiaeaiiy, ci?ie e?i?eieo ?ici???a oeaieie i?ney iie?eo ia?iaie,
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ? o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo iieaciee?a oeaieie iieacaea, ui
oeaieia, ia?iaeaia ii cai?iiiiiaai?e oaoiieia??, a?aeiia?aea?
Aea?aenoaiaea?oo (oaae. 6).

Oaaeeoey 6

Iieacieee yeino? oa?aoaaiiy ? caeeth/ii? ia?iaee aaaiaiyiieaanaiiai?
oeaieie

Iaeiaioaaiiy iieaciee?a

AeNOO

29298-92 Ca ?aaeeiii AAO “Oa?nii-nueeee AE” Cai?iii-iiaaiee aa??aio

1 2 3 4

I?oei?noue caaa?aeaiiy, aaee, aei aieeao:

oa?oy nooiai

?ic/eio ieea i?e 45 iN

5/4

5/5

5/4

5/5

Noia eoo?a a?aeiiaeaiiy aei i?aiiy, a?aae 220 220 248

Noia eoo?a a?aeiiaeaiiy i?ney i?aiiy, a?aae 180 180 226

Ai?no a?eueiiai oi?iaeueaeaa?aeo, iea/a — 990 500

?ic?eaia iaaaioaaeaiiy, I (ean)

iniiaa

ooie ia iaioa

294 (30)

177 (18)

329 (34)

202 (21)

360 (37)

313 (32)

Ci?ia e?i?eieo ?ici???a i?ney iie?eo ia?iaie, %

iniiaa

ooie ia a?eueo

-3

-2,0; +1,5

-0,4

-1,25

-0,2

-0,2

*enei oeeee?a noe?aiiy, oeeeee 750 820 1150

Eiao?oe??io iia?o?ii?iieeiino?, aei3/ni2 300 — 364

A?a?ineii?/i?noue, % 5 — 5,6

Aeniiaee

Iieacaii, ui iie?o?aoaiia? ?iiiia?e, iacaaaeath/e ia niieo/aiiy aeniei?
i?oeiino? e aeanoe/iino?, ia caaacia/othoue a?aeiia?aeii? aei
Aea?aenoaiaea?o?a i?oeiino? caaa?aeaiiy aei oa?oy oa iie?eo ia?iaie ?
iaiao?aeiiai aoaeoo iacieiaeueiino?, o a?aeiia?aeiino? c /ei, naiino?eii
a ?ie? ca’ycoth/iai aeei?enoiaoaaoenue ia iiaeooue, ?o canoinoaaiiy ia
aeeeth/a? aeei?enoaiiy i?aaeeiiaeainao?a oa?ii?aaeoeaieo niie.

Iieacaii, ui i?e/eiith iecueei? no?eeino? caaa?aeaiue i?aiaioiiai
aa?aieea, cae??ieaiiai ca aeiiiiiaith IO ie?aee, ? cieaeaiiy aaeaac??
iie?o?aoaio aei oaenoeeueiiai iaoa??aeo a i?enooiino? i?aiaioiiai
aa?aieea. I?e oeueiio anoaiiaeaii, ui aaeaac?y cieaeo?oueny oei o
a?eueoiio nooiai?, /ei a?eueoo noeeuei?noue aei aca?iiae?? c
iie?o?aoaiii ia? i?aiaio.

Aeyaeaii, ui aaeaac?y iie?o?aoaiiaeo ie?aie ca?eueoo?oueny a i?enooiino?
IO?N, i?e oeueiio a?eueoiio i?aeaeuaiith aaeaac?eii? i?oeiino?
ni?eythoue IO?N, noeeuei? aei niieiooai?aiiy, a ia coeaaiiy.

Ia iniia? ?*-niaeo?ineii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue cai?iiiiiaaii iaoai?ci
aca?iiae?? IO ?iiiia??a ?c IO?N ? oeaetheicith, ui a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae
caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo oyaeaiue i?i aca?iiae?th ca’ycoth/iai ? IO?N i?e ?o
ni?eueiiio aeei?enoaii? ? a?oioo?oueny ia ni?iiiaeiino? IO?N aei
niieiooai?aiiy ? iiaeeeaino? neioaco eiiiiceoe?eii? iie?ia?ii? ie?aee,
ooai?aii? IO ? IO?N — iioaioe?eiei iie?ia?ii.

