Aeiiaoeueeee

aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao

Ai?ceo Aiaoie?e Ieeeiiae/

OAeE 622.268.2: 622.031.2
(477 61/.62)

?ic?iaea niinia?a ioi?iie i?aeaioia/eo

ae?iaie i?e a?aei?aoethaaii? iieiaeo

aoa?eueieo ieano?a no?aeiiai ?aa?iio

Oe?a?inueeiai Aeiiaano

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.15.02 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 “I?aecaiia
?ic?iaea ?iaeiaeu

Ei?enieo eiiaeei”

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Aeiiaoeuee SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 1998

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Aeiiaanueeiio a??ie/i-iaoaeo?a?eiiio ?inoeooo?
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee
Oe?a?ie, i?ioani?, aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, Aeiiaanueeee
a??ie/i-iaoaeo?a?eiee ?inoeooo, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e (i.Ae/aanuee)

Eeoaeinueeee

Aa???

A?eai?iae/

SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, aieiaiee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee iaoeiai? /anoeie (i.Aeiiaoeuee)

Iaceiei

A?eoi?

A?eoi?iae/

SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, oaooa
“Cao?aeii-Aeiiaanueea” AI “Iaaeia?aaeaoa?eey”, aee?aeoi? oaooe
(i.Iaaeia?aae) Oae?iaiaeee

TH??e

Ieoaeeiae/

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 ?inoeooo
aaioaoi?/ii? iaoai?ee IAI Oe?a?ie (i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “_13__”___eenoiiaaea_________1998?. i _12
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 11.052.05 o
Aeiiaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 340000,
i. Aeiiaoeuee, aoe. A?oaia, 58

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Aeiiaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_29_”___aa?aniy_________1998?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? a/aii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? I.?. Oaaoeia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Aoa?eueia i?iieneia?noue SYMBOL 45 \f
«Symbol» \s 12 iniiaiee neeaaeiee iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno
Oe?a?ie. Iiaeaeueoa i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? i?aecaiiiai aoaeaaeaeiaooeo
iaiiaeeeaa aac oaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/eo oa oi?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo
oaoiieia?e, niinia?a ? cania?a aaaeaiiy a??ie/eo ?ia?o.

O Aeiiaoeueeiio aanaei? ?c ca?eueoaiiyi aeeaeie ?ic?iaee aoa?eueieo
ieano?a iaei??th c iaea?eueo aeooaeueieo caeeoa?oueny i?iaeaia
caaacia/aiiy caa?aaeaiiy ieanoiaeo i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaie, ye?
i?aeeyaathoue aieeao i/enieo ?ia?o. Ia iieiaeo ieanoao ?o i?ioyaei?noue
noaiiaeoue 70-80% a?ae on?o i?aeo?eioaaieo i?aecaiieo a??ie/eo ae?iaie.
Iacaaaeath/e ia ca?eueoaiiy aeo?ao ia ?aiiio ae?iaie, noai ?o ia oaooao
Aeiiaano ia iie?ioo?oueny, ? ia?an?/ii 13% c ieo ca i?ioyaei?noth ia
a?aeiia?aeathoue aenieoaoaoe?eiei aeiiaai. Inoaii?i /anii ie?aneeeanue
oaiaeaioe?y c?inoaiiy oeueiai iaaaoeaiiai iieacieea. Caaaeii ia oaooao
Oe?a?inueeiai Aeiiaano ui?ieo ?aiiioo?oueny ? ia?ae??ieth?oueny 1.5
SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 2 oen.ei ae?iaie (10-12% caaaeueii? ?o
i?ioyaeiino?). O?oaeii?noe?noue ?ia?o c oo?eiaiiy ae?iaie ia 1000o
aeiaooiai aoa?eey noaiiaeoue i?eaeecii 60 ethaeeii-ci?i ca aeineoue
iecueeiai ??aiy ?o iaoai?caoe?? 1.5-3%. C iaeyaeo ia oea caeeoa?oueny
aeooaeueiith i?iaeaia aeine?aeaeaiue neeaaeieo aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a,
ui a?aeaoaathoueny iaaeiei i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaie, aeey oaeineiiaeaiiy
?nioth/eo ? a?aeiaeaeaiiy iiaeo ?ano?nicaa??aath/eo niinia?a ? cania?a
?o ioi?iie oa i?aeo?eiaiiy.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?ic?iaee ieanoiaeo ?iaeiaeu
AeAI? o iaaeao ??oaiiy aaeocaai? i?iaeaie oaeineiiaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaee
iiaeo oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a oa cania?a ioi?iie e i?aeo?eiaiiy ae?iaie
ia aeeaieeo aoa?eueieo oaooao. Iiia?e aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? oai, aeeiiaieo
ca ieaiaie eieeoiueiai I?iaoaeai?iio O?N?, oae?: 74064869, 75033045,
76013287, 81017657, 01820074223, 01860106604, 01880012734, 01890025660,
01910014982.

Iaoa ?iaioe SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 ?ic?iaea oa oi?iaaaeaeaiiy
iiaeo aoaeoeaieo niinia?a oa cania?a ioi?iie ieanoiaeo i?aeaioia/eo
ae?iaie i?e a?aei?aoethaaii? iieiaeo aoa?eueieo ieano?a a oiiaao oaoo
no?aeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?inueeiai Aeiiaano.

?aeay ?iaioe iieyaa? o aeei?enoaii? i?aeaeuaiiai a?aeii?o ioi?iiieo
eiino?oeoe?e oa noai?aii? o ai?uath/?e oiau? eieaeueieo cii
?icaaioaaeaiiy aeey caaacia/aiiy no?eeino? ieanoiaeo ae?iaie, ui
i?aeeyaathoue aeoeaiiio aieeaia? i/enieo ?ia?o.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe a ?iaio?
aeei?enoaii eiiieaeniee iaoiae aeine?aeaeaiiy, yeee aeeth/a?
ocaaaeueiaiiy iaoeiaeo caeiaooe?a oa ae?iaie/iai aeina?aeo, aiae?oe/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy, eaai?aoi?i? aei?iaoaaiiy oa
oaooi? ?ino?oiaioaeuei? niinoa?aaeaiiy, noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo aeaieo,
nenoaiii-eia?/iee oa oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iee aiae?ce, i?iieneia?
aei?iaoaaiiy ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy niinia?a ioi?iie ae?iaie.

Iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, ?ic?iaeai? iniaenoi caeiaoaa/ai, ye? aeiinyoueny ia
caoeno, oa ?o iiaecia.

1. Aia?oa aeey oiia oiieeo iieiaeo ieano?a no?aeiiai ?aa?iio
Oe?a?inueeiai Aeiiaano onoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue e?eoa??th iaaaethaaiino?
ii??ae iie??ae? o eaaao a?ae noeoiiiai aieeao iiooaeiino? ? /a?aoaaiiy
ii?iaeieo oa??a, eiao?oe??ioo ?o i?oeiino? oa u?eueiino? i?e?iaeii?
o??ueioaaoino?. Aaee/eia eiai aeey aaaeeiiaaaethaaieo ? aaeueie
aaaeeiiaaaethaaieo iie??aaeue ci?ith?oueny a?aeiia?aeii o iaaeao 0.1
SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 0.3 oa 0.31 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12
0.65; i?e oeueiio ?c c?inoaiiyi /eneiaiai cia/aiiy e?ie ia??iaee/iiai
in?aeaiiy iie??ae? ca?eueoo?oueny ca ia?aaie?/iith caeaaei?noth.
Onoaiiaeaii ?noioiee aieea e?ieo iaaaethaaiino? iie??ae? ia aaee/eio
iaeneiaeueiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui ni?eeia?oueny nii?oaeaeaieie o ae?iaoe?
ioi?iiieie iii?aie.

2. I?e ci?i? oaeaeeino? iinoaaiiy eaae o iaaeao 1.7 SYMBOL 45 \f
«Symbol» \s 12 12.6 i / aeia. o ieanoia?e ae?iaoe?, i?aeo?eioaai?e o
cii? oei/aniaiai iii?iiai oeneo, onoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue ci?ie
oaeaeeino? ci?uaiue ?? ii?iaeiiai eiioo?o a?ae aaee/eie aeiaiaiai
i?enei?aiiy iinoaaiiy eaae.

3. Iaoo?ieie niinoa?aaeaiiyie onoaiiaeaii iaoai?ci ni?eeiyooy oeneo
in?aeath/eo ii??ae nii?oaeaeaieie a?ey ae?iaee ioi?iiieie iii?aie
iaiaaeaii? iiaeaoeeaino? ca ??aiii??ii? aeiaiai? oaeaeeino? iinoaaiiy
eaae, yeee iieyaa? o ni?eeiyoo? iaeneiaeueiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
a?aenoai? 30 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 80 i a?ae aeaith eaae, aeae?
i?ney i?eo iaaaioaaeaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny ?? iinooiiaa cieaeaiiy a 1.1
SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 1.8 ?aca, ? ianoa? noaa?e?caoe?y oeneo ia
ioi?iii? iii?e. ??aaiue ciaioaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ioi?iii? iii?e
caeaaeeoue a?ae oa?aeoa?o ? aenioe iaaaeaiiy ii??ae iie??ae? oa
a?aenoai? a?ae e?iiee aoa?eueiiai ianeao aei i?noey iiaiiai c?ieiaiiy
ii??ae iie??ae? e i?aeioae o ae?iaeaiiio i?inoi?? eaae.

4. Onoaiiaeaii eineioni?aeaeueiee ?iciiae?e ocaeiaae ae?iaee
aeiaeaoeiaiai oeneo ii??ae aaaeeiiaaaethaaii? iie??ae? ia nii?oaeaeai?
ioi?iii? iii?e; i?e oeueiio aaee/eia oaeiai oeneo (i?eaaioaaeaiiy)
coiiaey?oueny iiooaei?noth ii??ae aaaeeiiaaaethaaii? iie??ae? ?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi aeiaaeeie e?ioeaai? ae?eyiee eaae aei e?ieo iaaaeaiiy
iie??ae?. sseui e?ie iaaaeaiiy iie??ae? noaiiaeoue iiiaae 20 i, a
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 1.2 ? a?eueoa,
nii?oaeaeai? a?ey ae?iaee iii?e ni?eeiathoue iiaoi?iee oene, aaee/eia
yeiai ia ii?yaeie iaioa.

5. Aenia?eiaioaeueii a iaoo?ieo oiiaao onoaiiaeaii ci?io /anoioe
(u?eueiino?) o??uei a?ae a??nueeiai oeneo a ii?iaeao iie??ae? ieanoa
aenioith aei 2 i, ui i?eeyaathoue aei ae?iaee c aieo ianeao aoa?eey, yea
aeyaey?oueny a aeniiiaioe?aeueiiio ciaioaii? e?eueeino? o??uei ia 1i ia
a?aenoai? aei 14 i ii iaieanooaaiith a?ae e?iiee ianeao; i?e oeueiio
/anoioa o??uei ci?ith?oueny a?ae 20 aei 2.

6. I?e ioi?ii? c aieo eaae ieanoiai? ae?iaee nia?aieie ? iiae?eaieie
?icaaioaaeiith ii?iaeieiith (i?in?eii) oe?eeeaie aoa?eey ?ice?eoi
iniaeeaino? iaoai?cio ?o aca?iiae?? c oi?uath/eie ii?iaeaie, ye?
aeyaeythoueny, ii-ia?oa, o ?oeioaaii? oe?eeea oe?eiith 2 SYMBOL 45 \f
«Symbol» \s 12 4i, ui aaciina?aaeiuei i?eeyaa? aei ae?iaee, ii-ae?oaa,
o ni?eeiyoo? aoa?eeyi, ui ciaoiaeeoueny o iicaa?aie/iiio noai?, oeneo
in?aeath/eo ii??ae iie??ae? aiaeia?/ii nii?oaeaeaiith c iiia?aaei?i
?icii?ii ooo/iith aooiaith nioaith. Oaeee iaoai?ci aca?iiae?? ?noioii
ciaioo? o ae?iaoe? aaee/eio aa?oeeaeueieo caeeaeaiue ii??ae iie??ae? oa
i?aeioae, i?e oeueiio c?inoaiiy ai?eciioaeueieo ci?uaiue ii??ae eiioo?o
eiiiaino?oueny e??ieaiiyi ? ii?iaeieiaie i?inoi?o ca e??ieaiiyi.

7. Aiae?oe/ii iaa?oioiaaii oa aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeaii
?noioiee aieea eooa iaoeeo a?aen?/ieo naa?aeeiaei aei ieiueie
iaieanooaaiiy ai?uath/i? oiau? ia aoaeoeai?noue ciai?oeithaaiiy
ca?yaeaie A? ii??ae aaaeeiiaaaethaaii? iie??ae?: ?c ciaioaiiyi eooa
iaoeeo c?inoa? aieea aeaooo ca?yae?a ia ioi/oth/? ii?iaee; iaeneiaeueiee
aieea aeaooo aeinyaa?oueny ca oiiae ?icoaooaaiiy naa?aeeiaeiiiai ca?yaeo
a ieiuei? iaieanooaaiiy, o oa?? neaaeeo ii??ae ? ia a?aenoai? ia a?eueoa
0.5i a?ae eiioaeoo c i?oeiei oa?ii.

Iaa?oioiaai?noue ? aeinoia??i?noue iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue, aeniiae?a oa
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny ia?aeiieeaei ? aeinoaoi?i ianyaii
iaoo?ieo aei??thaaiue i?iya?a a??nueeiai oeneo ai?iaiaaieie iaoiaeaie a
70 eaaao oa 32 i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaeao; cai??aie ia’?io a?aeeieueii?
ai?iiee a ono? 49 i?ae??aaieo naa?aeeiaei ia?aaeiaiai oi?iaaeoaaiiy
aaaeeiiaaaethaaii? iie??ae?; canoinoaaiiyi iaoiae?a iaoaiaoe/iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy, iaoai?ee nooe?eueiiai na?aaeiaeua oa noaoenoe/iith
ia?iaeith aeaieo; caaeia?eueiei ca?aii i?iaiiciaaieo oa oaeoe/ieo
ia?aiao??a (?ica?aeiino? aeecueei 30 %); ?acoeueoaoaie i?iieneiaeo
aei?iaoaaiue oa oi?iaaaeaeaiiy niinia?a ioi?iie i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaie, ui
i?aeeyaathoue aieeao i/enieo ?ia?o.

Iaoeiaa cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? o a?eueo iiaiiio ?ice?eoo? iniaeeainoae
oa caeiiii??iinoae i?io?eaiiy aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a o ?ic?iaeai?e
oiau? i?e aeeiaii? aoa?eey eaaaie ? iayaiino? o iie??ae?
a?aei?aoeueiaoaaieo ieano?a aaaeeiiaaaethaaieo ? aaeueie
aaaeeiiaaaethaaieo ii??ae. Iaa?oioiaaii e?eoa??e e?euee?nii? ioe?iee
iaaaethaaiino? ii??ae iie??ae? o eaaao. Onoaiiaeaii aieea aeiaiaiai
i?enei?aiiy iinoaaiiy eaae ia ?ioaineai?noue ci?uaiue ii??ae eiioo?o
ieanoiai? ae?iaee, i?aeo?eioaaii? o cii? oei/aniaiai iii?iiai oeneo.
?ice?eoi iniaeeaino? iaoai?cio aieeao ia??iaee/ieo in?aeaiue
aaaeeiiaaaethaaii? iie??ae? o eaa? ia oi?ioaaiiy oa ci?io iaaaioaaeaiiy,
ui ni?eeia?oueny nii?oaeaeaieie ocaeiaae ae?iaee ioi?iiieie
eiino?oeoe?yie. An? oe? iniaeeaino? oa caeiiii??iino? cnoiaiiy ii??ae
?ic?iaeaii? oiau? ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe i?e aeai?? ? iaa?oiooaaii?
?ic?aooieiaeo noai aeey aecia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a ioi?iiieo
eiino?oeoe?e ae?iaie, ye? i?aeo?eiothoue o cii? aeoeaiiai aieeao i/enieo
?ia?o. Iaoiae ?ic?aooieo naa?aeeiaeiieo ca?yae?a A? aeicaiey?
i?iaiicoaaoe ??aaiue ciai?oeithaaiiy aaaeeiiaaaethaaieo oa??a ii??ae
iie??ae? i?e aaaeaii? i/enieo ?ia?o ? ioi?ii? ae?iaie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe? cania?a ? iaoiae?a
?iaeaia?iiai ?ic?aooieo ia?aiao??a ioi?iie ae?iaie c aieo eaae ooo/ieie
eiino?oeoe?yie (iii?aie) ?c ca??iiai cae?ciaaoiio, nia?aieie
iiaeaoeeaeie oe?eeeaie aoa?eey, i?e i?iaaaeaii? ae?iaie one?ae ca eaaith
ai?en?/eo aei ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o; ?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y
ciai?oeithaaiiy no?oeoo?ii-iaiaeii??aeii? aaaeeiiaaaethaaii? iie??ae?
i?ae?eaaiiyi ca?yae?a A? o oa?iaeo naa?aeeiaeiao. Iiaecia niinia?a,
cania?a oa oaoiieia?e ioi?iie ae?iaie caoeuaia 13 aaoi?nueeeie
na?aeioeoaaie ia aeiaoiaee, iaeiei iaoaioii.

