2

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

O?CEEI-OAOIIEIA?*IEE ?INOEOOO IAOAE?A ? NIEAA?A

OAeE 621.387.143: 537.523.5

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

IAOIOAe O?AA IONA AEA?E?

(EI?AeAIIss)

?IC?IAEA OA AeINE?AeAEAIIss AENIEI?ANO?NIIAI IEACIIO?IIA

C IEACIIAEI EAOIAeII

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.09. 10 –»Aeaeo?ioa?i?/i? i?ioeane oa onoaiiaee»

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? o?ceee Aeiiaanueeiai a??ie/i-iaoaeo?a?eiiai
?inoeoooo

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee–caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee oa oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aecthaa A’y/aneaa Eaii?aeiae/,
Aeiiaanueeee a??ie/i-iaoaeo?a?eiee ?inoeooo,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?ceee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe–aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe Iao?ia Noai?neaa
Aieiaeeie?iae/,

?inoeooo aaco IAI Oe?a?ie,

aaaeo/ee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Eaiaeeaeao o?ceei–iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoeE?eaoeoi ?ai? A?oae?eiae/,

?inoeooo aeaeo?icaa?thaaiiy ?i. ?.I.Iaoiia IAI Oe?a?ie,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa–No?aeiioe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

Eaoaae?a caa?thaaiiy ? eeooy, i?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

i. Eoaainuee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 18 » aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.232.01 i?e O?ceei-oaoiieia?/iiio
?inoeooo? iaoae?a ? nieaa?a IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252680,
i..Ee?a-142, INI i?iniaeo Aa?iaaenueeiai, 34/1.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe?
O?ceei-oaoiieia?/iiai ?inoeoooo iaoae?a ? nieaa?a IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii » 15 » ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

A/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.232.01,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? ____________________ A. A.
*i?iiaie

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ia ii/aoeo 80-o ?ie?a o i?iieneiaiio ae?iaieoeoa?
aaaaoueio e?a?i na?oo c?inoa? ?ioa?an aei iaoeii?noeeo oa
aia?aicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e, na?aae yeeo aaaeeeaa i?noea caeiathoue
ieaciia? i?ioeane, ye?, caaaeyee oe?ieiio niaeo?o iiceoeaieo
aeanoeainoae, ca’ycaieo c iecueeioaiia?aoo?iith ieaciith, iaea?aeoaaiith
a aeaeo?iaeoaiaeo aaia?aoi?ao (ieaciio?iiao), iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?
a iaoaeo?a?ei?e, o?i?/i?e, iaoeiiaoae?ai?e oa ?ioeo aaeocyo
i?iieneiaino?. Ia?aaaaith ieaciiaeo oaoiieia?e ? iiaeeeaino? noai?aiiy
?ano?nicaa??aath/eo aeieia?/ii /enoeo oaoiieia?e. E??i oiai, a ?aeiiao
?ici?uaiiy iaoaeo?a?eieo, o?i?/ieo ? aia?aaoe/ieo ae?iaieoeoa
neeaaea?oueny aeoaea aaaeeee aeieia?/iee noai aiane?aeie ca?eueoaiiy
oe?aeeeaeo aeeeae?a /a?ac iecueeo aeeaeio ia?a?iaee ne?iaeie a ?nioth/eo
oaoiieia?yo. Iaeiei ?c oeyo?a ae??oaiiy ?nioth/i? i?iaeaie ?
canoinoaaiiy iecueeioaiia?aoo?ii? ieacie. Iaeiae ?? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o
ae?iaieoeoai no?eio?oueny iaaeineiiae?noth ?nioth/eo eiino?oeoe?e
aeaeo?iaeoaiaeo ieaciio?ii?a. Oiio, iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui a inoaii?e
/an ciaeaeaii iia? i?eioeeie oa i?eeiie aaeineiiaeaiiy ieaciio?ii?a, ye?
aeicaieyoue i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue ?o aenieoaoaoe??, ye ? ?ai?oa
caeeoathoueny aeooaeueieie ieoaiiy no?eeino? eaoiaea iiooaeiino?oiiaeo
ieaciio?ii?a, ye? i?aoeththoue ia aa?aneaieo ?iai/eo aacao, ? cieaeaiiy
aeo?ao caoeniiai aaco (a?aiio).

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? o?ceee Aeiiaanueeiai
a??ie/i-iaoaeo?a?eiiai ?inoeoooo (AeAI?) a iaaeao Aea?aeaaii?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?ia?aie ca iai?yiii «Aeieia?/ii /enoa aia?aaoeea oa
?ano?nicaa??aath/? oaoiieia??».

Iaoa ?iaioe e caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiaiith iaoith ?iaioe ?
noai?aiiy aeniei?ano?niiai e?i?eiiai ieaciio?iia iino?eiiai no?oio c
iia?o?yii-aeo?iaith noaa?e?caoe??th aeoae c ieaciiaei eaoiaeii.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii aoei ?ica’ycaoe ianooii?
caaea/?:

— i?iaaaeaiiy iiooeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeey aeyaeaiiy ieaciio?ii?a ?c
aioo??oi?i oi?oeaaei eaoiaeii, caeaoieo aeiaai i?aoethaaoe ia
aa?aneaiiio ?iai/iio aac?;

— ia i?aenoaa? iaea?aeaieo aeaieo ii i. 1 aeeiiaoe ?o iiaeoe? e i?iaanoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy;

— ia i?aenoaa? a?aeiieo ? ciaeaeaieo i?eioeei?a oa i?eeii?a
oaeineiiaeaiiy eiino?oeoe?e ieaciio?ii?a ? iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ii
i. 2 ?ic?iaeoe aeniei?ano?niee ieaciiaee eaoiae. I?e oeueiio ne?ae
ia?aaeaa/eoe cia/ia ciaioaiiy aeo?aoe a?aiio, aae aei eiai aeeo/aiiy,
aac ca?eueoaiiy a?ic?? aeaeo?iae?a ieaciiaiai eaoiaea;

— ia i?aenoaa? iaea?aeaieo aeaieo ii i. 3 noai?eoe aenieiaoaeoeaiee oa
aeniei?ano?niee ieaciio?ii iiooaei?noth a?ae 500 aei 1000 eAo;

— ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a aeoaia?e eaia??
ieaciio?iia c ieaciiaei eaoiaeii, iaea?aeaoe ?ic?aooieia? oi?ioee, a
oaeiae e?eoa??aeuei? caeaaeiino? oa ocaaaeueiai? a?ao?ee aeaeo?e/ieo ?
oaieiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee noai?aiiai eeano ieaciio?ii?a, c?o/i? aeey
?iaeaia?ieo ?ic?aooie?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

— aia?oa noai?aii ? aeine?aeaeaii naeoe?iiiaaiee ieaciiaee eaoiae, yeee
o ii??aiyii? c a?aeiieie ?ic?iaeaie iiaea i?aoethaaoe ia o?eueee a
a?aiiiaiio na?aaeiaeu? c aeo?aoith a?aiio a?ae 3.010-5 ea/n aei 6.510-6
ea/n, ui ia ii?yaeie ? a?eueoa ieae/a a?aeiieo aeaieo, aea ? a
na?aaeiaeu? ?ioeo aac?a, a oiio /ene? ? iia?o?y, aac ca?eueoaiiy a?ic??
eiai aeaoaeae;

— onoaiiaeaii, ui iaeiioeiaeuei?oa eiino?oeoe?y ieaciiaiai eaoiaea
i?noeoue iine?aeiaii anoaiiaeai? aeiaeaoeiaee aiiae, /ioe?e i?ii?aei?
iaeo?aeuei? naeoe?? oa o?oa/anoee i?aeiee eaoiae. I?ae aeiaeaoeiaei
aiiaeii, naeoe?yie ? eaoiaeii iiaea?oueny ieaciiooai?thth/ee aac;

— aeyaeaii oaiaeaioe?th oi?ioaaiiy ?iciiae?eaii? aeeoocii? i?ea’ycee
iniiaii? aeoae ia aioo??oi?e iiaa?oi? o?oa/anoiai eaoiaea i?e aeo?ao?
ieaciiooai?thth/iai aaco a ieaciiaiio eaoiae? ia iaioa 6.510-6 ea/n.
Iiaeaeueoa ciaioaiiy aeo?ao aaco i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?iieeiaiiy iniiaiiai
?iai/iai aaco ieaciio?iia a eaiae ieaciiaiai eaoiaea, ui i?aeaeuo?
iioaioe?ae naeoe?e ? ca?eueoo? ?iia??i?noue ?o aeoiaeo c eaaeo;

— iaea?aeaii oai?aoe/io oi?ioeo aeey ?ic?aooieo iai?oaeaiino?
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey a eaiae? ieaciiaiai eaoiaea c eai?ia?iei iioieii aaco,
a oaeiae e?eoa??aeuei? caeaaeiino? e ocaaaeueiai? a?ao?ee. Ii??aiyiiy
?ic?aooieiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee aeoae ca oai?aoe/iith oi?ioeith c
aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie iieacaei ?o caaeia?eueio caiaeo. Iioeaea
?ic?aooieiaeo e?eaeo a?aeiinii aenia?eiaioaeueieo noaiiaeea iaeaea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%.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

