I?EACIANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

IA?IO? OANAI

OAeE 669.18.046.516.2

?ic?iaea ?aoe?iiaeueieo ?aaeei?a aeaeaeaeaiiy

aiaeith ?c cae?ciaoaeaoeaaeo ?icieaa?a c

iaoith ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.16.02 – “Iaoaeo?a?y /i?ieo iaoae?a”

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiiai nooiaith

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ia??oiieue 1998

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o I?eacianueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
( IAeOO ) I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie i.Ia??oiieue.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani?

OA?EAOEI

Iao?i Noaiaiiae/

caa. eaoaae?ith iaoaeo?a?? noae?, IAeOO

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani?

NE?AAOeIA

Ieaenaiae? Ieoaeeiae/

i?ioani?, IAeOO

eaiaeeaeao
oaoi?/ieo iaoe

AO?IA

Na?a?e Aeaaeaeiae/

AAO “Acia”, i. Ia??oiieue,

ia/aeueiee ath?i
ae?iaieoeoaa noae? OIII

I?ia?aeia i?aei?e?inoai: Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinueeee aea?aeaaiee
oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao

I?ie?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie i. Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinuee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny: “30”a?oaeiy 1998 ?ieo ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaiii? a/aii? ?aaee E 12.052.01 i?e I?eacianueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 341 000, i.
Ia??oiieue, i?iaoeie ?anioae?ee, 7, ei?ion 5.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? I?eacianueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 341 000, i.
Ia??oiieue, aoe. Aiaoiaa, 115.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “27” eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? oaoi. iaoe, i?ioani?
Ianeia A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?OAIOE

A inoaii? ?iee c?inee aeiiae niiaeeaa/?a ??ciiiai?oieo aaeocae
i?iieneiaino? aei yeino? aoaeaoeaaeo oa niaoe?aeueieo noaeae, ia ui
aeyaeythoue aieea ?ic/eiai? a ieo aace, ?, a iniaeeaino?, aiaeaiue. A
cae/aeieo oiiaao ae?iaieoeoaa, eiee a aoiinoa?? noaeaieaaeeueieo
aa?aaao?a ? aiaeyi? ia?e, iaea?aeaoe noaeue a?eueio a?ae aiaeith, ia ?
iiaeeeaei. Oiio i?aoeththoue iaae i?iaeaiith aeoiieaiiy oa ia?iaee
iaoaeo c iaoith cieaeaiiy a iueiio aiaeith. Aeoiieaiiy iaoaeo a
aeaeo?e/ieo aaeooiieo ia/ao, aai aaeooiia aiai?/ia ia?iaea noae?
caaacia/o? aeia?o aeaaacaoe?th ??aeei? noae?. Iaeiae oeeie iaaeoi
aei?iaeie caniaaie iaea?aeothoue eeoa a iaaaeee?e e?eueeino?
niaoe?aeuei? noae? oa nieaae. Ia?iaea noae? a?aiiii, ui iiaea?oueny a
??aeeee ?icieaa e??cue ii?eno? aiaiao?eae? anoaaeaiiy, ciaoiaeeoue
aeayea canoinoaaiiy a i?iieneiaino?, aea aiia aeiiaa? cia/ieo aeo?ao ?
aeaeaeaiith aiaeith ?c noae? ia ? aeinoaoiuei aoaeoeaiei. Oiio
o?eaathoue iiooee iiaeo a?eueo aeineiiaeeo, aoaeoeaieo oa iaaei?iaeo
cania?a aeaaacaoe?? cae?ciaoaeaoeaaeo ?icieaa?a.

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe. I?iaeaia i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? iaoaeii?iaeoeoei? ?
iaeei c iniiaieo ? aaaeeeaeo aniaeo?a: caaea/o iioaineoieaoe?? i?ioeano
aeaaacaoe?? ??aeei? noaei. Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ?? aoaeoeaiino? c iaoith
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy ia?oi?yaeia cia/aiiy iaaoaa? ?ic?iaea ?aoe?iiaeueieo
?aaeei?a ?c canoinoaaiiyi iiaeaethaaiiy. ?ic?iaea no/anii? ? a?eueo
aeineiiaei? iiaeae? i?ioeano aeaeaeaiy aiaeith c cae?ciaoaeaoeaaeo
?icieaa?a i?iaeoaaiiyi ?ia?oiei aacii iiaea? aeooaeueio caaea/o, ai
aeicaieeoue aianoe ?noioiee aeeaae a ??oaiiy i?iaeaie
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy, ui ? iaeiei c i??i?eoaoieo iai?yie?a. Iaea?eueoa
aoaeoeai?noue aeinyaa?oueny i?iaeoaaiiyi /a?ac ii?enoi oae eeaaeee
aeieua noaea?iceeaiiai eiaoa: aiia aaco?oueny ia aaeee?e e?eueeino?
ioai??a iaeiai ?ici??o ? caaacia/o? aenieo aoaeoeai?noue ianiia?aiino
aeoeniaiiiai aaco aei i?aeoacii? iiaa?oi? iaoae-aac ca ?aooiie aaeeei?
e?eueeino? ooai?aiieo aaciaeo aoeueaaoie iaaaeeeiai ?ici??o.

?ic?iaea anainyaeii? aiae?i-? aaciaeeiaii/iii, o?ceei-o?i?/ii? ?
iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeaeae i?ioeano aeaeaeaiy aiaeith c caeiciaoaeaoeaaeo
?icieaaia, iien caeiiii??iinoae ie?aieo eiai noi??i o aca?iica’ycee ?
noeoiiino?, ? aieiaiith caaea/ath ia oeyoo ?icaeoeo oeueiai caniao
aeaaacaoe??. Oaeee eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae aei ??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie
aeicaieeoue ia?aeoe aei iaa?oioiaaiiai aeai?o oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue oeo
i?aeoe/ieo caaea/, ui aenoaathoueny i?iieneia?noth ? ae??oothoueny ca?ac
a iniiaiiio aii??e/iei oeyoii, ? cae?enithaaoe ai??i?io ioe?ieo
ia?niaeoeaiinoi iiaeo iai?yie?a c? cia/iith aeiiii??th cania?a ? /ano.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa
aeeiioaaeany o ?aieao iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ?ic?iaee: “04” “Aeieia?/ii /enoa
oa ?ano?nicaa??aath/a oaoiieia?y”, caoaa?aeaeaia o 1993 ?. I?iaocii
Oe?a?ie; 91-87 “?ic?iaea oaoiieia?? aiai?/ii? ia?iaee noae? c iaoith
i?aeaeuaiiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae oa iie?ioaiiy ?? neoaeaiaeo
oa?aeoa?enoee”, caoaa?aeaeaia o 1992 ?. aaia?aeueiei aee?aeoi?ii IE
“Acianoaeue”.