?aae?caoe?y aeniiae?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ?iaioe.Niin?a ioi?iie ieanoiaeo
ae?iaie eiino?oeoe?yie ?c cae?ciaaoiiieo aeie?a oi?iaaaeaeaiee o 89
ae?iaeao 26 oaoo 10 ae?iaie/eo ia’?aeiaiue c aeiiii?/iei aoaeoii 694,4
oen. ea?aiaaioe?a ( ooo ? aeae? a oe?iao aei 1985?.). Ioi?iia ae?iaie
nia?aieie iiaeaoeeaeie oe?eeeaie aoa?eey oi?iaaaeaeaia o 7 ae?iaeao
aeaio oaoo ia’?aeiaiiy “?iaaiueeeaio?aoeeo” c aeiiii?/iei aoaeoii 169.85
oen. ea?aiaaioe?a, oeyoii ?o i?iaaaeaiiy oi?en?/eo aei ae?iaeaiiai
i?inoi?o one?ae ca eaaith SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 ia oaoo?
“*a?aiiee ia?oecai” ia’?aeiaiiy “Naa?aeeiaaio?aoeeo” (o?e ae?iaee) c
aeiiii?/iei aoaeoii 144.15 oen. ea?aiaaioe?a.

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeeth/ai? o aaeocaa? ii?iaoeai? aeieoiaioe
eieeoiueiai I?iaoaeai?iio N?N?: I?ia?aneai? ianii?oe e??ieaiiy ioi?iie ?
i?aeo?eiaiiy i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaie i?e aacoe?eeeia?e oaoiieia??
a?aei?aoethaaiiy aoa?eueieo ieano?a. SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 E.:
AIAeI?, 1985. SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 112n. (ianii?o 12);
?ino?oeoe?y ii aeai?o niiniao oa ia?aiao??a ciai?oeithaaiiy iie??ae? ia
ae?ieiaeo ae?eueieoeyo. SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 E.: AIAeI?, 1991.
SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 102n. (n. 19, 59, 77).

Iaoeia? oa i?eeeaaei? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeei?enoiaothoueny o
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? i?e i?aeaioiaoe? niaoe?ae?no?a a??ie/iai i?io?eth.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iaaiai?thaaeenue ?
ae?noaee noaaeaiiy ia ui??/ieo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo AeAI?
(Ae/aanuee, 1975-1996), ia oaoi?/ieo ?aaeao ia’?aeiaiue
“Eoaainueeaoa?eey” (1982) oa “?iaaiueeeaio?aoeeo” (1985), ia can?aeaiiyo
naeoe?e a??nueeiai oeneo ? a??nueeeo oaea??a AIAeI? (Eai?ia?aae, 1987),
a??nueeiai oeneo ?AN ?i. I.I.Nei/einueeiai (Ethaa?oe?, 1988) ?
i?iaeoiiai ?inoeoooo “Eoaainueeae?i?ioaoo” (Eoaainuee, 1988).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iaoeia? ? i?eeeaaei? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai?
o 45 iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo, a oiio /ene? SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 13
aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoa ? 1 iaoaio. Iniaenoi aaoi?ii iioae?eiaaii 6
iaoeiaeo noaoae ? 1 iaoaio.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeth/a? anooi, 5
?icae?e?a, aeniiaie , nienie iineeaiue c 299 iaeiaioaaiue; i?noeoue 75
?ethno?aoe?e, 43 oaaeeoe?. Caaaeueiee ?? ianya 367 noi??iie.

Aaoi? aaey/iee i?io., aeieoi?o oaoi. iaoe I.I. Cai?ueeo ca iino?eio
oaaao aei ?iaioe ? iaaeaio iaoeiai-i?eeeaaeio eiinoeueoaoeaio aeiiiiiao
a oiae? ?? aeeiiaiiy; ni?a?ia?oieeai eaai?aoi??? ioi?iie ? i?aeo?eiaiiy
i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaie aeeaieeo oaoo AeAI? ca aeiiiiiao o aeeiiaii?
oaooieo aeine?aeaeaiue; i?aoe?aieeai aoa?eueieo oaoo no?aeiiai ?aa?iio
Oe?a?inueeiai Aeiiaano ca ni?eyiiy ? aeiiiiiao i?e oi?iaaaeaeaii?
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue; i?io., aeieoi?o oaoi. iaoe O.I. Aineiai?ao
ca iaoiaee/io ? i?aeoe/io aeiiiiiao i?e i?iaaaeaii? iaoo?ieo
niinoa?aaeaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

I?iaeaia caa?aaeaiiy no?eeino? ae?iaie, ye? i?eeyaathoue aei i/enieo
aeai?a, i?e ?ic?iaoe? aoa?eueieo ieano?a iino?eii ciaoiaeeoueny o
oeaio?? oaaae a?o/eciyii? ? ca?oa?aeii? a??ie/i? iaoee ? oaoi?ee.
Aeinyaiaiiy o ?ica’ycaii? oe??? i?iaeaie aaaaoi a /iio aecia/athoueny
iniiaieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie AeiiOA?, AIAeI?, ?AN ?i. I. I. Nei/einueeiai,
?AOI AI Oe?a?ie, AeA?, AeI?, IA?, EA? oa ?io. ?noioiee aianie o
aeine?aeaeaiiy ??cieo aniaeo?a oeacaii? i?iaeaie aianee I.I.Aaaeei,
A.?.Aa?aiianueeee, I.I. Aaoo?i, A.O. Aeooei, A.N. Ae?iaiooaei,
I.I.Cai?uee, TH.C. Caneaanueeee, E.A.Eioae?a, A. E?aiia?, N. I.
Eeieiae/, A.A.Eeoaeinueeee, I. ?. Iaeueieeia, A. E. Naeacaiue, ss.
Oa?ia?, A. E. O?naiei, ?.E.*a?iye, ?. ?. Oaiye?i, A. Aaa?e?ia, I.
sseia? oa ?io?. C?inoaiiy aeeaeie ?ic?iaee ? iia’ycai? c oeei iia??oaiiy
a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieo oiia iino?eii aenoaathoue iia? aeiiae, iia’ycai? c
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiyi, aei ioi?iie ieanoiaeo i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaie, ye?
i?aeeyaathoue aeoeaiiio aieeao i/enieo ?ia?o.

Ia?oee ?icae?e ?iaioe i?enay/aiee aiae?co noaio ioi?iie ieanoiaeo
ae?eueie/ieo ae?iaie oa aeinyaiaiiyi a??ie/i? aaiiaoai?ee uiaei
caa?aaeaiiy ?o no?eeino?.

Ia oaooao Aeiiaano ieanoia? ae?ieia?, i?aeaioiaethth/? ae?iaee
noaiiaeyoue a?aeiia?aeii i?eaeecii 50 ? 20% a?ae ?o caaaeueii?
i?ioyaeiino?. Oiiae ioi?iie ? i?aeo?eiee oeeo ae?iaie oneeaaeiththoueny
?c ca?eueoaiiyi aeeaeie ?ic?iaee (ia?an?/ii 8i ia ??e). Oi?iaaaeaeaiiy
aacoe?eeeiai? oaoiieia?? ioi?iie aei e?ioey n?iaeanyoeo ?ie?a
noinoaaeinue caeaa?eueoiai ae?ieiaeo ae?iaie. I?aeaioiaethth/? ae?iaee
ioi?iiythoueny oe?ieeie oe?eeeaie (aeecueei 88%). ?c c?inoaiiyi aeeaeie
?ic?iaee i?inoaaeo?oueny oaiaeaioe?y ca?eueoaiiy oe?eie ioi?iiieo
oe?eee?a, ui ia caaaeaee aeioe?eueii c oi/ee ci?o caiuaaeaeaiiy. O ?yae?
aeiaaee?a i?e ieanoia?e i?aeaioiaoe? iaieio/a canoinoaaiiy ioi?iiieo
oe?eee?a, ioaea, aeieea? iio?aaa ciaioaiiy ?o oe?eie ? caa?aaeaiiy
iaeaaeii? no?eeino? ae?iaie.

O no?aeiiio ?aa?ii? Oe?a?inueeiai Aeiiaano a?aei?aoeueiaothoueny
caeaa?eueoiai oiie? iieia? ieanoe aenieiiaoaii?o?ciaaiiai aoa?eey ia?ie
O, IA ? A, ai?uath/? ii?iaee yeeo a?eueo i?oei? i?ioe ieano?a ieae/iai
nooiaiy eaoaaaiaco. Ca?aeii c ?nioth/eie aeine?aeaeaiiyie i?oei?noue
iaeieo ? oeo aea ii??ae c?inoa? ?c ca?eueoaiiyi aeeaeie ?ic?iaee. O
oaeeo oiiaao ii?iaee iie??ae? o eaa? a?eueoith i??ith caeaoi? aei
caaenaiiy ? iathoue aaeeeee e?ie iaaaeaiiy. sseui o i?ae?iaethaai?e
oiau? iaaeoi i?oei? oa?e ii??ae iiooaei?noth iiiaae 3i caeyaathoue ia
a?aenoai? iae ieanoa iaioa 5-e?aoii? eiai iiooaeiino?, oi aiie
ooai?ththoue aaaeeiiaaaethaai? iie??ae?. Oaeeie a ia’?aeiaiiyo
“Eene/ainueeaoa?eey” oa “E?aniiaeiiaoa?eey” ? ieanoe a?aeiia?aeii e8 oa
e2 (ia?ee aoa?eey A ? E), iie??ae? yeeo yaeythoue niaith oa? iaaeoi
i?oeiiai aaiiyea. O e?oa?aoo?? iaia? e?euee?niiai e?eoa??th, yeei iiaeia
aoei a noa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iiaaae?ieo aaaeeiiaaaethaaii? iie??ae? noiniaii
oiia Aeiiaano.

Aia?oa oaooi? aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ia??iaee/ieo in?aeaiue iaeiioa?iai?
aaaeeiiaaaethaaii? iie??ae? ia ae?ieia? ae?iaee aoee i?iaaaeai? a e?ioe?
n?iaeanyoeo ?ie?a ia oaooao ?ioeinueeiai ?iaeiaeua i?e ?ic?iaoe?
aoa?eueieo ieano?a na?aaeiuei? iiooaeiino? ia iaaaeee?e aeeaei?. Iaeiae
oeeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie iiai?noth ia ?ice?eoee iaoai?ci aieeao
ia??iaee/ieo in?aeaiue aaaeeiiaaaethaaii? iie??ae? ia no?ee?noue
ioi?iiieo iii? ? i?aeaioia/i? ae?iaee, ui i?eeyaa? aei eaae. I?e oeueiio
ye caoeno i?aeo?eioaaii? ae?iaee a?ae aieeao ia??iaee/ieo in?aeaiue
iie??ae? cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a ?? a?aen?/ee ca?yaeaie A? o
aeia?aaeaeath/eo eaao iioeeeo naa?aeeiaeiao.

Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e iieacaa, ui a?aenooi? aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao eooa
iaoeeo naa?aeeiaei ia aoaeoeai?noue ciai?oeithaaiiy ii??ae
aaaeeiiaaaethaaii? iie??ae?.

A.TH. Ea?aeaeia (EAI?) o o?noaeanyo? ?iee ia iaaeeaieeo oaooao Aeiiaano
aeey ioi?iie ae?ieiaeo ae?iaie cai?iiiioaaa canoiniaoaaoe ye caoeni?
iii?e iaiaaeaii? iiaeaoeeaino? ooiae ?c ca??ieo cae?ciaaoiiieo aeie?a
(ACAO). Iaeiae a?aenooi?noue aeinoaoiueiai aaiiaoai?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy
iaoai?cio aca?iiae?? oeeo iii? c aieiaeie ii?iaeaie a oiiaao aeeaieeo
oaoo, iniaeeai i?e ia??iaee/ieo in?aeaiiyo aaaeeiiaaaethaaieo
iie??aaeue, no?eio? i?ioean ?icoe?aiiy noa?e canoinoaaiiy oeueiai
niiniao ioi?iie. ?noioiith aaaeith o canoinoaaii? ACAO ? a?aenooi?noue
cania?a iaoai?caoe?? aeey ?o onoaiiaeaiiy. Canoinoaaiiy aeey ioi?iie
ae?iaie eeoeo nioa c oaa?aeio/eo iaoa??ae?a, ye? iaeaea iiai?noth
aeeeth/athoue ?o/io i?aoeth, ia aeeoei ca iaae? aenia?eiaioo. I?e
ca?eueoaii? ?ioaineaiino? i?iya?a a??nueeiai oeneo ia e?ioeaa?e
ae?eyioe? eaae, iia’ycaii? ?c c?inoaiiyi aeeaeie ?ic?iaee, a oaeiae
ia??iaee/ieie in?aeaiiyie aaaeeiiaaaethaaieo iie??aaeue, aeineoue
i?iaeaiiei caeeoa?oueny noai?aiiy oaeaeeioaa?aeio/iai iaoa??aeo, yeee
caaacia/o? a?aeiia?aei? oaeaee?noue iaae?aiiy iii?o oa aei?noe?noue
eeoi? nioae. sse iieacaee aeine?aeii-i?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy, o ie?aieo
aeiaaeeao nii?oaeaeoaai? eeo? nioae, ye? o ia??iae aeoeaieo caeeaeaiue
aieiaeo ii??ae ia aeinyaathoue iaiao?aeieo iiaeaoeeaino? ? iii?o,
ia?aae/anii ?oeioaaeenue ?c ao?aoith no?eeino? ae?iaee, yea
ioi?iiy?oueny. Iaeiae ia iiaiith i??ith aea/ai? iniaeeaino? iaoai?cio ?
oa?aeoa?o ci?uaiue aieiaeo ii??ae ia e?ioeaa?e ae?eyioe? eaae, aea
ii/eia?oueny oi?ioaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy ia caaaeai? ooo/i? caoeni? iii?e.
I?e oeueiio ia aeineoue aea/aia ieoaiiy aeiionoeieo aaee/ei
iiaeaoeeaino? oa iii?o caoenieo iii? ia ??ci?e a?aenoai? a?ae eaae ?
ae?iaee, ui ioi?iiy?oueny, ye? caaacia/othoue ooieoe?th ??caeueii? iii?e
aeey iaaaethaaieo iie??aaeue. Iaia? aiae?oe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei
aecia/aiiy aieeao ia??iaee/ieo in?aeaiue aaaeeiiaaaethaaieo iie??aaeue
ia oe? caoeni? iii?e ? ae?iaeo, yea ioi?iiy?oueny ieie.