— ?ic?iaeaii oa aeine?aeaeaii ieaciio?iie iiooaei?noth a?ae 500 aei 1000
eAo c ieaciiaei eaoiaeii, ye? iiaeooue i?aoethaaoe c ?ano?nii eaoiaea
a?eueoa 1000 aiae., oiaoi ae??oaii caaaeaiiy uiaei noai?aiiy iiaiai oeio
aenieiaoaeoeaiiai, aeniei?ano?niiai ieaciio?iia;

— oai?aoe/ia oi?ioea aeey ?ic?aooieo iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey a
eaiae? ieaciiaiai eaoiaea, a oaeiae e?eoa??aeuei? caeaaeiino? oa
ocaaaeueiai? a?ao?ee iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey ?iaeaia?ieo
?ic?aooie?a ieaciio?ii?a noai?aiiai eeano a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? ci?i
aeo?ao aaco ? no?oio;

— ?ic?iaeai? ieaciio?iie c ieaciiaei eaoiaeii aeei?enoai? i?e noai?aii?
onoaiiaie aeey ae?iaieoeoaa ??aeeeo acioieo aeia?ea (AIAe?AAIEIA?OAe,
Eacaiue, ?in?y), ieaciiai? ia?a?iaee iaaee/ieo, i?iieneiaeo oa iiaooiaeo
a?aeoiae?a (AO «Ieacia-Oano» oa ?inoeooo AI?AI, Iineaa, ?in?y) oa
anoaiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aeioe?eueiino? canoinoaaiiy ?o aeey aeia??aaiiy
aeiiaiiiai aeoooy iiiaae 1200 1400 iN.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeeny ? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia I?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo
«Ieaciioaoiieia?y-97» (Caii??aeaey, 1997), «Eaca?i? oa o?ceei-oaoi?/i?
iaoiaee ia?iaee iaoa??ae?a» (Ee?a, 1997), ia 5-?e ?a?iiaenuee?e
eiioa?aioe?? uiaei oa?i?/ieo ieaciiaeo i?ioean?a (N-IAOA?AO?A, ?in?y,
1998), ia III I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aeaeo?iiaoai?ea oa
aeaeo?ioaoiieia??» (Iineaa, 1998), a oaeiae ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo Aeiiaanueeiai a??ie/i-iaoaeo?a?eiiai ?inoeoooo (Ae/aanuee,
1995-1998).

Ioae?eaoe?y iaoa??ae?a. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 8
iaoeiaeo noaoae ? iaea?aeaii iaoaio Oe?a?ie.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiaeo, ia?ae?eo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?c 134
iaeiaioaaiue.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa i?noeoue 151 noi??ieo iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, 44
?enoiee oa 9 oaaeeoeue.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a. ?ic?iaea oa aeine?aeaeaiiy ieaciiaiai eaoiaea ?
ieaciio?ii?a c ieaciiaei eaoiaeii cae?enithaaeanue i?ae ea??aieoeoaii
i?io. Aecthae A. E. c o/anoth Na?a??iea N. I., Ei?noiiaa E. A.,
A??theiai? O. A.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a a?aeia?aaeaiee o ianooiieo iieiaeaiiyo,
aeianaieo ia caoeno:

— o aeyaeaii? oiia, ye? ni?eythoue o?eaaeiio ?ano?no ?iaioe ieaciio?iia
ia aa?aneaiiio ?iai/iio aac?;

— o noai?aii? ieaciiaiai eaoiaea, caeaoiiai i?aoethaaoe ia o?eueee c
ieaciiooai?thth/ei aacii a?aiiii, aea e c ?ioeie aacaie;

— o ?ic?iaoe? ieaciio?ii?a c ieaciiaei eaoiaeii iiooaei?noth a?ae 500
aei 1000 eAo;

— o ?acoeueoaoao oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi aeanoeaino? aeoaiai? ieacie, ??
iniaeeaino? ? aca?iiae?y c aeaeo?iaeaie ieaciio?iia, i?iaiae?ciaaii
?acoeueoaoe a?aeiieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo, oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
ieaciio?ii?a i?eeiyoi? noaie oa ?o aeei?enoaiiy a i?iieneiaino?,
noi?ioeueiaaii caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii no?oeoo?io noaio aenia?eiaioaeueii?
onoaiiaee oa iien nenoai aeaeo?i–, aaci– oa aiaeiiinoa/aiiy, a?aeiii?
iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ioe?iee iioeaee aei???a, no?eeino? ai??iiy
aeoae, noai aeine?aeaeaieo ieaciio?ii?a.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aiee ?ic?iaoe? oa aeine?aeaeaiith
iiooaeiino?oiiaiai ieaciio?iia aeey iaa??aaiiy iia?o?y, iaa?oioiao?oueny
aeooaeuei?noue cieaeaiiy aeo?aoe caoeniiai aaco (a?aiio) ? iiaeeeaino?
?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie ?ano?no ?iaioe eaoiaea. A ?acoeueoao? iiooeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue aoei ae??oaii noai?eoe ieaciio?ii c aeiaeaoeiaei iioieii
ieacie, yeee aieeaa? ia i?eeaoiaeio ae?eyieo aeoae, aeey caaacia/aiiy
oei naiei aeeoocii? i?ea’ycee iniiaii? oa aeiaeaoeiaeo aeoa. A ?aeath
noai?aiiy iiooaeiino?oiiaiai aeniei?ano?niiai ieaciio?iia aoee
iieeaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?iaie oa aeine?aeaeaiue aeaino?oieiiiai
ieaciio?iia, yeee yaey? niaith i?eno??e, ui neeaaea?oueny c aeaio
?ici?uaieo i?ae eooii ieaciiaeo aieiaie, iaeia c yeeo ? ieaciiaei
aiiaeii, a ?ioa ieaciiaei eaoiaeii, a oaeiae ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
A. E. Aecthae ? ?.N. Iaco?aeo?na uiaei noai?aiiy iaeia?ic?eiiai
eaoiaeiiai aocea. Oea aeicaieeei aeeiiaoe ieceo eiino?oeoeaieo i?i?iaie
ieaciiaiai eaoiaea (?en. 1) aeey i?iieneiaeo ieaciio?ii?a.

?enoiie 1 – Noaie ieaciiaiai eaoiaea

1 – aeiaeaoeiaee aiiae; 2 – i?ii?aei? iaeo?aeuei? naeoe??; 3 – eaoiae;
G1, G2, G3 – aeo?aoe ieaciiooai?thth/iai aaco

Ieaciiaee eaoiae aeeiiaiee o aeaeyae? naeoe?iiiaaiiai eaoiaea, yeee
neeaaea?oueny c aeiaeaoeiaiai aiiaea 1, i?ii?aeieo iaeo?aeueieo naeoe?e
2 ? eaoiaea 3, i?ae yeeie iiaea?oueny ?iciiae?eaia aeo?aoa aaco.
Aeiaeaoeiaee aiiae 1 caeaaeii a?ae ieaciiooai?thth/iai aaco oa neee
no?oio iaa ??ciee aaiiao?e/iee ?ici??, oi?io ? iaoa??ae (?en. 2).

?enoiie 2 –Noaie aeiaeaoeiaiai aiiaea ieaciiaiai eaoiaea

Aeey aeyaeaiiy oiia ? iaeano? aeeoocii? i?ea’ycee iniiaii? aeoae aoei
?ic?iaeaii ? aeaioiaeaii iiaeaeue ieaciio?iia c ieaciiaei eaoiaeii.
Oieiaei? i?iaeoaee iiaeae? aeicaieeee iaea?aeaoe aeai? uiaei ?iciiae?eo
oeneo a eaiae? ieaciiaiai eaoiaea ae?aiao?ii dk. Aoei iii?/aii, ui ia
a?aenoai? 210-2 i a?ae ii/aoeo eaiaeo (c aieo aeiaeaoeiaiai aiiaea) oene
ieaaii cieaeoaaany, ii/eiath/e c a?aenoai? 2.810-2 i i?aeaeuoaaany.
Oaeei /eiii, a eaiae? ieaciiaiai eaoiaea iiaeeco oi?oeaai? iiaa?oi?
eaoiaea niinoa??aaeanue iaeanoue iaaaeeeiai ?inoo oeneo, yea ooai?eeany
aiane?aeie iaiaeiaeiaeo oaiaaioe?aeueieo oaeaeeinoae cono??/ieo iioie?a
aeiaeaoeiaiai ? ?iai/iai aac?a, iacaaia iaie iaeanoth aeeoocii?
i?ea’ycee iniiaii? aeoae. Aeey aa?aiooaaiiy i?ea’ycee aeoae a oe?e
iaeano? io?eiaia aii??e/ia caeaaei?noue, yea aeicaiey? aecia/eoe
iaiao?aeio aeiaaeeio eaiaeo eaoiaea:

Lk V C1 dk , (1)

aea C1 = 2…3, dk < C2 d2 G-0.05 ; C2 = 0.42 (ea/c)0.05 Oe? ?acoeueoaoe aoee aeei?enoai? aeey ?ic?iaee ieaciiaiai eaoiaea (?en. 3) aei ieaciio?iia I-15A. Neeaaeia? aeaiaioe ieaciiaiai eaoiaea aeaeo?i?cieueiaai?. ?enoiie 3 – Eiino?oeoeaia noaia ieaciiaiai eaoiaea. 1 – eaoiae; 2 – i?aeaeaeo?iaei? anoaaee; 3 – aeiaeaoeiaee aiiae; 4 – iniiaiee aiiae ieaciio?iiaoean? i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a dk ci?ithaaany a?ae 5.610-3 i aei 1110-3 i, /enei naeoe?e ci?ieeinue a?ae i'yoe aei aeaio, a ?o oiaueia a?ae 910-3 i aei 16.510-3 i. Aeiaeaoeiaee aiiae o ieac-iio?ii? I-15A aoa aeeiiaiee ca noaiith ?en.2a o aeaeyae? i?aeiiai oeee?iae?a c eiioniei aenooiii ? ieineith oi?oeaaith iiaa?oiath ae?aiao?ii 10 ii. O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy ieaciiaiai eaoiaea ? ieaciio?iia iaea?aeaii aeaeo?e/i?, oaieia? oa a?ic?ei?Ae?aiaciie ci?i ia?aiao??a iaiaaeoaaeenue iiaeeeainoyie aenia?eiaioaeueiiai noaiaeo ? noaiiaeee G=(8-26)·10-3 ea·n-1, Gd=(1.3-3)·10-5 ea·n-1, I=100-575 A. A?aoiaoth/e, ui ieaciiaee eaoiae neeaaea?oueny c aeaio iniiaieo aeaiaio?a, aeine?aeaeaiiyi ia ciin i?aeeyaaee ye eaoiae, oae ? aeiaeaoeiaee aiiae. I?e no?oi? aeoae 180 A ? aacia?a?ai?e ?iaio? ieaciiaiai eaoiaea i?ioyaii 12 aiaeei ia iiaa?oi? aeiaeaoeiaiai aiiaea i?ae aieeaii a?aiiiai? ieacie ooai?eoueny eeoa iaoiaa iie?eooy, yea ia ? iciaeith a?ic??. Ia iiaa?oi? oeee?iae?e/iiai i?aeiiai eaoiaea (i?e no?oiao iiiaae 100 A) aeyaeoe ciio eiioaeoo aeoae c eaoiaeii iaiiaeeeai. Inoeeeia?aie no?oio ? iai?oae ia aeoc? ?a?no?othoue eeoa ioeuenaoe?? aeaea?aea aeeaeaiiy, ui na?ae/eoue i?i noaoe?iia?iee oa?aeoa? ciie i?ea'ycee aeoae aei eaoiaea. Oea aeicaieeei c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui i?ae ae??th iioieo ieacie a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?ano?ithaaiiy i?eeaoiaeieo i?ioean?a, yea i?eaiaeeoue aei iiyae aeeoocii? (?iciiae?eaii? ii aaeee?e iiaa?oi?) ciie eiioaeoo aeoae c aeaeo?iaeii. A?ic?y i?aeiiai ioieiaeaeoaaiiai aeo?aeiiai aeaeo?iaea ia aecia/aeanue, oae ye a?aeiii, ui a?ic?y i?aeieo aeaeo?iae?a o iia?o?yi?e ieaci? eaaeeoue o iaaeao 10-7 aei 10-6 a/Ee ? a ia?oiio iaaeeaeaii? ?? iiaeia aaaaeaoe ia caeaaeiith a?ae no?oio (I=30-1000 A). O i?ioean? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue cai??thaaeenue iioaioe?aee naeoe?e ieaciiaiai eaoiaea a?aeiinii eaoiaea 3 (?en. 4) ? aecia/aeeny caeaaeiino? Uc a?ae no?oio, aeo?ao aeiaeaoeiaiai Gd, ?iai/iai G aac?a ? a?ae aaee/eie ae?aiao?a ?ic?yaeiiai eaiaeo dk. Iioaioe?ae naeoe?e Uc ?c c?inoaiiyi I i?aeaeuo?oueny ca e?i?eiei caeiiii. Oea aeaco? ia oa, ui ca?eueoaiiy no?oio i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ith? iii?o aeoae. Caeaaei?noue Uc a?ae G neaaea ? i?iyaey?oueny a iniiaiiio a ??cieoe? iioaioe?ae?a Un23 i?ae ae?oaith ? o?aoueith naeoe?yie. Caeaaeii a?ae Gd ??cieoey iioaioe?ae?a Uc23 ci?ith?oueny a?ae 10 aei 20 A. I?e canoinoaaii? ye aeiaeaoeiai? aeo?aoe iia?o?y aaee/eia iioaioe?ae?a naeoe?e ii??aiyii c a?aiiii iiaeaith?oueny ? eaaeeoue o iaaeao a?ae 70 aei 115 A. Onoaiiaeaii, ui iioaioe?ae naeoe?e c?inoa? i?e ca?eueoaii? Z, I e ciaioaii? dk ? Gd (a?aiio) aiane?aeie aieeao no?iie ? i?iieeiaiiy G ?enoiie 4 – Caeaaeiino? Uc a?ae no?oio,i?e Gd=(1.3–1.8)10-5 ea/n(iia?o?y) a eaiae dk. Iaea?aeai? caeaaeiino? E a?ae Z (?en.5). Aiie aecia/aeeny ca iaoeeii e?i?e ?iciiae?eaiiy iioaioe?aeo naeoe?e acaeiaae Z. Aeey Gd iaio 1.610-6 ea/n A i?eaeecii iino?eia ? aei??aith? 19.3102 Ai-1, ui aeaco? ia iayai?noue iia?o?y a anueiio eaiae? ieaciiaiai eaoiaea. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi aeo?aoe Gd aei 6.510-6 ea/n ? aei ?enoiie 5 – Caeaaei?noue A a?ae Gd ? Z8.410-6 ea/n i?e iaeii/aniiio ca?eueoaii? dk, A ciaioo?oueny ? caeaaei?noue A a?ae Z ia? e?i?eiee c?inoath/ee oa?aeoa? eeoa /a?ac /anoeiaa aeo?niaiiy iia?o?y c eaiaeo ieaciiaiai eaoiaea. Ii?yae c Uc o i?ioean? aenia?eiaio?a aei??thaaeenue Ia, Ik, Ia aeiae. oa U iniiaii? aeoae. Aieueo–aiia?i? oa?aeoa?enoeee noai?aiiai ieaciio?iia I-15A (?en. 6) iathoue aeno?aeiee oa?aeoa?. I?e ci?i? aeiaeaoeiai? aeo?aoe (a?aiio) Gd a?ae3010-6 ea/n ? aei 310-6 ea/n nooo?ai? ci?ie iai?oae iniiaii? aeoae ia niinoa?eaaeinue. Aeno?aei? ae?eyiee U–I oa?aeoa?enoee ii/eiathoueny c neee no?oio aeoae 200 A. Iai?oaa aeoae ca?eueoo?oueny ?c c?inoaiiyi no?oio ? a?o?aoe iniiaiiai aaco. Oaieia? iioiee Qc /a?ac naeoe?? ieaciiaiai ?enoiie 6 – Aieueo–aiia?i? oa?aeoa?enoeee I – 15A3.010-6 ea/n nooo?ai? ci?ie iai?oae iniiaii? aeoae ia niinoa??aaeinue. Aeno?aei? ae?eyiee U-I oa?aeoa?enoee ii/eiathoueny c neee no?oio aeoae 200 A. Iai?oaa aeoae ca?eueoo?oueny ?c c?inoaiiyi no?oio ? aeo?aoe iniiaiiai aaco. Oaieia? iioiee Qc /a?ac naeoe?? eaoiaea ca?eueoothoueny ?c c?inoaiiyi no?oio ? ciaioaiiyi dk,i?e/iio, ci?ia G i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaa? ia Qc. Oaieia? iioiee /a?ac eaoiae Qk ?inoooue ca e?i?eiei caeiiii i?e ca?eueoaii? I oa ciaioaii? dk. Caeaaeiino? ao?ao /a?ac aiiae Qa ? aeiaeaoeiaee aiiae Qa aeiae. oaeiae aeyaeeenue e?i?eieie. Oaieiaee EEAe ieaciio?iia, aecia/aiee ca aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie, ciaoiaeeany a iaaeao 0.64-0.8. C iaoith iaea?aeaiiy aiae?oe/ieo caeaaeiinoae aeey ?ic?aooieo oaieiaeo oa aeaeo?e/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iiceoeaiiai noiaia aeoae (IN) a eaiae? ieaciiaiai eaoiaea ?icaeyaea?oueny ?? iiaaae?iea o iicaeiaaeiueiio eai?ia?iiio iioioe? c o?aooaaiiyi aei?ii?ithaaiiy. IN aeoae ai?eoue o oeee?iae?e/iiio eaiae?, ?aae?aeueia oa/?y ieacie ? ciai?oi? iaai?oia iiea aoaeooue a?aenooi?. Ca oaeeo oiia iiaeia ciaoooaaoe a'yceith aeeneiaoe??th, ci?iith e?iaoe/ii? aia?a?? ca ?aooiie oaieii?ia?aeiino? a iai?yi? in? eaiaeo a ii??aiyii? c eiiaaeoeaiei ia?aiinii aia?a??, aeaeioeaaith aeeneiaoe??th aia?a?? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey oa ia?aiinii aia?a?? oaieii?ia?aeiino? a ?aae?aeueiiio iai?yi?. ?aae?on noiaia aeoae ci?iiee, ii aeiaaeei? eaiaeo a?i ci?ith?oueny ca caeiiii picscalex100010009000003130100000400170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02600260071200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb0ffffff20070000100200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000500009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 6601ac020500000013024a01dd0209000000fa0200002000000000000000220004000000 2d0101000500000014025201dd02050000001302d0012403040000002d01000005000000 1402d0012c0305000000130258008a0305000000140258008a0305000000130258001b07 10000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c000204000000 2d01020009000000320ac0013600010000007800b40009000000320ac0015e0101000000 3d00d30009000000320ac0017104010000002b00d30017000000fb0280fe000000000000 9001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd04000000 2d01030004000000f001020009000000320ac0018403010000003100c0000a000000320a c0019f05020000006b7ac000ac000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100000000001000 0000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01 020004000000f0010300030000000000000000000000. Aaee/eia k caeaaeeoue a?ae o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae aaco, eiai aeo?aoe ? ?ici???a eaiaeo. O aeacaiiio iaaeeaeaii? iniiai? aeaeo?e/i? ? oaieia? aeanoeaino? IN iienothoueny ??aiyiiyie: picscalex100010009000003bc0200000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c026004e0191200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb6ffffffa0190000160400000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000e00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 1c0240000500000013021c025a030500000014021c0240040500000013021c020b060500 000014021c02c5070500000013021c02470a0500000014021c022d0b0500000013021c02 a40c0500000014021c026e0e0500000013021c02211010000000fb0280fe000000000000 9001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d0101000a000000320a80014d00 02000000726ecf00cb0009000000320a8a01630401000000b600bc0009000000320aa803 570401000000b600bc0009000000320a8a018b0b01000000b600bc0009000000320aa803 440b01000000b600bc0009000000320a8a01850e01000000b600bc0009000000320aa803 a30e01000000b600bc0009000000320aa0025712010000007300e60009000000320aa002 a617010000006500a50017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc000200105469 6d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01020004000000f0010100 09000000320a8001e701010000006800c00009000000320aa8036101010000004c00e200 09000000320a8a011f05010000005300d70009000000320aa8031305010000005a00e600 09000000320aac03e507010000005200010109000000320aac03a3090100000072007e00 09000000320aa803000c0100000072007e0009000000320aa002a20d0100000072007e00 09000000320a8a01410f010000005300d70009000000320aa8035f0f0100000072007e00 09000000320aa002d713010000004500ea0009000000320aa0026515010000005300d700 09000000320aa002d018010000005300d70017000000fb0220ff00000000000090010000 00cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d010100 