Anoaiiaeaii iioeiaeueia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy IO ? IO?N oa cae?eniaii aea??
eaoae?oe/ieo nenoai, ui caaacia/othoue ooai?aiiy i?oeii? eiiiiceoe?eii?
ie?aee c iaea?eueo aenieith aaeaac??th aei oaenoeeueiiai iaoa??aeo. Ia
i?aenoaa? io?eiaieo aeaieo ?ic?iaeaii ?aoeaioo?o oa?aoaaeueieo aaii, ui
a?ae??ciy?oueny oei, ui a neeaaeao ciaioaia i?ioe caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo
eiioeaio?aoe?y IO?N (o 3-4 ?aco), i?e oeueiio caaacia/o?oueny:
iaea?aeaiiy ?ioaineaieo caaa?aeaiue i?e ?o aenie?e no?eeino?, i’yeee
a?eo oeaieie, aenieee aoaeo iacieiaeueiinoe (246 a?aae.), cieaeaiiy
a?eueiiai oi?iaeueaeaa?aeo ia oeaiei? a 3 — 7 ?ac?a ? i?aeaeuaiiy
nooiaiy aeieia?/ii? /enoioe oaenoeeueii? i?iaeoeoe??, i?aeaeuaiiy
iaoai?/ii? i?oeiino? oaenoeeueiiai iaoa??aeo.

C?iaeaii ?ic?aooiie aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?. Iieacaii, ui i/?eoaaiee
aeiiii?/iee aoaeo iiaea neeanoe 166 a?i/1000 i iia. Ae?iaie/?
aei?iaoaaiiy ia AAO “Oa?niinueeee AE” i?iaaaeai? c iiceoeaiei
?acoeueoaoii.

Oaeei /eiii, i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee ia iniia?
aeei?enoaiiy niaoeeo?/ieo aeanoeainoae iie?o?aoai?a ? ?o iaeii/aniiai
canoinoaaiiy c IO?N ii?aeiaoe aeaa oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioeane: oa?aoaaiiy ?
iaeicieiaeueio ia?iaeo, ? aeeeth/eoe iaaeie?ee, ui noi?iaiaeaeothoue
i?ioean oa?aoaaiiy i?aiaioaie e ia?iaeo IN i?e canoinoaaii? oeiiaeo
ca’ycoth/eo ? IO?N, iaea?aeaoe oaenoeeueio i?iaeoeoe?th, ui a?aeiia?aea?
Aea?aenoaiaea?oai.

Nienie iioae?eiaaiieo i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1. Ieuaiei A.A., Iiai?aeay A.A., Na?eaaeiaa Ae.A.
Ooaeiaeanoaaiii-eiei?enoe/aneia ioi?ieaiea oaenoeeueiuo iaoa?eaeia n
iiiiuueth iieeo?aoaiia // Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu oaoieee e oaoiieiaee
oaenoeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. — Oa?nii, OEE. — 1997.

2. Na?eaaeiaa Ae.A., Ieuaiei A.A. ?ano?ninaa?aaathuay e yeieiae/anee
“iyaeay” oaoiieiaey e?aoaiey oeiieieaanaiiauo oeaiae // Aanoiee OAOO. –
1997. — ?2.- N.247-251.

3. Ieuaiei A.A., Iiai?aeay A.A., Na?eaaeiaa Ae.A. Iiaeeoeeaoeey
iieeia?iuo ieaiie ec aieiiaeoeaiuo aiaeiuo iieeo?aoaiiauo aeenia?nee
i?aaeeiiaeainaoaie oa?ii?aaeoeaiuo niie // Aanoiee OAOO. – 1997. — ?2.-
N.240-246.

4. Na?eaaeiaa Ae.A., Ieuaiei A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea aeeyiey oeie/aneiai
no?iaiey ieaiaioa ia i?i/iinoue ie?anie // Aanoiee OAOO. – 1998. —
?1(3). — N.309-315.

5. Na?eaaeiaa Ae.A., Ieuaiei A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea iaoaiecia
acaeiiaeaenoaey iieeo?aoaia e aeeiaoeeieyoeeaiii/aaeiu iaoiaeii
EE-niaeo?ineiiee // I?iaeaiu eaaeie e oaenoeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. –
Oa?nii. – 1998. – N.80-82.

6. I?uaiei A.A., Iiai??ea I.A., Na??aaeiaa Ae.A. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?ano?nicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e ye oeyo aei ??oaiiy i?iaeaie
oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy ?ano?naie oa cao?aoaie // Ca. iaoa??ae?a
Anaoe?a?inueei? eiioa?aioe?? “?icaeoie aeiiii?/ii? iaoee a Oe?a?i?”.-
Oa?nii. – 1996.

