IAOe?IIAEUeIEE OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO OE?A?IE

“EE?ANUeEEE IIE?OAOI?*IEE ?INOEOOO”

Aey/aiei Iaae?y Ieoaee?aia

OAeE 621.78.066:669.785

?ic?iaea i?ioean?a iaea?aeaiiy ieneaeo aieueo?aio

oa noiooi?o ?a/iaei oeyoii ?iceeaaeo

aieueo?aiai?nieo a?aeoiae?a

o eoaeieo ?icoiiao

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.17.01 – oaoiieia?y iai?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioo aeeiiaii a ?inoeooo? caaaeueii? oa iai?aai?/ii? o?i??
?i. A.?. Aa?iaaenueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie (i. Ee?a) oa ?inoeooo? aeiiii?ee oa
iiaeo oaoiieia?e (i.E?aiai/oe)

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ca?oaeoeueeee Ieaa A?eai?iae/,

?CIO IAI Oe?a?ie, cano. aee?aeoi?a

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie,

aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Neiaiaeyiee Ieeiea Naiaiiae/,

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao

?i. O.Oaa/aiea,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iai?aai?/ii? o?i??,

aeaeai o?i?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

I?o/aiei Oaoyia ?aaai?aia,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee

oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie “EI?”,

caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi??? ?iiiiai iai?io

oa aaeni?aoe?? OOO

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo ni?aoe?? oa i?iaeai aiaeiaeieia??

IAI Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny 6 aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 16 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee – Ae 26.002.13 i?e
Iaoe?iiaeueiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? Oe?a?ie «EI?». 252056, Ee?a-56,
i?ini. Ia?aiiae, 37, ei?ion ?4, aaeeea o?i?/ia aoaeeoi??y.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie «EI?».

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 3 aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Iio?iithe O.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Oe?a?ia ia ia? aeanii? ne?iaeiii? aace aeey
ae?iaieoeoaa aieueo?aio a oaeiae iaeaeeae/eo ia?niaeoea ci?ieoe oeth
neooaoe?th. Ioaea, aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa aieueo?aiai?nii?
i?iaeoeoe?? iiaeeeai ?ic?aoiaoaaoe a ia?oo /a?ao eeoa ia aoi?eiio
ne?iaeio oa, a iaai?e i???, ia ?iii?o aieueo?aiiaeo eiioeaio?ao?a c
?in??, Eacaonoaio, Eeoath /e ?ioeo e?a?i. O oie /an ye iio?aae Oe?a?ie o
oaa?aeeo nieaaao nyaathoue 800-1000 oiii ia ??e, 20-30% anueiai
iaiao?aeiiai ianyao oaa?aeinieaaii? i?iaeoeoe?? iiaea aooe ae?iaeaii ia
aac? aeanii? aoi?eiii? ne?iaeie.

Ca oeeo oiia aeooaeueiith ? ia?a?iaea a?aeoiae?a a?aei?aoeueiaaiiai
ao?iaiai, ??caeueiiai oa oe?ooaaeueiiai ?ino?oiaioo ? oae caaieo
eoneiaeo a?aeoiae?a oaa?aeeo nieaa?a ? aieueo?aio (naaiaioe, coaee,
ieanoeie, ooaaeee, ?o oeaiee, noa?aei?, ae??o oa ?ioa). Aaeeeee
?ano?niee iioaioe?ae aeey ?aaaia?aoe?? aieueo?aio yaeythoue a?iiaa?ei?
ai?i?eiane oa aeaye? aeaiaioe a?enueeiai? niaoeoaoi?ee.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea no/anii?
aeieia?/ii aacia/ii? oaoiieia?? ia?a?iaee aoi?eiii? aieueo?aiiai?
ne?iaeie, yea a ae??ciyeanue oi?aa?naeueieie iiaeeeainoyie canoinoaaiiy
iacaeaaeii a?ae oeio ? aeaeo a?aeoiae?a (oaa?ae? aieueo?ai-eiaaeueoia?
nieaae, eiiiiceoe ia iniia? ea?a?aeo aieueo?aio, ui i?noyoue i?e?iaei?
/e ooo/i? aeiace, aieueo?ai — o aeaeyae? ?iai/eo aeaiaio?a, oiaoe?a, aai
o neeaae? a?aei?aoeueiaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo /e ?ioeo ae?ia?a).

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe, iiia?oa, noaaeeiny caaaeaiiy
iaa?oiooaaoe i?e?iaeo aca?iiae?? iniiaieo eiiiiiaio?a aieueo?aiai?nieo
a?aeoiae?a — ea?a?aeo aieueo?aio, aieueo?aio oa aeiac?a ye c eoaeieie
?icoiiaie, oae ? eiai neeaaeiaeie, ia aac? /iai noa? iiaeeeaei ?ic?iaeoe
iioeiaeuei? ia?aiao?e i?ioeano ?iceeaaeo. E??i oiai, iaiao?aeii aoei
?ic?iaeoe iioeiaeueio noaio ia?a?iaee i?iaeoeo?a ?iceeaaeo, ui
caaacia/oaaea a aenieee aeo?ae niieoe aieueo?aio ? ye? ca nai?ie
iieacieeaie (/enoioa, aeenia?ni?noue) aoee a i?eaeaoi? aeey ae?iaieoeoaa
oaa?aeeo nieaa?a, oa caaacia/eoe noiooi? aeeo/aiiy ?ioeo oe?iieo
eiiiiiaio?a — aeiac?a, eiaaeueoo, i?eaeth, i?ae?. Cia/io oaaao
i?eae?eaii onoaoeoaaiith aeey ?aae?caoe?? oaoiieia?? – aia?aoo?i?e noai?
oa oaoi?/iiio i?iaeoo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Aia?oa iaa?oioiaaii i?e?iaeo ?aaeoe?e ea?a?aeo
aieueo?aio oa aieueo?aio c ?icoiieaieie i?o?aoii oa i?o?eoii iao??th,
a?ia?ieie noi?oaie ?o c a?ae?ieneaeii iao??th, aecia/aii oa?iiaeeiai?/i?
oa e?iaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aaeoe?e, anoaiiaeaii iniaeeaino? ?o
ia?aa?ao. Aecia/aii oa iaa?oioiaaii oiiae no?eeino? i?e?iaeieo ? ooo/ieo
aeiac?a o eoaeieo ?icoiiao.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy. ?ic?iaeaii aoaeoeaiee, aeieia?/ii aacia/iee
oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean ia?a?iaee ??cieo ca aeanoeainoyie oa aeaeii
aieueo?aiai?nieo a?aeoiae?a (aieueo?ai, oaa?ae? aieueo?ai-eiaaeueoia?
nieaae, oaa?aeinieaaii-aeiaci? eiiiiceoe?? ia iaoaeaa?e ca’ycoe? ) c
aeei?enoaiiyi eoaeieo ?icoii?a, ui ae??ciy?oueny oi?aa?naeueieie
iiaeeeainoyie canoinoaaiiy onoaoeoaaiiy oa ?aaaaio?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? a oe?eani?yiiaaiiio aeeiiaii?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ye a aenia?eiaioaeueiiio , oae ? a aiae?oe/iiio ieai?
(i?aea?? ? aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo oa iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo aeaea?ae, aeeiiaiiy
aenia?eiaioo, oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo ?ic?aooie?a, aiae?c iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a, i?iaaaeaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo oa oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue). O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? a?aoiaaii oaeiae ?acoeueoaoe
?ic??ciaieo iiooeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, aeeiiaieo ?ai?oa i?aoe?aieeaie
?CIO IAI Oe?a?ie (I?eii A.I., Nooeinueeei I.I., Aeoaiaei I.A.), yeei
aeena?oaio aeneiaeth? aeeaieo iiaeyeo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny ia aeaio
oe?a?inueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo (“Aeieia?y oa ?iaeaia??y: Noai, iane?aeee,
oeyoe ooai?aiiy aeieia?/ii /enoeo oaoiieia?e”, Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinuee,
AeAeOO, 10 aeiaoiy 1996 ?.; “Aeeo/aiiy eieuei?iaeo, ??aee?nieo oa
aei?iaioe?iieo iaoae?a c a?aeoiae?a i?iieneiaeo oa thaae??ieo
i?aei?e?inoa Oe?a?ie”, sseoa, 22-24 aa?aniy 1998 ?.) oa 3 i?aeia?iaeieo
eiioa?aioe?yo (“The 1997 Joint International Meeting 192 ES USA and 48
ISE”, Paris, France, August 31 – September 5, 1997; “European Research /
EUCHEM Conference on Molten Salts”, Porquerolles, France, June 27 – Jule
3, 1998; “49 A? Annual Meeting of ISE”, Kitakyushu, Japan, September
13-18, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii a 3
iaoeiaeo noaooyo oa 5 oacao aeiiia?aeae.