Oe?eue oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oe?eue ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea
?aoe?iiaeueieo ?aaeei?a aeaeaeaiiy aiaeith c caeiciaoaeaoeaaeo ?icieaaia
c iaoith ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy ia iniia? a?ae?i- ? aaciaeeiai?/iiai,
o?ceei-o?i?/iiai oa iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy ianiiai?iieo i?ioean?a o
aeaioacieo aaci??aeeiieo nenoaiao. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaaeaii? oe?e?
caaea/ath aeine?aeaeaiiy ?: ?ic?iaea oiia iiaeaethaaiiy a?ae?iaeeiai?ee
aeaioacieo nenoai ?c canoinoaaiiyi e?eoa??aeueieo ??aiyiue;
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiai?ee ci?ie a?aeiiniiai ??aiy aaiie, oaeaeeino?
c?eiaiiy aaciaeo aoeueaaoie oa /ano ia?aaoaaiiy ?o a ??aeei? i?e
??ciiiai?oieo ?aaeeiao i?iaeoaaiiy aaiie iaanei?eueiaaiei aacii,
?ic?iaea o?ceei-o?i?/ii? iiaeae? ianiiai?iieo i?ioean?a i?e aeaaacaoe??
cae?ciaoaeaoeaaeo ?icieaa?a; ?ic?iaea no/anii? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?
i?ioeano aeaaacaoe?? ??aeei? noae? i?iaeoaaiiyi iaanei?eueiaaiei aacii
e??cue ii?eno? oae aeieua noaea?iceeaiiai eiaoa; i?aeoe/iee aeiaeaoie
?ic?iaeaiieo iiaeaeae aei ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano aeaaacaoe?? ??aeei?
noae?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaiieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?ic?iaeai? o?ce/ia,
o?ceei-o?i?/ia oa iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeae?, ye? aeicaieeee aonaiiaeoe oiiae
iiae?aiino? a?ae?iaeeiai?ee aaiie, ianiiai?iieo i?ioean?a aeaeaeaiiy
aiaeith ?c ??aeei? noae?. Noai?ai? iiaeae? ianiia?aiino ?ic/eiaiiai
aaco o aoeueaaoee ?ia?oiiai ? aeaeaeaiiy eiai ?c ?ic/ei?a a caeaaeiino?
a?ae ?ioaineaiino? aeiiii? i?iaeoaee iaanei?eueiaaiei aacii, yeee
iiaea?oueny e??cue ii?eno? oae aeieua iiaeae? oa aa?aaaoa. Eiiieaen
aeyaeaieo e?iaoe/ieo caeiiii??iinoae oa oa oaoiieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae
aeaaacaoe?? ?ic/ei?a aeicaieea iioei?coaaoe i?ioean, ?ic?iaeoe
?aoe?iiaeuei? ?aaeeie aeaeaeaiiy aiaeith ?c cae?ciaoaeaoeaaeo ?icieaa?a
c iaoith ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Ia iniia? ? c aeei?enoaiiyi
aeae?i-? aaciaeeiaii/ii?, o?ceei-o?i?/ii? ? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeaeae
?ic?iaeai? oa cai?iiaiiaai? aei oi?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aoe?iiaeuei? ?aaeeie
i?iaeoaaiiy ??aeeeo caeiciaoaeaoeaaeo ?icieaaia. Neeaaeaiee aeai?eoi,
?ic?iaeaia oa cai?iiaiiaaia i?aei?e?inoaai i?ia?aia ?ic?aooieo ia
eiii’thoa?? iniiaieo ia?aiao??a i?ioeano aeaaacaoe?? ??aeei? noaei a?ae
aiaeith. I/?eoaaiee ??/iee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie neeaae? 580 oeny/ a?eaaiue, (aeiey aaoi?a 45 oen.
a?ea.).

Iniaenoee aeeaae caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii aeeiiaiee aiae?c iaoaiaoe/ieo
iiaeaeae, iaoai?ci?a, e?i?ooth/eo noaae?e ? eeiaoeee i?ioean?a
aeaaacaoe?? iaoaeaaeo ?icieaaia nieeaath/eie aoeueaaoeaie ?ia?oiiai
aaco, ?icaeyioo? oa?aeoa?i? a?ae?iaeeiai?/i? caeiiii??iino? nieeaaiiy
aoeueaaoie a aeaioacieo aaci??aeeiieo nenoaiao, oiia iiae?aiino? i?e
iiaeaethaaii? a?ae?iaeeiai?ee aaiie ? ianiiai?iieo i?ioean?a; ?ic?iaeai?
iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy a?ae?iaeeiai?ee aaiie,
o?ceei-o?i?/ia iiaeaeue aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ianiiai?iieo i?ioean?a
aeaaacaoe?? ??aeeeo ?icieaa?a, ?ic?iaeaia ? aeaioiaeaia eaai?aoi?ia
onoaiiaea aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue; neeaaeaia
iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue i?ioeano aeaaacaoe?? cae?ciaoaeaoeaaeo ?icieaa?a
i?iaeoaaiiyi eiai iaanei?eueiaaiei aacii e??cue ii?eno? oae aeieua
noaea?iceeaiiai eiaoa; iaoiaeeea aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a
eaai?aoi?ieo oa caaiaenueeeo oiiaao; neeaaeai? aeai?eoie ? eiii’thoa?i?
i?ia?aie /enaeueiiai aenia?eiaioo ii aecia/aiith ?ano?nicaa??aath/eo
?aaeei?a iiaea/? a?aiio a cae?ciaoaeaoeaaee ?icieaa. ?ic?iaeai?
?aoe?iiaeuei? ?aaeeie iiaea/? a?aiio ii?iaiaai? a ia?oai?anueeiio oeaoo
iaoaeo?a?eiiai eiia?iaoo “Acianoaeue”. Aaoi?ii i?aeoaa?aeaeaia
iie?ioaiiy yeino? ?aeeiaiai iaoaeo i?e aeei?enoaii? ?aoe?iiaeueieo
?aaeei?a i?iaeoaaiiy noae? a?aiiii e??cue ii?eno? oae aeieua
noaea?iceeaiiai eiaoa.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee ?iaioe aeieeaaeai? i
iaaiai?ai? ia 1 ? 3 ?aa?iiaeueieo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo,
i?iaaaeaieo a I?eacianueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? a
1993, 1995 ? 1998 ?ieao (i. Ia?ioiieue).

Ioae?eaoe?y. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaiee a 10 iaoeiaeo
?iaioao oa iaoa??aeao eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, caeeth/aiiy, aeiaeaoe?a, aeeeaaeaia ia 125
noi??ieao iaoeiiai oaenoo , i?noeoue a nia? 44 iaethiee ? 11 oaaeeoeue.
Ia?ae?e aeaea?ae, ui aeei?enoiaoaaeeny i?noeoue 155 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

?icae?e 1. Oa?iiaeeiai?/i?, a?ae?iaeeiai?/i? ? oaoiieia?/i? aniaeoe
aeaaacaoe?? cae?ciaoaeaoeaaeo ?icieaa?a nieeaath/eie aoeueaaoeaie
iaanei?eueiaaiiai aaca

A iaeyae? iaaiaeyoueny aea?? ? iaa?oiooaaiiy iai?yiea aeine?aeaeaiue;
oa?iiaeeiai?ea, iaoai?ci, e?i?ooth/ee noaae?? ? e?iaoeea i?ioeano
aeaaacaoe??; oa?aeoa?i? caeiiii??iino? nieeaaiiy aoeueaaoie a aeaioacieo
aaci??aeeiieo nenoaiao; aiae?c iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae i?ioeano aeaeaeaiy
aiaeith c caeiciaoaeaoeaaeo ?icieaaia nieeaath/eie aoeueaaoeaie
?ia?oiiai aaco. A inoaiiueiio i?ae?icae?e? noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa ?iaioe oa
iinoaaeai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

