I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

CAII??CUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Ia?oiiaiei Aiae??e Aaeaioeiiae/

OAeE 669.14.018.292

?IC?IAEA OA AI?IAAAeAEAIIss AEIIIIIIEAAIAAII?

OAIEINO?EEI? NOAE? AeEss AEEEAIE

A??IE*I-IAOAEO?A?EIIAI IAEAAeIAIIss

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.02.01 “Iaoa??aeiciaanoai ”

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Caii??aeaey — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Caii??cueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee :

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eoiueia Aaeaioei Aaneeueiae/, Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee
oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Na?aaea Ai?en Iao?iae/, Caii??cueea aea?aeaaia ?iaeaia?ia aeaaeai?y

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Aaeaiia ?aai Aaneeueiae/, Aei?i?iiao?ianueea iaoaeo?a?eia aeaaeai?y
Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,
eaoaae?a o?ce/iiai iaoa??aeiciaaanoaa, i. Aeiiaoeuee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “29”a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 13.45 aiaeei?

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 17.052.01 a Caii??cueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?, ca aae?anith: i.Caii??aeaey,
aoe.AEoeianueeiai,64.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Caii??cueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, ca aae?anith: i.Caii??aeaey,
aoe.AEoeianueeiai,64.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 24 ” eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
?.I. Aie/ie

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. ?ioaineo?eaoe?y ?icaeoeo ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie, iaiao?aei?noue eiai oaoi?/iiai ia?ainiauaiiy
noaaeyoue ia?aae no/aniei iaoa??aeiciaanoaii neeaaei? caaea/?, iia’ycai?
c ?ic?iaeith iiaeo oa oaeineiiaeaiiyi ?nioth/eo iaoa??ae?a aeey aeaoaeae
iaoei ? oaoiieia?/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy.

Iniaeeao aeooaeuei?noue a inoaii? ?iee iaaoaathoue ieoaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy
aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa, iiaeeeaiai cieaeaiiy aeo?ao ia
an?o aoaiao ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano. Iaeiei c /eiiee?a, ui iaaaoeaii
aieeaa? ia aa?o?noue iaeaaeiaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy aeey ae?iaieoeoaa
aeaoaeae noaeae c aenieith i?noe?noth aei?iaeo, aeao?oeeoieo eaaoth/eo
aeaiaio?a. Aei oiai ae, ?iiae? aenieieaaiaai? noae? aeei?enoiaothoueny
oai, aea c oni?oii iiaee a aenieoaooaaoeny a?eueo aeaoaa?,
aeiiiiiieaaiaai? eiino?oeoe?ei? noae?. Aeei?enoaiiy no/anieo iaoiae?a
i?e?ieaaoaaiiy oa iiaeeo?eoaaiiy, ?aoe?iiaeueieo ?aaeei?a oa?i?/ii?
ia?iaee aeicaiey? a cia/i?e i??? i?aeaeueoe aeanoeaino?
aeiiiiiieaaiaaieo noaeae, ui nooo?ai ?icoe?th? aaeoc? ?o canoinoaaiiy.

A no/ani?e a??ie/iaeiaoai?e i?iieneiaino? o ian a e?a?i? ? ca ei?aeiiii
oe?iea canoinoaaiiy ciaeoee ia/? iaiaethaaiiy ieaoeo?a, ui ianooue
iniiaia iaaaioaaeaiiy a oaoiieia?/iiio i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa ieaoeo?a.
Aeaoae? oeueiai aa?aaaoo i?aoeththoue a aaaeeeo oiiaao aeeiai?/ieo
iaaaioaaeaiue, i?ae aieeaii i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo? (aei 570(N).
Caeaa?eueoiai, oa?i?i aeei?enoaiiy aoaeue-yeiai iaeaaeiaiiy aai iaoeie
caeaaeeoue a?ae aeiaaia?/iino? eeoa aeae?eueeio a?aeiia?aeaeueieo
aeaoaeae, ui a i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe?? aeo?eiothoue iaea?eueo?
iaaaioaaeaiiy ? oiio, aeey caaacia/aiiy iaae?eii? ? o?eaaei? ?iaioe
iaeaaeiaiiy iniiaio oaaao ne?ae i?eae?eyoe i?aeaeuaiith no?eeino? naia
oaeeo aeaoaeae. A aa?aaao? iaiaethaaiiy ieaoeo?a aei oaeiai oeio
aeaoaeae iiaeia a?aeianoe eaiee ? aieia? ieeoe oyaio/iai eaioethaa. A
?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co anoaiiaeaii, ui aeo?ae c eaaeo oi/a a
iaei??? c aeae?eueeio oeny/ i?aoethth/eo eaiie eaioethaa i?ecaiaeeoue
aei iiaii? coieiee aa?aaaoo iaiaethaaiiy ieaoeo?a, i?e oeueiio
iaoa??aeuei? caeoee aei??aiththoue nioiyi oeny/ a?eaaiue. Oiio, aei
iaoa??aeo, c yeiai aeaioiaeythoue oe? aeaoae? noaaeyoue aei?noe? aeiiae,
a ia?oo /a?ao oea aenieee ??aaiue iieaciee?a i?oeiino? ((A ( 500IIa) oa
noaa?euei?noue iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?ae /an o?eaaei? aenieoaoaoe??
a oiiaao i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?. A iao /an eaiee oyaio/iai eaioethaa oa
aieia? ieeoe ae?iaeythoue c aenieieaaiaaii? eeoi? noae? 40O24I12NE. Oe?e
noae? i?eoaiaiia aeinoaoiuei aeniea i?oei?noue ((A (500IIa) o ii?aeiaii?
c aenieith ieanoe/i?noth (((15-18%). Oeae eiiieaen iieaciee?a
caaacia/o? iaae?eio ?iaioo aeaoaeae ia i?ioyc? iaeiiai ?ieo
aenieoaoaoe??, aea aenieee ai?no o neeaae? noae? i?eaeth oa o?iio cia/ii
i?aeaeuo? nia?aa?o?noue e?ioeaai? i?iaeoeoe??, ui aeiiii?/ii iaaea?aeii.
Ni?iae canoinoaaiiy a?aeiieo aeiiiiiieaaiaaieo noaeae oeio 12IO, 12O1IO
aeey aeaioiaeaiiy oeeo aeaoaeae iiceoeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ia aeaee,
ine?eueee i?oei?noue oeeo noaeae iaaeinoaoiy ((A ( 400-470 IIa).

Caaaeath/e ia oea, aeooaeueiith ? caaea/a ?ic?iaee iiai? noae?, c
i?i?iaeueiei ai?noii eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a, caeaoii? o?eaaeee /an
i?aoethaaoe a neeaaeieo oiiaao a??ie/i-iaoaeo?a?eii? aaeoc?. C iaoith
caaacia/aiiy aeiia iaae?eiino? oa aeiaaia?/iino? eiiieaen iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae iiai? noae? iiaeiai aooe ia ieae/ei ca iieacieee noae?, yea
aeei?enoiao?oueny ca?ac aeey eaiie oa aieiaeo ieeo oyaio/iai eaioethaa,
oiaoi (A ( 500 IIa; (( 15%; (( 28%; KCU( 0,3 IAeae/i2 ; IA( 1800 IIa, ca
oiiae caa?aaeaiiy noaa?eueiino? iaoai?/ieo iieaciee?a aei oaiia?aoo?
550-570(N.

Ana aeeeaaeaia aeua coiiaeei iaiao?aei?noue ? aeooaeuei?noue oe???
?iaioe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iia’ycai? c iai?yieaie iaoeiai? ?iaioe eaoaae?e
“Iaoeie oa oaoiieia?y eeaa?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa” Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, c oaiaoeeith ainiaeiaia??ieo
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o eaoaae?e.