Ia’?i oa no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa nieneo oeeoiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e.
Aeena?oaoe?th aeeeaaeaii ia 128 noi??ieao ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo, i?noeoue
22 ?enoiee, 16 oaaeeoeue oa nienie e?oa?aoo?e c 108 iaeiaioaaiue.

Iniiaiee ci?no

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? e?eoe/ii i?iaiae?ciaaii e?oa?aoo?i? aeaea?aea,
iaoeiai-oaoi?/io oa iaoaioio e?oa?aoo?o, ye? noinothoueny
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie. A?aeiii e?eueea iaoiae?a ia?a?iaee
aieueo?aiai?nieo a?aeoiae?a, ui ciaeoee i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy, aiie
nooo?ai a?ae??ciythoueny i?ae niaith ia?oith noaae??th, oiaoi niiniaii
?iceeaaeo ne?iaeie. Canoinoaaiiy oeeo iaoiae?a ?ethno?o? oaae.1.

Oaaeeoey 1.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeaea?ae oa iaoiae?a ?iceeaaeo aoi?eiii?
aieueo?aiiai? ne?iaeie

Aeaea?aea aoi?eiiiai aieueo?aioIaoiaee ?iceeaaeo ne?iaeie*123456781.
Iaoae?/iee aieueo?ai:oiieee ae??o, ii?ioie —++-++eiiiaeoi? eoneia?
a?aeoiaee—-+-++2. Oaa?aeinieaaia i?iaeoeoe?y:iiae??aiai?
a?aeoiaee+-++++++eiiiaeoi? eoneia? a?aeoiaee—-++++oaa?aeinieaaiee
?ino?oiaio (??caeueiee, ao?iaee oiui)—-+—3.Aeiacii-oaa?aeinieaaiee
?ino?oiaio-++——* — iaoiaee ?iceeaaeo ne?iaeie:Iniiai? i?iaeoeoe
?iceeaaeo:1. Ia?iaea eeneioiei ?ic/eiiiWC2. Ia?iaea eeneioiei ?ic/eiii c
aiiaeiith iiey?ecaoe??thWC, H2WO43. Ia?iaea eeneioiei ?ic/eiii o
i?enooiino? ieenieeaWC, H2WO44. Ia?iaea ai?a/iei ?ic/eiii o i?enooiino?
ieenieea5(NH4)2O·12 WO3·5 H2O5. Aacioacia ieeniaiiy eeniai
(iia?o?y)WO36. «Oeeie-i?ioean» (ia?iaea o ?icoiieaiiio oeeieo)WC7.
Ia?iaea ieenithaaeueiei nieueiaei ?icoiiiiNa2WO48. Ia?iaea eoaeiei
?icoiiii o i?enooiino? ieenieeaNa2WO4Iaea?eueo «oi?aa?naeueiei» ?
oa?iio?i?/iee iaoiae 5, yeee i?eioeeiiai iaiiaeeeai canoinoaaoe eeoa
aeey ia?a?iaee aeiaciiai ?ino?oiaioo, ?io? — iathoue aoae/? iaeano?
canoinoaaiiy. Aiie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iecueeith ?ioaineai?noth (1-5), ?
aeieia?/ii iaaacia/ieie (1-3, 7), i?ecaiaeyoue aei iia??oaiiy yeino?
e?ioeaaeo i?iaeoeo?a (5,6). Aeey ia?a?iaee oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo
i?eaeaoiee eeoa aeoaea aia?aiaeo?aoiee iaoiae 5, a aeey aeiaciiai
?ino?oiaioo — iaei?ioaineai?, aeieia?/ii iaaacia/i? iaoiaee 2, 3.

O ca’yceo c oeei ia?niaeoeaiei iai?yiii ?ic?iaee aoaeoeaii? oaoiieia?? ?
canoinoaaiiy ?aaeoe?eieo na?aaeiaeu ia iniia? eoaeieo ?icoii?a.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? i?enay/aii ?ic?iaeaiith o?ceei-o?i?/ieo
iniia ?iceeaaeo oaa?aeeo aieueo?ai-eiaaeueoiaeo nieaa?a, oaa?aeinieaaieo
eiiiiceoe?e, ui i?noyoue ea?a?ae aieueo?aio, aeiace oa iaoae?/io ca’yceo
(i?aeue, i?eaeue, eiaaeueo), a?aeoiae?a eiiiaeoiiai aieueo?aio a eoaeieo
?icoiiao, cie?aia a noi?oao NaII-NaNO3 ? NaII-NaNO2. I?e oeueiio
ia?aaeaa/a?oueny, ui aiane?aeie oaeiai ?iceeaaeo i?iaeoeoii
oaoiieia?/iiai ia?aae?eo ia ia?oiio aoai? ? eoaeiee ieaa, iane/aiee
aieueo?aiaoii iao??th, eio?ee a iiaeaeueoiio iiaea aooe ia?a?iaeaiee aei
niieoe aieueo?aio (Na2WO4, (NH4)2WO4 , WO3). ?acii c oei c eoaeiiai
ieaao aeeo/athoueny ?io? oe?ii? eiiiiiaioe – aeiace, i?aeue, i?eaeue,
eiaaeueo.