?icae?e 2. Aeaye? caeiiii??iino? a?ae?i- ? aaciaeeiai?/iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy

i?ioean?a i?iaeoaaiiy aaiie iaanei?eueiaaiei aacii

?icaeyiooa aca?iiae?th/a iaoai?/ia nenoaia aac (1) — iaoae (2). Nenoaia
ciaoiaeeoueny a iie? ae?? a?aa?oaoe?eieo nee. *a?ac oa? iaoaeo
i?iaeoaa?oueny ?ia?oiee aac. Aeey ?ic?iaee oiiae iiae?aiino? i?e
iiaeaethaaii? a?ae?iaeeiai?ee aeaioacieo nenoai ca iniiao i?eeiyo?
??aiyiiy ?ooo aeey eiaeii? c oac, caienai? a i?yiieooi?e nenoai?
eii?aeeiao,

(1)

(2)

aea (- aaeoi?-iia?aoi? “Iaaea”

; (3)

aea ( — iia?aoi? Eaieana;

(4)

Iiaeaeueoee aiae?c ??aiyiue (1) ? (2) aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe iaaeia?
oiiae iiaeaethaaiiy a?ae?iaeeiai?ee aaiie. Oa?aeoa?ieie aac?ici??ieie
ia?aiao?aie ? e?eoa??? A?oeiaaea (Ar), Yeea?a (Ae), ?aeiieueaena (Ra),
O?oaea (Fr) ? Aaaa?a (Wa).

Aeey aecia/aiiy a?aeiiniiai ??aiy aa?aioiaaii? aaci??aeeiii? nenoaie
neeaaeaia noeoii?noue aac?ici??ieo o?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a:

(5)

aea i — ieoiia ?ioaineai?noue i?iaeoaaiiy ii3/(i2 n);

u — na?aaeiy oaeaee?noue nieeaaiiy aoeueaaoie; i/c;

(de), (deo) ? (dn)- ae?aiao?e i?iaeoaa?ii? aaiie, eae?a?iaaiiai ioai?o ?
niiae.

Iiaeaethaaiiy a?ae?iaeeiai?ee aaiie aeeiioaaeiny ia niaoe?aeueii
aeaioiaeai?e eaai?aoi?i?e onoaiiaoe?. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue io?eiai? caeaaeiino? ci?ie a?aeiiniiai ??aiy ??aeeie
((I/Ii) a?ae ieoiiiai aeaeaoeo iaanei?eueiaaiiai aaco (i), cia/aiue
eiiieaeniiai e?eoa??th Ar/We ? Re(Fr/(Eu(We) i?e ??ciiiai?oiiio ??ai?
niie?eii? ??aeeie ? ae?aiao?? eae?a?iaaiiai dei= 9.6; 12.0 ii i?e
i?iaeoaaii? a ?aaeei? i?yii — ? i?ioeoa/??. Io?eiai? caeaaeiino? (I/Ii=f
(i), Ar/We, Re Fr/(Eu We); u = f (i), (i?=f (i), iieacothoue neeaaeiee
?oi?e oa?aeoa?, ui coiiaeaii ci?iith ?aaeeio ?ooo ? oi?iith aoeueaaoie a
aaci??aeeii?e nenoai?. I?iaeoaaiiy a i?ioeoa/?eiiio ?aaeei?
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny a?eueoei ca?eueoaiiyi a?aeiiniiai ??aiy aa?aioiaaii?
??aeeie. Aeei?enoaiiy a yeino? iiaeaethth/i? ??aeeie 26% ?ic/eio NaCl a
aiae? ((=1,197 ea/i3 oa i=0,083 ean/i) ia aeicaieeei anoaiiaeoe aieea
u?eueiino? ??aeeie ia ci?io (I/Ii. Aiaeeia ia?aaoaaiiy ? oaeaee?noue
nieeaaiiy aaciaeo aoeueaaoie a ??aeei? — aeaa aca?iica’ycaieo ia?aiao?a
a?ae?iaeeiai?ee aa?aioiaaii? aaiie. Oa?aeoa?i? caeaaeiino? u=f(i)
iieacothoue, ui na?aaeiy oaeaee?noue nieeaaiiy aoeueaaoie oei aeua, /ei
a?eueoa ??aaiue i?iaeoai?e aaiie. I?e iaeeo aeaeaoeao aaco aoeueaaoee
?ooathoueny e?i?eiei eaioethaeeii (aoeueaaoeiaee ?aaeei). Iaeiae, ?c
c?inoaiiyi i a?ae 0,01 aei 0,04 ii3/(i2. n) oaeaee?noue nieeaaiiy
aoeueaaoie ciaioo?oueny aei ??aiy noaoe?iia?iiai ? a iiaeaeueoiio
i?aeoe/ii ia caeaaeeoue a?ae ieoiii? ?ioaineaiino? i?iaeoaaiiy.
??ciiiai?oia u?euei?noue ??aeeie ((a=1000 ea/i3, (?=1197 ea/i3) aieeaa?
ia oaeaee?noue nieeaaiiy aaciaeo aoeueaaoie eeoa i?e iaeeo aeaeaoeao
aaco ( i=0,01 (0,05 ii3/(i2.n)). I?e i > 0,05 ii3/(i2.n) aieea
u?eueiino? ??aeeie ia oaeaee?noue nieeaaiiy iaaaeeeee, a i?e i=0,08(0,11
ii3/(i2.n) i?aeoe/ii ia a?ae??ciythoueny. Oai?aoe/iee aiae?c aeeiai?ee
?ooo aaciai? aoeueaaoee a ieoue a?ae?eao ?? a?ae niiea iieacaee, ui aiia
cacia? ye i?enei?aiiy, oae ? aaeueioaaiiy. sseui oaeaee?noue i?aeeiio
eoiiea aoeueaaoee (veoi) aeua oaeaeeino? nieeaaiiy aoeueaaoee (ua.), oi
aaciaa aoeueaaoea, ui a?ae?eaa?oueny cacia? aaeueioaaiiy ? oaeaee?noue
veoi > ua, i?e ua > veoi. Aaciaa aoeueaaoea cacia? i?enei?aiiy. Oe?
ia?aiao?e caeaaeaoue a?ae i oa noaoe?iia?ii? oaeaeeino? nieeaaiiy
aaciai? aoeueaaoee. sse i?enei?aiiy, oae ? aaeueioaaiiy aoeueaaoee
i?io?ea? i?aeoe/ii ieoo?ai, ioeuenaoe?ii.

?acoeueoaoe oieiaeiiai iiaeaethaaiiy a?ae?iaeeiai?ee aaiie aoee
aeei?enoai? i?e aecia/aii? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ?aaeeio i?iaeoaaiiy noae? a
eiao? a?aiiii. Aeey oeueiai aoea ?ic?iaeaia noaia, neeaaeaiee aeai?eoi
aeey ?ic?aooieo iniiaieo aaci-a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a i?iaeoaaiiy
iaoaeaaiai ?icieaao a?aiiii e??cue ii?eno? oae aeieua noaea?iceeaiiai
eiaoa.Aeine?aeaeaiiy a?ae?iaeeiai?ee iaoaeaaiai ?icieaao a eiao? c
o?aooaaiiyi oiiae Re Fr/(Eu We) = i dem, i/(u — i) = i dem oa (I/Ii= f
(Re Fr/(Eu We)), i/(u — i) aeicaieeee aecia/eoe (I, I, (I/Ii ?
anoaiiaeoe ?aoe?iiaeuei? ?aaeeie i?iaeoaaiiy. Ii/eiaoe i?iaeoaaiiy
iaoaeo a?aiiii iaiao?aeii i?e iaiiaiai? eiaoa ia 0,2 eiai aenioe i?e
i?aeaeuaieo aeaeaoeao a?aiio ( iar = 0,02(0,03 ii3/n), aea, i?e
iaaeeaeaii? oeaeiiaoaeaaiai ?icieaao aei aa?oiueiai ??aiy (Ii= 0,8Ie)
?ioaineai?noue iiaea/? Ar iaiao?aeii ciaiueoeoe aei 0,01 ii3/n, ?
i?iaeoaaiiy i?ney ceeaa iaoaeo c ia/? i?iaeiaaeeoe ia 2(3 oa c oe??th ae
?ioaineai?noth, ui aeicaieeoue aeeeth/eoe ia?aiiaiaiey noaea?iceeaiiai
eiaoa oeaeiiaoaeaaei ?icieaaii ? i?ecaaaea aei i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
ia?iaee noae? a?aiiii.