7. Na??aaeiaa Ae.A., I?uaiei A.A. Canoinoaaiiy aeanoiia??a iiaiai oeio
aeey ia?iaee oaenoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a // Ca. iaoa??ae?a i?aeaoc?anueei?
eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo. — Ee?a:AeAEIO. — 1996.

Na??a?eiaa Ae.A. ?ic?iaea oaoiieia?? oa?aoaaiiy oeaiei ?c noi?o?
oeaetheicieo oa iie?ao??ieo aieieii i?aiaioaie, ii?aeiaii? c caeeth/iith
ia?iaeith. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.19.03 — oaoiieia?y oaenoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a. —
Aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y eaaei? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? iaaiaeyoueny ?acoeueoaoe eiiieaenieo oai?aoe/ieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, iia’ycaieo c aeei?enoaiiyi
iie?o?aoaiiaeo ?iiiia??a o yeino? ca’ycoth/eo i?e noi?niiio oa?aoaaii?
i?aiaioaie ? iaeicieiaeuei?e ia?iaoe?. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoai?ci
i?aeaeuaiiy aaeaac?eii? i?oeiino? iie?o?aoaio, caniiaaiee ia ooai?aii?
ae?oaiai iie?ia?o c i?aaeeiiaeainaoo oa?ii?aaeoeaii? niiee a i?enooiino?
iie?ia?o ca’ycoth/iai. Cae?eniaii aea?? eaoae?oe/ieo nenoai, ui
caaacia/othoue cieaeaiiy a?eueiiai oi?iaeueaeaa?aeo ia oeaiei? a 3 — 7
?ac?a.

?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?th oa?aoaaiiy i?aiaioaie aaaiaiiiie?ao??ieo oeaiei,
ii?aeiaio c caeeth/iith ia?iaeith, yea a?ae??ciy?oueny ?aoe?iiaeueiei ?
aoaeoeaiei aeei?enoaiiyi on?o aeae?a iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a oa
caaacia/o? aeione aeieia?/ii /enoeo oaenoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a c
iaiao?aeieie niiaeea/eie aeanoeainoyie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oa?aoaaiiy i?aiaioaie, ca’ycoth/a, iie?o?aoaiiaee
?iiiia?, i?aaeeiiaeainao oa?ii?aaeoeaii? niiee, aaeaac?y.

Na?eaaeiaa Ae.A. ?ac?aaioea oaoiieiaee e?aoaiey oeaeetheiciiiieeyoe?iuo
oeaiae ieaiaioaie, niaiauaiiie n caeeth/eoaeueiie ioaeaeeie. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.19.03 – oaoiieiaey oaenoeeueiuo iaoa?eaeia. –
Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe Oe?aeiu, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai nicaeaiey ?ano?ninaa?aaathueo
oaoiieiaee ioaeaei/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

A ?aaioa i?eaiaeyony ?acoeueoaou eiiieaeniuo oai?aoe/aneeo e
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee, naycaiiuo n eniieueciaaieai
iieeo?aoaiiauo (IO) eiiiia?ia a ea/anoaa naycothueo i?e niaiauaiiii
e?aoaiee ieaiaioaie e iaeinieiaaiie ioaeaeee.

Enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea eiaacee e aaeaacee IO eiiiia?ia e oaenoeeueiui
iaoa?eaeai ia i?i/iinoue ie?anie, iieo/aiiuo n iiiiuueth ieaiaioia.
Iieeo?aoaiiaua eiiiia?u ioeaieaaee ii iieacaoaeyi i?i/iinoe i?e ?ac?uaa
e yeanoe/iinoe a n?aaiaiee n ae?oaeie oeiaie naycothueo. Iieacaii, /oi
ieaiee ec IO a oi?ia eiiiia?ia, oaeaea eae e ieaiee ec IO,
oa?aeoa?ecothony iaeaieaa aunieei cia/aieai aaeaaceiiiie i?i/iinoe e
?ac?uaiie iaa?ocee a n?aaiaiee n ieaieaie ae?oaeo oeiia naycothueo.