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe: ?ic?iaea neeaaeo ? oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa
iiai? aenieii?oeii? aeiiiiiieaaiaaii? noae? aeey ?iaioe i?e oaiia?aoo?ao
aei 570(N, yea ia? aenieee ??aaiue i?oeiino? ? ieanoe/iino?, ia ieae/ee
ca ??aaiue aenieieaaiaaieo ia?ie noae?.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe iaiao?aeii aoei ae??oeoe ianooii? caaea/?:

1) Aeeiiaoe ?ic?iaeo ? iioei?caoe?th ca iniiaieie aeaiaioaie
(C,Cr,Ni,Mo) neeaaeo aenieii?oeii? aeiiiiiieaaiaaii? oaieino?eei? noae?,
yeee caaacia/o? aeio?eiaiiy ia?aieo ia?aiao??a iaae?eiino? ia ??ai?
aenieieaaiaaieo noaeae.

2) Aeine?aeeoe aieea oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie (S,P), i?e?ieaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a
(V), iiaeeo?eoaaiiy (SiCa,?CI) ia iaoai?/i? ? aenieoaoaoe?ei?
aeanoeaino? noae? aaciaiai neeaaeo, ?ici?? aonoai?oiiai ca?ia,
ii?oieia?th iaiaoaeaaeo ae?aieaiue, a oaeiae ?? oaieino?ee?noue ? ii??
?oeioaaiith.

3) Aeine?aeeoe aieea ??ciiiai?oieo aeae?a oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee ia nooi?iue
aeenia?niino? no?oeoo?e aeiiiiiieaaiaaii? oaieino?eei? noae? c iaoith
aeai?o iioeiaeueiiai ?aaeeio ia?iaee, yeee caaacia/o? iaea?eueo aenieo
no?ee?noue iaoaeaai? iao?eoe? i?e i?aeaeuai?e oaiia?aoo?? aenieoaoaoe??
aeeeaie.

4) I?iaanoe i?iieneiaa aei?iaoaaiiy ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? ia?ee
noae? ? oaoiieia?? ?? io?eiaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. I?e aeeiiaii? iinoaaeaieo caaea/
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny iaoiaee iaoaiaoe/iiai ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaioo, no/ani?
iaoiaee ieaaeaiiy oa oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee iaoaeo, ??ciiiai?oi? iaoiaee
aiae?co iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee noae? i?e e?iiaoi?e oa i?aeaeuai?e
oaiia?aoo?ao, no/ani? iaoiaee iaoaeia?ao?/iiai aiae?co no?oeoo?,
niaoe?aeueia iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy ae?enieo oaiia?aoo? aenieoaoaoe??
aeeeae?a a aa?aaao? aeaioiaeaiiy ieaoeo?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?ae /an aeeiiaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi?ii io?eiai? ianooii? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe:

— anoaiiaeaii iaoaiaoe/i? caeaaeiino?, ui iienothoue aieea eaaoth/eo
aeaiaio?a (N,Nr,Ni) ia iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? aeiiiiiieaaiaaii?
oaieino?eei? noae?;

— aia?oa e?euee?nii ioe?iaia caeaaei?noue i?ae i??ith ieoiiiai aieeao
aaiaae?th ? iie?aaeaio ia oa?aeoa?enoeee eeoeo aeiiiiiieaaiaaieo noaeae;

— anoaiiaeaii aieea ai?noo aaiaae?th ? iie?aaeaio ia ?ici?? aonoai?oiiai
ca?ia a aeiiiiiieaaiaaieo noaeyo;

— aecia/aii caeaaeiino? aieeao iie?aaeaio ia iiaaae?ieo oinoi?o a
aeiiiiiieaaiaaieo eeoeo noaeyo i?e cae/aeieo ? i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?ao;

— anoaiiaeaii caeiiii??iino? caaacia/aiiy aenieiai ??aiy
o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ? noaa?eueiino? no?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo
noae? ca ?aooiie oa?iiia?iaee a iii?aee?eoe/iiio ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?
aoea ae??oaia caaea/a, iia’ycaia c ?ic?iaeith iioeiaeueiiai neeaaeo
oaieino?eei? aeiiiiiieaaiaaii? noae? aeey aeaoaeae
a??ie/i-iaoaeo?a?eiiai iaeaaeiaiiy. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii iiao oaieino?eeo aeiiiiiieaaiaaio noaeue
25OIIOE, ui ia? aenieee eiiieaen aeanoeainoae (A.N. ?1803463N?N?, IEE5
n22n38/46).

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeei?enoiaoaaeeny i?ae /an
i?iaaaeaiiy iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o eaoaae?e I?OEA o 1994-1997 ??.

Cai?iiiiiaaia noaeue, oaoiieia?y ?? iiaeeo?eoaaiiy ? oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee
i?ieoee oni?oia aei?iaoaaiiy oa ai?iaaaeaeai? ia Iieoaanueeiio
a??ie/i-caaaa/oaaeueiiio eiia?iao?. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiai? noae? aeey
ae?iaieoeoaa aeeeaie «eaiea eaioethaa» aa?aaaoo iaiaethaaiiy ieaoeo?a
aeicaiey? io?eiaoe aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?eueoee ca 200 oen. a?i. ia ??e.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo “Iaiaoaeaa? ae?aieaiiy oa aace o
eeaa?ieo nieaaao” (aa?anaiue 1991, 1994, 1997. Caii??aeaey),
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iia? eiino?oeoe?ei? noae? ? noiie oa
iaoiaee ?o ia?iaee aeey i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? oa aeiaaia?/iino?
ae?ia?a” (aa?anaiue 1992, Caii??aeaey), iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? oa aeiiii?/iino? eeaa?ieo i?ioean?a” (o?aaaiue
1993, Iaeana), ia eiioa?aioe?yo oa nai?ia?ao
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo o 1994-1998 ??.

A iiaiiio ianyc? ?iaioa aeiiia?aeaeanue ia eaoaae?? “Iaoeie oa
oaoiieia?y eeaa?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa” CAeOO, oa ia iaaeeaoaae?aeueiiio
nai?ia?? “Iaoa??aeiciaanoai”.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
a?aeia?aaeai? a o?eiaaeoeyoe ae?oeiaaieo i?aoeyo, c ieo iaeia aaoi?nueea
na?aeioeoai.

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, oanoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, ui aeeeaaeai? ia 134 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai
oaenoo, nieneo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, yeee iae?/o? 123 iaeiaioaaiiy oa
aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa i?noeoue 14 oaaeeoeue oa 37 ?enoie?a.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? aeeeaaeaii caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?iaioe, iaa?oioiaaii
aeooaeuei?noue oa aaaeeea?noue ieoaiue, ye? ?icaeyaeathoueny a
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, aecia/aia iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
coi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno oa
i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe.

Ia?oee ?icae?e iineoue iaeyaeiaee oa?aeoa? ? i?enay/aiee aiae?co ieoaiue
i?aeaeuaiiy o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo ? aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae no/anieo
eiino?oeoe?eieo oaieino?eeeo noaeae.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaeiei c iniiaieo niinia?a caaacia/aiiy aenieiai ??aiy
iieaciee?a i?oeiino? ? ieanoe/iino? eiino?oeoe?eieo noaeae ? iioeiaeueia
aeei?enoaiiy eaaoth/eo aeiaeaoe?a ? iiaeeo?eaoi??a, canoinoaaiiy
?aoe?iiaeueieo ?aaeei?a oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee. Iaaaaeaii aiae?c ?nioth/eo
aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei aieeao ??ciiiai?oieo eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a ia
iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino?, oaieino?ee?noue ? aea?ino?ee?noue
aeiiiiiieaaiaaieo noaeae.

A?aecia/aii, ui aaaeeeaei /eiieeii i?aeaeuaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eii?
no?eeino? ? iaae?eiino? aeaoaeae ? i?aeaeuaiiy /enoioe noae? ii
oe?aeeeaei aeii?oeai aai iaeo?ae?caoe?y ?o oe?aeeeaiai aieeao, ea?oaaiiy
i?e?iaeith iaiaoaeaaeo ae?aieaiue c iaoith io?eiaiiy caaeaieo
aeanoeainoae noae?.