?icae?e 3. O?ceei-o?i?/ia iiaeaethaaiiy ianiiai?iieo i?ioean?a

aeaeaeaiiy aiaeith c iaoaeaaiai ?icieaaa

Oa?iiaeeiai?/iee aiae?c ??aiiaaae oei?o a nenoai? ??aeeia-aac
aeicaieeee, io?eiaoe ??aiyiiy:

(6)

Aeey oai?aoe/iiai aecia/aiiy ieoiiiai aeaeaoeo iaanei?eueiaaiiai aaco a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ii/aoeiai? ? e?ioeaai? eiioeaio?aoe?? oei?o a aiaeiiio
?ic/ei?.

O?ceei-o?i?/ia iiaeaethaaiiy ianiiai?iieo i?ioean?a aeaeaeaiiy aiaeith c
iaoaeaaeo ?icieaa?a ieoaiiy aeinoaoiuei neeaaeia. Oiio ioae?eaoe?? ii
iueiio aoaeooue a?aenooi?. A aeai?e ?iaio? aia?oa c?iaeaia ni?iaa
?icaeyiooe oea ieoaiiy. Ioe?ithth/ei ia?aiao?ii i?ioeano i?eeiyoa
aeeaeia aeaeaeaiy oei?o c aiaeiiai ?ic/eio. C o?aooaaiiyi aieeao
oaoiieia?/ieo oaeoi??a ia aeeaeio aeaaacaoe?? neeaaeaia noeoii?noue
o?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a:

A = [Cl]H-[Cl]k/[Cl]H = O(A, Ii /de , dei / dc ). (7)

aea A — eiiieaeniee e??oa??e ianiia?aiino.

(8)

Ianiia?aiin oei?o c ianyao ??aeeie aei aoeueaaoee aaco i?e i?yiio?/iiio
?aaeei? aea/aee ia iiaeae? c ?ioaineai?noth i?iaeoaaiiy, ui
canoiniao?oueny ia i?aeoeoe? ? ui caaacia/o? iaeneiaeueiee /an
ia?aaoaaiiy aaco a ??aeei?. A?ae?eaiee ae?aiao? aoeueaaoee a?ae niiea
aecia/aee ii caniao A. I. Oaaaeaaa ? E. I. Eeneeoeeii?.

E?ea? ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe?? oei?o a aiaeiiio ?ic/ei? i?e ??ciiiai?oi?e
ieoii?e ?ioaineaiino? i?iaeoaaiiy (i=0,025; 0,033; 0,044; 0,078; 0,086
i3/(i2 n)) ? ??ciiiai?oiiio ??ai? niie?eii? aaiie (Ii=0,2; 0,4 oa 0,6 i)
a caeaaeiino? a?ae /ano (Cl), a oaeiae iiaoaeiaai? caeaaeiino? a
eii?aeeiaoao 1/[Cl] -(; ln ([Cl]i/ [Cl])- ( (iae.1) iieacothoue
neeaaeiee oa?aeoa? caeaaeiino? ? i?ioean aeaaacaoe?? iieno?oueny
e?iaoe/ieie ??aiyiiyie ?ioiai ii?yaeeo. Aiae?c e?iaoeee aeaaacaoe??
aiaeiiai ?ic/eio i?e i?iaeoaaii? eiai iia?o?yi a ?aaeei? noaoe?iia?iiai
i?ioeano aeeooc?? oei?o a ?ic/ei? ? aac? aoeueaaoee ?c canoinoaaiiyi
aeeoa?aioe?eiiai ??aiyiiy:

(9)

iieacaa ( ii oaeoe/i?e aaee/ei? onoiaiiai c ?ic/eio oei?o ) cieaeaiiy
oaeaeeino? aeaaacaoe?? ii oiaeo i?iaeoaaiiy, ui coiiaeaia ciaioaiiyi
ia?aiaaeo eiioeaio?aoe?? [Cl]-[Cl]ae-a. I?ioean aeaaacaoe?? ?ic/eio
e?i?oo?oueny ianiia?aiinii oei?o a ?ic/ei?. Anoaiiaeaiee ca’ycie E=f(B)
i?e ??ciiiai?oiiio a?aeiiniiio ??ai? niie?eii? aaiie (Ii/de=0,87; 1,74;
2,61) iieaco?, ui aeeaeia aeaaacaoe?? ?ic/eio c?inoa? a?eueo ?ioaineaii
i?e iaeeo cia/aiiyo B (ioaea, ? iaeeo cia/aiiyo ieoiii? ?ioaineaiino?
i?iaeoaaiiy), i?e B> 5 c?inoaiiy E cieaeo?oueny. Aieea Ii/de ia A
aeyaey?oueny neaaei. Iaeiae, iii?oii aeyaey?oueny ?aaeei i?iaeoaaiiy.
I?e i?ioeoa/?eiiio ?aaeei? aeeaeia aeaaacaoe?? aeua, ui ca’ycaia c?
oaeaee?noth nieeaaiiy ? /ano ia?aaoaaiiy aoeueaaoie a ??aeei?.

Aeey anoaiiaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeaaacaoe?? i?iaiaeeciaaee ii
aenia?eiaioaeueiei aeaiei caeaaeiino? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy onoiaiiai oei?o ?
aeaeaoeo iia?o?y VCl/Va a caeaaeiino? a?ae ii/aoeiai? eiioeaio?aoe??
eiai a ?ic/ei? ([Cl]i ), ??aiy niie?eii? ??aeeie (Ii), ?ioaineaiino?
i?iaeoaaiiy (i), eiiieaeniiai e?eoa??th ianiia?aiino (B); e?eueeino?
onoiaiiai oei?o, oaeaeeino? aeaaacaoe?? ?ic/eio a caeaaeiino? a?ae
[Cl]i, i, Ii, aeaeaoeo iia?o?y. Aeyaeai? caeiiii??iino? aeicaieythoue
anoaiiaethaaoe iioeiaeuei? ?aaeeie i?iaeoaaiiy ia iiaeae? ? iaoo??.I?e
iiaeaethaaii? ianiiai?iieo i?ioean?a aeaaacaoe?? ??aeeeo ?ic/ei?a
iaiao?aeii aeiaea?aeaiiy oiia A=idem, B=idem. Aeey ae?iaie/eo oiia
neeaaeaiee aeai?eoi ?ic?aooieo cia/aiiy eiiieaeniiai e?eoa??th B c
o?aooaaiiyi iiaa?oiuei-aeoeaieo aeaiaio?a.