Aeey noai?aiiy ea?iaaiiai oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano, iioei?caoe?? eiai
iieaciee?a iaiao?aeii ciaoe iniiai? caeiiii??iino? oa ia?aiao?e
?iceeaaeo ea?a?aeo aieueo?aio o aecia/aieo ?aaeoe?eieo na?aaeiaeuao –
i?e?iaeo ?aaeoe?e, oaeaee?noue, oaieia? aoaeoe, aieea oaiia?aoo?e,
ieenieea, iaeeaaeaiiy no?oio oiui, a oaeiae iiaaae?ieo aeiac?a oa
ca’ycee a oeeo aea oiiaao. Nooo?aei ? iaa?oiooaaiiy aeieia?/ii? aaciaee
i?ioeano.

O aeine?aeao c aea/aiiy e?iaoeee ?iceeaaeo oaa?aeeo
aieueo?ai-eiaaeueoiaeo nieaa?a o ?icoiieaieo noi?oao NaII-NaNO3 ca
aaciaee aa??aio aoei acyoi nieaa AE6 ye iaea?eueo aaeeaaiee a
?ino?oiaioaeueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?. E??i oiai, aeine?aeaeoaaany ?iceeaae
nieaa?a AE8, AE15 ? AE20. A?aa?iao?e/i? aenia?eiaioe i?iaiaeeeenue a
ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? 300-500 iN i?e ai?no? a ?icoii? i?o?aoo
iao??th 10; 19 ? 33,3 iie.%. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui
oaeaee?noue ?iceeaaeo nieaa?a a?oie AE a ?icoii? a?ae?ieneaeo iao??th a
aeine?aeaeoaaiiio ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? noaiiaeoue iacia/io aaee/eio.

sse aeyaeeiny, e?iaoeea ?iceeaaeo aieueo?ai-eiaaeueoiaeo nieaa?a o
?icoiieaieo noi?oao NaII-NaNO3 nooo?ai caeaaeeoue a?ae eiioeaio?aoe??
ieenieea. Oae, o aeiaaeeo noi?o? c ai?noii i?o?aoo iao??th 10 iie.% c
i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e oaeaee?noue i?ioeano cia/ii c?inoa?. O ?icoii?,
ui a?aeiia?aea? neeaaeo 2NaII·NaNO3, niinoa??aa?oueny aiiiaeueia
oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue noaoe?iia?ii? oaeaeeino? ?iceeaaeo nieaao,
aaeueioaaiiy ?? iineeth?oueny c i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e a?ae 400 aei
440 iN. Oaeee aoaeo iiynith?oueny, i/aaeaeii, ooai?aiiyi ia iiaa?oi?
c?acea aa?’??iiai oa?o (ie?aee) ia iniia? ieneaeo eiaaeueoo, eiia??ii
oi?iae?aeo ianoao?iiao?e/iiai neeaaeo (Na2I)O(CoO)O aai (Na2I)O(Co2O3)O,
i?iieei?noue yeiai aecia/a? oaeaee?noue ?iceeaaeo. Ooai?aiith aa?’??iiai
oa?o (ie?aee) oa iineeaiith eiai caoenieo aeanoeainoae ni?ey?, cae/aeii,
ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? ieenieea oa i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e. I?ioa
aaea i?e oaiia?aoo?? 460 iN cacia/aiee aoaeo ia niinoa??aa?oueny:
a?aeaoaa?oueny a?ae?ea caoeniiai oa?o aaciiiae?aieie i?iaeoeoaie
?aaeoe??.

Ieae/a iaaaaeaii aeai? i?i aieea i?o?aoo iao??th ia oaeaee?noue
?iceeaaeo nieaao AE6 o ?icoiieaieo noi?oao NaII-NaNO3 i?e aeaio
oa?aeoa?ieo oaiia?aoo?ao.

Ai?no NaNO3 a ?icoii?, iie.%:10,019,033,3Oaeaee?noue ? 10-3, a/i2 y oa:
400 iN1,280,1150,116
460 iN0,1132,471,44sse aeaeii, i?e ieae/?e c ieo
oaeaee?noue noaoe?iia?iiai i?ioeano a iaaeao 1033,3 iie.% NaNO3
i?aeoe/ii ia caeaaeeoue a?ae ai?noo i?o?aoo. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo, ye ie
aaaaea?ii, oaeaee?noue ?iceeaaeo oaa?aeiai nieaao e?i?oo?oueny
i?iieei?noth oa?o (ie?aee) i?iaeoeoo ia iaae? iiae?eo oac nieaa —
?icoii. sseui i?ioean a?aeaoaa?oueny a aeoeaiiio ?aaeei?, eiee a?aenooiy
aa?’??ia ie?aea ia iaoae?, ?cioa?ia oaeaeeino? ia? iaeneioi, iieiaeaiiy
yeiai i?eiaaea? ia aaoaeoeeo.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii ?nioaaiiy caeaaeiino? i?ae oaeaee?noth
?iceeaaeo aieueo?ai-eiaaeueoiaiai nieaao a a?ae?ieneaeii-i?o?aoiiio
?icoii? oa ai?noii ea?a?aeo aieueo?aio a nieaa?. Cie?aia, ca
eiioeaio?aoe?? i?o?aoo a ?icoii? NaII-NaNO3 19 iie.% ca oaiia?aoo?e
420 iN aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? caaeia?eueii iienothoueny ??aiyiiyi:

V ?icee. nieaao = V ?icee. WC — E lg NWC ,
(1)

aea NWC – iieueia /anoea ea?a?aeo aieueo?aio a nieaa?.

Ii?yae c o?i?/iith aeine?aeaeoaaeanue aeaeo?io?i?/ia iiaaae?iea
aieueo?ai-eiaaeueoiaeo nieaa?a o ?icoiieaiiio NaOH, aaoaeoe/i?e noi?o?
NaOH-EOH oa noi?o? NaII-NaNO3 c ai?noii i?o?aoo 33,3 iie.%. Aeaeo?ie?c
i?iaiaeeee a aaeueaaiinoaoe/iiio ?aaeei? i?e aonoeiao no?oio 0,1? 104 –
2,4 ? 104 A/i2. Aeaye? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?ae?a iiaeathoueny a oaae. 2.
Aeo?ae ca no?oiii aecia/aany ye oi?iaeueia aaee/eia a ?ic?aooieo ia
10-aeaeo?iiiee i?ioean:

WC + 14OH- — 10 e =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 +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 7H2O (2)

sse aeyaeeiny, aeine?aeaeoaaiee i?ioean nooo?ai caeaaeeoue ye a?ae
neeaaeo nieaao, oae ? neeaaeo ?icoiio oa aonoeie no?oio. Nai???aeia
iiaaae?iea nieaao AE20 caeaaeii a?ae i?e?iaee ?icoiio iia’yco?oueny c
??ciith aa?aneai?noth inoaiiueiai aei eiaaeueoo, iineeaiiy yei? ni?ey?
ooai?aiith a?eueo u?eueiiai oa?o ieneaeo eiaaeueoo. A?aoiaoth/e io?eiai?
?acoeueoaoe, o?i?/iiio niiniao ?iceeaaeo eoneiaeo a?aeoiae?a oaa?aeeo
nieaa?a iaaea?oueny ia?aaaaa.

Aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy i?e?iaee ?aaeoe?e aieueo?aio oa eiai ea?a?aeo c
i?o?eoii, i?o?aoii iao??th, noi?oaie NaII-NaNO2 ? NaII-NaNO3 canoiniaaii
oa?iiaeeiai?/iee aiae?c. I?e oeueiio aeei?enoaii iao?aaeeoe?eiee
i?aeo?ae (iai?aaii??e/iee iaoiae), ui aeicaiey? aecia/eoe aeii?ioth/?
?aaeoe??. Oeae iaoiae aoei canoiniaaii ?ai?oa uiaei ?ioeo ia’?eo?a,
cie?aia noi?oae aeaio ieneae?a, a?ia?ieo noi?oae ieneae?a c
a?ae?ieneaeaie oa ea?aiiaoaie eoaeieo ? eoaeii-

Oaaeeoey 2.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iceeaaeo nieaa?a AE6 ? AE20 aeaeo?io?i?/iei
niiniaii o eoaeieo ?icoiiao

Aeaeo?ie?oIa?ea

nieaaoOaiia?aoo?a,

iNAonoeia no?oio y10-4, A/i2Oaeaee?noue ?ic-eeaaeo nieaao,

a/i2·oaAeo?ae ca no?oiii, %NaOH

AE6

AE20

5000,13

0,27

0,42

0,26

0,51

1,03 25,7

41,0

56,2

89,2

139,4

274,6153,7

118,4

157,6

196,6

178,3

175,4NaOH-EII

AE6

AE205000,14

0,30

0,47

0,26

0,55

1,16 21,7

39,7

54,2

5,3

13,0

28,3118,2

104,0

90,2

13,1

15,5

16,0NaII-NaNO3AE6

AE203500,09

0,20

0,41

0,50

1,10

2,35 68,0

69,7

98,3

15,2

30,8

18,0578,2

279,0

190,1

20,1

18,7

5,1caiaeueieo iaoae?a. Nooue eiai iieyaa? a oiio, ui c ia?ae?eo
oa?iiaeeiai?/ii iiaeeeaeo ?aaeoe?e o oaeeo nenoaiao ia?aaaaeii
a?aeaoaa?oueny oa, aeey yei? a?aeiioaiiy aia?a?? A?aana aei noie oeo aea
aaee/ei ?ic?eao ca’yce?a o aeo?aeieo niieoeao ia? iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy.
Oey aaee/eia  —  PJ ?iaio?oueny oa?iiaeeiai?/iith oa?aeoa?enoeeith
ia?aaaaeiiai ia?aa?ao ?aaeoe?e ? ca nai?th noooth ? oa?iiaeeiai?/iith
eiia??i?noth ooai?aiiy niieoee ye ia?aeiii?. ?ic?aoiaaii oaieia? aoaeoe
iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo ?aaeoe?e oa eiinoaioe ??aiiaaae ?aaeoe?e ?icoii?a c
aacaie (NO, NO2 , CO). Iniiai? io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe iaaiaeyoueny a oaae.
3.

Caaaeyee oa?iiaeeiai?/iiio aiae?co aaeaeiny anoaiiaeoe, ye? c
aeine?aeaeoaaieo ?aaeoe?e ia?aaaaeii a?aeaoaathoueny, ? a yeeo oiiaao
i?ioeane ? aeieia?/ii aacia/ieie (aeea. oaae. 3). O ca’yceo c
oeei oe?iio ?ioi?iaoe?th io?eiaii naia a?ae aiae?co aaee/ei ?J.
Oae, aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui a nenoai? WC-NaNO2 iaeneiaeueiei cia/aiiyi ?J
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?aaeoe?y (1). Ioaea, i?e aca?iiae?? ea?a?aeo
aieueo?aio c ?icoiiii i?o?eoo iao??th ia?aaaaeii ooai?th?oueny
aieueo?aiao ? ea?aiiao iao??th, acio oa ae?ieneae aoaeaoeth. Oey
?aaeoe?y ? ye ia?aeiiith, oae ? a?oooi-?aaeoe??th. Aeecuee? aei
iaeneiaeueieo cia/aiiy ?J ia? ?aaeoe?y (2). A?aoiaoth/e oea, c?iaeaii
aeniiaie, ui ooieoe?y eoao caiaeeoueny aei ca’ycoaaiiy NI2, yeee
ooai?th?oueny ca ?aaeoe??th (1). I?e oeueiio ia aeeeth/a?oueny
ia?aeaeueiee ia?aa?a ?aaeoe?e (1) ? (2). Aiaeia?/iee aiae?c noino?oueny
?aaeoe?e (3) ? (4) a nenoaiao WC-NaNO3 oa WC-NaII-NaNO3.

sse aeaeii c oaae. 3, ??aiiaaaa ?aaeoe?e (8)-(13) cia/ii ci?uaia
ai?aai, oiaoi ?icoiieaiee eoa ? iiaeeia/ai ieneae?a acioo, a ?icoiieai?
i?o?ao oa i?o?eo

Oaaeeoey 3.

Aea??eia? aeai? oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a i?aeoe/ii aaaeeeaeo
?aaeoe?e, ui a?aeaoaathoueny i?e aca?iiae?? aieueo?aio oa eiai ea?a?aeo
c i?o?eoii, i?o?aoii iao??th, noi?oaie NaOH — NaNO2 ? NaOH — NaNO3.