O a??ie/i-oaoi?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? noia?a/eeaith caeeoa?oueny ioe?iea
aieeao ie?aieo /eiiee?a ia ?ioaineai?noue ci?uaiiy eiioo?o ae?ieiaeo
ae?iaie. An? aaoi?e iioaa?aeaeothoue, ui ?c ca?eueoaiiyi oaeaeeino?
iinoaaiiy eaae ?ioaineai?noue ci?uaiue eiioo?o cieaeo?oueny, a
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia caoeni? iii?e iino?eii c?inoa?. Iaiaeiicia/ii
o?aeoo?oueny iieiaeaiiy, ui ia e?ioeaa?e ae?eyioe? eaae ci?uaiiy ii??ae
iaio?, i?ae o ?? oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei?. Oae? aeniiaee c?iaeai? ca iaei?
e?eueeino? /eiiee?a, oiaoi aac a?aooaaiiy iniaeeainoae i?iya?a
a??nueeiai oeneo o eaa?, oa?aeoa?o ? o?eaaeino? cnoaaiiy i?ae?iaethaaii?
oiau?. O iaoo?ieo oiiaao ia onoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? ci?ie o /an?
caeeaeaiiy aieiaeo ii??ae ia e?iioe? aoa?eueiiai ianeao, nooi?iue
?oeioaaiiy ii??ae iie??ae? o cii? eiai i?e?iaeiiai ?icaaioaaeaiiy,
aeeaeia iioe?aiiy oe??? ciie.

? oai?aoe/i? aeieace, ui iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai ii??ae o
i?eeiioo?i?e /anoei? aoa?eueiiai ianeao caeaaeeoue a?ae e?ieo iaaaeaiiy
ii??ae iie??ae? ? iacieeaiiy ?? oa??a c i?aeioaith. Oe? aeniiaee ia
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny oaooieie niinoa?aaeaiiyie ? a?aoiaothoue iaiaaeaiee
ae?aiacii oiia. I?e oeueiio acaaae? ia i?eae?ey?oueny oaaaa ieoaiith
ci?ie o /an? aeiaaeeie caaeneeo i?ieueio?a iie??ae?.

C iaeyaeo ia oea aeey ?ice?eooy iiaiioe iaoai?cio aca?iiae?? iii?ieo
aeaiaio?a c aieiaeie ii?iaeaie ca ??cieo niinia?a ioi?iie ae?iaie
iaiao?aei? aeiaeaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? ioiieththoue oiiae ?aa?iio.

Niin?a ioi?iie ieanoiaeo ae?iaie i?iaaaeaiiyi ?o ai?en?/eo aei
ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o oni?oii canoiniao?oueny ca noiaiiai? nenoaie
?ic?iaee ia iaaeeaieeo oaooao ?, ye i?aaeei, ia ieanoao c iecueeei
nooiaiai eaoaaaiaco ai?uath/eo ii??ae (ia?ea aoa?eey A ? Ae). Ia
aeeaeiao iiiaae 700 i iaa?oue ca iayaiino? no?eeeo ai?uath/eo ii??ae
(ia?ea aoa?eey IA, A) caa?aaoe i?en?/io ae?iaeo iiia?aaeo eaae ia
a?aenoai? 30 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 40 i (o cii? noia?iiai
aeeiai?/iiai iii?iiai oeneo) i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai /a?ac aaeee? ci?uaiiy
eiioo?o ae?iaee ? iiaio aeaoi?iaoe?th e??ieaiiy. sseui i?en?/io ae?iaeo
i?ioiaeyoue one?ae ca eaaith, oi caeeoa?oueny ia aeineoue iiaii aea/aiei
iaoai?ci aca?iiae?? ioi?iiieo iii? ?c c?oeiiaaieie aieiaeie ii?iaeaie ia
iaae? noa?iai ? iiaiai ae?iaeaieo i?inoi??a. Cie?aia, iaia? /?oeeo
iaa?oiooaaiue aeai?o ia?aiao??a ?icoaooaaiiy i?en?/ii? ae?iaee, ia
onoaiiaeaiee ia??iae ?? aac?aiiioiiai i?aeo?eioaaiiy oiui.

A?aeii? o i?aeoeoe? ni?iae aeei?enoaoe aeey ioi?iie ae?eueie/ieo
ae?iaie niiniae ?icaaioaaeaiiy oe?eee?a aai i?eeiioo?ii? /anoeie
aoa?eueiiai ianeao ca aeiiiiiaith naa?aeeiaei, u?eei, i?ae?eaaiiy
eiiooeaioieo oio?iaeo ca?yae?a A?, ye i?aaeei, ia ni?aaeythoue
iiceoeaiiai aieeao ia caa?aaeaiiy no?eeino? i?aeo?eioaaieo ae?iaie.
I?e/eia a oiio, ui iayai?noue iaeeo ?icaaioaaeoaaeueieo ii?iaeiei o
caeiioo?iiio i?inoi?? ae?iaee ia iiaea eiiiainoaaoe ?ioaineaieo ci?uaiue
ii??ae eiioo?o, aeeeeeaieo aieeaii i/enieo ?ia?o.

Ia i?aenoaa? aeeeaaeaiiai aeua noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa ?iaioe ? aecia/ai?
oae? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

1. Aea/eoe iniaeeaino? no?oeoo?e, aeanoeainoae ? iaaaethaaiino? ii??ae
iie??ae? o eaaao, onoaiiaeoe nooi?iue ? oa?aeoa? aieeao ia??iaee/ieo
in?aeaiue aaaeeiiaaaethaaii? iie??ae? ia aaee/eio iaaaioaaeaiue, yeo
ni?eeiathoue ioi?iii? eiino?oeoe??, nii?oaeaeai? c aieo eaae ocaeiaae
i?aeo?eioaaii? ieanoiai? ae?iaee.

2. Aea/eoe caeiiii??iino? cnoaaiue ? ci?uaiue ai?uath/eo ii??ae ia
e?ioeaa?e ae?eyioe? eaae i?e i?aeo?eioaai?e ae?iaoe? o cii? aieeao
i/enieo ?ia?o ca ci?iii? oaeaeeino? iinoaaiiy i/eniiai aeaith.

3. Iaa?oiooaaoe iiaeaeue oi?ioaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue ia nii?oaeaeai? a?ey
ieanoiai? ae?iaee ioi?iii? eiino?oeoe??, ca aeaieie iaoo?ieo
niinoa?aaeaiue aecia/eoe ?? ia?aiao?e/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeey ?ic?iaee
?iaeaia?iiai iaoiaeo ?ic?aooieo ni?eeiyoeo iaaaioaaeaiue, a oiio /ene? ?
c o?aooaaiiyi ia??iaee/ieo in?aeaiue aaaeeiiaaaethaaii? iie??ae?.

4. ?ic?iaeoe iaoiae ?ic?aooieo ia?aiao??a ?icoaooaaiiy naa?aeeiaei aeey
oi?iaaeoaaiiy ? aoaeoeaiiai ciai?oeithaaiiy ii??ae aaaeeiiaaaethaaii?
iie??ae?, aecia/eoe i?e oeueiio ?aoe?iiaeuei? ia?aiao?e ?icoaooaaiiy
ae?iaie, ye? i?iaiaeyoueny ai?en?/eo aei ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o one?ae ca
iinoaaiiyi eaae.

5. I?e ioi?ii? c aieo eaae ieanoiaeo ae?iaie oe?eeeaie aoa?eey
a?aeiaeoe oeyoe ? niiniae ?icaaioaaeaiiy oe?eee?a a?ae i?aeaeuaiiai
a??nueeiai oeneo, caa??aath/e i?e oeueiio iaeaaeio no?ee?noue
i?aeo?eioaaieo ae?iaie oa ?noioii ciaiooth/e aenieoaoaoe?ei? ao?aoe
aoa?eey.

6. ?ic?iaeoe aoaeoeai? niiniae ioi?iie ieanoiaeo ae?iaie, ye?
caciathoue aeoeaiiai aieeao i/enieo ?ia?o, i?iaanoe ?o i?iieneia?
aei?iaoaaiiy ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia iieiaeo ieanoao no?aeiiai ?aa?iio
Oe?a?inueeiai Aeiiaano.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe oaooieo ?ino?oiaioaeueieo
niinoa?aaeaiue aieiaeo ii??ae o eaaao c aaaeeiiaaaethaaiith iie??aeath,
ia e?iioe? aoa?eueiiai aeaith eaa i?ney ?o inoaoi/ii? coieiee, a oaeiae
ia e?ioeaaeo ae?eyieao eaa ? o i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaeao, ye? aei ieo
i?eeyaathoue, aeey aecia/aiiy iniaeeainoae i?iya?a a??nueeiai oeneo o
aeuaaeacaieo ae?iaeao ? aeyaeaiiy nooiaiy aieeao iniiaieo /eiiee?a ia ?o
no?ee?noue. I?e oeueiio aeei?enoai? ?ic?iaeai? ca o/anoth aaoi?a iia?
iaoiaee oaooieo aei??thaaiue ?c canoinoaaiiyi i?aae??a IOO-1 oa
oioia?aiiao???, ye? aeicaieythoue o noeoiiino? c a?aeiieie iaoiaeaie
aecia/eoe a?aeiia?aeii ii??cii i?aeiyooy i?aeioae ? iioneaiiy iie??ae?,
ci?uaiiy eiioo?o ae?iaee, a oaeiae nooi?iue ?oeioaaiiy a?aeneiiaieo
iaaeiei ia? ii??ae oa aoa?eey.

Ia i?aenoaa? aea/aiiy no?oeoo?e aieiaeo ii??ae iieiaeo aoa?eueieo
ieano?a oaoo Aeiiaano onoaiiaeaii, ui iaeaea 83 % aaaeeiiaaaethaaieo
iie??aaeue neeaaeathoueny a?eueoa i?ae c aeaio oa??a ii??ae,
iaiaeii??aeieo ca e?oieia?/iei neeaaeii ? i?oei?noth. Iaiaeii??aei?noue
aoaeiae oeeo iie??aaeue ni?aaey? ?noioiee aieea ia ia??iaee/i?noue ?o
in?aeaiue o eaa?. Aeoiaey/e c aaiiaoai?/ieo iniia i?ioeano aeaoi?iaoe??
? ?oeioaaiiy a?aeneiiaiiai eaaith ianeao ii??ae iie??ae? o ae?iaeaiiio
i?inoi??, c?iaeee aeniiaie, ui ia??iaee/i?noue oeeo in?aeaiue coiiaeaia
a?aie/iith aeiaaeeiith eiinie? caaenaiiy aaaeeiiaaaethaaieo oa??a, oiaoi
e?ieii ?o iaaaeaiiy. Aaee/eia oeueiai e?ieo caeaaeeoue ianaiia?aae a?ae
iieiaeaiiy oeaio?o aaae iaaaethaaii? eiinie? iie??ae? oa iniiaieo
aeo?aeieo no?oeoo?ii-i?oei?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee oa??a, c yeeo aiia
neeaaea?oueny (iiooaeiino? ? iine?aeiaiino? ?o caeyaaiiy, eiao?oe??ioo
i?oeiino? oa u?eueiino?, o??ueioaaoino? ii??ae). Ca?aeii c
?ioa?i?aoaoe??th aoaeiae ianeao iie??ae? ? iiaeeea?noth o?eaei??ii?
nenoaie eii?aeeiao iia’ycaoe noeoiiee aieea aeuaaeacaieo ia?aiao??a
io?eiaia caeaaei?noue aeey aecia/aiiy oiiaiiai e?euee?niiai e?eoa??th
iaaaethaaiino? ii??ae iie??ae? a iaaeao ?? 20-iao?iai? oiau?. Aaee/eia
oeueiai e?eoa??th

, ?aae., (1)

,

,

(i);

SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 u?euei?noue ?o i?e?iaeii?
o??ueioaaoino? (i) i?e n SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 e?eueeino?
oa??a.

sseui u?euei?noue i?e?iaeii? o??ueioaaoino? iaa?aeiia, oi e?eoa??e
iaaaethaaiino? iie??ae? aecia/a?oueny ca aiaeia??th c (1):

, ?aae. (2)

SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 0.46 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12
0.64 oa 0.65 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 0.82.

) ia? o?niee ca’ycie c aeuaaeacaieie e?eoa??yie ii iaaaaeaieo
a?aeiia?aeieo caeaaeiinoyo:

, i. (4)

Ei?aeyoe?eia a?aeiioaiiy oa eiao?oe??io iaae?eiino? ca’yce?a (3, 4)
a?aeiia?aeii 0.86 oa 25; 0.82 oa 21.2. Ia i?aenoaa? noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee
oaooieo niinoa?aaeaiue onoaiiaeaii oaeiae, ui ca?eueoaiiy eooa cono??/?
i?ae e?i??th i/eniiai aeaith ? e?i??th i?inoyaaiiy ieiueie iniiaii?
i?e?iaeii? o??ueioaaoino? ii??ae ia 1i aea? i?e?iuaiiy e?ieo
ia??iaee/ieo in?aeaiue aaaeeiiaaaethaaii? iie??ae? a caeaaeiino? a?ae
eiai aaee/eie ia 0.12 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 0.37 i.

?ioaineai?noue ci?uaiue ii??ae iaaeiei i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaie, ye?
niieo/ai? c eaaith, ?noioii caeaaeeoue a?ae ci?ie oaeaeeino? ??
iinoaaiiy. Iaoo?ieie niinoa?aaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui ??ce? ia?aiaaee
oaeaeeino? iinoaaiiy eaae o iaaeao 1.7 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12
12.6 i / aeia. coiiaeththoue ??cio aeeiai?eo iaaaethaaiiy iie??ae? o
ae?iaeaiiio i?inoi??, yea ia? ?noioiee aieea ia aeeiai?eo ci?uaiiy
eiioo?o i?aeaioia/i? ae?iaee o aeia?aaeaeath/?e eaao cii? iii?iiai
oeneo. C o?aooaaiiyi aeiaiaiai i?enei?aiiy iinoaaiiy eaae ? i?enei?aiiy
ci?uaiue ii??ae o aeacai?e cii? ca iaaiee ia??iae /ano iaeiei ? oei aea
oiiaiei eooiaei ciaeici?iiei ia?aiao?ii io?eiaia ioe?iea oa?aeoa?o ?
nooiaiy aieeao oaeaeeino? iinoaaiiy eaae ia aeoeai?noue ci?uaiiy ii??ae
o i?eeyaath/?e aei ia? ae?iaoe?. I?e ci?iiiio o iaeneiaeueieo iaaeao
aeacaiiio ia?aiao?? a?ae SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 1.55 aei +
1.55 ?aae., eiee oaeaee?noue iinoaaiiy eaae eieeaa?oueny o iaaeao 1.7
SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 12.6 i / aeia., na?aaeiy eooiaa aaee/eia
iaocaiaeaeaiino? i?ioean?a, ye? ?icaeyaeathoueny, noaiiaeoue SYMBOL 45
\f «Symbol» \s 12 0.75 ?aae. ca /anoino? ??cieo ciae?a ia?aiao?a 0.53,
eiee SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 2.0 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12
7.5i/aeia. a?aeiia?aeii SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 +0.16 ?aae. ?
0.21. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui ca aaeeei? oaeaeeino? iinoaaiiy eaae
aieea ?? ia ?ioaineai?noue ci?uaiiy ii??ae o ae?iaoe? iaiaeiicia/iee.

Ca ocaiaeaeaiiai ?aaeeio aeeiai?ee ci?uaiiy ii??ae o i?aeaioia/?e
ae?iaoe? ? iinoaaiiy e?i?? i/eniiai aeaith (iaeiaeia? ciaee ia?aiao?a)
?c ca?eueoaiiyi aai ciaioaiiyi oaeaeeino? iinoaaiiy eaae oaeaee?noue
ci?uaiue ii??ae o i?aeaioia/?e ae?iaoe? iiia?aaeo eaae a?aeiia?aeii
ciaioo?oueny aai c?inoa?, ca iaocaiaeaeaiiai (ciaee ??ci?) SYMBOL 45 \f
«Symbol» \s 12 iaaiaee. Aaee/eia eooiai? iaocaiaeaeaiino? oeeo
?aaeei?a a?aeia?aaea? ?ioaineai?noue oeueiai caieaeaiiy aai c?inoaiiy.
I?e aaeeeeo oaeaeeinoyo iinoaaiiy i/eniiai aeaith oa ?o ia?aiaaeao, ui
aeeeeeathoue a?aie/ii iaocaiaeaeaiee ?aaeei, ioi?iia ae?iaie ooo/ieie
caoenieie iii?aie /a?ac aenieo ?ioaineai?noue ci?uaiiy a?aeneiiaieo
eaaith aieiaeo ii??ae iaaeioe?eueia ye c oaoi?/ii?, oae ? c aeiiii?/ii?
oi/ee ci?o.