Iaethiie 1. E?iaoe/i? e?ea? aeaeaeaiiy oei?o c aiaeiiai ?ic/eio o
eii?aeeiaoao 1/[Cl]- t (a), ln [Cl]o/ [Cl] — t (ae):

Io= 0,2 (a); 0,4 (a); 0,6 (a); ?=0,0248 (1); 0,0327 (2); 0,0441 (3);
0,0778 (4); 0,0857 (5) ii3/(i2n ).

Ia?iaeai? o?ce/i? ia?aiao?e aeey ?ic?aooieo a?aeiia?aeiino? iiaeae?
oaeoe/iiio i?ioeano. ?ic?aooiee aeeiiai? ia eiii’thoa?? iieacaee, ui
aeeaeia aeaaacaoe?? cae?ciaoaeaoeaaiai ?icieaao (?aeeiaa noaeue) c
ca?eueoaiiyi aeaeaoeo a?aiio (g) c?inoa? iai?iii?oe?eii. Oae, i?e
ca?eueoaii? g c 0,01 aei 0,05 ii3/o aeeaeia aeaaacaoe?? ca?eueoo?oueny c
0,1 aei 0,25, a oie /an, ye i?e iiaeaeueoiio ca?eueoaii? g, c 0,05 aei
0,185 ii3/o A c?inoa? eeoa c 0,25 aei 0,35. Oeae oa?aeoa?iee ca’ycie
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny caeiiii??i?noth ci?ie ni?aa?aeiioaiiy VH2/VAr a?ae
e?eoa??th B. Oa?aeoa? caeaaeiino?, anoaiiaeaiee ia ia’?eo?, aiaeia?/iee
caeaaeiino?, anoaiiaeaii? ia iiaeae?. Ni?anoaaeaoe A a?ae A ii aeaiei
oieiaeiiai iiaeaethaaiiy ? ia ia’?eo?, ne?ae a?aecia/eoe aeia?ee ?o ca?a
i?e A< 12. Aaee/eia a?aeiiniiai a?aeoeeaiiy ia ia?aaeuo? 10%. Ioaea, aeiaea?aeoth/e oiiae A=i dem ii ??aiyiith: (10) Iiaeia i?iaiicoaaoe o?eaae?noue i?iaeoaaiiy cae?ciaoaeaoeaaiai ?cnieaao a?aiiii, yeee iiaea?oueny e??cue ii?eno? oae aeieua noaea?iceeaiiai eiaoa. ?aaeei i?iaeoaaiiy a?aiiii i?e A<12 ? iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueiei. Ieoiiee aeaeaoie eiai iaiao?aeii i?aeo?eioaaoe ia ??ai? 0,04(0,07 ii3/o. O?eaae?noue i?iaeoaaiiy 6(8 oa. Niieo/aiiy ?? c aeioneii iaoaeo c noaeaieaaeeueiiai aa?aaaoo, ne?ae ii/eiaoe i?iaeoaaiiy i?e iaiiaiai? eiaoa iaoaeii ia 0,25 eiai aenioe ? i?iaeiaaeoaaoe i?iaeoaaiiy i?ney iaiiaiaiy eiaoa ua 2(3 oaee, aea aaea i?e i?i?iaeuei?e ?ioaineaiino? i?iaeoaaiiy. ?icae?e 4. ?ic?iaea iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? i?ioeano aeaeaeaiiy aiaeith c cae?ciaoaeaoeaaeo ?icieaa?a i?iaeoaaiiyi iaanei?eueiaaiiei aacii e??cue ii?eno? oae aeieua noaea?iceeaiiai eiaoa I?e ?ic?iaoe? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? aeei?enoai? oai?aoe/i? ? oaoiieia?/i? aniaeoe ianiia?aiino ?ic/eiaiiai a iaoae? aiaeith. Aeeaeia aeaaacaoe?? iaoaeaaiai ?icieaao a?ae aiaeith, nieeaath/eie aoeueaaoeaie ?ia?oiiai aaco, ui i?eae?ey?oueny, iieno?oueny ??aiyiiyi: , (11) aea V (() - ianya ??aeeie a ?ao?iiaai?e ?iiino? a iiiaio /ano; Q(- iio?e iane iniiaiiai aaco ia aoeueaaoeiao iiaa?oith, a?aeianaiee aei iaeeieoe? ianyao ?icieaao; ( - iioi/iee /an i?iaeoaaiiy; (o - iiiaio ii/aoeo i?iaeoaaiiy. Ei?enooth/enue ae?acii aeey na?aaeiueiai cia/aiiy ooieoe?? ia caaeaiiio ?ioa?aae?, io?eia?ii (12) aea Qn? - cia/aiiy Q', ina?aaeiaia ii anueiio ia'?io ??aeeie a aeaiee iiiaio /ano. Ioaea, i?eoiaeeii aei ae?aco , (13) Aeey ina?aaeiaiiai ii anueiio ia'?io ??aeeie a aeaiee iiiaio /ano iaea?aeo?ii: Q(c?= nn?.jn? (14) nn?=m/(mo . V(()) (15) (16) (p = I(()/ un?(() (17) I?ney aeayeiai ia?aoai?aiiy iaea?aeo?ii (18) Neeaaeaiee oe?oiiaiiee aeai?eoi ?ic?aooieo. Ia?aa??ea aeinyaiaiiy caaeaii? aeeaeie aeaeaeaiiy aiaeith i?e (((ne cae?enith?oueny ii ia??aiino?: | Si /Q-E |(( (19) aea (- iaeee ia?aiao?; i?e iaaeeiiaii? (19)-ia?ao?ae aei ianooiiiai e?ieo ii /ano, a a aeiaaeeo eiai aeeiiaiiy - ia?aoiaeeii aei cae?i/aiiy ?ic?aooieo ? aeniiaeo ia ia/aoeo iniiaieo ia?aiao??a i?ioeano. ?ic?iaeaia aeie-noaia ?ic?aooieo i?ioeano aeaaacaoe?? ?icieaao nieeaath/eie aoeueaaoeaie ?ia?oiiai aaco ? ianiia?aiino aiaeith a aoeueaaoeo ?ia?oiiai aaco. Iaaiaeeoueny iine?aeiai?noue ?ic?aooieo ia?aiao??a mi, m, I, ?n?, rn?, In?, ui oi?iothoue i?ae ?ioaa?aeueio ooieoe?th O. I?e oeueiio aeei?enoai? no/ani? aeai? ii caeiiii??iinoyi aca?iiae?? aaciai? ? ??aeei? oac. Iiaeaeue iaea?eueo iiaii ioiieth? oa?iiaeeiai?/i? ia?aiao?e ? oaoiieia?/i? oaeoi?e i?ioeano aeaaacaoe?? cae?ciaoaeaoeaaeo ?icieaa?a. ?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaieo ?ic?aooie?a iieacaee, ui e?euee?noue aaciaeo aoeueaaoie a ianyc? caiiaiaiiai ?icieaao c?inoa? ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ?ioaineaiino? i?iaeoaaiiy a?aiiii e??cue ii?eno? oae aeieua eiaoa (iae.2). Oea i?eaiaeeoue aei a?eueo ?o o?niiai ?icoaooaaiiy ii aa?oeeae?. Iana ?ia?oiiai aaco a iaei?e aoeueaaooe?, ui a i?ioean? ?? nieeaaiiy ia ci?ith?oueny, ? oaeiae iiiioiiii c?inoath/ith ooieoe??th ?ioaineaiino? i?iaeoaaiiy, oea ne?aeo? ? c oaeoo c?inoaiiy a?ae?eaiiai ae?aiao?o aoeueaaoee ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ?icaeyiooiai ia?aiao?o. Aeeaeia ?ao?ioaaiiy noae? a?ae aiaeith c?inoa? ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ?ioaineaiino? i?iaeoaaiiy e??cue ii?eno? aeaiaioe. Oea coiiaeaia i?aeaeuaiiyi e?eueeino? aaciaeo aoeueaaoie a ianyc? ?icieaao ?, ioaea, ca?eueoaiiyi noia?ii? ieiu?, eiioaeoo aac-iaoae. Iaeiae aaee/eia c?inoaiiy d(/d( i?e oeueiio ciaioo?oueny ? i?e aeayeiio cia/aii? ?ioaineaiino? i?iaeoaaiiy ( , caeeoa?oueny i?aeoe/ii ia iaeiiio ??ai?, ui ye?nii i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aeaiei oieiaeiiai iiaeaethaaiiy. ?icaeyioo? aeaa ?aoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinii ?ioaineaiino? ?aaeeio i?iaeoaaiiy. Ia?oee c ieo (iino?eia a /an? ?ioaineai?noue i?iaeoaaiiy) oa?aeoa?eco? iaea?eueo iuaaeeeaa aeo?a/aiiy ?ia?oiiai aaco, iaea?aeo?oueny ia?aoeiii a?ao?e?a ((() oa mI2 ((). Ae?oaee ?aaeei (?ioaineai?noue i?iaeoaaiiy c?inoa? i?yii i?iii?oe?eii ??aith iaiiaiaiiy eiaoa iaoaeii), ui iaaiaeeoue aei aeae?eueea a?eueo aenieiai cia/aiiy A oe?iith cia/ii a?eueoi? ((a 3 ?ace) ?ioaineaiino? i?iaeoaaiiy ? cao?ao a?aiio. E?eaa A(() i?aeoe/ii aeinyaa? ??aiy iane/aiiy. Aeey 1 ? 2 ?aaeei?a iioeiaeuei? ?ioaineaiino? i?iaeoaaiiy ??ai?, a?aeiia?aeii, cia/aiiyi: (11=0,031 ii3/n, (21=0,085(0,090 ii3/n; (12=0,022 ii3/n, (22=0,065(0,070 ii3/n. I?e ?ioaineaiino? i?iaeoaaiiy (22 ieoiiee aeaeaoie a?aiio c o?aooaaiiyi aeei?enoaieo a ?ic?aooieo o?eaaeino? i?iaeoaaiiy ? iane ieaaee ciaoiaeeoueny ia ??ai? 0,2 ii3/o. ?aaeuei? cia/aiiy aoaeooue aeua, c i?e/ei iayaiino? oaeoi??a, ui cieaeothoue aoaeoeai?noue i?ioeano aeaaacaoe??. Ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooieo ii iaoaiaoe/i?e iiaeae? c aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie, io?eiaieie a oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aaeueiiai i?ioeano, iieacaei caaeia?eueia ?o iiaiaeaeaiiy. Iia??oi?noue, ui ia ia?aaeuo? 32%, coiiaeaia /anoeiaei ceeooyi aoeueaaoie, aiaeii/an aeo?aeieo c non?aei?o i??, ? oeioaoe??th iaiaoaeaaeo aeeth/aiue no?ieaie nieeaath/eo aoeueaaoie. Iaa?oue a?aeiinii iaaaeee? ?ioaineaiino? i?iaeoaaiiy i?e iaiaaeaii? o?eaaeino? neeao iaoaeo c ia/? a eiao, aeicaieeee ca?eueoeoe aeo?ae ia?oiai ni?oo ?aeie ?75 oa ?65 a na?aaeiueiio ia 5,14 ? 2,63%, a?aeiia?aeii. Iaethiie 2. Caeaaei?noue e?eueeino? aaciaeo aoeueaaoie a ia'?i? caiiaiaiiiai ?icieaaii eiaoa (a), iane a?aiio a iaei?e aoeueaaooe? (a), aeeaeia onoiaiiy aiaeith c ??aeei? ?aeeiai? noae? (1) oa aaci??ii? eiai iane mi2 (2) aeianaii? iaei??th aoeueaaoeith ii cae?i/aiith ceeao iaoaea ?c ia/? a eiao a?ae ?ioaineaiino? i?iaeoaaiiy e??cue ii?eno? oae aeieua i?e: a - iino?ii? a /an? ?ioaineaiino? i?iaeoaaiiy; a - c?inoath/i? i?yii i?iii?oe?eii ??aith iaiiaiaiiy eiaoa. AENIIAEE Aiae?c noaio ieoaiiy aeicaieea noi?ioethaaoe caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ??oaiiy yeeo aeicaieeei iiaoaeoaaoe iiaeaeue aeaeaeaiiy aiaeith c cae?ciaoaeaoeaaeo ?icieaa?a iaanei?eueiaaiei aacii, ui iiaea?oueny e??cue ii?eno? oae aeieua noaea?iceeaiiai eiaoa. 1. ?ic?iaeai? o?ce/ia, oeceei-o?i?/ia iiaeae?, aeaioiaeaia eaai?aoi?ia onoaiiaa aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy a?ae?iaeeiai?ee aaiie ? ianiiai?iieo i?ioean?a aeaaacaoe?? i?e i?iaeoaaii? ??aeeie iaanei?eueiaaiei aacii. 2. A ?acoeueoao? o?ce/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy a?ae?iaeeiai?ee aaiie anoaiiaeai? iniiai? caeiiii??iino? aca?iiae?? aaciaeo aoeueaaoie c ??aeeiith, ?aoe?iiaeuei? ?aaeeie i?iaeoaaiiy, ci?ie a?aeiiniiai ??aiy aa?aioiaaii? ??aeeie a?ae ieoiiiai aeaeaoeo iaanei?eueiaaiiai aaco ? cia/aiiy eiiieaeniiai e?eoa??th (Re.Fr)/(Eu.We), a oaeiae /ano ia?aaoaaiiy aoeueaaoie a nenoai? ??aeeia - aac. 3. Ca aeiiiiiaith oeceei-o?i?/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy anoaiiaeee oa?aeoa?i? caeiiii??iino? aeaeaeaiiy oei?o c aiaeiiai ?ic/eio. Aiae?c ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe?? oei?o o aiae? ii oiaeo i?iaeoaaiiy iaanei?eueiaaiei aacii iieacaa, ui i?ioean aeaaacaoe?? iieno?oueny ??aiyiiyie ?ioiai ii?yaeeo. C ca?eueoaiiyi aeaeaoeo aaco aoaeoeai?noue aeaeaeaiiy oei?o c aiaeiiai ?ic/eio ciaioo?oueny. Iaeneiaeuei? cia/aiiy eiai iathoue i?noea i?e i?i?iaeueiiio aeaeaoeo aaco. Oaeaee?noue aeeo/aiiy oei?o caeaaeeoue a?ae ii/aoeiai? eiioeaio?aoe?? eiai a ?ic/ei? ? ??aiy aaiie. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy e?eueeino? onoiaiiai oei?o c ?ic/eio aei aeaeaoeo aaco ca?eueoo?oueny c c?inoaiiyi ii/aoeiai? eiioeaio?aoe?? oei?o ? ??aiy aaiie. O?ceei - o?i?/ia iiaeaethaaiiy aeicaieeei anoaiiaeoe nooi?iue aeaaacaoe?? a caeaaeiino? a?ae cia/aiiy eiiieaeniiai e?eoa??th A, ui oa?aeoa?eco? ianiiai?ii? i?ioeane i?e ia?iaoe? ??aeeie iaanei?eueiaaiei aacii. 4. Aaee/eia i?eaeeaeaiiy ia?oeeaeueiiai oeneo oei?a a aoeueaaoeao iia?o?y aei ??aiiaaae ?ic?aoiaaiiio o a?aeiia?aeiino? ?c caeiiii N?aa?ona neeaaea? 0,06(0,6. ?c ciaioaiiyi /ano ia?aaoaaiiy aoeueaaoie o ??aeei? oa ca?eueoaiiyi ?ioaineaiino? i?iaeoaaiiy aiia cieaeo?oueny. Oea aeaco? ia oa, ui i?ioean aeaeaeaiiy oei?o c aiaeiiai ?ic/eio e?i?oo?oueny ianiia?aiinii eiai a ?ic/ei?. 5. ?acoeueoaoe oieiaeiiai iiaeaethaaiiy a?ae?iaeeiai?ee aaiie ? ianiiai?ii?o i?ioean?a aeicaieeee aeyaeoe iioeiaeuei? ?aaeeie i?iaeoaaiiy, i?iaiicoaaoe ??aaiue i?iaeoaaaii? aaiie, o?eaae?noue i?iaeoaaiiy ? ?io? aeoaea aaaeeea? oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e ia?iaee ??aeei? noae? a?aiiii, ui iiaea?oueny e??cue ii?eno? oae aeieua. 