04000000f001020009000000320ae001c402010000007300570009000000320a00036113 010000007300570009000000320a00037218010000007300570010000000fb0280fe0000 000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001 010009000000320aa002a00301000000d700600009000000320aa0027f06010000003d00 d30009000000320aa0028d0a01000000d700600009000000320aad01dd0c01000000e600 910009000000320a7e03dd0c01000000e800910009000000320aa302dd0c01000000e700 910009000000320aad012b1001000000f600910009000000320a7e032b1001000000f800 910009000000320aa3022b1001000000f700910009000000320aa0023411010000002b00 d30009000000320aa0028116010000002d00d30017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001 000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01 010004000000f001020009000000320a8a01ac08010000003100c00017000000fb0220ff 0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200 ccdd040000002d01020004000000f001010009000000320a0c040a090100000030007000 09000000320a00030a09010000003200700009000000320af401e4140100000032007000 0a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02 000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001020003000000 000000000000 (2) rn = const, (3) x I = 2pR02ssE B Srdr, (4) 0 aea r, z eii?aeeiaoe, a?aeianai? a?aeiia?aeii aei Ro ? L; L aeiaaeeia eaiaeo; Ro ?aae?on IN i?e Z =0; - ?aae?on noiaia aeoae, a?aeianaiee aei Ro; - inueiaa oaeaee?noue; , , h, S, -aonoeia, aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue, aioaeuei?y, ooieoe?y oaieii?ia?aeiino?, ?ioaa?aeueia ia'?iia aonoeia aei?ii?ithaaiiy; S=S1-S*; picscalex100010009000003600100000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02c00460081200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffaaffffff200800006a0400000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000f00017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01000009000000320ae002280001000000 5300d7000a000000320ae0020205020000005429ea007e000a000000320ae00276060200 00006454c000ea0017000000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d65 73204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01010004000000f00100000900 0000320a6204c702010000006f00700009000000320afe00bd0201000000540088001000 0000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01 000004000000f001010009000000320ae0026101010000003d00d30010000000fb02c0fd 0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000 f001000009000000320a4503ab0201000000f200950010000000fb0280fe000000000000 9001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f00101000900 0000320ae0029403010000006c00d70017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc 0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d0101000400 0000f001000009000000320ae00278040100000028007e000a00000026060f000a00ffff ffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374 656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f001010003000000000000ffffff - ooieoe?y oaieii?ia?aeiino?; S*, h* - cia/aiiy S1 oa h ia iaae? IN; picscalex100010009000003e80100000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02e003c0131200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb6ffffff80130000960300000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000b00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 fc017d03050000001302fc015105050000001402fc01830a050000001302fc01360c0500 00001402fc014f11050000001302fc01021310000000fb0280fe00000000000090010000 00020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010009000000320a8002350001000000 7300e6000a000000320a6a01940302000000b673bc00e60009000000320a8903a5030100 0000b600bc0009000000320a6a01a00a01000000b600bc0009000000320a89039a0a0100 0000b600bc0009000000320a8002450e010000006500a5000a000000320a6a0174110200 0000b665bc00a50009000000320a8903661101000000b600bc0017000000fb0220ff0000 000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd 040000002d01020004000000f001010009000000320ae002410101000000730057000900 0000320ae0024708010000007300570009000000320ae002130f01000000730057001700 0000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d61 6e2043797200ccdd040000002d01010004000000f001020009000000320a890361040100 00005300d70009000000320a80026807010000006800c00009000000320a6a015c0b0100 00006800c00009000000320a8903560b010000005300d70009000000320a890322120100 00005300d70010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c 0002040000002d01020004000000f001010009000000320a80023202010000003d00d300 09000000320a80023809010000003d00d30009000000320a80020410010000003d00d300 17000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f 6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01010004000000f001020009000000320a80028405 010000003b006b0009000000320a8002690c010000003b006b0009000000320a80023513 010000002e0060000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000 070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01020004000000 f001010003000000000000ffffff ?ica'ycaiiy ??aiyiue (2) ? (3) ooea?ii i?e a?aie/ieo oiiaao: S(0, 0) = S0, picscalex100010009000003da0000000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02e00340021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb6ffffff00020000960300000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000b00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 fc014000050000001302fc01f30110000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002 001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010009000000320a6a01570001000000b600bc00 09000000320a8803750001000000b600bc0017000000fb0280fe00000000000090010000 00cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d010200 04000000f001010009000000320a6a011301010000005300d70009000000320a88033101 0100000072007e000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000 070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000 f001020003000000000000000000(0, z) = 0, S(x, z) = 0. (5) Ia?aoai?eaoe ??aiyiiy (2) c o?aooaaiiyi (3) ? caeiio ci?ithaaiiy = (Z), iaea?aeeii: picscalex1000100090000031a0200000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02600440141200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffaaffffff001400000a0400000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000d00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 3c0240000500000013023c02f3010500000014023c02b7030500000013023c0259050500 000014023c0247060500000013023c02be070500000014023c028e090500000013023c02 410b10000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c00020400 00002d01010009000000320aaa01570001000000b600bc0009000000320ac90375000100 0000b600bc0009000000320aaa01a50601000000b600bc0009000000320ac9035e060100 0000b600bc0009000000320aaa01a50901000000b600bc0009000000320ac903c3090100 0000b600bc0009000000320ac0025312010000006100ea0017000000fb0280fe00000000 00009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd0400 00002d01020004000000f001010009000000320aaa011301010000005300d70009000000 320ac90331010100000072007e0009000000320aaa01cb03010000006100a80009000000 320ac90346040100000072007e0009000000320ac9031a070100000072007e0009000000 320ac002bf080100000072007e0009000000320aaa01610a010000005300d70009000000 320ac9037f0a0100000072007e000a000000320ac0027e0d0200000043450101ea000900 0000320ac0021110010000005300d70009000000320ac0023d13010000005300d7001000 0000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01 010004000000f001020009000000320ac0026c02010000003d00d30009000000320ac002 a30501000000d700600009000000320acd01fa0701000000e600910009000000320a9e03 fa0701000000e800910009000000320ac302fa0701000000e700910009000000320acd01 4b0b01000000f600910009000000320a9e034b0b01000000f800910009000000320ac302 4b0b01000000f700910009000000320ac002580c010000002b00d30009000000320ac002 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(7) ?ica'ycaiiy (7) i?e a?aie/ieo oiiaao (5) caieno?oueny o aeaeyae?: z -mn2a2/k S(x,z) = exp(-az)exp(BCE2dz) A(1 + kz) ' F1(x), (8) 0 aea A=S0, O1(x) =1-o2; n – ei?ai? ??aiyiiy On(n, 1) =0. C (4) ? (8) ciaoiaeeii iae?i?eia ?ioaa?aeueia ??aiyiiy, ?ica'ycaiiyi yeiai ?: picscalex1000100090000038c0700000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02e00a202e1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffa3ffffffe02d0000830a00000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000a00210000000fb024cfec000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002 040000002d01000008000000320a2103e80d01000000280010000000fb024cfec0000000 00009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f0010000 08000000320a2103301101000000290010000000fb024cfec00000000000900100000002 0002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a2103 ca1201000000280010000000fb024cfec000000000009001000000020002001053796d62 6f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320a2103c916010000002900 10000000fb0289fe8600000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c000204000000 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(9) Oi?ioea (9) aeicaiey? ?ic?aoiaoaaoe aeaeo?e/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee IN aeoae a eaiae? ieaciiaiai eaoiaea c eai?ia?iei iioieii aaco c o?aooaaiiyi ?o caeaaeiino? a?ae no?oio, o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae, aeo?ao aaco ? ci?ie ?aae?ono noiaia aeoae ii eiai aeiaaeei?. Ae?aooaaiiy ca oi?ioeith (9) iieacaee caaeia?eueia ni?aiaaeaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iai?eeeaae, aeey Gd = 1310-6 ea/n, dk= 710-3 i, I1=140 A, I2=280 A iioeaea ?ic?aooieiaeo e?eaeo a?aeiinii aenia?eiaioaeueieo noaiiaeea iaeaea picscalex100010009000003890000000200120000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02a00160011200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffd8ffffff20010000780100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000200010000000fb0260fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002 040000002d01000009000000320a60013c0001000000b100e4000a00000026060f000a00 ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc010202225379 7374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001000003000000000000460000320a0000 000020%. A?aoiaoth/e, ui ?ic?aooiie aeoae a oo?aoeaioiiio iioioe? i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeaee /a?ac a?aenooi?noue iaae?eii? oai???, iniiaia ?ieue a?aeaiaeeeanue aenia?eiaioo. Aeey iaea?aeaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo oi?ioe, c?o/ieo aeey aeei?enoaiiy a ?iaeaia?i?e i?aeoeoe? i?e ?ic?iaoe? ieaciio?ii?a, ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ocaaaeueithaaeenue o aeaeyae? e?eoa??aeueieo caeaaeiinoae, no?oeoo?a yeeo aecia/aeany caniaaie oai??? iiae?aiino? oa ?ici??iinoae. Iayai?noue o ieaciio?ii? aeoae ieaciiaiai eaoiaea i?ecaaea aei aeayeiai ooi/iaiiy oi?ioee aeey ?ic?aooieo iai?oae aeoae (cai?iiiiiaaii? ?ai?oa A. TH. Aeaooiaei ? A. E. 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Oi?ioea (10) aeicaiey? ?ic?aoiaoaaoe iai?oao aeoae c iioeaeith picscalex100010009000003890000000200120000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02a00160011200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffd8ffffff20010000780100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000200010000000fb0260fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002 040000002d01000009000000320a60013c0001000000b100e4000a00000026060f000a00 ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc010202225379 7374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000fc7f006c00020000 000017% a ae?aiacii? ci?ie aaee/eie aecia/aeueieo eiiieaen?a: picscalex100010009000003d80000000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02400440021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb6ffffff00020000f60300000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000e00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 fc014000050000001302fc01f60117000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0002 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01010009000000 320a6a01d900010000004900770009000000320a88035400010000006400c00017000000 fb0220ff0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e20 43797200ccdd040000002d01020004000000f001010009000000320ae8033d0101000000 320070000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb02100007000000 0000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010200 03000000000000000000 = (0.5 Q 4)·104 A/i; picscalex100010009000003e10000000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02600480021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffa5ffffff40020000050400000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000e00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 1c0240000500000013021c02220217000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0002 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01010009000000 320a7b016000010000004c00e20009000000320aa9036600010000006400c00017000000 fb0220ff0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e20 43797200ccdd040000002d01020004000000f001010009000000320adb01650101000000 3200700009000000320a0904530101000000320070000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff 01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d 00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010200030000000000000000004300 = 5.25 Q14.5; picscalex100010009000003e10000000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02400460021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffc0ffffff20020000000400000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000e00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 fc014000050000001302fc010c0217000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0002 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01010009000000 320a60016000010000004c00e20009000000320a88036600010000006400c00017000000 fb0220ff0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e20 43797200ccdd040000002d01020004000000f001010009000000320ac001610101000000 3300700009000000320ae8034f0101000000330070000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff 01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d 00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010200030000000000000000000000 =2.6 Q 4.4; picscalex100010009000003d80000000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02400440021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb6ffffff00020000f60300000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000e00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 fc014000050000001302fc01f60117000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0002 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01010009000000 320a6a018b00010000004700140109000000320a88035400010000006400c00017000000 fb0220ff0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e20 43797200ccdd040000002d01020004000000f001010009000000320ae8033d0101000000 320070000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb02100007000000 0000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010200 03000000000000000000 = 0.45 Q 6.5 ea/n'i; p(d2 + d3) = (5.8 Q 18.3)·103 I/i. Uie iiaea aooe aecia/aii c ocaaaeueiaii? caeaaeiino? (?en. 7) Uc a?ae I, dk ? Z, aea ia in? i?aeeiao a?aeeeaaeaii aaee/eio picscalex1000100090000038a0100000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c024004a0091200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffc0ffffff60090000000400000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000e00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 fc012003050000001302fc011c05050000001402fc01a506050000001302fc014d091000 0000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01 010009000000320a80023b000100000059002f0109000000320a8002da01010000003d00 d30009000000320a80027805010000002d00d30017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001 000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01 020004000000f001010009000000320a60014003010000005500140109000000320a8803 d003010000007a00ac0009000000320a8c03b906010000006400c00017000000fb0220ff 0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200 ccdd040000002d01010004000000f001020009000000320ac00171040100000063006200 09000000320aec03a907010000006b00700017000000fb0280fe00000000000090010000 00cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d010200 04000000f001010009000000320a6a01a507010000003300c00017000000fb0220ff0000 000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd 040000002d01010004000000f001020009000000320ae002940701000000310070000a00 0000320ae00232080200000034337000700009000000320ae002f807010000002e003800 0a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02 000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01020004000000f001010003000000 000000ffffff, a ia in? aanoeen – I/dk. Nooe?eueia e?i?y – ?ic?aooiie ca iaea?aeaiith oi?ioeith: picscalex100010009000003a20100000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c026004e00c1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffa2ffffffa00c0000020400000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000e00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 1c0240000500000013021c0271020500000014021c0202040500000013021c02ae060500 000014021c02d30a0500000013021c029b0c17000000fb0280fe00000000000090010000 00cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d010100 09000000320a7e016000010000005500140109000000320aa903ec00010000005a00e600 09000000320a7e015f04010000004d00550109000000320aaf031604010000006400c000 09000000320aa0027208010000004d00550109000000320a8a01750b0100000049007700 09000000320aa903e70a010000006400c00017000000fb0220ff00000000000090010000 00cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d010200 04000000f001010009000000320ade019301010000004300950009000000320a0f040805 010000006b00700009000000320a0904d90b010000006b00700010000000fb0280fe0000 000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001 