Aeey onoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae ci?uaiue aieiaeo ii??ae ia e?ioeaaeo
ae?eyieao eaae, aea a?aeaoaa?oueny nii?oaeaeaiiy ioi?iiieo iii?, a
oaeiae aieeao iniiaieo /eiiee?a ia ?o aaee/eio, i?iaaaeai? oaooi?
?ino?oiaioaeuei? aei??thaaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith noiyea NOA-?? o 26 eaaao ca
??cieo oiia. I?e oeueiio cae?enithaaeinue ii??aiyiiy aaee/ei ci?uaiiy
aieiaeo ii??ae o na?aaei?e /anoei? eaae ? ?? e?ioeaa?e ae?eyioe? ia
a?aenoai? a?ae i?eeyaath/i? aei ia? i?aeaioia/i? ae?iaee 1.5 SYMBOL 45
\f «Symbol» \s 12 3 i. Ca ia?an?/ieie oaeoe/ieie aeaieie aaee/eia
caeeaeaiiy aieiaeo ii??ae ia aeuaaeacai?e ae?eyioe? noaiiaeoue

, (5)

SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 a?aeiioaiiy iii?o e??ieaiiy ia
e?ioeaa?e ae?eyioe? eaae aei iii?o ia ?aoo? ?? /anoei.

O caeaaeiino? a?ae ii?aeiaiiy ? nooiaiy aieeao aeuaaeacaieo /eiiee?a ia
iiiaio nii?oaeaeaiiy caoenieo iii? ci?uaiiy aieiaeo ii??ae ia e?ioeaa?e
ae?eyioe? eaae iiaeooue aooe ca aaee/eiith iaioeie, iaeiaeiaeie aai
a?eueoeie, i?ae o na?aaei?e ?? /anoei?. Aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a
iieacaa, ui aeey ciaioaiiy ci?uaiue ii??ae o i?noeyo nii?oaeaeaiiy
caoenieo iii? c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?o ooieoe?? ye
??caeueii? iii?e iaiao?aeia a iniiaiiio i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o e??ieaiiy
niieo/aiiy, a oaeiae canoinoaaiiy iaio iiaeaoeeaeo ioi?iiieo nii?oae ca
aaci?oiaiai aeeiaiiy ? iiaiiai i?ae?eaaiiy ii??ae i?aeioae.

Aeey aeyaeaiiy ci?ie iioneaiiy iie??ae? ii an?e ieiu? e?ioeaaeo
ae?eyiie eaae i?iaaaeai? oaooi? aei??thaaiiy ?? iaoeeo ca aeiiiiiaith
i?aae??a IOO SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 1 oa aei??thaaeueiiai noiyea
NOA SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 ??. Ia i?aenoaa? oeueiai onoaiiaeaii,
ui ?cie?i?? ci?uaiue iie??ae? ia e?ioeaa?e ae?eyioe? eaae
a?aeaeaeythoueny a?ae e?i?? i/eniiai aeaith ii e?ea?e, aeecuee?e aei
eiea c oeaio?ii, ?icoaoiaaiei i?eaeecii ia a?naeo?en? eooa i?ae e?i?yie
i/eniiai aeaith oa e?iieith aieiaiai aoa?eueiiai ianeao. Oe?
niinoa?aaeaiiy aeicaieeee aeyaeoe oa?aeoa? ci?ie ci?uaiue caaenath/eo
ii??ae iie??ae? iaae eooiaith /anoeiith i?aeo?eioaaiiai ? ae?iaeaiiai
i?inoi??a, ooai?aieo e?iieith aoa?eueiiai ianeao oa e?i??th i/eniiai
aeaith, ye? ia?aoeiathoueny, ui ni?eyei iaa?oiooaaiith iaoai?cio aieeao
caaenath/eo ii??ae iie??ae? ia ?o aca?iiae?th c ioi?iiieie iii?aie.

Aeey aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?o ci?ie iaaaioaaeaiiy ia caoeni? iii?e, ye?
nii?oaeaeai? ia e?ioeaa?e ae?eyioe? eaae, i?iaiaeeeenue ?? oaooi?
?ino?oiaioaeuei? aei??thaaiiy aeeiaiiiao?aie oeio 50Ae SYMBOL 45 \f
«Symbol» \s 12 180 oa EAe SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 50. Ia
i?aenoaa? ?acoeueoao?a oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue ca ??cieo oiia
a?aei?aoethaaiiy ieano?a aecia/aii, ui iaaaioaaeaiiy ia oe? caoeni?
iii?e i?ney ?o onoaiiaee c?inoa? c a?aeoiaeii eaae ia 30 SYMBOL 45 \f
«Symbol» \s 12 80 i , a oaeiae i?e a?aeaeaeaii? caoenieo iii? a?ae
e?iiee aieiaiai aoa?eueiiai ianeao o a?e ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o. Caiaeii
a?aeaoaa?oueny cieaeaiiy aaee/eie oeueiai iaaaioaaeaiiy a 1.1 SYMBOL 45
\f «Symbol» \s 12 1.8 ?aca aei aeayei? iino?eii? aaee/eie ca ?aooiie
ia?a?iciiae?eo iai?oaeaiue ? aeaoi?iaoe?e ii??ae iaaeiei i?aeaioia/i?
ae?iaee o /an?.

Ine?eueee no?ee?noue ieanoiai? i?aeaioia/i? ae?iaee, yea ioi?iiy?oueny
ca noaiith “caoeni? iii?e SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 aoa?eueiee
ianea”, caeaaeeoue oaeiae o /an? a?ae noaio inoaiiueiai ia e?iioe?,
aeeth/ath/e ? aieia? ii?iaee iaaeiei iueiai, i?iaaaeai? oaooi?
?ino?oiaioaeuei? niinoa?aaeaiiy ca caeeaeaiiyi oeeo ii??ae o 36
inoaoi/ii coieiaieo eaaao ca ??cieo oiia (eiao?oe??ioe i?oeiino? ii??ae
iie??ae? oa aoa?eey a?aeiia?aeii 4 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 10 ?
1.2 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 2.4, aeeiaia iiooaei?noue ieanoa 0.5
SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 1.8 i, aeeaeia ?ic?iaee 200 SYMBOL 45 \f
«Symbol» \s 12 850 i). Ia??iaee niinoa?aaeaiiy noaiiaeee a?ae 20 aei
50 ae?a.

) ci?ith?oueny ca ieae/aiaaaaeaiith caeaaei?noth:

, ii, (6)

SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 /an, aeia. Ei?aeyoe?eia a?aeiioaiiy
ca’yceo (6) SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 0.94. Oa?aeoa?ii, ui ?aia
aieeao aeuaaeacaieo /eiiee?a ia oe? caeeaeaiiy c /anii ci?ith?oueny.
I?ney 20 ae?a iniiaieie c ieo ? aeeaeia ?ic?iaee oa aeeiaia iiooaei?noue
ieanoa. I?eaeecii /a?ac iaeei ??e ne?ae /aeaoe ia aeeaei? aei 850 i
ao?aoo aenioe i/enii? ae?iaee a?ey ?? aeaith 173 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol»
\s 12 567 ii, ui o oeueiio ae?aiacii? aeeiaii? iiooaeiino? ieanoa
noaiiaeoue aeecueei 1/3 ?? aaee/eie. I?e oeueiio niinoa??aa?oueny
aenoaineaia a?aeoeneaiiy oa aeaaeiooai?aiiy aoa?eey.

I?iaaaeai? iaoo?i? niinoa?aaeaiiy, ye? a?aeaeaathoue ?aaeuei?
iniaeeaino? i?iya?a a??nueeiai oeneo o eaa? ? niieo/ai?e c iath
i?aeaioia/?e ae?iaoe?, iieeaaeai? a iniiao ?icaeoeo eiioeaioe??
aca?iiae?? ioi?iiieo aeaiaio?a c aieiaeie ii?iaeaie i?ae aieeaii i/enieo
?ia?o.

) ia ??ai? ?ic?iaethaaiiai eaaith ieanoa ye noiniaii in? o,
ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii? e?i?? i/eniiai aeaith (a?nue y), oae ? o ae?iaeaiiio
i?inoi?? (a?ae’?iia /anoeia in? x), a?ae aaee/eie a?aie/iiai i?ieueioo
caaenaiiy iie??ae? (Lxy) iaae oeei i?inoi?ii:

, (7)

SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 aainoaoe/iee aa?oeeaeueiee oene o
iacaeiaiiio a??nueeiio ianea?.

, ia?ii:

, (8)

oaeiae ?icoaoiaaia o iaaeao ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o).

I?ie?o a?aie/iiai caaenaiiy iie??ae?, eoaee aoiaeeoue oaeiae ? e?ie ??
ia??iaee/ieo iaaaeaiue, ci?ith?oueny o /an? ? ? iniiaiei ?ioaa?aeueiei
ia?aiao?ii, yeee aecia/a? iaaaioaaeaiiy ye ia i?e?iaeio (i?eeiioo?io
/anoeio aieiaiai aoa?eueiiai ianeao), oae ? ia ooo/i? (ioi?iii?
nii?oaee) iii?e. Caaenaiiy ii??ae aaaeeiiaaaethaaieo iie??aaeue aea?
iaea?eueoo /anoeio i?e?iuaiiy iai?oaeaiue o cii? iii?iiai oeneo,
ine?eueee aaee/eia e?ieo ?o ia??iaee/ieo iaaaeaiue, ye i?aaeei, a?eueoa
i?ae aeiaaeeia i?aeo?eioaaii? iaae ae?iaeaiei i?inoi?ii ii?iaeii?
eiinie?, yea nie?a?oueny c iaeiiai aieo ia e?iieo aoa?eueiiai ianeao, c
ae?oaiai SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 ia caaaeai? ioi?iii? nii?oaee.
Ia i?aenoaa? i?eeiyoi? iiaeae? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia inoaii? ia? aeaa iniiai?
neeaaeieee: aaao ii??ae iie??ae? iaaeiei i?aeo?eioaaii? ae?iaee ia
aenioo, yea aei??aith? aenio? ?o ?oeioaaiiy o ae?iaeaiiio i?inoi??, oa
/anoeio oeneo oa??a iie??ae?, ui ciaoiaeyoueny aeua ? i?iaeiathoueny, ?
oey /anoeia ia eiiiainiaaia ?aaeoe??th ? aei?noe?noth e?iiee aoa?eueiiai
ianeao. Ii noo? oea ocaiaeaeo?oueny c iaoo?ieie i?iyaaie a??nueeiai
oeneo a i/eni?e ? niieo/ai?e c iath i?aeaioia/?e ae?iaeao, ?ai?o
onoaiiaeaieie ?ino?oiaioaeueieie niinoa?aaeaiiyie. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
oe?eie ciie i?e?iaeiiai ?icaaioaaeaiiy i?eeiioo?ii? /anoeie aoa?eueiiai
ianeao aei aeayei? iino?eii? aaee/eie i?ie?o caaenath/eo ii??ae iie??ae?
ciaioo?oueny iaeii/anii ?c cieaeaiiyi iaeneioio iii?iiai oeneo i?e eiai
a?aeaeaeaii? aaeea oeueiai ianeao.

Aeey aeei?enoaiiy oi?ioee (8) c i?aeoe/iith iaoith ne?ae aecia/eoe
cia/aiiy ?yaeo aeo?aeieo ia?aiao??a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue ciiaeuei? ci?ie
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio aieiaeo ii??ae ? ieanoa iaaeiei
i?eeiioo?ii? /anoeie aoa?eueiiai ianeao, niieo/aiiai c i?aeaioia/ith
ae?iaeith ? oaeiai, ui i?aeeyaa? aieeao i/enieo ?ia?o.

SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 a?aeaeaeaiiy eiai iaeneiaeueiiai
cia/aiiy a?ae e?iiee aieiaiai aoa?eueiiai ianeao):

,eI/i2 . (9)

.

, (10)

SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 oe?eia ciie ooo/iiai ?icaaioaaeaiiy
aoa?eueiiai ianeao i?ae aieeaii i/enieo ?ia?o, i.

noaiiaeoue noio aaniethoieo aaee/ei oe?eie i?aeo?eioaaieo iaae
i?aeaioia/ith ae?iaeith ? a iaaeao ?? ioi?iiii? nioae ae?eyiie iie??ae?,
aeeth/ath/e ? aeiaaeeio eiinie? ?? caeeoeiaiai caaenaiiy, a oaeiae
oe?eio ciie a?aeoeneaiiy aoa?eueiiai ieanoa.

ciaioo?oueny ca aeniiiaioe?eiith caeaaei?noth (??), eio?a iaea?eueo
aeecueea aei oaeoe/ieo aeaieo:

,i-1 . (11)

I?e oeueiio u?euei?noue o??ueioaaoino? ii??ae iie??ae?, ii/eiath/e a?ae
iaae? ciie a?aeoeneaiiy ieanoa, aaeea ianeao iaaea? a?ae 22 aei 2 o??uei
ia 1 i.

iaioa aeo?aeiiai o iacaeiaiiio ianea?.

A?oiooth/enue ia aeyaeaieo o oaooieo oiiaao iniaeeainoyo i?iya?a
a??nueeiai oeneo ca ia??iaee/ieo in?aeaiue iie??ae?, a oaeiae oa?aeoa??
?iciiae?eo ci?uaiue ii??ae iie??ae? ia e?ioeaa?e ae?eyioe? eaae, c
o?aooaaiiyi i?eeiyoi? iiaeae? aca?iiae?? aieiaeo ii??ae c ioi?iiieie
iii?aie aiae?oe/iei oeyoii onoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue aeey aecia/aiiy
aeiaeaoeiaiai i?eaaioaaeaiiy ia 1 i aeiaaeeie caoenieo iii?, aeeeeeaiiai
aieeaii oeeo in?aeaiue. Iaea?eueo aeecueei oey caeaaei?noue
ai?ieneio?oueny ieae/a iiaeaiith aacia?a?aiith ia??iaee/iith ooieoe??th:

, eI/i, (12)

SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 eiao?oe??ioe, ye? a?aoiaothoue
iiaoi?thaai? i?eaaioaaeaiiy o o?eniaaiiio i?noe? ii aeiaaeei? ae?iaee,
ui ioi?iiy?oueny (oaae. 1).

Oaaeeoey 1

0 0.014 0.042 0.141

> 1.2.

ia 1 i aeiaaeeie i?aeaioia/i? ae?iaee aac aieeao ia??iaee/ieo
in?aeaiue aaaeeiiaaaethaaii? iie??ae?.

, eI/i , (13)

.

Iano/a caeaoi?noue aocueei? ioi?iiii? nioae caeaaeeoue oaeiae a?ae
no?eeino? ii?iaeiiai onooio, ooai?aiiai i?ae?eaeith ii??ae, ye?
ai?uathoue aoa?eueiee ieano. Ia i?aenoaa? ona?aaeiaieo noaoenoe/ieo
aeaieo, io?eiaieo o iaoo?ieo oiiaao, aeiionoeia oe?eia oeueiai onooio

, i, (14)

SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 eiao?oe??io caoooaiiy iai?oaeaiue c
a?aeaeaeaiiyi a?ae iii?e a iie??aeth aai i?aeioao, yeee ci?ith?oueny
a?ae 0.8 aei 0.1 ia a?aenoai? a?aeiia?aeii a?ae 0.4 aei 2.8 i. Oi?ioee
(12, 13, 14) ?aeiiaiaeiaai? aei aeei?enoaiiy aeey ?ic?aooieo ia?aiao??a
ianii?o?a ioi?iie ae?ieiaeo ae?iaie ?c canoinoaaiiyi caoenieo iii?.