6. ?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue i?ioeano aeaeaeaiiy aiaeith c cae?ciaoaeaoeaaiai ?icieaao nieeaath/eie aoeueaaoeaie ?ia?oiiai aaco, neeaaeaia iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy caaiaenueeeo aeine?aeaeaiue, aeai?eoi ? i?ia?aia ?ic?aooieo ia eiii'thoa??. A ia? aeeth/ai? aeai? no/anii? iaoee ii aca?iiae?? aaci??aeeiieo nenoai. 7. C canoinoaaiiyi iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? anoaiiaeaia aeeaeia aeaeaeaiiy aiaeith c ??aeei? noae? ii caaa?oaii? ceeao ?? c ia?oaiianeiai ia/? a eiao. Aiia c?inoa? i?e ca?eueoaii? ?ioaineaiino? i?iaeoaaiiy a?aiiii e??cue ii?eno? oae aeieua eiaoa. Iaeiae, aaee/eia c?inoaiiy ?? ciaioo?oueny ? i?e aeayeiio cia/aii? ?ioaineaiino? i?iaeoaaiiy aaee/eia aeaaacaoe?? caeeoa?oueny i?aeoe/ii ia iaeiiio ??ai?. 8. Ca /an ia?aaoaaiiy a iaoaeaaiio ?icieaa? oene a iueiio aiaeith, aecia/aiiiai ?c caeiiii N?aa?ona, iaaeeaeo?oueny aei ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ??aiiaaae, aaee/eia neeaaea? 0,90(0,98 oa ciaiueoo?oueny ?c ca?eueoaiiyi aeo?a/aiiy a?aiia. 9. Aeine?aeaeaiiy c canoinoaaiiyi ?ic?iaeaii? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe ?aoe?iiaeuei? ?aaeeie aeaeaeaiiy aiaeith ?c cae?ciaoaeaoeaaeo ?icieaa?a. 10. ?acoeueoaoe iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioeano aeaeaeaiiy aiaeith c cae?ciaoaeaoeaaeo ?icieaa?a ciaoiaeyoueny a caaeia?eueiiio iiaiaeaeaii? c aeaieie caaiaenueeeo aeine?aeaeaiue. 11. ?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue aeicaiey? i?iaiicoaaoe i?ioeane aeaaacaoe??, aecia/aoe ?o ?aoe?iiaeuei? ?aaeeie. Noai?aia iiaeaeue iioe?th? eiei i?ioean?a aeaaacaoe??, ui iiaeooue aooe aea/ai? c canoinoaaiiyi iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy. 12. Iiaa oaoiieia?y ia?iaee noae? a?aiiii, aeicaiey? ciaioeoe aeaeaoee, ca'ycai? c i?aeaioiaeith eiaoa i?e cai?i? oooa?iaee, ? ?noioii cieceoe aeaeaoie a?aiio ia i?iaeoaaiiy iaoaeo. 13. I?iaeoaaiiy iaoaeo a?aiiii ii iia?e oaoiieia?? ni?eueii c ia?iaeith noae? oeaeiaeie noi?oaie ni?ey? cieaeaiith eiioeaio?aoe?? aiaeith ia 13 ( 45% ? ia'?ii?e /anooe? iaiaoaeaaeo aeeth/aiue a iaoae? ia 12 ( 43%, ui aeicaiey? ca?eueoeoe aeo?ae ?aeie ia?oiai ni?oo oeio ? 75 ? ? 65 a na?aaeiueiio ia 5,14 oa 2,63 %, a?aeiia?aeii. ??/iee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo 45 oen. a?eaaiue. Nienie iioae?eiaaieo caeiaoaa/ai i?aoeue ca oaiith aeenna?oaoe?? 1. Caoa?ia I. ?., Ia?io? O., Iieicthe I. ?. ?ic?iaea ?aoe?iiaeueieo ?aaeei?a aiai?/ii? ia?iaee iaoae?a // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. - Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1997. - ? 21 (32). - N. 39. 2. Oa?eaoei I.N., Caoa?ia I.?., Ia?io? Oanai. Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a aeaaacaoe?? ??aeei? noae? i?iaeoaaiiyi ?ia?oiei aacii e??cue ii?eno? aeaiaioe // I?eaei?i?ianeee iaoeiaee a?niee.: Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998. - ? 12 (79), N.43. 3. Oa?eaoei I.N., Ia?io? O. O?ceei-o?i?/ia iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a aeaeaeaiiy aiaeith ?c cae?ciaoaeaoeaaiai ?icieaao i?iaeoaaiiyi ?ia?oiei aacii // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee.: Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998.- ?66, n. 59-66. 4. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a aiai?/ii? ia?iaee iaoaeo ia aeioneo ieaaeeueii? ia/? / I. ?. Caoa?ia, O. Ia?io?, I. ?. Iieicthe, A. A. Aeaieeia // Aeai. A AIOA Oe?a?ie 14.05. 96, ? 1186 - IAOO: Ia??oiieue, 1996-n (3. 5. Caoa?ia I. ?., A?ai I., Ia?io? O. Aei ieoaiiy ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy i?e aiai?/i?e ia?iaoe? iaoaeo // Iaoa?eaee 2-? ?aa?ii.iaoe.-oaoi.eiio.: Ia??oiieue, IAOO, 1993.-O.1.Iaoaeo?a?y.-N. 34. 6. Cao?ueaa ?.?., Ia?io? O. Iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a i?iaeoaaiiy iaoaeo a eiao? a?aiiii c iaoith aeaaacaoe?? // Iaoa?eaee 2-? ?aa?ii. iaoe.-oaoi.eiio.: Ia??oiieue, IAOO , 1993. - O. 1. Iaoaeo?a?y. - N. 43. 7. Oa?eaoei I. N., Caoa?ia I. ?., Ia?io? O. Aeaaacaoe?y iaoaeaaeo ?icieaa?a a?ae aiaeith i?e ??ciiiai?oieo ?aaeeiao i?iaeoaaiiy ?ia?oiei aacii // Iaoa?eaee 4-? ?aa?ii. iaoe.-oaoi. eiio.: Ia??oiieue, IAOO, 1997. O.1. Iaoaeo?a?y - N. 2. 8. Oa?eaoei I. N., Ia?io? O. Oieiaeia iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a ianiia?aiino i?e aeaaacaoe?? iaoaeaaeo ?icieaa?a a?ae aiaeith // Iaoa?eaee 4-? ?aa?ii. iaoe.-oaoi. eiio.: Ia??oiieue, IAOO,1997.-O.1. Iaoaeo?a?y. -N.3. 