?aaeoe?yIa?a-iao?*Cia/aiiy ia?aiao?o
i?e oaiia?aoo??, E 298 600 800 10001. 3WC + 10NaNO2 =
3Na2WO4 + 2Na2CO3 + CO2 + 5N2

2. 3WC + 10NaNO2 + 2NaOH = 3Na2WO4 + 3Na2CO3 + 5N2 + H2O

3. WC + 2NaNO3 = Na2WO4 + CO2 + N2

4. WC + 10NaNO3 + 2NaOH = 3Na2WO4 + 3Na2CO3 + 5N2 + H2O

5. 2W + 4NaNO3 = 2Na2WO4 + N2 + 2NO2

6. W + 3NaNO3 = WO3 + 3NaNO2

7. W + 3NaNO3 + 2NaOH = Na2WO4 + 3Na2NO2 + H2O

8. 6NO + 4NaOH = 4NaNO2 + N2 + 2H2O

9. 2NO2 + 2NaOH = NaNO3 + NaNO2 + 2H2O

10. CO + 2NaNO2 = Na2CO3 + 2NO

11. 3CO + 2NaNO2 = Na2CO3 + N2 + 2 CO2

12. CO + 2NaNO3 = Na2CO3 + 2NO2

13. CO + NaNO3 = NaNO2 + CO2A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

N

A

A

N

A

A

D

D

D

D

D

D3767,1

3586,1

3884,5

3709,2

1054,5

964,9

1172,0

1087,9

1428,5

1290,4

26,75

532,7

515,4

30,85

668,1

607,5

107,4

27,7

147,7

12,4

31,63916,7

3815,8

4026,1

3969,1

1137,9

1021,5

1243,2

1170,8

1554,9

1405,7

33,65

552,3

526,5

36,07

727,4

654,0

41,7

15,4

15,9

70,5

10,3

16,23942,4

3863,1

4038,0

4019,0

1173,4

1038,5

1268,4

1194,4

1598,2

1440,1

38,12

559,3

532,5

39,79

749,2

668,4

26,1

10,0

12,2

50,5

8,6

12,23963,4

3793,1

4041,9

3952,1

1207,7

1014,5

1286,1

1173,3

1628,3

1394,6

43,16

565,3

538,0

44,15

769,9

642,3

16,9

6,7

9,9

38,5

7,3

9,9

* Iicia/aiiy: A,A – a?aeiia?aeii -Gi i -Hi, eAeae/iieue;

C – PJ ;

D – eiinoaioa ??aiiaaae.

iao??th – iiaeeia/aie iiiiieneaeo aoaeaoeth.

O nenoai? W-NaNO3 ca?aeii c aeaieie oa?iiaeeiai?/iiai aiae?co
aca?iiae?y ia? a?aeaoaaoeny /a?ac noaae?th ooai?aiiy ieneaeo (oaae. 3,
aeea. aaee/eie ?J aeey ?aaeoe?e (5) ? (6)), a noia?iee i?ioean – ca
?aaeoe??th (7).

E?iaoeeo aca?iiae?? aieueo?aio c ?icoiiaie nenoaie NaOH-NaNO3
aeine?aeaeoaaee a ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? 280-550 iN. I?e oeueiio ia
io?eiaieo iie?oa?iao aeey eiaeii? c a?ia?ieo noi?oae ?aaaaio?a
niinoa??aa?oueny naiy “ii?iaiaa” oaiia?aoo?a, i?e ye?e ??cei
i?enei?th?oueny i?ioean. E??i oiai, ?nio? iaaia caeiiii??i?noue a ??
ci?uaii? caeaaeii a?ae neeaaeo ?icoiieaii? noi?o?. Aeeiai?eo aca?iiae??
a aeine?aeaeoaai?e nenoai? aeineoue iai/ii a?aeia?aaeathoue ?cioa?ie
oaeaeeino? aaoa?iaaiiiai i?ioeano. Cie?aia, ca iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?
oaeaee?noue nii/aoeo e?i?eii c?inoa? c? ca?eueoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe??
i?o?aoo iao??th, iio?i – e?i?eii iaaea?. Aiiiaeueia ci?ia oaeaeeino?
niinoa??aa?oueny a iaeano? ?nioaaiiy niieoee 2NaII·NaNO3.
I?eionea?oueny, ui i?e ai?no? i?o?aoo iao??th a?eueo ye 35-40 iie.% ia
iiaa?oi? aieueo?aio noa? iiaeeeaei ooai?aiiy ianeaoth/eo (ieneaeieo )
ie?aie.

Oa?iiaeeiai?/i? ia?aiao?e ?aaeoe??, ca yeith a?aeaoaa?oueny aca?iiae?y
aieueo?aio c i?o?eoii iao??th:

W + 2NaNO2 = Na2WO4 + 2N2 ,
(3)

aeaui a?eueo?, i?ae ?aaeoe?? (7) (aeea. oaae. 3). Nooo?aa ??cieoey
iieyaa? a oiio, ui aeae?ey?oueny eeoa acio ? aeo?a/a?oueny i?o?eo
iao??th. O ?ac? ae ?aae?caoe?? ?aaeoe?? (7) (aeea. oaae.3) aeo?a/a?oueny
ye i?o?ao, oae ? a?ae?ieneae iao??th, i?e/iio aeo?aoiee eiao?oe??io ca
i?o?aoii a 1,5 ?ac a?eueoee, i?ae ca i?o?eoii. Ioaea, i?e aeei?enoaii?
?icoiieaieo noi?oae NaII-NaNO2 aeey ia?a?iaee a?aeoiae?a aieueo?aio
a?ae?ieneae iao??th aeeiioaaoeia eeoa ?ieue ?ic/eiieea i?o?eoo oa
i?iaeoeo?a ?aaeoe??.

O?i?/io no?ee?noue ooo/ieo ? i?e?iaeieo aeiac?a o eoaeieo ?icoiiao
aeine?aeaeoaaee iaoiaeaie oa?iia?aa?iao?e/iiai aiae?co (aea?eaaoia?ao??)
oa i?e?ineii??. I?e oeueiio aeiaaeiny ?ic?iaeoe niaoe?aeueio iaoiaeeeo
aeeiiaiiy aenia?eiaioo. Oa?iia?aa?iao?e/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie nenoaie
aeiac-?icoiieaiee NaII a aoiinoa?? iia?o?y aoei i?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui
i?ioean ieeniaiiy aeiac?a eiio?ieth?oueny aeinoaaeith eenith a ciio
?aaeoe??:

C + O2 + 2NaOH = Na2CO3 + H2O
(4)