,

, eI/i, (15)

, ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeei?enoaoe aeey onoaiiaeaiiy ia?aiao??a iiaeeeaiai
/anoeiaiai aeoyaaiiy caoenieo iii? aeey ?o iiaoi?iiai aeei?enoaiiy.

sseui iiooaei?noue c?oeiiaaieo ii??ae iie??ae? iaae ae?iaeith
iaa?aeiia, oi ?? i/?eoaaio aaee/eio ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aecia/eoe ca
ieae/aiaaaaeaiith aii??e/iith caeaaei?noth, io?eiaiith ca ?acoeueoaoaie
noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee iaoo?ieo niinoa?aaeaiue aaoi?a oa ?ioeo
aeine?aeiee?a ca iioe?aiiyi o??uei ?oeioaaiiy ii??ae o i?ae?iaethaai?e
oiau? i?e ??cieo a??ie/i-oaoi?/ieo oiiaao:

, i, (16)

SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 aeiaaeeia a?aeiia?aeii eaae oa
caeeaaeee ocaeiaae ia?). Cie?aia, aeey oaoo, ye? ?ic?iaeythoue oiie?
iieia? aoa?euei? ieanoe ia aeeaei? 900 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12
1100 i, ne?ae /aeaoe iaeneiaeueio ?ic?aooieiao ca oi?ioeith (16) aenioo
?oeioaaiiy ii??ae iie??ae? iaae eaaith, ui noaiiaeoue ia a?eueoa
50-e?aoii? iiooaeiino? ieanoa.

Iiaeai? aii??eei-aiae?oe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aaeyoue ca aeo?aeio
?ic?aooieiao aaco aeey ?ic?iaee aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a ?icaaioaaeaiiy
ii??ae iaaeiei ieanoiaeo i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaie, ui caciathoue aieeao
i/enieo ?ia?o niinia?a ? cania?a ?o ioi?iie.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy c iaa?oiooaaiiy
ia?aiao??a iiia?aaeiueiai ciai?oeithaaiiy no?oeoo?ii iaiaeii??aeieo
aaaeeiiaaaethaaieo iie??aaeue ?c canoinoaaiiyi ca?yae?a A? o
aeia?aaeaeath/eo i/eniee aea?e naa?aeeiaeiao, yea aeicaiey? ia
aeiioneaoe ?o caaenaiiy o ae?iaeaiiio i?inoi?? ? aiane?aeie oeueiai
eieae?co? aeeiai?/i? i?iyae ia??iaee/ieo in?aeaiue oeeo iie??aaeue o
eaa?, a oaeiae ciaioo? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ioi?iii? iii?e o niieo/aieo c
iath i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaeao.

C iaoith ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ?icoaooaaiiy i?ae?eaieo naa?aeeiaei uiaei
iaieanooaaiiy ii??ae aaaeeiiaaaethaaii? iie??ae?, aeoiaey/e ?c
?ic?aooieiai? noaie (?en. 1), i?iaaaeai? aiae?oe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeey
aecia/aiiy aieeao eooa iaoeeo oeeo naa?aeeiaei ia aia?aaoe/io ae?th
oaea?ieo ? a?aeia?aaeaieo oaeeue, ye? iioe?ththoueny a?ae
oeee?iae?e/iiai ca?yaeo A? (1). A?aeiinia aia?a?y aeaooo, yea i?eiaaea?
ia iaeeieoeth ia’?io ii?iaee a?ey iiaa?oi? iiae?eo na?aaeiaeu 2 SYMBOL
45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 3

3. (17)

noaiiaeyoue:

, (18)

, (19)

SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 ?ioa?aae /ano i?ae caeiieaiith ?
a?aeia?aaeaiith oaeeyie o oi/oe? I, nae.

Ca oi?ioeith (17) aecia/ai? a?aeiini? aaee/eie aia?a?? aeaooiai? oaee?
ia iiaa?oi? iiae?eo na?aaeiaeu i?e ??ciiio a?aeaeaeaii? ca?yaeo a?ae
ieiueie eiioaeoo ii?iaeieo oa??a ? eoo? eiai iaoeeo aei iaieanooaaiiy.
A?ao?/ia ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y caeaaeiino? i?ae oeacaieie ia?aiao?aie iiaeaia
ia ?en. 2. Ia?aa??ea aeinoia??iino? io?eiaii? oai?aoe/iei oeyoii
caeiiii??iino? (17) i?iaaaeaia oaooieie aei??thaaiiyie ia’?i?a
a?aeeieueieo ai?iiie, ooai?aieo a ono? 49 i?ae??aaieo naa?aeeiaei
ia?aaeiaiai oi?iaaeoaaiiy i?e ??cieo eooao ?o iaoeeo (o ae?aiacii? 5
SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 35i) aei aaaeeiiaaaethaaiiai oa?o ii??ae.
I?e oeueiio, i?e?iaeii, ia’?i a?aeeieueii? ai?iiee ca an?o ?ioeo ??aieo
oiia caeaaeeoue a?ae aaee/eie aeo?a/aii? aia?a?? aeaooo, eio?a iiaea a
aooe aeei?enoaia aeey ciai?oeithaaiiy ii??ae o iaiao?aei?e ?o cii?. Ca
ieoiii? caaeaee naa?aeeiaeie oi?iaaeoaaiiy iiiaae 0.9 a?aeeieuei?
ai?iiee a?ey ?? onoy ia ooai?ththoueny. Ia’?i ai?iiie i?e ieoii?e
caaeaoe? naa?aeeiaei iaioa 0.1 ? eooao ?o iaoeeo aei ieiueie
iaieanooaaiiy iiiaae 20i a na?aaeiueiio ia 36 % a?eueoee, i?ae i?e eooao
iaioa 20i. ?ic?aoiaaia ca oi?ioeith (17) aaee/eia a?aeiinii? ao?aoe
aia?a?? aeaooo a aeaiiio ?ioa?aae? eoo?a iaoeeo naa?aeeiaei noaiiaeoue
45 %, ui aeaco? ia caaeia?eueio ca?aei?noue ii??aithaaieo
aca?iica’ycaieo ia?aiao??a, io?eiaieo aiae?oe/iei ? iaoo?iei oeyoaie.
??aiyiiy (17 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 19) c o?aooaaiiyi
o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ii??ae iie??ae? ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny
aeei?enoaoe aeey aecia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai iaoeeo naa?aeeiaeiiiai
ca?yaeo A? ? eiai a?aeaeaeaiiy a?ae ciai?oeithth/iai oa?o.

I?iaaaeaiee aenia?eiaio uiaei ciai?oeithaaiiy aaaeeiiaaaethaaii?
iie??ae? oa?iaeie naa?aeeiaeiaie a oiiaao ieanoa ei8 oaooe ?i. Eaiono?ia
ia’?aeiaiiy “Eene/ainueeaoa?eey” aeicaieea iiia?aaeeoe oe?aeeea? aieeae
?? ia??iaee/ieo in?aeaiue ia eaao. I?e oeueiio onoaiiaeaii, ui
iaeneiaeueiee ciai?oeithth/ee aoaeo aeaooo aeinyaa?oueny i?e
a?aeaeaeaii? naa?aeeiaeie, i?iao?aii? ia?aeaeueii aaaeeiiaaaethaaiiio
oa?o (aaiiye iiooaei?noth 2.5 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 3.5 i), ia
a?aenoai? a?ae iueiai iaioa 0.5 i, ui oaeiae i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny
?ic?aooieiaeie aeaieie aeey oeeo oiia.

I?e ?icoaooaaii? ca?yaeo ia?aeaeueii iaieanooaaiith ii?iaee
aaaeeiiaaaethaaii? iie??ae? aoaeooue ?oeioaaoeny ??aiii??ii ? c
iaea?eueo iiaiei aeei?enoaiiyi aia?a?? aeaooiai? oaee?. A?aen?/i?
naa?aeeiaeie oaae aeioe?eueii ?icoaoiaoaaoe ia?aeaeueii iicaeiaaei?e in?
ae?iaee, ui ioi?iiy?oueny, ia eiioaeo? c aaaeeiiaaaethaaiith iie??aeath
o ieiuei? ?? ?iceiio.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? iiaeai? iaa?oiooaaiiy, ?ic?iaea, eaai?aoi?i? oa
oaooi? aenia?eiaioe, i?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy ? oi?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo,
aoaeoeaieo niinia?a ? cania?a ioi?iie ieanoiaeo i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaie
aeeaieeo oaoo. A iniiao ?ic?iaee oeeo niinia?a ? cania?a aecia/aiiy
?aoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a ? noa?e ?o canoinoaaiiy, a oaeiae aeaeueoiai
?o oaeineiiaeaiiy ia aac? iiaeo oaoi?/ieo ??oaiue iieeaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe
i?iaaaeaieo aaoi?ii eiiieaenieo aeine?aeaeaiue aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a,
ye? aieeaathoue ia no?ee?noue i?eeyaath/eo aei eaae ae?iaie.

=0.5m, a oaeiae ii??iino? nooe?eueii? ioi?iiii? nioae c ACAO (oaae. 2),
?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?/i? noaie (?en. 3) nii?oaeaeaiiy aeacaieo ca??ieo
eiino?oeoe?e iaiaaeaii? iiaeaoeeaino? aeey ioi?iie oeeo ae?iaie o oaeeo
oiiaao aeeaieeo oaoo: iiooaei?noue ieanoa, ui aeeia?oueny, ia a?eueoa
1.6 i, eiao?oe??io i?oeiino? ii??ae, ui eiioaeoothoue c ACAO, ia iaioa
4. Oeae niin?a ioi?iie oe?iei aeei?enoiao?oueny ia oaooao, ye?
?ic?iaeythoue oiie? iieia? ieanoe. Caaaeueiee ianya aeaioiaeaiiy ACAO
(ca aeaieie 1982?.) noaiiaeoue aeecueei 31 oen. i3 ia ??e. Iniiaieie ?o
niiaeeaa/aie ? oaooe Aeiiaoeueei? (15.2 oen. i 3) oa Eoaainueei? (13.55
oen. i 3) iaeanoae.

Oaaeeoey 2

Noaia aeeeaaeaiiy ooiaiai? nioae Aa??aio A?aie/ia ii??i?noue nioae c
ACAO (eI/i) i?e iiooaeiino? ieanoa

0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6

Iaeii?yaeia 1 A

A 5060

6330 4960

6200 4800

6000 4200

5260 3680

4600 3140

3930

Iieooi?ia 1.5 A

A 7600

10130 7440

9910 7200

9590 6320

8420 5520

7360 4720

6290

Aeai?yaeia 2 A

A 10130

12660 9910

12390 9590

11990 8420

10530 7360

9190 6290

7860

A,A SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 i?e ?icoaooaaii? aeie?a a?aiyie
a?aeiia?aeii aei oe?eie 0.5 oa 0.4 i aei ae?iaee, yea ioi?iiy?oueny.

Ianya oi?iaaaeaeaiiy ACAO ia aeeaieeo oaooao Aeiiaano noaiiaea o?eueee
ca 1981 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 1982??. 29.9 oen. i c oaeoe/iei
aeiiii?/iei aoaeoii 730.5 oen.e?a., a oiio /ene? /anoea aaoi?a SYMBOL
45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 146.1 oen.e?a. (ooo ? aeae? o oe?iao aei 1985?.).

I?iaaaeai? eaai?aoi?i? aei?iaoaaiiy iiaeo aeaiaio?a (cai?noue ACAO)
oaooiiai e??ieaiiy (AOE) ?ici??ii 0.4 o 04 o 0.15 i c e?oaeei ioai?ii ii
oeaio?o ? iacaie ia eiioaeooth/eo iiaa?oiyo. AOE ca nai?th ianith a 1.3
?aca iaio?, i?ae ACAO, aea a?aieoey ?o i?oeiino? ia noeneaiiy ieae/a
o?eueee a 1.2 ?aca. Aei oiai ae aeiiii?y noaiiaeoue 1.8 e?a. ia 1 i3
iaoa??aeo. Onoaiiaeai? i?oei?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaeo iaoa??ae?a aeey
aeie?a ca??ieo caoenieo iii?, iniiaieie eiiiiiaioaie yeeo ? a?aeoiaee
ae?iaieoeoaa. I?aniaai? aeiee, aeaioiaeai? c aea?aaii-no?oaeeiaeo
iaoa??ae?a oa ??cieo a’yaeo/eo, ca ianith a 3 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s
12 5 ?ac?a iaio?, i?ae ACAO, iaea?eueo aoaeoeaii c oaoi?/ii? oa
aeiiii?/ii? oi/ee ci?o iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? ye caoeni? iii?e.

Ca aaaeeiiaaaethaaieo iie??aaeue aeioe?eueii canoiniaoaaoe caoeni?
iii?e ?c ca??ieo cae?ciaaoiiieo aeie?a ci?iii? ii aeiaaeei? ii??iino? ?
cae?enithaaoe ca aeiiiiiaith AI? ?o a?aen?/eo i?e ?icoaooaaii?
aeia?aaeaeath/eo naa?aeeiaei o ieiuei? ?iceiio ii??ae iie??ae? ia iaae?
ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o ? e?iiee aieiaiai aoa?eueiiai ianeao (?en. 4). I?e
oeueiio ia aeeeth/a?oueny ? oa?iaa ?icoaooaaiiy a?aen?/ieo naa?aeeiaei a
oe?e aea ieiuei?. Iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueii aeo?eioaaoe iaeneiaeueio
a?aenoaiue i?ae a?oiith a?yeiiiae?aii ?icoaoiaaieo a?aen?/ieo
naa?aeeiaei, ye ? i?ae ioi?iiiei e??ieaiiyi iineeaiiy, ui aei??aith? 2/3
e?ieo ia??iaee/ieo in?aeaiue aaaeeiiaaaethaaii? iie??ae?.

Aeey ieanoiaeo i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaie ?ic?iaeaiee niin?a ?o ioi?iie
nia?aieie iiaeaoeeaeie oe?eeeaie, caniiaaiee ia cia/iiio ?icaaioaaeaii?
ii??ae a?ae iai?oaeaiue o cii? ?o i?oaeii-ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e ?
cieaeaiiy aei?noeino? oe?eeea oeyoii ooai?aiiy acaeiaae eiai
aacia?a?aii? ii?iaeieie (?icaaioaaeoaaeueii? ae?iaee), eio?a iiae?ey?
iaeeia?iee oe?eee ia ??ci? ca oe?eiith oa ii??i?noth /anoeie.

Aiane?aeie i?iaaaeaieo oaooieo ?ino?oiaioaeueieo niinoa?aaeaiue ca
ci?uaiiyie aieiaeo ii??ae iaaeiei ae?iaie, ye? ioi?iiythoueny nia?aieie
oe?eeeaie, ?ice?eoi iaoai?ci ?o aca?iiae?? c oeeie ii?iaeaie i?ae
aieeaii i/enieo ?ia?o. Iaioee ca oe?eiith i?aeo?eioth/ee oe?eee,
aaciina?aaeiuei niieo/aiee c ae?iaeith, ui ioi?iiy?oueny,
ia?anoaath/enue o a?e oe??? ae?iaee, ?oeio?oueny ? o iiaeaeueoiio
i?aoeth? ye ii?iaeia nioaa. Oea ni?ey? aeayeiio ca?eueoaiith aieiaeo
ci?uaiue ii??ae eiioo?o ae?iaee, ui ioi?iiy?oueny c aieo eaae, ? ?acii c
oei SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 cia/iiio ciaioaiith aa?oeeaeueieo
caeeaeaiue iie??ae? oa i?aeioae ca ?aooiie ?o eiiiainaoe?? o iaaeao
?icaaioaaeoaaeueii? ii?iaeieie (i?in?ea). Aoaeo ?icaaioaaeaiiy a?ae
aeacaiiai i?in?eo, ui i?iaiaeeoueny iiia?aaeo eaae ca iaaeaie ciie
iii?iiai oeneo, a iniiaiiio caeaaeeoue a?ae aeeaeie ?ic?iaee,
iiooaeiino? ieanoa, e?eoa??th iaaaethaaiino? ii??ae iie??ae?, a oaeiae
oe?eie nia?aieo oe?eee?a ? oeueiai i?in?eo.