Iieacaii, ui iacaaaeath/e ia aaeeeo e?euee?noue ?ia?o a?o/eciyieo ?
caei?aeiiieo aeine?aeiee?a a aaeoc? caaacia/aiiy aenieiai ??aiy
oa?aeoa?enoee eiino?oeoe?eieo noaeae, ieoaiiy noai?aiiy iiaeo iaoa??ae?a
aeey eiie?aoieo oiia aenieoaoaoe?? caeeoathoueny iaaeoi aeooaeueieie.

C?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee aeiiiiiieaaiaaieo noaeae,
ye? ii?aeiothoue aenieee ??aaiue iieaciee?a i?oeiino?, ieanoe/iino?,
oaieino?eeino?, ui caaacia/o? iaae?eio aenieoaoaoe?th aeaoaeae a
neeaaeieo oiiaao a??ie/i-iaoaeo?a?eii? i?iieneiaino?, i?e iuaaeeeaiio
aeei?enoaii? aei?iaeo aeao?oeeoieo eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee iieno iaoa??ae?a ? iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee ia?ai? eeo? aeaoae? (eaiee oyaio/iai
eaioethaa, aieia? ieeoe) ia/? iaiaethaaiiy ieaoeo?a. Aenia?eiaioe
i?iaiaeeeeny ia eeoeo c?aceao (AeANO 977-88) ? c?aceao aeaioiaeaieo c
iaea?eueo ianeaii? /anoeie eiie?aoieo i?iieneiaeo aeaoaeae. Ieaaee
i?iaiaeeee a aeoaiaeo (i?noe?noth 5…12o) ? ?iaeoeoe?eieo (i?noe?noth
0.06 …0, 12o) ia/ao c iniiaiith oooa??aeith. sse oeooo aeei?enoiaoaaee
noaeaaee aoaeaoeaaee a?ooo ? noaiaea?oi? oa?inieaae ? iiaeeo?eaoi?e. I?e
i?iaaaeaii? aeine?aeieo ieaaie canoiniaoaaee ii?oe?eiee iaoiae a?aeai?o
iaoaeo c ia/?, ui aeicaieeei aeeeth/eoe aieea noi?iii?o /eiiee?a ?
io?eiaoe a?eueo a??ia?aei? aeai?.

C?acee aeey iaoai?/ieo aei?iaiaoaaiue a?aeae?aeeny o a?aeiia?aeiino? c
?nioth/ei noaiaea?oii. Oa?iiia?iaeo c?ace?a aeine?aeiiai iaoaeo
cae?enithaaee a eaai?aoi?ieo aeaeo?iia/ao, a i?iieneiaeo ieaaie o
eaia?ieo ia/ao ia aaciaiio iaeea? c aaoiiaoe/iei eiio?ieai oaiia?aoo?.

Eiio?ieue o?i?/iiai neeaaeo, iae?i — ? i?e?ino?oeoo?e, ?ici??o ca?ia
aonoai?oo, caa?oaeiaiino? iaiaoaeaaeie ae?aieaiiyie ? iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae i?iaiaeeee noaiaea?oieie iaoiaeaie. Aei?iaiaoaaiiy
iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae noae? i?e i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?ao i?iaiaeeeeny
o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ?nioth/eie noaiaea?oaie, ia onoaoeoaaii? A?IA-5,
OIA-10OI, IE-30A a ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? a?ae 200 aei 850(N.
I?e?io?aeoia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e iaoaeo ? iaiaoaeaaeo
ae?aieaiue i?iaiaeeee ia aeaeo?iiiiio i?e?ineii? OAIA-100E.

E?eoe/i? oi/ee noae? aecia/aee ia aeeeaoiiao?? Oaaaia?a. Aeey aecia/aiiy
ae?enieo oaiia?aoo? i?ae?a??ao aeaoaeae a aa?aaao? iaiaethaaiiy ieaoeo?a
aeei?enoaia niaoe?aeueia iaoiaeeea o?enaoe?? oaiia?aoo?e ii iino?eiei
oi/eai ieaaeaiiy aeayeeo nieaa?a ? /enoeo iaoae?a. Aoee aeaioiaeai?
niaoe?aeuei? aiioee ?c eaa?oeaaiai neea, ui caiiaithaaeeny /anoeieaie
??ciiiai?oieo iaoae?a ? nieaa?a ?c cacaeaeaa?aeue a?aeiiith
oaiia?aoo?ith ieaaeaiiy. Uia caiia?aoe ieeneaiith, aiioee caiiaithaaeeny
?ia?oiei aacii (a?aiiii) ? caiathaaeeny. Eiioaeia? c aiioeaie
anoaiiaethaaany aaciina?aaeiuei ia aeaoaeue, ui aiae?co?oueny, ?
i?ioiaeea c iath aanue oaoiieia?/iee oeeee iaiaethaaiiy ieaoeo?a. Ca
noaiii nieaa?a a eiaei?e aiioe?, i?ney aenieoaoaoe??, ?iaeany aeniiaie
i?i ?iai/o oaiia?aoo?o i?ae?a??ao aeaoaeae ia/?.

Iaoaiaoe/io ia?iaeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ? iioei?caoe?th o?i?/iiai
neeaaeo noae? cae?enithaaee ?c canoinoaaiiyi no/anieo aia?ao?a ? cania?a
ia/enethaaeueii? iaoaiaoeee.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aiae?co no?eeino?, i?e/eiai aeoiaeo c eaaeo,
aea/aiith oiia ae?iaieoeoaa ? aenieoaoaoe?? a?aeiia?aeaeueieo aeaoaeae
aa?aaaoo iaiaethaaiiy ieaoeo?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeaoae?, ye?
aeine?aeaeothoueny, i?aeaeathoueny cia/iei iaoai?/iei iaaaioaaeaiiy,
?icoyaoaaiith ? oaea?iiio aieeao. Oaiia?aoo?a aenieoaoaoe?? a i?noeyo
iaeneiaeueiiai i?ae?a??ao ia ia?aaeuo? 570(N. A ?iai/iio i?inoi?? ia/?
aeaoae? i?aeaeathoueny aieeao i?iaeoeo?a ai??iiy i?e?iaeiiai aaco.

A?aecia/aii, ui o?eaae?noue aenieoaoaoe?? eaiie eaioethaa ia/?
caeaaeeoue, caeaa?eueoiai, a?ae ??aiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
iaoa??ae?a, c yeeo aiie ae?iaeythoueny.

A oaia??oi?e /an aeey aeaioiaeaiiy oeeo aeaoaeae canoiniao?oueny noaeue
40O24I12NE. Na?aaeiy no?ee?noue aeeeaie c oe??? noae? neeaaea? 10-12
i?nyoe?a, oa?aeoa?ieie aeaeaie iioeiaeaeaiiy aeaoae? ? ?icoyaoaaiiy
i?iaooei eaiee, ceai. Aenieee ai?no a oe?e noae? oaeeo eaaoth/eo
aeaiaio?a, ye i?eaeue, o?ii ?iaeoue aeei?enoaiiy oaei? aenieieaaiaaii?
ia?ee noae? aeiiii?/ii iaaeioe?eueiei.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui noae? (12IO, 12O1IO), ye? oni?oii canoiniaothoueny aeey
?iaioe a aiaeia?/ieo oaiia?aoo?ieo ? aoiinoa?ieo oiiaao, iathoue
iaaeinoaoi? iieacieee i?oeiino? ((A(400-470IIa). Iaoa??aee, yeei
i?eoaiaiiee aenieee eiiieaen iieaciee?a i?oeiino? ? ieanoe/iino?, ui
canoiniaothoueny aeey cia/iiiaaaioaaeaieo aeaoaeae (35OIA, 38OAI), ia
iathoue aeinoaoiuei? oaieino?eeino? aeey aeei?enoaiiy a aa?aaao?
iaiaethaaiiy ieaoeo?a.

Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co iaoa??ae?a, ui canoiniaothoueny oa
?nioth/eo aeiia aenieoaoaoe??, anoaiiaeaii iaiao?aeiee ??aaiue
aeanoeainoae, yeee caaacia/o? iaae?eio ?iaioo eeoeo aeaoaeae ia/?
iaiaethaaiiy ieaoeo?a ((A(500IIa; ((15%; ((28%; ENU(0,3IAeae/i2;
IA=1800-2000IIa i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo??, ca oiiae caa?aaeaiiy
noaa?eueiino? aeanoeainoae aei oaiia?aoo? 570(N). Aiae?c aeia?a
iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee iiai? oaieino?eei? aeiiiiiieaaiaaii? noae?, ui
ia? ??aaiue aeanoeainoae ia ieae/ee ca anoaiiaeaiee, aeinoaoith
oaieino?ee?noue ? i?e oeueiio i?noeoue aei?ia? eaaoth/? aeaiaioe a iaeeo
e?eueeinoyo.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?iaee, aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
iioei?caoe?? neeaaeo iiai? oaieino?eei? aeiiiiiieaaiaaii? noae?, a
oaeiae oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy ?? aeanoeainoae ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy
?aoe?iiaeueieo ?aaeei?a ?? iiaeeo?eoaaiiy ? i?e?ieaaoaaiiy.

Aea?? ? iioei?caoe?th neeaaeo noae? cae?enithaaee ca aeiiiiiaith
iaoaiaoe/iiai ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaioo, c ?aae?caoe??th iiaiiai
oaeoi?iiai aiae?co ca ieaiii 23. Ia?iaeo ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioo ?
ioe?ieo aieeao /eiiee?a, ui aeine?aeaeothoueny, ia iaoai?/i? ?
aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeanoeaino? noae? i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeii ?aa?aneaiiai
aiae?co (aecia/aeeny /enaeuei? cia/aiiy eiao?oe?aio?a ?aa?an?? ?
ioe?ithaaeany ?oiy cia/ou?noue ca e?eoa???i No’thaeaioa, a?aeoai?thaaiiy
i?ioeano aecia/aeiny ca e?eoa???i Eio?aia, aaeaeaaoi?noue iiaeae?
ioe?ithaaeany ca e?eoa???i O?oa?a).

Aiane?aeie i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioo io?eiaee iaoaiaoe/i? caeaaeiino?, ui
iienothoue aieea ai?noo aoaeaoeth, o?iio, i?eaeth ia iaoai?/i?
aeanoeaino? aeiiiiiieaaiaaii? eiino?oeoe?eii? noae?.

A?aoiaoth/e oa?aeoa? iaaaioaaeaiue, ye? aieeaathoue ia aeeeaee i?ae /an
aenieoaoaoe??, iniiaieie e?eoa??yie iioei?caoe?? aoei ia?aii iieacieee
i?oeiino?, i?e aeio?eiaii? on?o iaiaaeaiue aeeeaaeaieo ?ai?oa ii ?ioei
oa?aeoa?enoeeai noae?. Nie?ath/enue ia e?oa?aoo?i? aeai?, ??aiyiiy
?aa?ann?? ? aeai? ii iioei?caoe?? o?i?/iiai neeaaeo, inoaoi/iee ai?no
iniiaieo eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a a noae? aoa i?eeiyoee oaeei: N=0,23-0,28%,
Cr=0,8-1,4%, Ni=0,8-1,1%.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui cieaeaiiy ai?noo n??ee ? oinoi?o a noae?, ui
aeine?aeaeo?oueny, c 0.033-0.032% aei 0.015-0.012% eiaeiiai, cieaeo?
?iaeaen caa?oaeiaiino? iaiaoaeaaeie ae?aieaiiyie a?eueo i?ae aaea?/?,
i?e oeueiio ?noioii ca?eueoo?oueny ??aaiue oaea?ii? a’yceino? ?
ieanoe/ieo aeanoeainoae noae?. ??aaiue i?oeiino? ((A) i?aeoe/ii ia
ci?ieany, iaeiae aoei a?aecia/aii ca?eueoaiiy oaeiai iieacieea ye
ae?eniee ii?? ?ic?eao (Sn), yeee oa?aeoa?eco? i?oei?noue iaoa??aeo a
oi/oe? ?ic?eao a iiiaio ?oeioaaiiy, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue a?aecia/eoe
iiceoeaiee aieea iecueeiai ai?noo n??ee ? oinoi?o ia ae?enio i?oei?noue
aeiiiiiieaaiaaii? oaieino?eei? noae?.

A ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaii ni?eueiee ? ie?aiee aieea aaiaae?th ? iie?aaeaio
ia iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee noae? 25OIE. I?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo aaiaae?th a
noae? a?ae 0 aei 0.2% aeeeeeaei cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy iieaciee?a i?oeiino?,
caaaeyee ooai?aiith aaeeei? e?eueeino? ae??aiiaeenia?nieo ea?a?ae?a ?
ea?aii?o?eae?a aaiaae?th. Caaaeyee aenie?e nii??aeiaiino? aei aoaeaoeth,
i?aeoe/ii aanue aaiaae?e, yeee aeiaeaee a noaeue a iaaeao, ui
aea/athoueny, ciaoiaeeany a ea?a?aei?e ? ea?aii?o?eaei?e oac?.
Aeae?eaiiy iniiaii? /anoeie ea?a?ae?a aaiaae?th a?aeaoaaeiny a ?ioa?aae?
oaiia?aoo? 650-700(N. I?e ai?no? aaiaae?th aei 0.12% a?aecia/aeiny
cia/ia cae??aiaiiy eeoi? no?oeoo?e noae?.

Aieea iie?aaeaio ia iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? noae? 25OIE aea/aany a
iaaeao 0-0,9%. sse aeoeaiee ea?a?aeiooai?thth/ee aeaiaio, iie?aaeai i?e
eaaoaaii? ?iciiae?eyany i?ae ea?a?aeiith oacith ? iaoaeaaith iao?eoeath.
Ooai?aiiy niaoe?aeueiiai ea?a?aeo Mo niinoa??aaeiny i?e ai?no? aeaiaioo
iiiaae 0.3%-0.4%, i?e iaioeo e?eueeinoyo aanue iie?aaeai ciaoiaeeany a
oaa?aeiio ?ic/ei? oa aoiaeea aei neeaaeo ea?a?aeo cae?ca. A?aeiia?aeii,
aeii?oee iie?aaeaia iaee ci?oeithth/a cia/aiiy ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy
i?oeiino? eaaiaaiiai oa?eoo ? ca ?aooiie ea?a?aeiiai ci?oeiaiiy.
Iaoaeia?ao?/iee aiae?c no?oeoo? noae? c aeii?oeaie iie?aaeaio aeia?a
eiai aenieo ni?iiiaei?noue i?aeaeuoaaoe aeenia?ni?noue no?oeoo?ieo
neeaaeiaeo. Iie?aaeai cia/ii cnoaa? ae?aa?aio ?cioa?i?/iiai ?iciaaeo
aonoai?oo i?aai?o/, i?ae aieeaii aaea 0.3% oeueiai aeaiaioo ia?e?oia
ia?aoai?aiiy a noae? i?io?ea? cia/ii i?ci?oa aaei?oiiai. Aoea
a?aecia/aia ni?iiiaei?noue iie?aaeaio onoaaoe iaaaoeaiee aieea oinoi?o
ia aeanoeaino? noae?, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny. Aaaaeaiiy aei
aeiiiiiieaaiaaii? noae? c ??ciiiai?oiei ai?noii oinoi?o aei 0.5% Mo
aeicaiey? oieeiooe iaae?iiy oaea?ii? a’yceino? ? ieanoe/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ye i?e e?iiaoi?e, oae ? i?e i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?ao
(Oaae. 1). Iie?aaeai ia? ni?iiiaei?noue oiia?eueithaaoe aeeooc?ei?
i?ioeane, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a noae?, ui ia?aoeiaeaea? e?eaaoe??
oinoi?o o i?eei?aeiii? ae?eyiee ca?ia. Aoaeo aeinyaa?oueny oaeiae
caaaeyee cae??aiaiith ca?ia aonoai?oo i?e aaaaeai? iie?aaeaio. I?e
ciaioaii? ?ici??o ca?ai, ca?eueoaii? caaaeueii? aeiaaeeie iaae iayai?
naa?aaaoe?? oinoi?o a?eueo ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eythoueny ii caaaeueiiio
ianyao iaoaeo.