Iaeiaei ioeaiea onoie/eainoe ie?anie, iieo/aiiuo i?e e?aoaiee
ieaiaioiuie ninoaaaie ia iniiaa ?acee/iuo oeiia IO eiiiia?ia, iieacaea,
/oi IO eiiiia?u eae eaoeiiaeoeaiua, oae e aieiiaeoeaiua, ianiio?y ia
aunieoth aaeaaceiiioth i?i/iinoue, naiinoiyoaeueii ia iaania/eaatho
niioaaonoaothuae AINOai onoie/eainoe ie?anee. IO oaeaea niinianoaotho
iacia/eoaeueiiio iiauoaieth ianieiaaiinoe oaenoeeueiuo iaoa?eaeia.

Iaaunieoth onoie/eainoue ieaiaioiuo ie?anie, caoeene?iaaiiuo n iiiiuueth
IO naycothueo, iaeaaeathueo aunieie aaeaaceae a naiaiaeiii io ieaiaioa
ninoiyiee, iauynieee aeeyieai ieaiaioiiai e?aneoaey ia
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea naycae iaaeaeo oaa?aeuie iiaa?oiinoyie i?e aaaaeaiee
ieaiaioa. I/aaeaeii, /oi IO naycothuaa, iaeaaeay aieueoei eiee/anoaii
aeoeaiuo e acaeiiaeaenoaeth n oaa?aeie iiaa?oiinoueth a?oii, a aieueoae
ia?a, /ai ae?oaea oeiu naycothueo, acaeiiaeaenoaoao n ieaiaioiui
e?aneoaeai, aneaaenoaea /aai i?ienoiaeeo ineaaeaiea aaeaaceiiiie
i?i/iinoe iieeo?aoaiiaie ieaiee i?e aaaaeaiee ieaiaioiiai e?aneoaey. I?e
yoii onoaiiaeaii, /oi aaeaacey nieaeaaony oai a aieueoae noaiaie, /ai
aieueooth neeiiiinoue e acaeiiaeaenoaeth n iieeo?aoaiii iaia?oaeeaaao
ieaiaio.

Oaeei ia?acii, iieacaii, /oi, ianiio?y ia oio oaeo, /oi ieaiaioiua
e?aneoaee ia iaeaaeatho n?iaenoaii e oaenoeeueiui iaoa?eaeai, oeie/aneia
no?iaiea ieaiaioa ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia onoie/eainoue ie?anie /a?ac
naycothuaa. Iieo/aiiua aeaiiua iicaieeee naeaeaoue i?aeoe/aneea
?aeiiaiaeaoeee ioiineoaeueii auai?a ieaiaioia aeey e?aoaiey n o/aoii
oeia naycothuaai e aiciiaeiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo naycothuei e
ieaiaioii. Onoaiiaeaii oaeaea, /oi i?e i?eiaiaiee IO eiiiia?ia a
ea/anoaa naycothueo ieaiaioiuo ninoaaia iaiaoiaeeiu aeiiieieoaeueiua
iaoiaeu iiauoaiey aaeaaceiiiie i?i/iinoe, ianiio?y ia eo aunieoth
aaeaaceiiioth i?i/iinoue.

I?aaeeiaeai iaoaieci iiauoaiey aaeaaceiiiie i?i/iinoe iieeo?aoaiiauo
ieaiie a i?enoonoaee i?aaeeiiaeainaoia oa?ii?aaeoeaiuo niie, eioi?ue
ioee/aaony io iauai?eiyouo i?aaenoaaeaiee i acaeiiaeaenoaee naycothuaai
e i?aaeeiiaeainaoa oa?ii?aaeoeaiie niieu e iniiauaaaony ia ia?aciaaiee
aoi?iai iieeia?a ec i?aaeeiiaeainaoa oa?ii?aaeoeaiie niieu a i?enoonoaee
iieeia?a naycothuaai, o.a. ia aiciiaeiinoe neioaca acaeiii?iieeathueo
iieeia?iuo naoie e ieaiee eiiiiceoeeiiiiai oeia.

Onoaiiaeaii iioeiaeueiia niioiioaiea iieeo?aoaia e i?aaeeiiaeainaoa
oa?ii?aaeoeaiie niieu e inouanoaeai auai? eaoaeeoe/aneeo nenoai,
iaania/eaathueo ia?aciaaiea iaeaieaa i?i/iie eiiiiceoeeiiiie ieaiee n
iaeaieaa aunieie aaeaaceae e oaenoeeueiiio iaoa?eaeo.