Ia i?aenoaa? ia?aiao?e/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio
ii??ae iaaeiei ae?iaee, ui ioi?iiy?oueny nia?aieie oe?eeeaie, ye?
io?eiai? iaoaiaoe/iei iiaeaethaaiiyi, cie?aia iaoiaeii ne?i/aiieo
aeaiaio?a, a oaeiae ia i?aenoaa? ?acoeueoao?a ?ino?oiaioaeueieo
niinoa?aaeaiue a aio?aoeeoiaeo oaooao ca ci?uaiiyie ii??ae o 21
ae?iaoe?, aeyaeai? ieae/a iaaaaeai? caeaaeiino? aeey aecia/aiiy
i?aeo?eioaaiiai (c aieo ae?iaee), ioi?iiiiai (c aieo ae?iaeaiiai
i?inoi?o) oe?eee?a oa ?icaaioaaeoaaeueii? ae?iaee caeaaeii a?ae
aeiionoeii? ao?aoe ieiu? iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co oeeo ae?iaie ca /an
cnoaaiiy ianeao. Oe?eia a?aeiia?aeii i?aeo?eioth/iai, ioi?iiiiai
oe?eee?a ? ?icaaioaaeoaaeueii? ae?iaee aeey aeeaieeo aio?aoeeoiaeo oaoo
noaiiaeoue:

, i, (20)

, i , (21)

, i, (22)

SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 e?eoa??e iaaaethaaiino? iie??ae?.

Ia ?en. 5 iiaeai? ?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?/i? noaie ioi?iie ieanoiaeo
i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaie ?c canoinoaaiiyi nia?aieo iiaeaoeeaeo oe?eee?a. Ca
aaaeeiiaaaethaaii? iie??ae? ? o?iioaeueiiai ianoaaiiy eaae ia ae?iaeo
i?iaeoia oe?eia ioi?iiii? nioae i?e nia?aieo oe?eeeao iiaeiia
a?aoiaoaaoe aaee/eio e?ieo ?? ia??iaee/ieo in?aeaiue.

Canoinoaaiiy aeey ioi?iie ieanoiaeo i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaie nia?aieo
iiaeaoeeaeo oe?eee?a o ii??aiyii? c iaeeia?ieie aeicaiey? nei?ioeoe
ao?aoe aoa?eey o 2 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 3 ?ace. Ianya
oi?iaaaeaeaiiy niiniao ioi?iie i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaie ?c canoinoaaiiyi
nia?aieo oe?eee?a ia oaooao ia’?aeiaiiy “?iaaiueeeaio?aoeeo” noaiiaea
2245 i c oaeoe/iei aeiiii?/iei aoaeoii 169.85 oen.e?a., a oiio /ene?
/anoea aaoi?a SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 67.94 oen. e?a.

Aeey oiia aeeaieeo aio?aoeeoiaeo oaoo iaa?oioiaai? ia?aiao?e niiniao
ioi?iie i?en?/ieo i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaie, ui i?iaiaeyoueny one?ae ca
eaaith (?en. 6). A iniiao oeueiai niiniao iieeaaeaia eiioeaioe?y
caa?aaeaiiy caeeoeiaiai ia?a??co oe??? ae?iaee ca ianooiiiai aieeao
i/enieo ?ia?o ia i?eeiioo?io /anoeio aoa?eueiiai ianeao ? c?oeiiaai?
ii?iaee ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o. Oe? ae?iaee i?aeo?eiothoueny o iaaiiio
?ioa?aae? /ano ?c a?aooaaiiyi ?ioaineaiino? aeaoi?iaoe?eieo i?ioean?a,
ui a?aeaoaathoueny i?ae aieeaii cnoaaiue.

Aiane?aeie oaooieo ?ino?oiaioaeueieo niinoa?aaeaiue ca ci?uaiiyie
eiioo?o i?en?/ieo ae?iaie, ye? i?iaiaeyoueny one?ae ca eaaith a oiiaao
o?ueio ieano?a aeeaieeo oaoo AI “Naa?aeeiaaio?aoeeo”, io?eiai? ia?aiao?e
?ioaineaiino? oeeo ci?uaiue ii aeiaaeei? ae?iaee a caeaaeiino? a?ae
oaeaeeino? iinoaaiiy i/eniiai aeaith. Ia i?aenoaa?
na?aaeiueinoaoenoe/ieo cia/aiue aeuaaeacaieo ia?aiao??a o i?ea’ycoe?
aei ??cieo oiia c a?aooaaiiyi i?i?iaeueii aeiionoeii? aenioe i?en?/ii?
ae?iaee io?eiaia oi?ioea aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy a?aie/ii? aeiaaeeie oe???
ae?iaee ca oiiae caa?aaeaiiy ?? caaeia?eueiiai aenieoaoaoe?eiiai noaio
i?e caaeaiiio caeeoeiaiio ia?a??c?.

, i, (23)

SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 aeo?aeia ieiua iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co
ae?iaee a na?oe?, i2.

Ia i?aenoaa? iaa?oioiaaii? ?ic?aooieiai? noaie oi?ioaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy
ia ioi?iii? iii?e o i?eeiioo?i?e /anoei? aoa?eueiiai ianeao c
o?aooaaiiyi iaiao?aeiiai caeeoeiaiai iii?o c?oeiiaaiiai caoeniiai
oe?eeea, ui i?aoeth? ca aiaeia??th aei ii?iaeii? nioae, io?eiaia
aiae?oe/ia caeaaei?noue aeey iiia?aaeiueiai ?ic?aooieo oe?eie oeueiai
oe?eeea:

, i, (24)

.

Io?eiai? oi?ioee (23, 24) aeei?enoai? ye ?ic?aooieiaa aaca aeey
aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a ianii?oo ioi?iie i?en?/iiai aaioeeyoe?eiiai oo?aeo
?c caeeoaiiyi aa?ie c aieo caoeniiai oe?eeea i?e ?ic?iaoe? ieanoa ia
aeeaei? 800 i c aaaeeiiaaaethaaiith iie??aeath ? aeie?ath/ith i?aeioaith
(oiiae oaooe ?i. Aao?ooaaa AI “?iaaiueeeaio?aoeeo”). Oaeoe/i? aaee/eie
?ioaineaiino? ci?uaiue aieiaeo ii??ae a oe?e ae?iaoe? aeyaeeenue
aeecuee? aei i/?eoaaieo. Oaeoe/ia a?aie/ia aeiaaeeia oeueiai oo?aeo,
aeecueea aei ?ic?aooieiai?, caaacia/eea eiai caaeia?eueiee
aenieoaoaoe?eiee noai, yeee i?aae’yaeythoue aei aaioeeyoe?eii? ae?iaee.

Canoinoaaiiy i?en?/ieo ae?iaie ye aaioeeyoe?eieo caciaei iioe?aiiy ia
oaooao ia’?aeiaiiy “Naa?aeeianueeaio?aoeeo”. Ianya oi?iaaaeaeaiiy
oeueiai niiniao ioi?iie o?eueee ia oaoo? “*a?aiiee ia?oecai” noaiiaea
3027 i c oaeoe/iei aeiiii?/iei aoaeoii 144.15 oen.e?a., a oiio /ene?
/anoea aaoi?a SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 72 oen.e?a.

AENIIAIE

O aeena?oaoe?? iiaeaii oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy ? ??oaiiy iaoeiai?
i?iaeaie, yea iieyaa? o aecia/aii? caeiiii??iinoae ? caeaaeiinoae
cnoaaiue oi?uath/i? oiau?, ea?oaaii? noaiii ioi/oth/eo ii??ae c
aeiiiiiaith oaoiieia?/ieo oa oaoi?/ieo cania?a aeey caa?aaeaiiy
no?eeino? i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaie, ui caciathoue aeoeaiiai aieeao i/enieo
?ia?o i?e a?aei?aoethaaii? iieiaeo aoa?eueieo ieano?a no?aeiiai ?aa?iio
Oe?a?inueeiai Aeiiaano. Aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee iaa?oiooaaoe
? oi?iaaaeeoe ?yae iiaeo ? aoaeoeaieo niinia?a ioi?iie ? i?aeo?eiaiiy
ae?iaie. Iniiai? iaoeia? oa i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oae?:

1.Onoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue e?eoa??th iaaaethaaiino? ii??ae iie??ae? o
eaaao i?e a?aei?aoethaaii? oiieeo iieiaeo aoa?eueieo ieano?a a?ae
noeoiiiai aieeao iiooaeiino? ? /a?aoaaiiy ii?iaeieo oa??a, eiao?oe??ioo
?o i?oeiino? oa u?eueiino? i?e?iaeii? o??ueioaaoino?. Aeey
aaaeeiiaaaethaaieo ? aaeueie aaaeeiiaaaethaaieo iie??aaeue aaee/eia
oeueiai e?eoa??th ci?ith?oueny o ae?aiacii? a?aeiia?aeii 0.1 SYMBOL 45
\f «Symbol» \s 12 0.3 oa 0.31 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 0.65. Ia
i?aenoaa? iaoo?ieo niinoa?aaeaiue onoaiiaeaii, ui ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
/eneiaiai cia/aiiy oeueiai e?eoa??th o aeacaiiio ae?aiacii? e?ie
ia??iaee/ieo in?aeaiue iie??ae? ca?eueoo?oueny ca ia?aaie?/iith
caeaaei?noth a?ae 16 aei 62 i. E?eoa??e iaaaethaaiino? ni?aaey? ?noioiee
aieea ia aaee/eio iaeneiaeueiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui ni?eeia?oueny
nii?oaeaeaieie aeey ioi?iie ae?iaie iii?aie.

2.Oaooieie ?ino?oiaioaeueieie niinoa?aaeaiiyie ca caeeaeaiiyi aieiaeo
ii??ae ia e?ioeaaeo ae?eyieao eaae onoaiiaeaii, ui ?cie?i?? oeeo
ci?uaiue a?aeaeaeythoueny a?ae e?i?? i/eniiai aeaith ii e?ea?e,
aeecuee?e aei eiea c ?aae?onii, yeee aei??aith? aeiaaeei? oe???
ae?eyiee, ? oeaio?ii, yeee eaaeeoue ia a?naeo?en? eooa i?ae e?iieaie
i/eniiai aeaith ? aieiaiai aoa?eueiiai ianeao.

C’yniaaii, ui iaaaioaaeaiiy ia caoeni? iii?e i?ney ?o nii?oaeaeaiiy ia
e?ioeaa?e ae?eyioe? eaae c aeoiaeii inoaiiuei? ia 30 SYMBOL 45 \f
«Symbol» \s 12 80 i c?inoa? aei iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiiy, a caiaeii
cieaeo?oueny a 1.1 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 1.8 ?aca aei aeayei?
iino?eii? caeeoeiai? aaee/eie.

?ice?eoi iniaeeaino? iaoai?cio oi?ioaaiiy i?eaaioaaeaiue ia ioi?iii?
iii?e i?e ia??iaee/ieo in?aeaiiyo aaaeeiiaaaethaaii? iie??ae?. ?ioa?aae
ca aeiaaeeiith ae?iaee, ui ioi?iiy?oueny, i?ae ciiaie oeeo
i?eaaioaaeaiue ni?aa?aeiineoueny c e?ieii in?aeaiue. Aaee/eia ? /anoioa
aeacaieo i?eaaioaaeaiue caeaaeaoue a?ae iiooaeiino? aaaeeiiaaaethaaii?
iie??ae? oa a?aeiioaiiy aeiaaeeie e?ioeaai? ae?eyiee eaae aei e?ieo
ia??iaee/ieo in?aeaiue, eio?a ca aeaieie oaooieo niinoa?aaeaiue
ci?ith?oueny a iaaeao 1 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 1.6. Ca aeacaiiai
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iiiaae 1.2 i?ae /an iiaeaeueoiai in?aeaiiy iie??ae? c
e?ieii iiiaae 20 i aeieea? iiaoi?ia i?eaaioaaeaiiy ia ioi?iiio iii?o
iaioa i?eaeecii ia ii?yaeie o cacaeaeaa?aeue o?eniaaiiio i?noe?.

3. Aenia?eiaioaeueii a oaooieo oiiaao onoaiiaeaii, ui ?ioaineai?noue
ci?uaiue ii??ae o ieanoia?e i?aeaioia/?e ae?iaoe? iiia?aaeo eaae, yea
?ooa?oueny ?c ci?iiith oaeaee?noth, caeaaeeoue a?ae aeiaiaiai
i?enei?aiiy iinoaaiiy eaae, ui coiiaeaia ??ciith aeeiai?eith
iaaaethaaiiy ii??ae iie??ae? o ae?iaeaiiio i?inoi??. I?e oeueiio
niinoa??aa?oueny ocaiaeaeaiee ? iaocaiaeaeaiee c aeeiai?eith ci?uaiue
ii??ae a oe?e cii? ae?iaee ?aaeeie aeeiai?ee aeiaiaiai i?enei?aiiy
iinoaaiiy eaae, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oiiaiei a?aeiiniei ciaeici?iiei
eooiaei ia?aiao?ii, ui ci?ith?oueny o iaeneiaeueiiio ae?aiacii? a?ae
SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 1.55 aei +1.55 ?aae i?e eieeaaii?
oaeaeeino? iinoaaiiy eaae a iaaeao 1.7 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12
12.6 i/aeia. Ca ocaiaeaeaiiai ?aaeeio (iaeiaeia? ciaee ia?aiao?a) ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi aai ciaioaiiyi oaeaeeino? iinoaaiiy eaae oaeaee?noue
ci?uaiue ii??ae o i?aeaioia/?e ae?iaoe? a?aeiia?aeii iaaea? aai c?inoa?,
ca iaocaiaeaeaiiai (ciaee ??ci?) SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 iaaiaee.

?ioaineai?noue ci?uaiue ii??ae o ae?iaoe?, ui i?iaiaeeoueny ca eaaith,
o 2 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 3 ?ace iaioa, i?ae a o?e, yea
i?aeo?eio?oueny ii?o/ ? a?aeaeaeaia a?ae ia?oi? ia oe?eio oe?eeea. Aei
iiiaioo noaa?e?caoe?? cnoaaiue a??nueeiai ianeao o aeacaieo ae?iaeao
ao?aoa ?o ia?a??co a?aeaoaa?oueny a iniiaiiio ca ?aooiie i?aeiyooy
i?aeioae, ? oei a?eueoa, /ei oe?oee oe?eee.

4. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie o?eaaeeo oaooieo ?ino?oiaioaeueieo niinoa?aaeaiue
onoaiiaeaia caeiiii??i?noue i?e?iuaiiy caeeaeaiue iie??ae? ? i?aeioae o
/an? a?ey e?iiee aoa?eueiiai ianeao, yea aeecueea aei noaiaiaai?
caeaaeiino?. ?aia aieeao /eiiee?a ia aeacai? caeeaeaiiy o /an?
ci?ith?oueny. I?ney 20 ae?a iniiaieie c ieo ? aeeaeia ?ic?iaee ? aeeiaia
iiooaei?noue ieanoa. Ao?aoa aenioe coieiaii? i/enii? ae?iaee a?ey ??
aeaith i?eaeecii ca iaeei ??e ia aeeaei? aei 850 i a na?aaeiueiio
ci?ith?oueny a?ae 173 aei 567 ii, ui a aeaiiio ae?aiacii? aeeiaii?
iiooaeiino? ieanoa 0.5 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 1.8 i noaiiaeoue
i?eaeecii 1/3 ?? aaee/eie.