C iaoith onoiaiiy oe?aeeeaiai aieeao aeii?oie (S,P) ? i?aeaeuaiiy
ieanoe/iino? aeiiiiiieaaiaaii? noae?, aeiaeaoeiai aeine?aeaeoaaee
aoaeoeai?noue ?? iiaeeo?eoaaiiy eoaeiicaiaeueieie ? ??aee?niicaiaeueieie
iaoaeaie. Iiceoeaiee aieea oeeo aeaiaio?a coiiaeaiee ci?iith i?e?iaee ?
oa?aeoa?o ?iciiae?eaiiy iaiaoaeaaeo ae?aieaiue a noae?. Aieea
iiaeeo?eaoi??a ioe?ithaaany aeey noae? c ??ciiiai?oiei ai?noii n??ee ca
caaaeueiei ?iaeaenii caa?oaeiaiino? iaiaoaeaaeie ae?aieaiiyie ?
eiao?oe??ioii ?o aeiaoey?ecaoe??. Oae, aeiaeaoeiaa iiaeeo?eoaaiiy noae?
25OIIOE nee?eieaeueoe??i ? nee?oeeaeaie ?CI aea? iiceoeaiee aoaeo i?e
??ciiiai?oieo niieo/aiiyo iiaeeo?eaoi??a, i?e oeueiio, iaea?eueo aenieee
??aaiue ieanoe/ieo iieaciee?a, oaea?ii?

Oaaeeoey 1 – Aieea iie?aaeaio ia aeanoeaino? noae? c ??ciiiai?oiei
ai?noii oinoi?o.

Ai?no ?,% ENU, IAeae/i2 (,% (A, IIa

Aac Ii 0.5% Ii (20(N) 0.5% Ii (550(N) Aac Ii 0.5% Ii (20(N) 0.5% Ii
(550(N) Aac Ii 0.5% Ii (20(N) 0.5% Ii (550(N)

0.012 1.1 0.9 0.9 57 50 62 560 880 571

0.025 0.8 0.87 0.86 51 48 61 569 882 576

0.033 0.43 0.85 0.83 45 47 59 573 890 580

a’yceino?,iaeiaioee ?iaeaen caa?oaeiaiino? noae? ? aenieee eiao?oe??io
aeiaoey?ecaoe?? ia? noaeue, ui i?noeoue 1ea/o (0.02%-0.03% ino) eiaeiiai
c iiaeeo?eaoi??a (aeey noae? c 0.025% S).

Aiae?c aieeao ie?aiiai ? ni?eueiiai i?e?ieaaoaaiiy aaiaae??i ?
iie?aaeaiii ia ?ici?? aonoai?oiiai ca?ia aeia?a, ui cae??aiaiiy
inoaiiueiai a?aeaoaa?oueny aeioe, aeiee e?euee?noue aeiaeaoiai
iie?aaeaio ia ia?aaeuo? 0.5%, a aaiaae?th, a?aeiia?aeii, 0.15%.
Iiaeaeueoa i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo oeeo aeaiaio?a a noae? ia ?ici?? ca?ia
aonoai?oo a?ae/ooii ia aieeaa?. Aaeueioaaiiy c?inoaiiy ca?ia aonoai?oo
a?aeaoaa?oueny a ?acoeueoao?: iayaiino? a noae? ooaiieaaeeo
ae??aiiaeenia?nieo ea?a?ae?a aaiaae?th; ni?iiiaeiino? iie?aaeaio
cieaeoaaoe aia?a?th iaae ca?ai; iayaiino? a noae? ea?a?ae?a iie?aaeaio.
Ni?eueia aeei?enoaiiy ye i?e?ieaaoth/eo aeiaeaoe?a iie?aaeaio (0.3%) ?
aaiaae?th (0.12%) caaacia/oaaei ooai?aiiy aonoai?oiiai ca?ia ainueiiai
aaeo, ui aeicaieeei io?eiaoe aenie? iieacieee iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae,
iniaeeai oaea?ii? a’yceino?, oaieino?eeino? noae?.

Ioe?iea ni?eueiiai aieeao ??ciiiai?oiiai ai?noo aaiaae?th, iie?aaeaio,
?CI ? ECI ia iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? ? no?oeoo?o aeiiiiiieaaiaaii?
oaieino?eei? noae? aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie uiaei aeioe?eueiino?
canoinoaaiiy ye i?e?ieaaoth/eo aeiaeaoe?a aaiaae?th a e?eueeino?
0.1-0.12%, iie?aaeaio 0.3-0.5%, iiaeeo?eaoi??a ?CI ? ECI (1ea/o).

I?e ioe?ithaaii? ie?aiiai oa ni?eueiiai aieeao aaiaae?th ? iie?aaeaio ia
iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino?, ?ici?? aonoai?oiiai ca?ia aeiiiiiieaaiaaii? noae?
anoaiiaeaii caeaaei?noue, ui iieno? nooi?iue ieoiiiai aieeao V ? Ii ia
oa?aeoa?enoeee noae?:

aea (E – ieoiia ci?ia aeanoeainoae noae? i?e aaaaeai? eaaoth/iai
aeaiaioo.

Oae, aaaaeaiiy a noaeue iaaii? e?eueeino? (% ian) aaiaae?th aeeeeea?
ieoiio ci?io o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee a /ioe?e ?ace a?eueoo, i?ae
aaaaeaiiy oaei? ae e?euee?no? Ii (?en. 1). Oea aeicaiey? c?iaeoe
aeniiaie uiaei iiaeeeaino? cai?ie, aeey caaacia/aiiy iaeiaeiaiai ??aiy
aeanoeainoae, aei /ioe?ueio /anoei Ii ia iaeio /anoeio a?eueo aeaoaaiai
aaiaae?th.

Ine?eueee aeaoae? a??ie/i-iaoaeo?a?eiiai iaeaaeiaiiy aenieoaoothoueny a
oiiaao i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?, aoea aeine?aeaeaia aeeiai?ea ci?ie
iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeiiiiiieaaiaaii? noae? i?e i?ae?a??aaii? aei
650(N. A?aecia/aii, ui noaeue 25OIIOE ia? aenieo noaa?euei?noue
oa?aeoa?enoee aei oaiia?aoo? ii?yaeeo 600-650(N (Oaae.2). A ia?oo /a?ao
oea iiynith?oueny iioeiaeueii i?ae?a?aiei o?i?/iei neeaaeii noae?.
Iie?aaeai (0.3-0.5%), ui i?noeoueny a noae?, oiia?eueithth/e oaeaee?noue
aeeooc?eieo i?ioean?a, ia?aoeiaeaea? i?ioiaeaeaiith no?oeoo?ieo ci?i,
ye? aaaeooue aei ci?ie iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae. Iayai?noue a neeaae?
aeoeaiiai ea?a?aeiooai?thaa/a – aaiaae?th (aei 0.12%), ia?aoeiaeaea?
ia?aoiaeo iie?aaeaio c oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio a ea?a?aeio oaco c ieeiii /ano,
caaaeyee oeueiio caa??aa? eiai iiceoeaiee aieea ia oaieino?ee?noue. O?ii
(aei 1,0%), i?enooi?e aieiaiei /eiii o oeaiaio?oiiio ea?a?ae?,
caaacia/o? ea?a?aeia? i?aeaeuaio oa?i?/io no?ee?noue.