Iieacaii, /oi iieeo?aoai, ianiio?y ia aai niiniaiinoue noeaaoue
oi?iaeueaeaaeae, a oeacaiiuo oneiaeyo iacia/eoaeueii aeeyao ia
niaea?aeaiea naiaiaeiiai oi?iaeueaeaaeaea ia oeaie. Iaeiaei a
i?enoonoaee iieeo?aoaia cia/eoaeueii oiaiueoathony ?aai/ea
eiioeaio?aoeee oi?iaeueaeaaeaeniaea?aeaueo i?aia?aoia. Eniieueciaaiea
iieeo?aoaia e yooaeoeaiay eaoaeeoe/aneay nenoaia iaania/eee nicaeaiea
iaeioi?iaeueaeaaeaeiie ioaeaeee.

?ac?aaioaia ?aoeaioo?a e?aneeueiuo aaii, eioi?ay ioee/aaony oai, /oi a
ninoaaao oiaiueoaia i?ioea iauai?eiyouo eiioeaio?aoeey i?aaeeiiaeainaoa
oa?ii?aaeoeaiie niieu (a 3-4 ?aca), i?e yoii iaania/eaaaony: iieo/aiea
eioaineaiuo ie?anie i?e eo aunieie onoie/eainoe, iyaeee a?eo oeaie,
aunieee yooaeo ianieiaaiinoe (246 a?aae.), nieaeaiea naiaiaeiiai
oi?iaeueaeaaeaea ia oeaie a 3 — 7 ?ac e iiauoaiea noaiaie yeieiae/aneie
/enoiou oaenoeeueiie i?iaeoeoeee, iiauoaiea iaoaie/aneie i?i/iinoe
oaenoeeueiiai iaoa?eaea.

I?iecaaaeai ?an/ao yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe. Iieacaii, /oi
iaeeaeaaiue yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo iiaeao ninoaaeoue 166 a?i/1000 i iia.
I?iecaiaenoaaiiua eniuoaiey ia IAI “Oa?niineee OAE” i?iaaaeaiu n
iieiaeeoaeueiui ?acoeueoaoii.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?iaaaeaiiua enneaaeiaaiey iicaieeee ia iniiaa
eniieueciaaiey niaoeeoe/iuo naienoa iieeo?aoaiia e eo iaeiia?aiaiiiai
i?eiaiaiey n i?aaeeiiaeainaoaie oa?ii?aaeoeaiuo niie niaianoeoue aeaa
oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeanna: e?aoaiea e iaeinieiaaioth ioaeaeeo, e
eneeth/eoue iaaeinoaoee, nii?iaiaeaeathuea yoe i?ioeannu i?e i?eiaiaiee
oeiiauo naycothueo e iieo/eoue oaenoeeueioth i?iaeoeoeeth,
niioaaonoaothuoth AINOai.

?ac?aaioaiiay oaoiieiaey e?aoaiey ieaiaioaie oeiieieaanaiiauo oeaiae,
niaiauaiiay n caeeth/eoaeueiie ioaeaeeie, ioee/aaony ?aoeeiiaeueiui e
yooaeoeaiui eniieueciaaieai anao aeaeia iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia e
iaania/eaaao auione yeieiae/anee /enouo oaenoeeueiuo iaoa?eaeia n
iaiaoiaeeiuie iio?aaeoaeueneeie naienoaaie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: e?aoaiea ieaiaioaie, naycothuaa, iieeo?aoaiiaue
eiiiia?, i?aaeeiiaeainao oa?ii?aaeoeaiie niieu, aaeaacey.

Saribekova D.G. Development of pigment dyeing technology combined with
the finishing of cotton-polyephir fabrics. – Manuscript.

Dissertation for Candidate’s degree in specialty 05.19.03 – technology
of textile materials. – State Academy of Light Industry of Ukraine,
1999.

The thesis covers the results of complex theoretical and experimental
investigations connected with usage of polyurethane ionomers as binders
during pigment dyeing combined with the finishing. Mechanism of
increasing of adhesive strength of polyurethane based on the second
polymer formation from precondensator of thermoactive risen with
availability of binding polymer is proposed. The choice of catalytic
systems ensuring decrease of free formaldehyde in fabric up in 3-7 times
is done.

Pigment dyeing technology combined with the finishing of
cotton-polyephir fabrics is developed. The technology is distinguished
by rational and effective utilization of all kinds of material resources
and ensures production of ecologically pure textile material with
necessary consumer characteristics.

Key words: pigment dyeing, binder, polyurethane ionomer, precondensator
of thermoactive risen, adhesion.

2800 3000 3200 3400 3600 o,ni-1

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