E?euee?noue o??uei c?oeiiaaii? a??nueeei oeneii ii?iaee iie??ae? o
i?eeiioo?i?e /anoei? aoa?eueiiai ianeao ia aenioo 2 i c a?aeaeaeaiiyi
a?ae ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o aei 14 i ciaioo?oueny ca niaaeiith
aeniiiaioith c 20 aei 2 ia 1 i. Oe?eia ciie iicaa?aie/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e
ii??ae iie??ae? a oe?e /anoei? a??nueeiai ianeao (aeey aio?aoeeoo) i?ney
i?ioeano cnoaaiiy ia aeeaei? 900 i i?eaeecii 10-e?aoia iiooaeiino?
?ic?iaethaaiiai ieanoa. A?aenoaiue a?ae aieiai? e?iiee aoa?eueiiai
ianeao aei c?ieiaiiy iie??ae? ? i?aeioae o ae?iaeaiiio i?inoi??, aea
iiiiaeth?oueny ii/aoeiaee a??nueeee oene, o oeeo oiiaao noaiiaeoue 100
SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 105 i.

5. Aiae?oe/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie aeiaaaeaii, a iaoo?ieie SYMBOL 45 \f
«Symbol» \s 12 i?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui aoaeoeai?noue ciai?oeithth/i? ae??
aeaooo aeiaaiai oeee?iae?e/iiai ca?yaeo A? ia no?oeoo?ii iaiaeii??aeio
aaaeeiiaaaethaaio iie??aeth ?noioii caeaaeeoue a?ae eooa eiai iaoeeo aei
ieiueie iaieanooaaiiy. Iaeneiaeueia ?oei?aia aia?a?y aeaooo
aeinyaa?oueny i?e oa?iaiio ?icoaooaaii? oeueiai ca?yaeo, i?i?iaeueia,
eiee aia?a?y ciaioo?oueny o 8 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 10 ?ac?a, —
i?e eooao iiiaae 35i . Aoaeo ciai?oeithaaiiy ii??ae ca oa?iaiai
?icoaooaaiiy ca?yaeo A? aeinyaa?oueny ca ?aooiie onoiaiiy aeeneiaoeaieo
ao?ao aia?a?? aeaooo oa ?ioa?oa?aioe?? iaaeath/i? oa a?aeia?aaeaii?
oaeeue ia iaae? na?aaeiaeu c ??ciith aeonoe/iith aei?noe?noth, a oaeiae
?ici?uaiiy eiai o oa?? neaaeeo ii??ae ia i?i?iaeueiiio a?aeaeaeaii? a?ae
?o eiioaeoo c a?eueo i?oeieie. I?e oeueiio aoaeo c?inoa? ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
ia?aiaaeo aaee/ei ?o aeonoe/ii? aei?noeino?.

6. Iaa?oioiaai? ?aoe?iiaeuei? ia?aiao?e ioi?iie ieanoiaeo i?aeaioia/eo
ae?iaie aeeaieeo oaoo ca??ieie caoenieie iii?aie ?c nooe?eueieo ?yae?a
cae?ciaaoiiieo aeie?a (ACAO) o ae?aiacii? iiooaeiino? ieanoa 0.6 SYMBOL
45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 1.6 i ? ?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?/i? noaie oeueiai
niiniao o caeaaeiino? a?ae no?eeino? aieiaeo ii??ae oa iaaaethaaiino?
ianeao iie??ae?. I?e eiao?oe??io? i?oeiino? ii??ae ieaeiueiai ?
aa?oiueiai oa??a a?aeiia?aeii iie??ae? oa i?aeioae iiiaae 4 c
o?aooaaiiyi aenioe ?o i?ae?eaaiiy canoiniaothoueny iaeii-, i?aoi?a- ?
aeai?yaei? noaie aeeeaaeaiiy caoenieo iii? c ACAO oe?eiith 0.8 ? 1 i c
iiaeaoeeaith aea?aa’yiith i?ieeaaeeith caaaeueiith aenioith, ui
aei??aith? 0.15 aeeiaii? iiooaeiino? ieanoa. Ca aaaeeiiaaaethaaieo
iie??aaeue ia?aaeaa/aii canoinoaaiiy a?aen?/ieo naa?aeeiaei,
?icoaoiaoaaieo o ieiuei? ?? ?iceiio, yea iaiaaeo? c aieo a?/iiai
aoa?eueiiai ianeao ciio iaaaeaiiy ii??ae o ae?iaeaiiio i?inoi?? ia
a?aenoai? iaeia a?ae iaeii? ia a?eueoa i?ae 2/3 aaee/eie e?ieo ??
ia??iaee/ieo in?aeaiue. I?e oeueiio a i?noeyo i?eaaioaaeaiue, ui
aeieeathoue a?ae oeeo in?aeaiue, ia a?aenoai? ia a?eueoa 2/3 ?o e?ieo ii
aeiaaeei? ae?iaee aeeeaaeathoueny aeiaeaoeia? iii?e ?c cae?ciaaoiiieo
aeie?a.

7. ?ic?iaeaia iiaa eiino?oeoe?y cae?ciaaoiiieo aeie?a AOE c ioai?ii o
oeaio?? ?ici??ii 0.4 o 0.4 o 0.15 i, eio?? ca nai?th ianith a 1.3 ?aca
iaio?, i?ae ACAO, aea iathoue eeoa o 1.2 ?aca ieae/o a?aieoeth i?oeiino?
ia noeneaiiy i?e caiuaaeaeaii? 1.8 e?a. ia 1 i3 iaoa??aeo.

8. Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaiee ? i?iieneiai-aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaaaeaiee
iiaee niin?a ioi?iie iniiaieo ieanoiaeo i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaie nia?aieie
iiaeaoeeaeie oe?eeeaie, yeee cieaeo? ao?aoe aoa?eey ca ?aooiie
nei?i/aiiy oe?eie iaeeia?ieo oe?eee?a a 2 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12
3 ?ace. Oe?eia i?aeo?eioth/iai ? ioi?iiiiai oe?eee?a, ye? i?eeyaathoue
a?aeiia?aeii aei i?aeo?eioaaii? ae?iaee oa ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o, a
oaeiae oe?eia aacia?a?aii? ?icaaioaaeoaaeueii? ii?iaeieie i?ae ieie aeey
aeeaieeo aio?aoeeoiaeo oaoo noaiiaeyoue a?aeiia?aeii 3 SYMBOL 45 \f
«Symbol» \s 12 5, 15 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 25 ? 4 SYMBOL 45
\f «Symbol» \s 12 6 i. Ca an?o ?ioeo ??aieo oiia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae
aeacaieie aaee/eiaie aecia/a?oueny o?eaae?noth cnoaaiiy a??nueeiai
ianeao ? aeiionoeiith aaee/eiith a?aeiinii? ao?aoe ieiu? iiia?a/iiai
ia?a??co ae?iaee, ui ioi?iiy?oueny, aeoiaey/e c ?? i?ecia/aiiy. I?e
oeueiio niinia? ioi?iie o ii??aiyii? c iaeeia?iei oe?eeeii aei caoooaiiy
cnoiaiue ca?eueoothoueny aieia? ci?uaiiy ii??ae, o iiaeaeueoiio
cieaeo?oueny i?aeiyooy i?aeioae.

9. Ia i?aenoaa? aenia?eiaioo a oiiaao aeeaieeo aio?aoeeoiaeo oaoo
onoaiiaeai? ia?aiao?e ioi?iie ? i?aeo?eiaiiy i?en?/ieo ae?iaie, ui
i?iaiaeyoueny one?ae ca eaaith. Aeey aio?aoeeoiaeo oaoo iaeneiaeueia
aeiionoeia aeiaaeeia oe??? ae?iaee ca iiooaeiino? ieanoa 0.95 SYMBOL 45
\f «Symbol» \s 12 1.2 i ia aeeaei? 700 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12
1000 i ? oe?ei? caoeniiai oe?eeea c aieo ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o 2 SYMBOL
45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 4 i noaiiaeoue 1200i. Aeey ca?eueoaiiy
i?ioyaeiino? oe??? ae?iaee i?e caa?aaeaii? ?? caaeia?eueiiai
aenieoaoaoe?eiiai noaio c aieo aeuaaeacaiiai oe?eeea iaiao?aeii noai?eoe
?icaaioaaeio aa?io oe?eiith 1.2 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12
2.2-e?aoiith iiooaeiino? ieanoa.

10. Iaa?oioiaai?, ?ic?iaeai? oa oi?iaaaeaeai? niiniae ioi?iie
i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaie, ui i?aeeyaathoue aieeao i/enieo ?ia?o ia aeeaieeo
oaooao i?e aeeiaii? oiieeo iieiaeo aoa?eueieo ieano?a, ?c canoinoaaiiyi
ca??ieo iii? ?c cae?ciaaoiiieo aeie?a, nia?aieo iiaeaoeeaeo oe?eee?a oa
i?en?/ieo aei ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaie, ye?
i?iaiaeyoueny one?ae ca eaaith. Oae? niiniae caaacia/othoue
aenieoaoaoe?eio no?ee?noue oa ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy. Caaaeueiee ianya
oi?iaaaeaeaiiy aeacaieo niinia?a, i?aeoaa?aeaeaiee aeoaie, noaiiaea
35.172 oen.i (noia?ia i?ioyaei?noue ae?iaee) c oaeoe/iei aeiiii?/iei
aoaeoii 1044.5 oen.e?a. (o oe?iao aei 1985 ?ieo), c yeiai ia /anoeo
aaoi?a i?eiaaea? 286.04 oen.e?a. Oe? niiniae ioi?iie ae?iaie o
oaia??oi?e /an aeei?enoiaothoueny ia aoa?eueieo oaooao no?aeiiai ?aa?iio
Oe?a?inueeiai Aeiiaano.

Iniiai? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy oa i?eeeaaei? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
iioae?eiaai? a oaeeo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo:

1. Ai?cuo A.O. Iniaaiiinoe ciiaeueiie aeaceioaa?aoeee ii?iae e?iaee e
oaieueiiai ieanoa aie?oa ai?iuo au?aaioie // Oec.-oaoi. i?iae. ?ac?aa.
iieac. eneiiaaiuo.-1990.-?5.-N.40-49.

2. Ai?cuo A.O. Oaoiieiaey aaeaioeaiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey iii? n aieiauie
ii?iaeaie i?e iiaeaea?aeaiee auaii/iuo au?aaioie // Oaieue.
-1989.-?11.-N.3-9.

3. Ai?cuo A.O. ?an/ao i?ea?ocee ia iii?iua yeaiaiou auaii/iie au?aaioee
i?e ia?eiaee/aneeo ia?ooaieyo e?iaee a eaaa // Oaieue
Oe?aeiu.-1990.-?6.- N.15-17.

4. Ai?cuo A.O. I ia?niaeoeaa iieiiai ia?ooaiey e?iaee i?e ?ac?aaioea
iieiaeo ieanoia ia aeoaieeo ai?eciioao // Oaieue Oe?aeiu.-
1980.-?11.-N.15-17.

5. Ai?cuo A.O. Ioeaiea /anoiou eniieueciaaiey oaeoi?ia i?e ?an/aoa
ia?aiao?ia iii?iiai ai?iiai aeaaeaiey // ?ac?aa. ianoi?iaeaeaiee iieac.
eneiiaaiuo: ?ani.iaaeaaae.iao/. — oaoi.na.- 1989.-Aui. 84.-N.23-25.

6. Ai?cuo A.O. Ii?aaeaeaiea auniou aeaceioaa?aoeee ii?iae e?iaee iaae
au?aaioaiiui i?ino?ainoaii // ?ac?aa. ianoi?iaeaeaiee iieac. eneiiaaiuo:
?ani.iaaeaaae.iao/. — oaoi.na.- 1990.-Aui. 87-N.30-33.

7. Onoie/eainoue aeaeaciaaoiiiuo ooia i?e io?aia iiaeaioiaeoaeueiie
au?aaioee/ A.O.Ai?cuo, A.A.Aeaieeia,A.A.Oioeeee //
Oaieue-.1985.-?6.-N.14-15.

8. ?an/ao iaeeaeaaiuo iaa?ocie ia iii?u ec aeaeaciaaoiiiuo aeieia aeey
io?aiu iiaeaioiaeoaeueiuo au?aaioie/ A.O.Ai?cuo, A.A.Aeaieeia,
A.A.Oioeeee // Oaieue-.1988.-?9.-N.11-14.

9. Ai?cuo A.O., ?aae/aiei A.E. Onoie/eainoue i?iaiaeeiuo ca eaaie
i?ena/iuo au?aaioie // Oaieue.-1990.-?9.-N.53-57.

10. Ai?cuo A.O., ?aae/aiei A.E. Io?aia iiaeaioiaeoaeueiuo au?aaioie,
i?iaiaeeiuo a ciia anoanoaaiiie ?aca?ocee // Oaieue.- 1988.- ?7.-
N.7-10.

11. Aineiaiaa O.I., Ai?cuo A.O. I?iaiice?iaaiea inaaeie e?iaee a eaaao
iieiaeo ieanoia // Oaieue Oe?aeiu.- 1981.-?4.-N.16-17.

12. Ai?cuo A.O., Aaa?ei A.A. Aeeyiea o?aueiiaaoinoe ii?iae ia oaa
ia?eiaee/aneeo inaaeie o?oaeiiia?ooathuaeny e?iaee // Oaieue
Oe?aeiu.-1990.-?9.-N.10-11

13. Ai?cuo A.O., Aiciue A.A. E ioeaiea iioneaiey e?iaee ia eiioeaauo
o/anoeao eaa // Oaieue Oe?aeiu .- 1976.-?10.-N.13-14.

14. Ai?cuo A.O., Ouiyiue A.A. Niauaiea ii?iae ia eeiee inoaiiaeaiiiai
i/enoiiai caaiy // Oaieue Oe?aeiu .-1985.- ?5.-N.12-13.

15. Io?aia aeaaiuo ieanoiauo au?aaioie nia?aiiuie oeaeeeaie
/A.I.Ooaeyeia, A.O. Ai?cuo, A.E. Iaethaia // Oaieue
Oe?aeiu.-1983.-?10.-N.7-10.

16. Niauaiea ii?iae a iiaeaioiaeoaeueiie au?aaioea i?e io?aia
nia?aiiuie oeaeeeaie / A.O. Ai?cuo, A.A.Aaa?ei, A.A.E?aniyineee //
Oaieue Oe?aeiu .- 1986.-?9.-N.21-23.

17. Iniaaiiinoe acaeiiaeaenoaey iiaeaea?aeeaathuaai oeaeeea n
aiauathueie ii?iaeaie / A.O. Ai?cuo, A.A.Aaa?ei, A.A.Ee?ueycaaa //
Oaieue Oe?aeiu .- 1989.-?1.-N.15-17.

18. I?iaaaeaiea au?aaioie a ciia ?aca?ocee eae iaoiae eo io?aiu /
A.O.Ai?cuo, TH.A.Oeeiithe, A.A.Oeuaiei // Oaieue Oe?aeiu .-
1982.-?11.-N.13-14.

19. Ai?cuo A.O., Iiaae A.E. Ioeaiea aeaenoaey ac?uaiuo aiei a neienoii
ianneaa // Eca. aocia. Ai?iue aeo?iae.- 1984.-?4.- N.40-43.

20. ?acoi?i/iaiea o?oaeiiia?ooaaiie e?iaee i?e neiaaii ?aniieiaeaiee
neaaaeei ia?aaeiaiai oi?iaaee?iaaiey / A.O.Ai?cuo, A.E.Iiaae,
A.A.Oaa?aoeeee // Oaieue Oe?aeiu .- 1981 .- ?12 .- N.15-17.

21. Ai?cuo A.O., Ai?iaie A.I. Onoaiiaeaiea ia?aiao?ia ciiu anoanoaaiiie
?aca?ocee ii?iaeu a au?aaioaiiii i?ino?ainoaa // Oaieue Oe?aeiu .- 1992
.- ? 12.- N.26-29.

22. I?eiaiaiea oioia?aiiao?ee aeey ioeaiee i?iyaeaiee ai?iiai
aeaaeaiey/ A.O. Ai?cuo, A.A. Aaa?ei, TH.A.Oeeiithe // Oaieue Oe?aeiu .-
1987.-?11.-N.26-27.

23. I?iyaeaiey ai?iiai aeaaeaiey ia eiioeaauo o/anoeao eaa
/TH.O.Naaaiei, I.E .Eeeoei, A.A. Aiciue, A.O. Ai?cuo // ?ac?aa.
ianoi?iae-aeaiee iieac. eneiiaaiuo: ?ani. iaaeaaae. iao/.- oaoi.
na.-1974.-Aui.35.-N.8-10.