Aca?iiae?y aeiac?a c ?icoiieaiei a?ae?ieneaeii iao??th noa? iii?oiith
i?e oaiia?aoo?? aeecueei 550 iN, oiae? ye a aoiinoa?? iia?o?y iii?oia
ieeniaiiy ii/eia?oueny i?e 700 iN.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyi ae?? ?icoiieaieo eoa?a oa a?ae?ieneaeii-nieueiaeo
noi?oae ia iiaa?oith i?e?iaeieo aeiac?a o ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo?
300-650 iN aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui ca iayaiino? a eoaeiiio ?icoii? cia/ii?
eiioeaio?aoe?? ieenieea (NaNO2 , NaNO3) ? o?eaaeiio aenia?eiaio? i?e
oaiia?aoo?ao aeua 450 iN ia a?aiyo aeiac?a c’yaeythoueny eoiee ei?ic??.
Ioaea, ?iceeaae eiiiiceoe?e, ui i?noyoue i?e?iaei? aeiace, a
a?ae?ieneaeii-nieueiaeo ?icoiiao o?i?/iei niiniaii iiaeia cae?enithaaoe
eeoa i?e ieae/eo oaiia?aoo?ao.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii aeai? uiaei ?ic?iaeaiiy oa
oaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo noai ia?a?iaee aieueo?aiai?nieo a?aeoiae?a,
ianaiia?aae aeiacii-oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo, c iaea?aeaiiyi ieneaeo
aieueo?aio, aeeo/aiiyi ?ioeo oe?iieo eiiiiiaio?a (aeiac?a, eiaaeueoo,
i?eaeth, i?ae?) c aeei?enoaiiyi eoaeieo ?icoii?a.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii, ui o?i?/ia aca?iiae?y
aeiacii-oaa?aeinieaaieo eiiiiceoe?e c ?icoiiaie ia iniia? a?ae?ieneae?a
? ea?aiiao?a eae?th oa iao??th, yeui aiie ia i?noyoue ieenieea,
a?aecia/a?oueny iecueeith ?ioaineai?noth. Oae, iaea?eueoo oaeaee?noue
?iceeaaeo eiiiiceoe?? ca oaiia?aoo?e 650 iN

(0,1 ii/aiae.) cao?eniaaii o ?icoiieai?e noi?o? NaOH-K2SO4, ui i?noeoue
40 ian.% noeueoaoo. Aaaaeaiiy a a?ae?ieneaeiee ?icoii neeueiiai
ieenieea, iai?eeeaae i?o?aoo, iiaea ni?e/eithaaoe ?oeioaaiiy aeiacii?
neeaaeiai? eiiiiceoe??:

C + 2NaNO3 + 2NaOH = Na2CO3 + 2NaNO2 + H2O (5)

? i?ecaiaeeoe aei oi?ioaaiiy ia iiaa?oi? W caoeniiai ieneaeiiai oa?o.
Cie?aia, ia iiaa?oi? nieaao AE8 aeyaeaii u?eueiee oa? i?iaeoeoo,
iniiaith yeiai ca aeaieie ?aioaaiioaciaiai aiae?co ? Co3O4 .

O ca’yceo c aeeeaaeaiei cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoaoe a ?ie? ieenieea
iino?eiee aeaeo?e/iee no?oi. Oeyoii aiiaeii? iiey?ecaoe?? ?iai/i?
/anoeie aeiacii-oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo a eoaeieo ?icoiiao
aeinyaiooi ?ioaineo?eaoe?? aea??eiaiai ieeniaiiy ea?a?aeo aieueo?aio ia
1-2 ii?yaeee. Oea aaeaeiny caaaeyee iaai?e eiia?iaoe?? aeanoeainoae
noaeaai? iniiae ?ino?oiaioo, aeiac?a oa ie?aieo neeaaeiaeo
oaa?aeinieaaii? iao?eoe? (WC, Co, Ni, Cu), a naia: iai?ia?aeiino?
aeiac?a; noeeueiino? iaoae?a i?aea?oie cae?ca aei aiiaeii? ianeaaoe??;
iniaeeainoae aeaeo?io?i?/ii? iiaaae?iee W oa WC a eoaeieo ?icoiiao
(iioaioe?aee aiiaeieo ?aaeoe?e aeey W oa WC a?eueo iaaaoeai?, i?ae
iioaioe?aee ieeniaiiy ?ioeo eiiiiiaio?a ? ?ic?yaeo II—?ii?a ia
0,2-0,3A). Aeaeo?ie?c a?aeaoaa?oueny a ?ioaineaieo ?aaeeiao aac cia/ii?
ia?aiai?oae, i?e oeueiio aeiace ia ooeiaeaeothoueny.

Iaee?aueo iieaciee?a aoei aeinyaiooi ?c canoinoaaiiyi ?icoii?a NaOH-KOH
aaoaeoe/iiai neeaaeo oa a?ae?ieneaeo iao??th c aeiaaaeith oei?eaeo
eae?th o oaiia?aoo?iiio ?ioa?aae? 500-520 iN ca aiiaeii? aonoeie no?oio
ii?yaeeo 1 ? 104 A/i2. Ca oeeo oiia oaeaee?noue ?oeioaaiiy
oaa?aeinieaaii? iao?eoe? noaiiaeoue aeecueei 166,7 a/i2·oa, ui
a?aeiia?aea? a?eueo ye 80% aeoiaeo ca no?oiii o ?ic?aooieo ia 10-oe
aeaeo?iiio ?aaeoe?th ieeniaiiy WC, aeea. ??aiyiiy (2).

Iniiaieie i?iaeoeoaie aiiaeiiai ?iceeaaeo ? aieueo?aiao ? ea?aiiao
eoaeiiai iaoaeo, ye? eaaei ?ic/eiythoueny a eoaeiiio ?icoii?. ?aooa
eiiiiiaio?a oaa?aeinieaaii? iao?eoe? caeeoathoueny a aeenia?niiio noai?
? ooai?ththoue aoa/aoee oeai, o ian? yeiai ?iciiae?eaii aea?eueiai?
aeiace. Ca aeaieie ?aioaaiioaciaiai aiae?co iniiaio iano ia?ic/eiii?
oace oeaio noaiiaeoue iaoae?/ia i?aeue.

Oeai i?aeeyaa? ia??iaee/iiio aeaeaeaiith c aaiie c aeiaaioaaeaiiyi
inoaiiuei? na?aeei aeaeo?ie?oii aei ii/aoeiaiai ??aiy. ?acoeueoaoe
i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?ic?aooie?a na?ae/aoue, cie?aia, ui a
?icoii? NaOH i?ney aaaaoi?aciaiai iiaoi?aiiy oeeo iia?aoe?e, iaa?oue
yeui c? oeaiii ui?aco aeiineoueny 20% iayaiiai aeaeo?ie?oo, neeaae
eoaeii-nieueiai? /anoeie oeaio noaa?e?co?oueny ia ??ai? 28 ian.% Na2WO4
? 10 ian.% Na2CO3. Oaeee ai?no aieueo?aio ? aeinoaoi?i aeey aoaeoeaiiai
cae?eniaiiy a?ae?iiaoaeo?a?eieo iia?aoe?e

c eiai aeeo/aiiy. I?eioeeiiao noaio ia?a?iaee oeaio iaaaaeaii ia ?en. 1.