Oaaeeoey 2 – Iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? noae? 25OIIOE i?e i?aeaeuaieo
oaiia?aoo?ao

Oaiia?aoo?a aei?iaoaaiiy (A,

IIa (02,

IIa (,

% (,

%

20 880 750 15 47

200 830 730 15 47

300 780 650 16 48

400 750 610 17 50

500 700 540 18 53

600 605 450 20 60

650 520 380 23 65

Ii??aiyiiy oa?aeoa?enoee noae? 25OIIOE ?c aeanoeainoyie iaoa??aeo, ui
canoiniao?oueny a oaia??oi?e /an aeey aeaioiaeaiiy eaiie oyaio/iai
eaioethaa (40O24I12NE) aeiaaei, ui a ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? 550-570(N
iia?e noae? i?eoaiaii? a?eueo aenie? ia?aiao?e i?oeiino? ?
ieanoe/iino?. A?aecia/aii, ui noaa?euei?noue aeanoeainoae noae? 25OIIOE
caa??aa?oueny i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai /ano aenieoaoaoe?? (aei 8500 aiaeei) a
oiiaao aieeao oaiia?aoo? aei 570(N ? ?aaeueieo i?iieneiaeo
iaaaioaaeaiue. Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue, inoaoi/io
iioei?caoe?th neeaaeo noae? aoei caaa?oaii ? cai?iiiiiaaii noaeue
25OIIOE, iiaeeo?eiaaio ?CI ? Na (A.N. ?1803463).

I’yoee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee ?ic?iaoe? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ?aaeeio oa?i?/ii?
ia?iaee aeiiiiiieaaiaaii? oaieino?eei? noae? 25OIIOE.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ??ciiiai?oieo ?aaeei?a oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee ia
iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? oa no?oeoo?o noae? 25OIIOE aeiaaei, ui iaeaeuee
??aaiue iieaciee?a aoa i?eoaiaiiee noae?, yea i?ieoea ia?iaeo a
iii?aee?eoe/iiio ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? (aa?o 800(N). I?ae /an aa?oo c
iii?aee?eoe/iiai ?ioa?aaeo oaiia?aoo? /anoee oa?eoo, ye? ia ?ic/eieeeny
i?e i?ae?a??a? ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eythoueny a nooeoo?? ia?oaineoo ?
iathoue aeoaea iae? ?ici??e (aeecueei 1 iei). Oe? ae??ai? /anoee oa?eoo
caaacia/othoue a?eueo aenie? iieacieee ieanoe/iino? noae?, i?ae i?ney
cae/aeiiai aa?oo. Ine?eueee aeaoae? aa?aaaoo iaiaethaaiiy ieaoeo?a
aenieoaoothoueny i?e i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?ao, ye inoaoi/ia ia?iaea aoa
ia?aiee aenieee a?aeione (650(N). Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieythoue
?aeiiaiaeoaaoe aeey aeeeaie ?c noae? 25OIIOE oa?i?/io ia?iaeo, yea
neeaaea?oueny c aa?oo a?ae 800(N o aiaeo oa aenieiai a?aeioneo 650(N.

Oinoee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee i?iieneiaei aei?iaoaaiiyi aeaoaeae ia/?
iaiaethaaiiy ieaoeo?a, aeaioiaeaieo c aeiiiiiieaaiaaii? oaieino?eei?
noae? 25OIIOE, a oaeiae ai?iaaaeaeaiith ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy o
ae?iaieoeoai.

Ae?iaieoeoai eaiie oyaio/iai eaioethaa aa?aaaoo iaiaethaaiiy ieaoeo?a ?c
noae? 25OIIOE, ?c canoinoaaiiyi ?ic?iaeaiiai ?aaeeio oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee
cae?enithaaee a eeaa?ii-iaoai?/iiio oeaoo Iieoaanueeiai
a??ie/i-caaaa/oaaeueiiai eiia?iaoo (IACE). I?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy
i?iaiaeeee a oiiaao oeaoo ae?iaieoeoaa ieaoeo?a IACE. ?acoeueoaoe
i?iieneiaeo aei?iaoaaiue iieacaee iaae?eio ?iaioo aeaoaeae i?ioyaii 1
?ieo, ui iiai?noth caaeiaieueiy? iayaiei aeiiaai aenieoaoaoe?? ? ia
a??oa ca no?ee?noue aeeeaie c aenieieaaiaaieo aei?iaeo ia?ie noaeae, ui
canoiniaothoueny a oaia??oi?e /an.

I?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy eaiie oyao/iai eaioethaa iiai?noth i?aeoaa?aeeee
aeai? eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? aeiaaee, ui iniiaieie /eiieeaie, ye?
aecia/athoue iaae?ei?noue ? aeiaaia?/i?noue eeoeo aeaoaeae, ?
iioeiaeueiee o?i?/iee neeaae noae?, ?aoe?iiaeuei? aa??aioe
iiaeeo?eoaaiiy ? ?aaeeie oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue ia Iieoaanueeiio
a??ie/i-caaaa/oaaeueiiio eiia?iao? i?e ae?iaieoeoa? eaiie oyaio/iai
eaioethaa ia/? iaiaethaaiiy ieaoeo?a c noae? 25OIIOE, aeicaieeoue
io?eiaoe ??/iee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo, o?eueee a?ae aeiiii?? eaaoth/eo
aeaiaio?a, a?eueoee ca 200 oen. a?eaaiue ia ??e.

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE ?IAIOE

Ae??oaiiy caaea/, iinoaaeaieo a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, aoei aeinyaiooi
a ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo, eaai?aoi?ieo, iai?ai?iieneiaeo ?
i?iieneiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?c canoinoaaiiyi no/anieo cania?a aiae?co ?
iaoaiaoe/ii? ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo oa aeicaiey? c?iaeoe
ianooii? aeniiaee ? ocaaaeueiaiiy:

1. A oaia??oi?e /an aeey eeoeo aeaoaeae, ye? i?aoeththoue i?e
oaiia?aoo?ao aeueo ca e?iiaoi? oe?iei canoiniaothoueny aenieieaaiaai?
o?iiii ? i?eaeai noae? (oeio 40O24I12NE, 20O25I19N2E) ? aeiiiiiieaaiaai?
oaieino?ee? noae? (oeio 12IO, 12O1IO).

A oiiaao aeao?oeeoo ? aeniei? aa?oino? eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a aeei?enoaiiy
noae? c aenieei ai?noii o?iio ? i?eaeth aeey oaiia?aoo? aenieoaoaoe??
ieae/eo ca 700-750(N aeiiii?/ii ia aei?aaaeaii.

Aeiiiiiieaaiaai? oaieino?ee? noae? (oeio 12IO, 12O1IO) iathoue iecueeee
??aaiue iieaciee?a i?oeiino? ((A(400-470IIa), ui oneeaaeith? ?o
aeei?enoaiiy aeey aaaeeiiaaaioaaeaieo aeaoaeae a??ie/i-iaoaeo?a?eii?
i?iieneiaino?. Oiio aeooaeueiith ? caaea/a ?ic?iaee aenieii?oeieo
aeiiiiiieaaiaaieo oaieino?eeeo noaeae, ui c oni?oii iiaeooue i?aoethaaoe
a oiiaao cia/ieo iaoai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue i?e oaiia?aoo?ao aei 570(N oa
i?noyoue eaaoth/? aeaiaioe a iaeeo e?eueeinoyo.

2. Aiae?c oiia ae?iaieoeoaa ? aenieoaoaoe?? eiie?aoieo aeaoaeae aa?aaaoo
iaiaethaaiiy ieaoeo?a iieacaa, ui :

— a oaia??oi?e /an aeeeaee “eaiea eaioethaa”,”aieiaa ieeoa”
aeaioiaeythony c noae? 40O24I12NE, ui aeiiii?/ii iaaeioe?eueii,
caaaeath/e ia aenieo aa?o?noue ? aeao?oeeoi?noue oaeeo eaaoth/eo
aeaiaio?a ye i?eaeue ? o?ii;

— oaiia?aoo?a aenieoaoaoe?? eaiie ? aieiaeo ieeo oyaio/iai eaioethaa
ia/? iaiaethaaiiy ieaoeo?a ia ia?aaeuo? 570(N;

— aeey caaacia/aiiy iaae?eii? ?iaioe aeaoaeae a eiie?aoieo oiiaao
ae?iaieoeoaa, eiiieaen iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae aeiiiiiieaaiaaii? noae?,
yea ?ic?iaey?oueny, iiaeiai aooe ia a??oei ca iieacieee noae? 40O24I12NE
? ia? ciaoiaeeoeny ia ??ai? : (((((((((( ((15(( (((((( E(((((( IAeae(i((
((((((((((, ca oiiae caa?aaeaiiy noaa?eueiino? aeanoeainoae aei
oaiia?aoo? 550-570(N.