24. Aeeyiea nei?inoe iiaeaeaaiey i/enoiiai caaiy ia i?ioeann niauaiey
aieiauo ii?iae a ciia iii?iiai aeaaeaiey / A.O.Ai?cuo, A.E.Ei?iaei, E.I.
Eaiaoaa // ?ac?aa. ianoi?iaeaeaiee iieac. eneiiaaiuo: ?ano. iaaeaaae.
iao/.- oaoi. na.-1977.-Aui.47.-N.36-40.

25. Ai?cuo A.O., Ei?iaei A.E. Io?aia aaioeeyoeeiiiiai oo?aea oceei
iiaeaoeeaui oeaeeeii // Aeiau/a oaey iiaecaiiui niiniaii /
OeIEYEoaieue.- 1978.-?10.-N.18-20.

26. Ai?cuo A.O., Ei?iaei A.E. Eniieueciaaiea iiaeaioiaeoaeueiie
au?aaioee, iiaeaa?aeaiiie iiaoi?iiio aeeyieth i/enoiuo ?aaio // Aeiau/a
oaey iiaecaiiui niiniaii / OeIEYEoaieue.- 1981.-?1.-N.19-21.

27. Ai?cuo A.O., Ei?iaei A.E. Aeeyiey iia?aaeaiey nia?aiii ?aaioathueo
eaa ia niauaiea ii?iae a ai?oiaii oiaea // Aeiau/a oaey iiaecaiiui
niiniaii / OeIEYEoaieue.- 1977.-?10.-N.17-19.

28. I?iaiic niauaiee e?iaee ia eiioeaauo o/anoeao eaa iieiaeo ieanoia /
A.A.Aiciue, A.O. Ai?cuo, I.E.Eeeoei // Oaoiieiaey aeiau/e oaey
iiaecaiiui niiniaii / OeIEYEoaieue.- 1976.-?2.-N.18-19.

29. Ai?cuo A.O., Ei?iaei A.E. Aeeyiea nei?inoe iiaeaeaaiey i/enoiiai
caaiy ia eioaineaiinoue aeaoi?iaoeee aiauathueo ii?iae // Oaoiieiaey
aeiau/e oaey iiaecaiiui niiniaii / OeIEYEoaieue.- 1974.-?10.-N.23-24.

30. Ai?cuo A.O., Iiaae A.E. I ninoiyiee onouey neaaaeeiu i?e
oi?iaaee?iaaiee o?oaeiiia?ooaaiie e?iaee // Oaoiieiaey aeiau/e oaey
iiaecaiiui niiniaii / OeIEYEoaieue.- 1983.-?5.-N.8-9.

31. Yeni?ann-iaoiae ecia?aiee naeaeaeaiey e?iaee a i/enoiuo caaiyo
/TH.O.Naaaiei, A.E.*a?iyaa, A.O.Ai?cuo // Oaoiieiaey aeiau/e oaey
iiaecaiiui niiniaii / OeIEYEoaieue.- 1970.-?5.-N.16-19.

32. Iao.Oe?a?ie 142, IEA A21 N 41/04. Niin?a ea?oaaiiy
aaaeeiiaaaethaaiith iie??aeath / A.I.Ai?ceo. Iioae.30.05.93. Io?oe.
athe. I?iieneiaa aeani?noue ?1.

33. A.n. 1749465 NNN?, IEE5 A21Ae 11/08. E?aiue aeey io?aiu
iiaeaioiaeoaeueiuo au?aaioie / A.O. Ai?cuo, A.A.Eio, A.A.Eothi,
I.A.Ieoaaa e A.A.Oioeeee.-?4804870/03; Cayaeaii 23.03.90;
Iioae.23.07.92. Athe. ?27.

34. A.n. 1262048 NNN?, IEE4 A 21 Ae 11/08. E?aiue aeey io?aiu
iiaeaioiaeoaeueiuo au?aaioie / A.O.Ai?cuo, A.A.Oioeeee, A.I.Aieioia,
E.A.Ai?aoiia.- ? 3891590/22-03; Cayaeaii 06.05.85; Iioae. 07.10.86.
Athe. ?37.

35. A.n. 1571257 NNN?, IEE5 A 21 Ae 11/08. E?aiue aeey io?aiu
iiaeaioiaeoaeueiuo au?aaioie / A.A.Aaoo?eioeaa, A.O.Ai?cuo,
E.A.Ai?aoiia, A.A.Oioeeee .- ? 4450511/23-03; Cayaeaii 06.05.88; Iioae.
15.06.90. Athe. ?22.

36. A.n. 1488501 NNN?, IEE4 A 21 Ae 11/00. Niinia iiaeaea?aeaiey ai?iie
au?aaioee / A.O.Ai?cuo, E.A.Ai?aoiia, A.A.Oioeeee, A.A.Aaoo?eioeaa
.-?4320895/23-03; Cayaeaii 08.08.87; Iioae. 23.06.89. Athe. ?23.

37. A.n. 676733 NNN?, IEE2 A 21 Ae 13/04 Ono?ienoai aeey ?aca?ocee
aeaeaciaaoiiiuo aeieia e oeeaaeee eo a ooiau / A.A.Aeaieeia,
A.A.Oao?ooaeeiia, A.O.Ai?cuo.- ? 2593520/22-03; Cayaeaii 23..03.78;
Iioae. 30.07.79. Athe. ? 28.

38. A.n. 1148407 NNN?, IEE4 A 21 N 41/04. Niinia io?aiu ai?iie
au?aaioee / A.O. Ai?cuo, A.E.Iiaae, A.A. Aaa?ei.- ? 3637011/33-03;
Cayaeaii 26.08.83 (ia iiaeeaaeeo iioae. a ioe?uoie ia/aoe).

39. A.n. 1506109 NNN?, IEE4 A 21 N 41/04. Niinia io?aiu
iiaeaioiaeoaeueiuo au?aaioie / A.O. Ai?cuo, A.A.Aaa?ei, A.I.Ooaeyeia,
TH.E.Naiaiia.- ? 4333365/23-03; Cayaeaii 26.11.87 Iioae. 07.09.89. Athe.
? 33.

40. A.n. 1555498 NNN?, IEE5 A 21 Ae 11/00. Niinia oi?i/iaiey oeaeeeia /
A.A.Aaa?ei, A.A.Aaoo?eioeaa, A.O.Ai?cuo, A.E.?aae/aiei.- ?
4427107/23-03; Cayaeaii 17.05.88; Iioae. 07.04.90. Athe. ? 13.

41. A.n. 1634783 NNN?, IEE5 A C 41/00 Niinia io?aiu iiaeaioiaeoaeueiuo
au?aaioie / A.I.Ooaeyeia, A.O.Ai?cuo, A.A.Aaa?ei, A.A.Aaoo?eioeaa.- ?
4670613/03; Cayaeaii 19.01.89; Iioae. 15.03.91. Athe. ?10.

42. A.n. 1649095 NNN?, IEE5 A 21 N 41/18. Niinia io?aiu
iiae-aioiaeoaeueiie au?aaioee / A.A.Aaoo?eioeaa, A.O.Ai?cuo,
A.A.A?aeoeaa, A.A.Aaa?ei.- ? 4696714/03; Cayaeaii 24.05.89; Iioae.
15.05.91. Athe. ? 18.

43. A.n. 1242621 NNN?, IEE4 A 21 Ae 13/02 Niinia ?aca?ocee ai?iie
au?aaioee io iai?yaeaiee / A.O.Ai?cuo, A.E.Iiaae, A.A.Aaa?ei.- ?
3850556/22-03; Cayaeaii 30.01.85; Iioae. 07.07.86. Athe. ? 25.

44. A.n. 780581 NNN?, IEE3 A 21 N 41/04. Niinia oi?aaeaiey
o?oaeiiia?ooaaiie e?iaeae / A.O.Ai?cuo, A.E.Iiaae, A.I.Inoaiaiei.- ?
27178888/22-03; Cayaeaii 26.01.79 (ia iiaeeaaeeo iioae. a ioe?uoie
ia/aoe).

45. A.n. 875907 NNN?, IEE3 A 21 N 41/04. Niinia oi?aaeaiey
o?oaeiiia?ooaaiie e?iaeae / A.O.Ai?cuo, A.E.Iiaae.- ? 2948055/22-03;
Cayaeaii 30.06.80 (ia iiaeeaaeeo iioae. a ioe?uoie ia/aoe).

Iniaenoee aianie o ?iaioe, iioae?eiaai? o ni?aaaoi?noa?:

SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 ?ic?iaea iaoiaeii oaooieo aei??thaaiue
i?iya?a a??nueeiai oeneo o ae?iaeao aoa?eueieo oaoo, ?o ai?iaaoe?y ?
ioe?iea oi/iino? (22, 30, 31);

SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 iinoaiiaea caaaeaiue oaooieo
eiia?iiaaieo ?ino?oiaioaeueieo niinoa?aaeaiue, o/anoue a ?o ?aae?caoe??,
ia?iaoe? ? aiae?c? ?acoeueoao?a; iaoeiaa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y aaiiaoai?/ieo
i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny iaaeiei ae?iaie (13, 14, 20, 21, 23
SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 25, 27 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 29);

SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 iaa?oiooaaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo noai oa
aeeiiaiiy aii??eei-aiae?oe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeey aecia/aiiy
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ioi?iii? iii?e, no?eeino? i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaie, a
oaeiae aiae?c oa ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue (7
SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 10, 15, 26);

SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 ?ic?iaea iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? oa
anoaiiaeaiiy noa?e ?? aecia/aiiy, aeeiiaiiy ?ic?aooie?a oa
?ioa?i?aoaoe?y ?o ?acoeueoao?a (11, 12, 16 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12
19);

SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 o/anoue o cae?aii? noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo,
iaoaiaoe/i?e ?o ia?iaoe?, ii??aiyii? io?eiaieo aii??e/iei oeyoii
e?euee?nieo cia/aiue ia?aiao??a c oaeoe/ieie (7, 8, 11, 12, 23, 28, 30);

SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 iaa?oiooaaiiy o?ainii?oiiai i?eno?ith
aeey ?icaaioaaeaiiy oa oeeaaeaiiy aeie?a ca??ieo iii? (37); eiino?oeoe?e
ca??ieo ioi?iiieo iii?, ye? caaacia/othoue iaiaaeaio ?o iiaeaoeea?noue ?
neeiaee ca’ycie i?ae niaith (33 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 36);
iaoiae?a ? ia?aiao??a ?icaaioaaeaiiy a??nueeiai ianeao a?ae iai?oaeaiue
oeyoii noai?aiiy aaeeeeo ii?iaeiei iaaeiei ae?iaee, yea ioi?iiy?oueny,
?c canoinoaaiiyi naa?aeeiaeiieo aeaoo?a oa ioi?iiieo nioa ??cii?
aei?noeino? (38 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 43); ia?aiao??a ?
iaoiae?a ciai?oeithaaiiy ii??ae aaaeeiiaaaethaaii? iie??ae? ?c
canoinoaaiiyi naa?aeeiaeiieo ca?yae?a A? oa iiaoi?iiai a?ae?aae?/iiai
oaea?o (44, 45).

Ai?ceo A.I. ?ic?iaea niinia?a ioi?iie i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaie i?e
a?aei?aoethaaii? iieiaeo ieano?a no?aeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?inueeiai
Aeiiaano.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe
niaoe?aeueiino? 05.15.02 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 i?aecaiia
?ic?iaea ?iaeiaeu ei?enieo eiiaeei.- Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee
oi?aa?neoao, Aeiiaoeuee, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia i?iaeai? i?aeaeuaiiy no?eeino? ieanoiaeo
i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaie, ye? i?aeeyaathoue aieeao i/enieo ?ia?o a oiiaao
aeeaieeo oaoo. O ?iaio? ?icaeiooi iai?yi a??ie/i? aaiiaoai?ee,
caniiaaiee ia aaeaioeai?e aca?iiae?? aieiaeo ii??ae c iii?ieie
aeaiaioaie ae?iaee. Aeyaeaii iia? caeiiii??iino? i?iya?a a??nueeiai
oeneo a niieo/aieo c eaaith ae?iaeao, onoaiiaeai? ia?aiao?e ?o ioi?iie
iii?aie ci?iii? aei?noeino?. ?ic?iaeai? iia? niiniae ioi?iie ae?iaie ?c
canoinoaaiiyi ca??ieo caoenieo iii? ?c cae?ciaaoiiieo aeie?a, nia?aieo
iiaeaoeeaeo oe?eee?a oa i?en?/ieo ae?iaie, ui i?iaiaeyoueny ca eaaith.
Ianya oi?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaie c oaeoe/iei aeiiii?/iei aoaeoii noaiiaea
35.17 oen.i. o 29 aoa?eueieo oaooao Aeiiaano.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aoa?eueia oaooa, ieano, a??nueeee oene, ci?uaiiy,
ciai?oeithaaiiy, ioi?iia ae?iaie.

Ai?cuo A.O. ?ac?aaioea niiniaia io?aiu iiaeaioiaeoaeueiuo au?aaioie i?e
io?aaioea iieiaeo oaieueiuo ieanoia ainoi/iiai ?aaeiia Oe?aeineiai
Aeiiaanna. SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.15.02 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 iiaecaiiay
?ac?aaioea ianoi?iaeaeaiee iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo. SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol»
\s 12 Aeiiaoeeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Aeiiaoee,
1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaia iiauoaiey onoie/eainoe ieanoiauo
iiaeaioiaeoaeueiuo au?aaioie, iiaeaa?aeaiiuo aeeyieth i/enoiuo ?aaio a
oneiaeyo aeoaieeo oaoo. A ?aaioa ?acaeoi iai?aaeaiea ai?iie aaiiaoaieee,
iniiaaiiia ia aaeaioeaiii acaeiiaeaenoaee aieiauo ii?iae n iii?iuie
yeaiaioaie au?aaioee. Auyaeaiu iiaua caeiiiia?iinoe i?iyaeaiee ai?iiai
aeaaeaiey a nii?yaeaiiuo n eaaie au?aaioeao, onoaiiaeaiu ia?aiao?u eo
io?aiu iii?aie ia?aiaiiie aeanoeinoe. ?ac?aaioaiu iiaua niiniau io?aiu
au?aaioie n i?eiaiaieai nai?iuo ia?aaeaeaiee ec aeaeaciaaoiiiuo aeieia,
nia?aiiuo iiaeaoeeauo oeaeeeia e i?ena/iuo au?aaioie, i?iaiaeeiuo ca
eaaie. Iauai aiaae?aiey ?ac?aaioie n oaeoe/aneei yeiiiie/aneei yooaeoii
ninoaaee 35.17 oun.i a 29 oaieueiuo oaooao Aeiiaanna.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oaieueiay oaooa, ieano, ai?iia aeaaeaiea, niauaiea,
?acoi?i/iaiea, io?aia au?aaioie.

Borzyh A.F. The development of protection methods for preparatory
workings while working out of slope coal seams in eastern region of
Donbas, Ukraine.- Manuscript.

The thesis submitted for doctors degree in technical science,
specialiaty 05.15.02 — The underground development of mineral deposits.-
The Donetsk State Technical University, Donetsk, 1998.

The thesis is concerned with the problem of raising the stability of
coal seam preparatory workings which are influenced by refining works in
deep mines.The thesis deals with mining geomechanics which is besed on
adaptive interaction of side rocks with supporting elements of coal
working. One can get to know some new regularities concerned with the
rock pressure evidence in the working which is connected with the drift,
as well as some parametres of their protection with the use of
supportings of changeable hardness. The thesis describes new ways of
working protection with the use of assembled reinforced fencing, coupled
soft pillars and near cross-section workings out of drift. The
introduction of new development works has the economic efficiency of
35.17 thousand m on 29 coal mines of Donbas as a real fact.

Key words: coal mine, seam, rock pressure, displacing, unconsolidating,
working protection.

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