Aeine?aeaeaii e?euee?niee neeaae i?iaeoeo?a ?iceeaaeo oaa?aeinieaaii?
iao?eoe? oa oiiae, ca yeeo iaeaoaeoeai?oa cae?eniththoueny iia?aoe?? ?o
ia?a?iaee. Eiio?ieue ai?noo ie?aieo aeaiaio?a o e?ioeaaeo i?iaeoeoao oa
iai?ai?iaeoeoao oi?iaeiaae anueiai oaoiieia?/iiai eaioethaa
cae?enithaaee oaeeie iaoiaeaie: aoiiii-aaeni?aoe?eiei,
ian-niaeo?ineii?/iei, aaaiaei, oeo?eiao?e/iei (ieenii-a?aeiiaia,
eeneioii-iniiaia oeo?oaaiiy, o?eeiiiiao??y oiui) ca noaiaea?oieie
iaoiaeeeaie. A ie?aieo aeiaaeeao canoiniaoaaee ?aioaaiioaciaee aiae?c.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy e?iaoeee ?ic/eiaiiy nieueiai? oace
oeaio ?aeiiaiaeiaaii cae?enithaaoe oeth iia?aoe?th ca ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
oaa?aei? oa ??aeei? oac (O:?) = 1:3 i?e eei’yo?ii? oa ia?ai?ooaaii?
i?ioyaii 2,5-3 aiae.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iiaiioe aeeo/aiiy CaWO4 aoei ?ic?iaeaii noaio, ca
yeith eiai inaaeaeaiiy c ?ic/ei?a, iaa??oeo aei eei?iiy, i?iaiaeyoue o
aea? noaae??: ia ia?o?e oei?eae eaeueoe?th ia? iiaeaaaoenue o
noao?iiao?e/iiio ni?aa?aeiioaii?, ia ae?oa?e — o iiaea?eiiio iaaeeeoeo
a?ae noao?iiao???.

?iceeaae CaWO4 eiioeaio?iaaiith ICl aeioe?eueii i?iaiaeeoe ca
oaiia?aoo?e 80 – 90 iN c aeiaeaaaiiyi 0,5 – 1 % eiioeaio?iaaii?
HNO3. Iaea?aeaio I2WO4 a?aenoiththoue, a?aeo?eueo?iaothoue,
i?iieaathoue aiaeith oa 1% -iei ?ic/eiii HCl, aenooothoue ?
i?iaea?ththoue i?e 450-500 iN aei iino?eii? aaae. Iaea?aeaiee WO3
a?aeiia?aea? eaae?o?eaoe?? «oaoi?/iee». I?ney aeiaeaoeiai? i/enoee,
cie?aia oeyoii ?ic/eiaiiy I2WO4 a ?ic/ei? NH4OH ? ianooiii? ia?a?iaee
ia NaWO4 oa I2WO4, iaea?aeaiee i?iaeoeo iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee aeey
neioaco ea?a?aeo aieueo?aio ? aeaioiaeaiiy ia eiai iniia?
oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo.

Iaoae?/iee ii?ioie, cia/iith i??ith ieeniaiee i?ae /an a?aeieaaiiy,
i?noeoue ca aeaieie o?i?/iiai aiae?co, ian.%: i?ae? — 56,2-58,4;
eiaaeueoo — 5,9-8,2; i?eaeth 0,1-1,2; cae?ca — 7,7-9,2. Ai?no ?aooe
iaoaeia ia ia?aaeuo? nioeo /anoie aiaenioea. Ca aeiiiiiaith
iaa?ii?caeeeo iia?aoe?e (a?aeiiaeaiiy aiaeiai, ia?iaea oei?iaiaeiaaith
eeneioith) c oe??? noi?o? aeeo/athoueny iaoaee i?aea?oie cae?ca ?, oaeei
/eiii, aaea?oueny iaea?aeaoe oiaa?i? ii?ioee i?ae? /enoioith 99,8% c
ieoiiith iiaa?oiath 3-5 i2/a. Aeeo/ai? aeiace ni?oothoueny ia o?aeoe??,
i?eaeaoi? aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ao?iaiai /e ia?iaiiai ?ino?oiaioo.

?ic?iaeaiee iaoiae o ni?iuaiiio aa??aio? iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee ?
aeey ?iceeaaeo oae caaieo aea?eueiaieo (eoneiaeo) oaa?aeinieaaieo
a?aeoiae?a. I?ioean a?oioo?oueny ia o?i?/i?e aca?iiae?? ?o c
eoaeii-i?o?aoiei aai eoaeii-i?o?eoiei ?icoiiii. Ni?iuo?oueny oaeiae
oaoiieia?/ia noaia ia?a?iaee i?iaeoeo?a ?iceeaaeo (oeaio oa
eoaeii-nieueiaiai ieaao).

Aenia?eiaioaeueii aecia/aii iioeiaeueiee aa??aio ?ioaineaiiai ?iceeaaeo
eoneiaeo a?aeoiae?a oaa?aeeo nieaa?a ia iniia? WC (a oaeiae iaoae?/iiai
aieueo?aio), ca yeei oeae aecioa?i?/iee i?ioean, iia’ycaiee c
aaciaeae?eaiiyi, cae?enith?oueny a eiio?ieueiaaiiio ?aaeei?. A?i iieyaa?
o ia??iaee/iiio aaaaeaii? aei eoaeiiai ?icoiio i?e oaiia?aoo??
500-700 iN ii?oe?e i?o?eoo iao??th ?acii c oaa?aeinieaaieie a?aeoiaeaie
ui?aco a e?eueeino? 10-20% a?ae ii/aoeiai? iane ?icoiio. C o?aooaaiiyi
aeo?aoe ?aaaaio?a ia?aaaaeii ia ?aaeoe?th (2) (aeea. oaae. 3) ?
iaeiie/aiiy a ?icoii? Na2WO4 oa Na2CO3, aaaeeeai i?aeo?eioaaoe
eiioeaio?aoe?th NaNO2 i?ioyaii onueiai i?ioeano ia ??ai? ia ieae/a 10
ian.%.

Oaiia?aoo?a, ca yei? ii/eia?oueny ?ioaineaiee ?iceeaae, cie?aia nieaao
AE6, noaiiaeoue a?ae 480 iN (o na?aeiio a?ae?ieneaeii-i?o?eoiiio
?icoii?) aei 620 iN (i?ney ?ic/eiaiiy oaa?aeiai nieaao o e?eueeino? 50%
a?ae caaaeueii? iane eiiiiiaio?a ?icoiio , aianaieo aei aaiie ). Ca
?aooiie aecioa?i?/ii? iiaa?oiaai? ?aaeoe?? a?aeaoaa?oueny eieaeueia
i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e ia 100-200i. Ca oaiia?aoo? aeua 660 iN i?iaeoeoe
?aaeoe?e ia noai?ththoue caoeniiai oa?o ia iiaa?oi? nieaao, ine?eueee
aea?iieueia noi?o Na2WO4 oa Na2CO3 ciaoiaeeoueny a ?icoiieaiiio noai?. O
?acoeueoao? ia?a?iaee e?eueeio ia?o?e oaa?aeinieaaieo a?aeoiae?a aoei
iaea?aeaii iai?ai?iaeoeoe, ui i?noeee aei 60 ian.% Na2WO4. Oaeee ieaa
?ic/eiy?oueny a aa?y/?e aiae? ca ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oac O:? = 1:3.
Iaea?aeaiee ?ic/ei i?noeoue aeecueei 150 a/e WO3 ca iaaeniei?
eiioeaio?aoe?? a?eueiiai eoao, ui a?aeiia?aea? iioeiaeueiei oiiaai
inaaeaeaiiy NaWO4 .