020009000000320aa002d102010000002d00d30009000000320aa0022707010000003d00 d30017000000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720 526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01020004000000f001010009000000320ade01 cc05010000003100700009000000320a0303f30401000000310070000a000000320a0303 91050200000034337000700009000000320a0003ed09010000003200700009000000320a 03035705010000002e0038000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000 fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d010100 04000000f001020003000000000000ffffff, (11) aea I1 = 3 A ni0.43; I2=0.019 A A-1; Un – iioaioe?ae naeoe?e. Iaoooth/e caeaaei?noth E a?ae Z, ?enoiie 7 – ocaaaeueiai? caeaaeiino? a?ae I/ dkiiaeia c o?aooaaiiyi (11) iaea?aeaoe oi?ioeo picscalex100010009000003ca0100000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02600460111200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffa2ffffff20110000020400000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000e00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 1c0249050500000013021c0211070500000014021c02a4080500000013021c02500b1700 0000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d61 6e2043797200ccdd040000002d01010009000000320aa0024000010000004500ea000900 0000320aa002e802010000004d00550109000000320a8a01eb0501000000490077000900 0000320aa9035d05010000006400c00009000000320a7e010109010000004d0055010900 0000320aaf03b808010000006400c00009000000320aa002670d01000000c200fd000a00 0000320aa002730f02000000f1eca800f10017000000fb0220ff00000000000090010000 00cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d010200 04000000f001010009000000320a09044f06010000006b00700009000000320a0f04aa09 010000006b00700010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d62 6f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001020009000000320aa0029d01010000003d00 d30009000000320aa0027207010000002b00d30017000000fb0220ff0000000000009001 000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01 020004000000f001010009000000320a00036304010000003200700009000000320ade01 6e0a010000003100700009000000320a0303950901000000310070000a000000320a0303 330a0200000034337000700009000000320a0303f909010000002e00380017000000fb02 80fe0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e204379 7200ccdd040000002d01010004000000f001020009000000320aa0028f0b010000002c00 600009000000320aa002af0e010000002f006b000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100 0000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc 040000002d01020004000000f001010003000000000000000000 (12) i?aaeeueio a ae?aiaciiao I=100-575 A, dk=(5.5-9.5) 10-3 i, Z=(1-5) 10-2 i. Oiae? ia ae?eyioe? ieaciiaiai eaoiaea picscalex100010009000003840100000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c026005000c1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb8ffffffc00b0000180500000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000300117000000fb0260fe0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01000009000000320a0003400001000000 55002b010c000000320a0003be050300000045647a00fd00d000ba0009000000320a0003 e2090100000055002b0117000000fb0200ff0000000000009001000000cc000200105469 6d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01010004000000f0010000 0a000000320a6803820102000000efea8a007d0009000000320acb04ae04010000004c00 970009000000320a08019904010000004c00970009000000320a68032b0b010000006b00 800017000000fb0240ff0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720 526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01000004000000f001010009000000320a4801 3b05010000006b00600010000000fb0260fe000000000000900100000002000200105379 6d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001000009000000320a0003360301000000 3d00e40009000000320a00039408010000002b00e40010000000fb02a0fd000000000000 9001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f00101000900 0000320a8a03cc0401000000f2009d0017000000fb0240ff0000000000009001000000cc 0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d0101000400 0000f001000009000000320a0b05400501000000310060000a00000026060f000a00ffff ffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374 656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f00101000300000000000064030f00000000,aea Lk - aeiaaeeia eaiaeo ieaciiaiai eaoiaea; L1 – aeiaaeeia iaeano? eaoiaeiiai iaae?iiy iai?oae. Aeey aecia/aiiy iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey aiiaeii? ae?eyiee aeoae iaea?aeaia oi?ioea A = G0.22(I3 +picscalex100010009000003d8000000030017000000000005000000090200000000040 0000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050 000000b0200000000050000000c024004e0021200000026060f001a00ffffffff0000100 00000c0ffffffb6ffffffa0020000f60300000b00000026060f000c004d6174685479706 50000e00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d01000005000000140 2fc014000050000001302fc01920217000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc000 2001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d0101000900000 0320a6a012701010000004900770009000000320a88036000010000004d0055011700000 0fb0220ff0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2 043797200ccdd040000002d01020004000000f001010009000000320ae803d9010100000 0340070000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb0210000700000 00000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001020 003000000000000000000), A/ni , (13) aea I3=5.06 Ani-1a-0.2n0.2; I4=190 AAnia-0.2n0.2. Oi?ioea (13) ae?enia a ae?aiacii? cia/aiue: I=300-800 A; G=10-60 a/n; dk= 2010-3 i. Ia ?en. 8 iiaeaii ocaaaeueiai? caeaaeiino? oaieiao?ao o ieaciiaiio eaoiae? Qi=fi(I/dk), aea nooe?euei? e?i?? ?ic?aoiaai? ca iaea?aeaieie oi?ioeaie: ?enoiie 8 – Ocaaaeueiai? oaieia? ao?aoe /a?ac ieaciiaee eaoiae Qae.a.= N1 (picscalex100010009000003f4000000030017000000000005000000090200000000040 0000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050 000000b0200000000050000000c02400440031200000026060f001a00ffffffff0000100 00000c0ffffffb6ffffff00030000f60300000b00000026060f000c004d6174685479706 50000e00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d01000005000000140 2fc014000050000001302fc01e80217000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc000 2001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d0101000900000 0320a6a015201010000004900770009000000320a8c035400010000006400c0001700000 0fb0220ff0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2 043797200ccdd040000002d01020004000000f001010009000000320aec0344010100000 06b00700009000000320ae0022f0101000000310070000a000000320ae002cd010200000 039357000700009000000320ae0029301010000002e0038000a00000026060f000a00fff fffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc010202225379737 4656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001020003000000000000000000), Ao; (14) Qc= N2 z0,15(picscalex100010009000003d80000000300170000000000050000000902000000 000400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000 00050000000b0200000000050000000c02400460021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00 0010000000c0ffffffb6ffffff20020000f60300000b00000026060f000c004d61746854 7970650000e00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000 001402fc014000050000001302fc01040217000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000 cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01010009 000000320a6a01e000010000004900770009000000320a8c035400010000006400c00017 000000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d 616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01020004000000f001010009000000320aec03440101 0000006b0070000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb02100007 0000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0 01020003000000000000000000)1,57, Ao; (15) aea N1= 1.09 Ani1.95; N2=0.3 AA-0.57ni1.42; z= 0.5picscalex100010009000003890000000200120000000000050000000902000000000 400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000 50000000b0200000000050000000c02400160011200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001 0000000c0ffffff3800000020010000780100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797 0650000200010000000fb0260fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0 002040000002d01000009000000320a00013c0001000000b800e4000a00000026060f000 a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc010202225 3797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000480000ffffff0 00000005.5 ci.Oaieiaee EEAe ?ic?iaeaii? na??? ieaciio?ii?a iiaeia ioe?ieoe e?eoa??aeueiei ??aiyiiyi: picscalex1000100090000036a0300000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c020005e01b1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffa6ffffffa01b0000a60400000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000f00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 9c0240000500000013029c024c040500000014029c02c60b0500000013029c020e0d0500 