3. Caeaaeiino? aeanoeainoae aeiiiiiieaaiaaii? oaieino?eei? noae? a?ae
??ciiiai?oiiai ai?noo eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a iieacothoue, ui:

aeey caaacia/aiiy aenieiai ??aiy o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo oa aenoieoaoaoe?eieo
aeanoeainoae aeiiiiiieaaiaaieo oaieino?eeeo noaeae ai?no oaeeo aeaiaio?a
ye aoaeaoeue, o?ii, i?eaeue, iiaeiai aooe ia ??ai? N (0.23-0.28%); Cr
(0.8-1.4%); Ni (0.8-1.1%);

cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy iieaciee?a i?oeiino? noae?, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny ,
caa?aaeaiiy aenieiai ??aiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoeae i?ae /an o?eaaeiai
aieeao i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo? aeinyaa?oueny aaaaeaiiyi aei neeaaeo noae?
0.1-0.12% aaiaae?th, 0.4-0.5% iie?aaeaio;

aia?oa anoaiiaeaia e?euee?nia caeaaei?noue i?ae i??ith ieoiiiai aieeao
aaiaae?th ? iie?aaeaio ia aeanoeaino? aeiiiiiieaaiaaii? noae?:

iayai?noue a noae? aei 0.5% iie?aaeaio aeicaiey? aeeeth/eoe iaaaoeaiee
aieea oinoi?o ia aeanoeaino? noae? i?e cae/aeieo ? i?aeaeuaieo
oaiia?aoo?ao;

a?aie/i? e?eueeino? aaiaae?th ? iie?aaeaio, ui caaacia/othoue iaeee
?ici?? ca?ia aonoai?oo (7-8 aae) ciaoiaeyoueny ia ??ai?: 0.1% V, 0.5%
Ii;

aeey ciaioaiiy oe?aeeeaiai aieeao oaeeo aeii?oie ye n??ea ? oinoi?,
cai?iiiiiaaii iiaeeo?eoaaoe aeiiiiiieaaiaaio oaieino?eeo noaeue
nee?oeeaeaie ?CI ? ECI a e?eueeino? 1 ea/o (0.02-0.03% ino).

4. Ia i?aenoaa? io?eiaieo caeaaeiinoae, ?ic?iaeaii iiao oaieino?eeo
aeiiiiiieaaiaaio noaeue 25OIIOE (AN ?1803463, IEE5 n22 n38/46), yea
caeaoia i?aoethaaoe a neeaaeieo oiiaao a??ie/i-iaoaeo?a?eii?
i?iieneiaino?.

5. Aeiaaaeaii, ui cai?iiiiiaaia noaeue ca nai?ie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie a
ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? aenieoaoaoe?? (aei 570(N) ia iinooia?oueny
iieacieeai noae? 40O24I12NE, yea canoiniao?oueny a oe?e aaeoc? ca?ac, a
ca aeayeeie ia?aiao?aie ((A, (, KCU) iaa?oue ia?aaaaea? inoaiith. Iia?e
noae? i?eoaiaiia aeniea noaa?euei?noue iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?ae /an
o?eaaei? aenieoaoaoe?? i?e i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?ao.

6. Anoaiiaeaii iioeiaeuei? ?aaeeie oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee noae? 25OIIOE.
Iaea?aeai? caeaaeiino? no?oeoo?iooai?thaaiiy ? aeanoeainoae noae? a?ae
??cieo ?aaeei?a ia?iaee aeicaieythoue a?aecia/eoe, ui:

io?eiaiiy iaee?ioiai eiiieaeno iieaciee?a noae? caaacia/o?oueny
i?iaaaeaiiyi ia?iaee a iii?aee?eoe/iiio ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?, ui iieyaa?
a aa?o? a?ae 800(N o aiaeo c ianooiiei a?aeioneii 650(N;

7. I?iieneiaa aei?iaiaoaaiiy ia Iieoaanueeiio a??ie/i-caaaa/oaaeueiiio
eiia?iao? aeeeaie ?c cai?iiiiiaaii? noae? aeiaaei, ui no?ee?noue
inoaii?o a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai aenieoaoaoe??. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia IACE aeicaieeoue io?eiaoe aeiiii?/iee aoaeo, ca
?aooiie aeiiii?? eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a, a?eueoee ca 200 oen. a?eaaiue ia
??e.

IOAE?EAOe?? CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

Ia?oiiaiei A.A., Eoiaa A.A. Oaieinoieeay noaeue aeey aeaoaeae
ai?ii-iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey // Iiaua iaoa?eaeu e oaoiieiaee a
iaoaeeo?aee e
iaoeiino?iaiee.-1997.-?1-2.-Caii?iaeuea:CAOO,1997a.-N.45-47.

Ia?oiiaiei A.A. Iniaaiiinoe aicaeaenoaey iieeaaeaia e aaiaaeey ia
naienoaa e no?oeoo?o eeoie noaee // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee.
Iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy. Oaoi?/i? iaoee.-1998.- ?85 (152).-N.43-46.

A.N.1803463NNN?, IEE5-n22n38/46/ Eeoay eciininoieeay noaeue/ Ia?oiiaiei
A.A., A?iae A.A., Naiieeia A.A. e ae?. (NNN?) — ?4923713/02; Cayae.:
01.04.91; Iioaeeeiaaii 23.03.93, Athe.?11.

Ia?oiiaiei A.A., Oaeiiaaa A.A., Ou?na N.A. Aeeyiea aaiaaeey e iieeaaeaia
ia naienoaa yeiiiiiieaae?iaaiiie noaee // O?oaeu VIII iao/ii-oaoie/aneie
eiioa?aioeee «Iaiaoaeee/aneea aeeth/aiey e aacu a eeoaeiuo
nieaaao».-Caii?iaeuea: CAOO, 1997.-N.79-82.

Aeeyiea eiiieaeniiai ?aneeneaiey-iiaeeoeoee?iaaiey ia naienoaa e
no?oeoo?o aunieii?i/iuo eiino?oeoeeiiiuo noaeae / Ia?oiiaiei A.A., Ou?na
N.A., Oaeiiaaa A.A., Aii/a?aiei A.A., Aaa?eethe I.E. // O?oaeu VIII
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee «Iaiaoaeee/aneea aeeth/aiey e aacu a
eeoaeiuo nieaaao».-Caii?iaeuea: CAOO, 1997.-N.124-126.

Iiaay aea?inoieeay yeiiiiiieaae?iaaiiay noaeue aeey aeaoaeae
ai?ii-iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey / Ia?oiiaiei A.A., Eoiaa A.A.,
Oaeiiaaa A.A., A?iae A.A., Aii/a?aiei A.A. // Aeieeaaeu ?anioaeeeaineie
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee «Iooe iiauoaiey ea/anoaa e yeiiiie/iinoe
eeoaeiuo i?ioeannia».-Iaeanna: Niaiei.1993.-N.81-83.

Eco/aiea aeeyiey iee?ieaae?iaaiey aaiaaeeai e ai?ii ia iee?ino?oeoo?o
eeoie noaee / A?iae A.A., Ia?oiiaiei A.A., Iaoiee A.A., Aca?iaa E.I.,
Aa?oaaneee A.TH. // Aeieeaaeu ?anioaeeeaineie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie
eiioa?aioeee «Iooe iiauoaiey ea/anoaa e yeiiiie/iinoe eeoaeiuo
i?ioeannia».-Iaeanna: Niaiei.1993.-N.104-105.

Ia?oiiaiei A.A., Oaeiiaaa A.A., O?aiei I.N. AEa?inoieeay
yeiiiiiieaae?iaaiiay noaeue aeey aeaoaeae ia/e iaaeeaa ieaouoae //
Oacenu aeieeaaeia OI iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee «Iaiaoaeee/aneea
aeeth/aiey e aacu a eeoaeiuo nieaaao».-Caii?iaeuea: CIE, 1991.-N.51.