9. Oa?eaoei I.N., Ia?io? O. Iiaeaethaaiiy aaciaeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a i?e i?iaeoaaii? aaiie iaanei?eueiaaiei aacii // Iaoa?eaee 4-? ?aa?ii. iaoe.-oaoi. eiio.: Ia??oiieue, IAOO., 1997.- O. 1. Iaoaeo?a?y - N.4. 10. Oa?eaoei I. N., Ia?io? Oanai. Aei ieoaiiy a?ae?iaeeiai?ee aaiie i?e aiai?/ii? ia?iaoe? iaoaeo // Iaoa?eaee 5-? ?aa?ii. iaoe-oao. eiio.: Ia??oiieue ,IAOO, 1998. T.1. Iaoaeo?a?y -N.1. AIIOAOe?ss Ia?io? Oanai. ?ic?iaea ?aoe?iiaeueieo ?aaeei?a aeaeaeaiiy aiaeith c cae?ciaoaeaoeaaeo ?icieaa?a c iaoith ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe ii niaoe?aeueiino? 05.16.02 - (Iaoaeo?a?y /i?ieo iaoae?a(. I?eacianueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i. Ia??oiieue, 1998. Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ii iiaeaethaaiith a?ae?iaeeiai?ee aaiie, o?ceei-o?i?/iiio iiaeaethaaiith ianiiai?iieo i?ioean?a aeaaacaoe?? ??aeeeo ?ic/ei?a. ?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue i?ioeano aeaaacaoe?? cae?ciaoaeaoeaaeo ?icieaa?a a?ae aiaeith i?iaeoaaiiyi iaanei?eueiaaiei aacii e??cue ii?eno? oae aeieua noaea?iceeaiiai eiaoa. A ia? aeeth/ai? no/ani? iaoeia? ?ic?iaee ii aca?iiae?? aaci??aeeieo nenoai. ?acoeueoaoe oieiaeiiai iiaeaethaaiiy aeicaieeee iioeiecoaaoe ?aaeeie i?iaeoaaiiy ii a?ae?iaeeiai?oe? aaiie, ianiiai?iiei i?ioeanai aeaaacaoe?? cae?ciaoaeaoeaaeo ?icieaa?a a?ae aiaeith, ?ic?iaeoe ?ano?nicaa??aath/o oaoiieia?th ia?iaee noae? a?aiiii. Iiaa oaoiieia?y ia?iaee cae?ciaoaeaoeaaeo ?icieaa?a a?aiiii ni?ey? cieaeaiith eiioeaio?aoe?? aiaeith a na?aaeiueiio ia 29%, ia'?ii?e /anooe? iaiaoaeaaeo aeeth/aiue a iaoae? ia 28%, ui aeicaiey? ca?eueoeoe aeo?ae ia?oiai ni?oo ?aeie ia 3.8%. EETH*IA? NEIAA: iiaeaethaaiiy, a?ae?iaeeiai?ea, nenoaia, ?ic/ei, oei?, aiaeaiue, aacia? aoeueaaoee . AIIIOAOeEss Ia?io? Oanai. ?ac?aaioea ?aoeeiiaeueiuo ?aaeeiia oaeaeaiey aiaei?iaea ec aeaeacioaea?iaeenouo ?anieaaia n oeaeueth ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiey Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.16.02-“Iaoaeeo?aey /a?iuo iaoaeeia” I?eacianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, a. Ia?eoiieue, 1998. Aeenna?oaoeey niaea?aeeo ?acoeueoaou oai?aoe/aneeo e yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee ii iiaeaee?iaaieth aeae?iaeeiaieee aaiiu, oeceei-oeie/aneiio iiaeaee?iaaieth ianniiaiaiiuo i?ioeannia aeaaacaoeee aeeaeeeo ?anoai?ia. ?ac?aaioaia iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue i?ioeanna aeaaacaoeee aeaeacioaea?iaeenouo ?anieaaia io aiaei?iaea i?iaeoaeie ia anneieee?oaiui aacii /a?ac ii?enoua oau aeieua noaea?aceeai/iiai eiaoa. A iaa aeeth/aiu nia?aiaiiua iao/iua ?ac?aaioee ii acaeiiaeaenoaeth aaciaeeaeeinoiuo nenoai. ?acoeueoaou oieiaeiiai iiaeaee?iaaiey iicaieeee iioeiece?iaaoue ?aaeeiu i?iaeoaee ii aeae?iaeeiaieea aaiiu, ianniiaiaiiui i?ioeannai aeaaacaoeee aeaeacioaea?iaeenouo ?anieaaia io aiaei?iaea, ?ac?aaioaoue ?ano?ninaa?aaathuoth oaoiieiaeth ia?aaioee noaee a?aiiii. Iiaay oaoiieiaey ia?aaioee aeaeacioaea?iaeenouo ?anieaaia a?aiiii niinianoaoao nieaeaieth eiioeaio?aoeee aiaei?iaea a n?aaeiai ia 29 %, iauaiiie aeiee iaiaoaeee/aneeo aeeth/aiee a iaoaeea ia 28 %, /oi iicaieyao oaaee/eoue auoiae ia?aiai ni?oa ?aeuenia ia 3,8 %. EETH*AAUA NEIAA: iiaeaee?iaaiea, aeae?iaeeiaieea, ?anoai?, oei?, aiaei?iae, aaciaua iocu?e, iaoaee, noaeue. THE SUMMARY Marmour Hasan. Development of the efficient methods of removing hydrogen from carbon iron melts with the purpose of resource saving A dissertation is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for a Candidate of Science in Technical Engineering (Specialty 05.16.02 - “Metallurgy of Ferro-metals”). Priazovsky State Technical University, Mariupol, 1998. The dissertation contains results theoretical and experimental researches on simulation of hydrodynamics of a bath in a ladle, on physical / chemical simulation of mass-transfer processes of removing hydrogen from liquid solutions. The mathematical method of the process of removing hydrogen from carbon iron melts (degassing) by means of (pressurization) blowing unassimilated gas through porous seams of the bottom of a ladle is developed. The modern scientific developments on interaction gas-liquid systems are included in the dissertation. The results of cold simulation have allowed to optimize conditions of a pressurization as related to hydrodynamics of a bath, and to mass-transfer processes of degassing hydrogen from carbon iron melts. A new resource saving technology has also been Developed A new process of degassing melts by argon promotes allows to reduce hydrogen concentration to the average of a 29 %,and to reduce the volume share of non-metal inclusions in metal to the of 28 %, which contributes to that allows to increasing the output of the first grade rails by 3,8 %.

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