000014029c0265100500000013029c0243120500000014029c02d6130500000013029c02 a61510000000fb02c1fdd900000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c00020400 00002d01010008000000320a2703c31701000000280010000000fb02c1fdd90000000000 9001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f00101000800 0000320a2703e71901000000290017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0002 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01010004000000 f001020009000000320afe013c00010000003100c00009000000320a2003ec0501000000 3100c00009000000320a2003c406010000003800c0000a000000320a2003360802000000 3130c000c00017000000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d657320 4e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01020004000000f001010009000000 320a7402570a010000003200700009000000320a3d01ef0d01000000300070000a000000 320a3d01940e0200000035337000700009000000320a5e02881101000000320070000900 0000320a89047611010000003200700009000000320a5e02f91401000000330070000900 0000320a8904e714010000003300700009000000320a0201871601000000300070000900 0000320a02012c17010000003500700009000000320a18027c1a01000000300070000900 0000320a1802281b010000003300700010000000fb0280fe000000000000900100000002 0002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001020009000000320afe01 2c01010000002d00d30009000000320a2003c504010000003d00d30009000000320a2003 b60701000000d700600009000000320a2d02010b01000000e600910009000000320afe03 010b01000000e800910009000000320a2303010b01000000e700910009000000320a2d02 180d01000000f600910009000000320afe03180d01000000f800910009000000320a2303 180d01000000f700910009000000320a2003a412010000002b00d30009000000320af201 a00f01000000e600910009000000320a3904a00f01000000e800910009000000320a1d03 a00f01000000e700910009000000320af201b01501000000f600910009000000320a3904 b01501000000f800910009000000320a1d03b01501000000f700910010000000fb0220ff 0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000 f001010009000000320a7402ce09010000002d007b0010000000fb0280fe000000000000 9001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f00102000900 0000320afe015d02010000006800e60009000000320a29045f01010000006800e6001700 0000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d61 6e2043797200ccdd040000002d01020004000000f001010009000000320a5e0259030100 00006d00ae0009000000320a89045b02010000006d00ae0017000000fb0280fe00000000 00009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd0400 00002d01010004000000f001020009000000320a0a02280c010000004900770009000000 320a2904da0b010000004700140109000000320afe018510010000004c00e20009000000 320a29048b10010000006400c00009000000320afe01f613010000004c00e20009000000 320a2904fc13010000006400c0000a000000320a20035418020000007064c000c0000900 0000320a20038206010000002e00600017000000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000cc 0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d0102000400 0000f001010009000000320a3d01610e010000002e00380009000000320a0201f9160100 00002e00380009000000320a1802ee1a010000002e0038000a00000026060f000a00ffff ffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374 656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001020003000000000000000000 (16) c o?aooaaiiyi oaieiao?ao o ieaciiaiio eaoiae?. O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? iiaeaii aeaye? ?acoeueoaoe i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaiiai ieaciio?iia c ieaciiaei eaoiaeii. Anoaiiaeaii aeieia?/io aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?o aeey iaea?aeaiiy ??aeeeo acioieo aeia?ea, ia?a?iaee iaaee/ieo, i?iieneiaeo oa oaa?aeeo iiaooiaeo a?aeoiae?a ? anoaiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aeioe?eueiino? canoinoaaiiy ?o aeey aeia??aaiiy aeiiaiiiai aeoooy iiiaae 1200 1400 iN. CAAAEUeI? AENIIAEE 1. Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeieoeueeeo ?ia?o, a?o/eciyiiai oa caei?aeiiiiai aeina?aeo ?ic?iaee aeaeo?iaeoaiaeo ieaciio?ii?a iino?eiiai no?oio iieacaa, ui ? aein? caeeoathoueny aeooaeueieie ieoaiiy no?eeino? eaoiaea iiooaeiino?oiiaeo no?oieiieo ieaciio?ii?a, i?aoethth/eo ia aa?aneaieo ?iai/eo aacao, ? cieaeaiiy aeo?aoe caoeniiai aaco (a?aiio). Iaeiei ?c oeyo?a ?ica'ycaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie ? noai?aiiy ieaciio?iia c aeiaeaoeiaei iioieii ieacie, yeee aieeaa? ia i?eeaoiaeio ae?eyieo aeoae, aeey caaacia/aiiy oei naiei oiia aeey aeeoocii? i?ea'ycee iniiaii? aeoae (ieaciiaee eaoiae). 2. Aia?oa noai?aii ieaciio?ii c ieaciiaei eaoiaeii, yeee aei?iaoaaii i?e aeo?ao? iniiaiiai ?iai/iai aaco (iia?o?y) aei 2610-3 ea/n, aeiaeaoeiaiai aaco (a?aiio) a?ae 310-5 aei 310-6 ea/n ? nee? no?oio iniiaii? aeoae 435 A. 3. Ieaciiaee eaoiae yaey? niaith ieaciio?ii, ui i?noeoue aeiaeaoeiaee aiiae ? eaoiae, yeee iiaeia canoiniaoaaoe a cai?? c aoaeue-yeei e?i?eiei ieaciio?iiii a?aeiieo eiino?oeoe?e. 4. ?ano?ni? aei?iaoaaiiy ieaciiaiai eaoiaea i?ioyaii 12 aiaeei i?e no?oiia? 180 A iieacaee, ui eiai aeaeo?iaee ia caciathoue a?ic??. I?ae ae??th iioieo ieacie a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?ano?ithaaiiy i?eeaoiaeieo i?ioean?a, yea i?eaiaeeoue aei iiyae aeeoocii? ciie eiioaeoo aeiiii?aeii? oa iniiaii? aeoae c eaoiaeii. Oea aeicaieeei c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ieaciiaee eaoiae iiaea aeiaai i?aoethaaoe c ieaciio?iiaie i?e no?oiia? iniiaii? aeoae aeae?eueea e?eiaiia??a. 5. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ieaciiaee eaoiae o caeaaeiino? a?ae canoiniaaiiai iaoa??aeo aeaeo?iae?a iiaea i?aoethaaoe ia aoaeue-yeeo aacao, a oiio /ene? ? aa?aneaieo (iia?o?y, eenaiue). I?e oeueiio a?ic?y i?e canoinoaaii? i?aeieo aeaeo?iae?a (aeiaeaoeiaiai aiiaea oa eaoiaea) ciaoiaeeoueny ia ??ai? aeia?iaoaaiiy i?ae?. 6. Oieiaei? i?iaeoaee iiaeae? ieaciio?iia c ieaciiaei eaoiaeii aeicaieeee aeyaeoe iaeanoue aeeoocii? i?ea'ycee iniiaii? aeoae, yea ooai?th?oueny aiane?aeie iaiaeiaeiaeo oaiaaioe?aeueieo oaeaeeinoae cono??/ieo iioie?a aeiaeaoeiaiai ? ?iai/iai aac?a. Aeey aa?aioiaaii? i?ea'ycee aeoae a oe?e iaeano? iaea?aeaia aii??e/ia caeaaei?noue, yea aeicaiey? aecia/eoe aeiaaeeio eaiaeo eaoiaea ieaciiaiai eaoiaea. 7. Iaea?aeaii oai?aoe/io oi?ioeo, yea aeicaiey? ?ic?aoiaoaaoe c iioeaeith picscalex100010009000003890000000200120000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02a00160011200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffd8ffffff20010000780100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000200010000000fb0260fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002 040000002d01000009000000320a60013c0001000000b100e4000a00000026060f000a00 ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc010202225379 7374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f00100000300000000000000000100000000 000020% aeaeo?e/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeoae a eaiae? ieaciiaiai eaoiaea c eai?ia?iei iioieii aaco c o?aooaaiiyi aei?ii?ithaaiiy oa ci?ie ?aae?ona noiaia aeoae ii eiai aeiaaeei?. 8. Iaea?aeaii aeai? uiaei oeneo a cii? i?ea'ycee aeoae aei aiiaea ieaciiaiai eaoiaea (ia iiaa?oi? aiiaeii? ieyie) o i?aoethth/iai ieaciio?iia, ye? yaeythoue oai?aoe/iee ? i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an. 9. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeine?aeaeaii aeaeo?e/i?, oaieia? oa a?ic?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?ic?iaeaiiai ieaciio?iia c ieaciiaei eaoiaeii. Cia/ia /anoeia aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ocaaaeueiaia ? iiaeaia o aeaeyae? ocaaaeueiaieo a?ao?e?a ? e?eoa??aeueieo ??aiyiue, c?o/ieo aeey aeei?enoaiiy a ?iaeaia?i?e i?aeoeoe? i?e ?ic?iaeao aiaeia?/ieo ieaciio?ii?a. 10. Cae?eniaii i?aeoe/ia aei?iaoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaiiai ieaciio?iia ia i?iieneiaeo onoaiiaeao. Anoaiiaeaii aeiiii?/io aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy eiai aeey iaea?aeaiiy ??aeeeo acioieo aeia?ea, ia?a?iaee iaaee/ieo, i?iieneiaeo ? oaa?aeeo iiaooiaeo a?aeoiae?a ? aeey aeia??aaiiy aeiiaiiiai aeoooy iiiaae 1200 – 1400 iN. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a iioae?eiaaieo ?iaioao: 1. Aecthaa A.E., Aeaeea Iaoioae O.I. Oai?aoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey yeaeo?e/aneie aeoae a eaiaea ieaciaiiiai eaoiaea// I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. Iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy oa oaoi?/i? iaoee.- Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: Iaoea oa ina?oa.- 1998. ? 24 (91).- N. 1-9. 2. Aecthaa A.E., Aeaeea Iaoioae O.I., Ae?theiaa O.A. ?acoeueoaou iaiauaiey oa?aeoa?enoee ieaciio?iia n ieaciaiiui eaoiaeii// I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. Iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy oa oaoi?/i? iaoee.- Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: Iaoea ? ina?oa.- 1998.- ? 43 (110).- N. 72-75. 