?ac?aaioea iioeiaeueiiai ?aaeeia oa?ie/aneie ia?aaioee ioeeaie ec noaee
25OIIOE / Ia?oiiaiei A.A., Oaeiiaaa A.A., O?aiei I.N., Aii/a?aiei A.A.,
Naiieeia A.A. // Oac.aeieeaaeia V iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee «Iiaua
eiino?oeoeeiiiua noaee e nieaau e iaoiaeu eo ia?aaioee aeey iiauoaiey
iaaeaaeiinoe e aeieaiaa/iinoe ecaeaeee».-Caii?iaeuea: CIE,
1992.-N.72-73.

Iiaay yeiiiiiieaae?iaaiiay noaeue aeey ?aaiou i?e aunieeo oaiia?aoo?ao /
Ia?oiiaiei A.A., Oaeiiaaa A.A., Aii/a?aiei A.A., Aca?iaa E.I. //
Oac.aeieeaaeia V iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee «Iiaua eiino?oeoeeiiiua
noaee e nieaau e iaoiaeu eo ia?aaioee aeey iiauoaiey iaaeaaeiinoe e
aeieaiaa/iinoe ecaeaeee».-Caii?iaeuea: CIE, 1992.-N.81-82.

Yeiiiiiieaae?iaaiiay noaeue aeey ioaaonoaaiiuo aeaoaeae aa?aaaoa iaaeeaa
ieaouoae / Ia?oiiaiei A.A., Oaeiiaaa A.A., A?iae A.A., Naiieeia A.A. //
Oac.aeieeaaeia III iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee «Iaiaoaeee/aneea
aeeth/aiey e aacu a eeoaeiuo nieaaao».-Caii?iaeuea: CIE, 1994.-N.58-59.

Aeeyiea iee?ieaae?iaaiey V e B ia iee?ino?oeoo?o noaee 35 ANE / A?iae
A.A., Ia?oiiaiei A.A., Naiieeia A.A., Aca?iaa E.I.. // Oac.aeieeaaeia
III iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee «Iaiaoaeee/aneea aeeth/aiey e aacu a
eeoaeiuo nieaaao».-Caii?iaeuea: CIE, 1994.-N.32-33.

Ia?oiiaiei A.A., ?iaioyaa A.TH., Aca?iaa E.I. Aeeyiea ?aaeeiia
oa?ie/aneie ia?aaioee ia naienoaa noaee 25OIIOE // Oac.aeieeaaeia III
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee «Iaiaoaeee/aneea aeeth/aiey e aacu a
eeoaeiuo nieaaao».-Caii?iaeuea: CIE, 1994.-N.46-47.

Aiioaoe?y

Ia?oiiaiei A. A. ?ic?iaea ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeiiiiiieaaiaaii?
oaieino?eei? noae? aeey aeeeaie a??ie/i-iaoaeo?a?eiiai iaeaaeiaiiy.-
?oeiien.

– Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.02.01 – «Iaoa??aeiciaanoai» – Caii??cueeee
Aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Caii??aeaey, 1998.

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ae??oaia iaoeiaa caaea/a, iia’ycaia c
?ic?iaeith iioeiaeueiiai neeaaeo oaieino?eei? aeiiiiiieaaiaaii? noae?
aeey aeaoaeae a??ie/i-iaoaeo?a?eiiai iaeaaeiaiiy, c iaoith cai?ie
o?aaeeoe?eieo, aenieieaaiaaieo noaeae.

A ?iaio? anoaiiaeaii caeiiii??iino? aieeao eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a ia
iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino?, ?ici?? aonoai?oiiai ca?ia aeiiiiiieaaiaaieo
oaieino?eeeo noaeae. Cai?iiiiiaaii e?euee?nio ioe?ieo caeaaeiino? i?ae
i??ith ieoiiiai aieeao aaiaae?th ? iie?aaeaio ia oa?aeoa?enoeee eeoeo
aeiiiiiieaaiaaieo noaeae. A aeena?oaoe?? anoaiiaeai? iniaeeaino?
caaacia/aiiy aenieiai ??aiy o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ?
noaa?eueiino? no?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo noae? ca ?aooiie ia?iaee o
iii?aee?eoe/iiio ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ciaeoee i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy i?e
aeaioiaeaii? a?aeiia?aeaeueieo aeaoaeae a a??ie/i-iaoaeo?a?ei?e aaeoc?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: noaeue, eaaoth/ee aeaiaio, iiaeeo?eoaaiiy, iaoai?/i?
aeanoeaino?, no?oeoo?a, oaieino?ee?noue.

Aiiioaoeey

Ia?oiiaiei A.A. ?ac?aaioea e aiaae?aiea yeiiiiiieaae?iaaiiie
oaieinoieeie noaee aeey ioeeaie ai?ii-iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey.-
?oeiienue.

– Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.02.01 – «Iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiea» – Caii?iaeneee
Ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Caii?iaeuea, 1998.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa ?aoaia iao/iay caaea/a, naycaiiay n
?ac?aaioeie iioeiaeueiiai ninoaaa oaieinoieeie yeiiiiiieaae?iaaiiie
noaee aeey aeaoaeae ai?ii-iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey, n oeaeueth
caiaiu o?aaeeoeeiiii eniieuecoaiuo aei?iainoiyueo, aunieieaae?iaaiiuo
noaeae.

A ?aaioa onoaiiaeaiu caeiiiia?iinoe aeeyiey eaae?othueo yeaiaioia ia
iaoaie/aneea naienoaa, ?acia? aonoaieoiiai ca?ia yeiiiiiieaae?iaaiiuo
oaieinoieeeo noaeae. I?aaeeiaeaia eiee/anoaaiiay ioeaiea caaeneiinoe
iaaeaeo noaiaiueth oaeaeueiiai aeeyiey aaiaaeey e iieeaaeaia ia
oa?aeoa?enoeee eeouo yeiiiiiieaae?iaaiiuo noaeae. A aeenna?oaoeee
onoaiiaeaiu iniaaiiinoe iaania/aiey aunieiai o?iaiy oeceei-iaoaie/aneeo
naienoa e noaaeeueiinoe no?oeoo?iuo ninoaaeythueo noaee ca n/ao
ia?aaioee a iaaee?eoe/aneii eioa?aaea oaiia?aoo?.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou iaoee i?aeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea i?e
ecaioiaeaiee ioaaonoaaiiuo aeaoaeae a ai?ii-iaoaeeo?ae/aneie io?anee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: noaeue, eaae?othuee yeaiaio, iiaeeoeoee?iaaiea,
iaoaie/aneea naienoaa, no?oeoo?a, oaieinoieeinoue.

Summary

A.V.Parkhomenko. Elaboration and introduction of economically alloyed
heat-resistant steel for cast mining and metallurgical equipment.-
Manuscript.

– Thesis for the Degree of Candidate of Technical Sciences in speciality
05.12.01 – «Material Science» — Zaporozhye State Technical University,
Zaporozhye, 1998.

The dissertation solves the scientific problem of the development of
optimum composition of heat-resistant economically alloyed steel for the
parts for mining and metallurgical equipment, aimed to replace
traditional expensive high-alloy steels.

The thesis outlines the regularities of the influence of alloying
elements on the mechanical properties of economically alloyed steels,
and on the size of austenitic grain. A quantitave estimation of
dependence of vanadium and molybdenum influence on the characteristics
of cast economically alloyed steels is proposed. The dissertatione
establishes the peculiarities of providing the high-level physical and
mechanical properties and stability of the structure components of the
steel due to the treatment in the intercritical temperature range.

Basic results of the research were implemented in the production of
important parts for mining and metallurgy.

Key words: steel, alloying element, mechanical properties, structure,
heat-resistance.

PAGE

?en. 1 – Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aieeao V e Mo ia aeanoeaino? noae? 25OIE.

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