3. Aecthaa A.E., Aeaeea Iaoioae O.I. Oieaa?naeueiue ieaciio?ii aeey iaianaiey iie?uoee// Iaoa?eaeu eiio. "Eaca?iua e oeceei-oaoie/aneea iaoiaeu ia?aaioee iaoa?eaeia".- E.- 1997.- N. 27-28. 4. Aecthaa A.E., Aeaeea Iaoioae O.I., Ae?theiaa O.A., ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai ieaciio?iia// Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia.- Ae/aane: AeAIE.- 1998.- Aui. 7.- N. 44-46. 5. Dzyuba V.L., Mahmoud Tiab Mussa Akailah. The plasma cathode of the high–powered plasmatrone // The Extract from report of the 5–th European Conference on thermal plasma processes.– S.–Peterburg.– 1998.– P. 258. 6. Aecthaa A.E., E?oie/ei A.E., Aeaeea Iaoioae O.I., Ae?theiaa O.A. ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee ieaciio?iia n ieaciaiiui eaoiaeii// Oac. aeiee. III Iaaeaeoia?. eiio. ii yeaeo?iiaoaieea e yeaeo?ioaoiieiaee.- I.:- 1998.- N. 382-383. 7. Iao. 25284A Oe?a?ie, IEE I 05 A 7/22. Aeaeo?iaeoaiaee ieaciio?ii/ Aecthaa A.E., Ei?noiia E.A., Aeaeea I.O.–?97 073923; Cayae. 12.11.97; Iioae. 30.10 98. 8. Mahmoud Tiab Mussa Akailah. Labour. Collection of scientific works (Ministry of Labour)// Plasma and its positive influence on the ecology. – Amman, Jordan.- 1998.- P. 45-50. AIIIOAOeEss Iaoioae Oeaa Ionna Aeaeee. ?ac?aaioea e enneaaeiaaiea auniei?ano?niiai ieaciio?iia n ieaciaiiui eaoiaeii. – ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.09.10 – yeaeo?ioa?ie/aneea i?ioeannu e onoaiiaee. – Oeceei-oaoiieiae/aneee einoeooo iaoaeeia e nieaaia IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999 a. Aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa iinayuaia ?ac?aaioea e enneaaeiaaieth auniei?ano?niiai ieaciio?iia n ieaciaiiui eaoiaeii. ?anniio?aiu naienoaa aeoaiaie ieaciu, aa iniaaiiinoe e acaeiiaeaenoaea n yeaeo?iaeaie ieaciio?iia, i?iaiaeece?iaaiu ?acoeueoaou ecaanoiuo yenia?eiaioaeueiuo e oai?aoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee ieaciio?iiia n aioo?aiiei oi?oeaaui eaoiaeii, niiniaiuo aeeeoaeueii ?aaioaoue ia aa?anneaiii aaca. Ia iniiaaiee i?iaaaeaiiuo iieneiauo enneaaeiaaiee aeey ?aoaiey aii?ina ?ano?na ?aaiou eaoiaea neeueiioi/iuo no?oeiuo ieaciio?iiia n eniieueciaaieai aa?anneaiuo ?aai/eo aacia aia?aua nicaeai ieaciio?ii n aeiiieieoaeueiui iioieii ieaciu, aicaeaenoaothuei ia i?eeaoiaeiue o/anoie aeoae e iaania/eaathuei oai naiui oneiaey aeey aeeooociie i?eaycee iniiaiie aeoae (ieaciaiiue eaoiae). Iaeaeaia iioeiaeueiay eiino?oeoeey ieaciaiiiai eaoiaea, niaea?aeauay onoaiiaeaiiua iineaaeiaaoaeueii aeiiieieoaeueiue aiiae, /aou?a i?iiaaeooi/iua iaeo?aeueiua naeoeee e o?oa/aoue iaaeiue eaoiae, iaaeaeo eioi?uie iiaeaaony ieaciiia?icothuee aac. I?e yoii ii n?aaiaieth n ecaanoiuie ?ac?aaioeaie nicaeaiiue ieaciaiiue eaoiae iiaeao ?aaioaoue ia oieueei a a?aiiiaie n?aaea n ?anoiaeii a?aiia io 3,010–5 aei 6,510–6 ea/n, /oi ia ii?yaeie e aieaa ieaea ecaanoiuo aeaiiuo, ii e a n?aaea ae?oaeo aacia, a oii /enea aicaeooa, aac oaaee/aiey y?icee aai aeaoaeae. A ?aaioa i?eaaaeaiu iienaiea yenia?eiaioaeueiie onoaiiaee, iaoiaeeee i?iaaaeaiey enneaaeiaaiee e ioeaiee iia?aoiinoe ecia?aiey, a oaeaea ?acoeueoaou yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee ieaciaiiiai eaoiaea e ieaciio?iia: yeaeo?e/aneea, oaieiaua e y?iceiiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi iiae aeaenoaeai aeiiieieoaeueiiai iioiea ieaciu i?ienoiaeeo ia?ano?ieea i?eeaoiaeiuo i?ioeannia, i?eaiaeyuay e iiyaeaieth aeeooociie ciiu eiioaeoa aniiiiaaoaeueiie e iniiaiie aeoae n eaoiaeii e niinianoaothuay aeeeoaeueiie ?aaioa ieaciaiiiai eaoiaea n ieaciio?iiaie i?e neea oiea iniiaiie aeoae a ianeieueei eeeiaiia?. Yenia?eiaioaeueii auyaeaia iaeanoue aeeooociie i?eaycee iniiaiie aeoae, ia?acothuaeny aneaaenoaea iaiaeeiaeiauo oaiaaioeeaeueiuo nei?inoae ano?a/iuo iioieia aeiiieieoaeueiiai e ?aai/aai aacia, e iieo/aia yiie?e/aneay caaeneiinoue, iicaieythuay ii?aaeaeeoue aeeeio eaiaea ieaciaiiiai eaoiaea. Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo iaiauaia e i?aaenoaaeaia a aeaea iaiauaiiuo a?aoeeia e oaeiaiuo aeey eniieueciaaiey a eiaeaia?iie i?aeoeea e?eoa?eaeueiuo o?aaiaiee aeey ?an/aoa iai?yaeaiey, iai?yaeaiiinoe yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey ia o/anoea ieaciaiiiai eaoiaea e ia aiiaeiii o/anoea aeoae, oaieiaiai EIAe ?ac?aaioaiiie na?ee ieaciio?iiia. Aiaeeoe/anee iieo/aia oai?aoe/aneay oi?ioea, iicaieythuay n iia?aoiinoueth picscalex100010009000003a00000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02800160011200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffe0ffffff20010000600100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000200010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002 040000002d01000009000000320a40013d0001000000b100d3001700000026060f002400 4d617468547970655555180002010102010a010286b100002c004a004d0000a0980f5a00 0a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02 000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001000003000000 000000004f0020 % ?ann/eouaaoue iai?yaeaiiinoue yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey a eaiaea ieaciaiiiai eaoiaea n eaieia?iui iioieii aaca n o/aoii aa caaeneiinoe io neeu oiea, oece/aneeo naienoa e ?anoiaea aaca, eceo/aiey e eciaiaiey ?aaeeona noieaa aeoae ii aai aeeeia. I?eaaaeaiu iaeioi?ua ?acoeueoaou i?aeoe/aneiai i?eiaiaiey ?ac?aaioaiiiai ieaciio?iia n ieaciaiiui eaoiaeii. Onoaiiaeaia yeiiiie/aneay oeaeaniia?aciinoue i?eiaiaiey aeaiiiai eeanna ieaciio?iiia aeey iieo/aiey aeeaeeeo acioiuo oaeia?aiee e ia?a?aaioee iaaeeoeeineeo, i?iiuoeaiiuo e oaa?aeuo auoiauo iooiaeia, aeia?aaa aeiiaiiiai aeoouey nauoa 1200–1400 iN, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeiu eae Oe?aeia, oae e Ei?aeaiee. Eeth/aaua neiaa: ieaciio?ii, ieacia, ?ano?n, EIAe, eaoiae, aiiae, naeoeee, oaeia?aiey, iooiaeu. AIIOAOe?ss Iaoioae O?aa Iona Aea?ea. ?ic?iaea oa aeine?aeaeaiiy aeniei?ano?niiai ieaciio?iia c ieaciiaei eaoiaeii.- ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe c? niaoe?aeueiino? 05.09.10 – aeaeo?ioa?i?/i? i?ioeane oa onoaiiaee.- O?ceei-oaoiieia?/iee ?inoeooo iaoae?a ? nieaa?a IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa i?enay/aia ?ic?iaoe? oa aeine?aeaeaiith aeniei?ano?niiai ieaciio?iia c ieaciiaei eaoiaeii. Aeey ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy ?ano?no ?iaioe eaoiaea iiooaeiino?oiiaeo no?oieiieo ieaciio?ii?a, ye? i?aoeththoue ia aa?aneaieo ?iai/eo aacao, aia?oa aoei noai?aii ieaciio?ii c aeiaeaoeiaei iioieii ieacie, yeee aieeaaa ia i?eeaoiaeio ae?eyieo aeoae e caaacia/oaaa oeei oiiae aeey aeeoocii? i?ea'ycee iniiaii? aeoae (ieaciiaee eaoiae). O ?iaio? iiaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue: aeaeo?e/i?, oaieia? oa a?ic?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee, a oaeiae oai?aoe/i? caeaaeiino?, ye? aeicaieythoue ?ic?aooaaoe ieaciiaee eaoiae. Cia/ia /anoeia aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ocaaaeueiaia ? iiaeaia o aeaeyae? ocaaaeueiaieo a?ao?e?a ? e?eoa??aeueieo ??aiyiue, c?o/ieo aeey aeei?enoaiiy a ?iaeaia?i?e i?aeoeoe?. Onoaiiaeaia aeiiii?/ia aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy oeueiai eeano ieaciio?ii?a aeey iaea?aeaiiy ??aeeeo acioieo aeia?ea oa ia?a?iaethaaiiy iaaee/ieo, i?iieneiaeo oa oaa?aeeo iiaooiaeo a?aeoiae?a, iaiao?aeieo ye aeey Oe?a?ie, oae ? aeey Ei?aeai?? Eeth/ia? neiaa: ieaciio?ii, ieacia, ?ano?n, EEAe, eaoiae, aiiae, naeoe??, aeia?eaa, a?aeoiaee. SUMMERY Mahmoud Tiab Mussa Akailah. The development and investigation of the highly productive plasmatrone with plasmic cathode. Typescript. The thesis for a scientific degree of Candidate of science (Ph. D.) is submitted on the speciality 05.09.10 – the electrothermal processes and installations. Physical and Technological Institute of Metals and Alloys of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev, 1999. The thesis deals with the elaboration and the investigation of the high service life plasmotrons. In order to find out the cathode resort work in a highly precision stringed plasmatrone working on aggressive gases for the first time the plasmatrone with the additional plasma current was made up. It influences the near-up cathode place of the arc and provides the conditions for a diffusion attachment of the main arc (the plasmic cathode). The thesis gives the results of the experimental work: electrical, thermal and erosion characteristics as well as theoretical dependence's which allow to rate at the plasmic cathode. The essential part of the experimental data is summed up and presented in a form of generalised tables, schemes and criterial equations suitable for engineering practice. This type of a plasmotrone is economically useful for making up of fluid nitrogen fertilisers and converting medical, industrial and hard house-hold wastes necessary for Ukraine as well as Jordan. Key words: plasmatrone, plasma, resort, efficiency, cathode, anode, sections, fertilisers, wastes.

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