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? i?enay/aii oaoi?/iei aniaeoai ?iaioe.
I?iaeooaaiiy i?iieneiaiai aeaeo?ieica?a caeienithaaeinue c o?aooaaiiyi
niaoeeoiee i?iaaaeaiiy aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo aeaeo?ioiii/ieo i?ioeania o
eoaeieo ?icoiiao. E?ii iniiaiiai aocea — aeania aeaeo?ieica?a,
ni?iaeoiaaii aeaeo?iii/, aaiie i?iieaaiiy, iaeaaeiaiiy aeey caeieniaiiy
iiioaaeo oa aeaiiioaaeo aeiacii-oaa?aeinieaaiiai iino?oiaioo ia aiiaeiie
iiaeainoei-eanaoi (?c caaacia/aiiyi iaaeieiiai aeaeo?e/iiai eiioaeoo),
iiaeeiiii-o?ainii?oiee i?eno?ie oa iioa iaiaoiaeia onoaoeoaaiiy, ui a
eiiieaeni neeaaea? ?aeeio onoaiiaeo (?en. 2). Ie?aii anoaiiaeth?oueny
ioeueo oi?aae?iiy oa aeaea?aei iino?eiiai no?oio. Ni?iaeoiaaia onoaiiaea
ia? oaei oaoii/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee:

Noia?ia iiooaeiinoue iaa?iaa/ia, eAo36?iai/a oaiia?aoo?a ia/i,
iN600Iiiiiaeueiee no?oi aeaeo?ie?co, eA1,2-1,8Iai?oaa aeaeo?ieico, A3 –
5Iaoa?iae aaiie aeey eoaeiiai ?icoiioNo3Aioo?ioii ?icii?e aaiie,
ii:585o530o325o5Caaaioaaeaiiy ?icoiio aei aaiie, ea 80-90Ii/aoeiaee
?iaaiue ?icoiio o aaiii, ii170Aaaa?eoii ?icii?e onoaiiaee,
ii:5340o1250o2870Oeyoii aenieoaoaoei? eieueeio oaeeo onoaiiaie iiaeia
caaacia/eoe ia?a?iaeo iayaieo a Oe?a?i? oaa?aeinieaaieo aiaeoiaeia o
iaiao?aeiiio ianyc?, o oiio /enei aeiacii-oaa?aeinieaaiiai iino?oiaioo.

Cia/io oaaao i?eae?eaii aia?aoo?iiio ioi?ieaiith a?ae?iiaoaeo?a?eiiai
ia?aae?eo. ?ic/eiaiiy ieaao i oeaio ia?aaeaa/aii cae?enithaaoe a
?aaeoi?? ci noaei No3, oooa?iaaiiio ooi?iieanoii, ineieueee
iaea?aeoaaiee eoaeiee ?ic/ei ca ?iai/i? oaiia?aoo?e 90-100 iN ? aeineoue
aa?aneaiei. Oeai ? ieaa aaiaeyoueny aei ?aaeoi?a o noaeuei?e
ia?oi?iaai?e ei?cei?. Iaea?aeaiee ?ic/ei, ui iinoeoue aieueo?aiao
iao?ith, a?aeie?aieth?oueny aiae ia?ic/eiii? oace ca aeiiiiiaith
ioo/-oieueo?a ? ceeaa?oueny aei cai?ieea. Ca iayaiinoi a inaae? aeiacia,
aiie aiaeie?aieththoueny ia neo? oeyoii iie?i? naia?aoei? o
aaiii c aiaeith. Eoaeii- aieueo?aiaoiee ?ic/ei ci cai?ieea iiaea?oueny
aei ?aaeoi?a, a yeiio cae?enith?oueny inaaeaeaiiy ooo/iiai oa?e?oo
?ic/eiii oei?eaeo eaeueoe?th. Iaea?aeaia ioeueia iiaea?oueny ia
ioo/-oieueo?. Inaae c ioo/-oieueo?a, ui iinoeoue CaWO4 i CaNO3
,

ia?aiinyoue aei ?aaeoi?a, aea eiai ia?aoai?ththoue ia aieueo?aiiao
eeneioo ca aeiiiiiaith eiioeaio?iaaiiai ?ic/eio HCl (c aeiaeaaaiiyi
0,5-1% HNO3).

Iaea?aeaia ioeueia aieueo?aiiai? eeneioe iiaea?oueny ia noaiaea?oiee
ea?aii/iee ioo/-oieueo?. I?iieaii aiaee, iaea?aeaii iiae /an i?iieaaiiy
ia?ic/eiii? oace eoaeiiai oeaio, ye? iinoyoue aieueo?aiao iao??th,
iaeiie/othoueny a cai?ieeo, ca?aeee iiaeathoueny ia ?ic/eiaiiy ieaao /e
oeaio. Aei cacia/aiiai oaoiieia?/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy aoiaeeoue aaeooiiee
ianin, i?eaeaoiee aeey noai?aiiy aaeooiiao?e/iiai oeneo – 90 eIa.

O oiae? ii?aoethaaiiy ?aaeei?a aeaeo?io?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee a?aeoiae?a
aeiaciiai ?ino?oiaioo aeieeea i?iaeaia ei?ic?eiiai ?oeioaaiiy noaeaai?
aaiie aeaeo?ie?ca?a, yea neoaoaaea eaoiaeii. C’yniaaii, ui ieenieeii
iaoa??aeo eaoiaea a oiiaao ?ioaineaiiai aeaeo?ie?co ? ieneae iao??th,
yeee ooai?th?oueny a ?acoeueoao? aca?iiae?? iaoae?/iiai iao??th
(i?iaeoeoo eaoiaeii? ?aaeoe??) c ?icoiieaiei NaOH. Cai?iiiiiaaii aeaa
aoaeoeai? iaoiaee caoenoo aaiie aeaeo?ie?ca?a a?ae eaoiaeiiai ?oeioaaiiy
— canoinoaaiiy ci?iiiai, oiaoi aeo?aoiiai, eaoiaeo oa iiaeaaaiiy
aiaeyii? ia?e o i?eeaoiaeio ciio i?ae /an aeaeo?ie?co, aiane?aeie /iai
aeeeth/a?oueny iaeiie/aiiy iiaeeco eaoiaea niaoeeo?/iiai ieenieea
(Na2O). Cie?aia, ca oaiia?aoo?e aeecueei 500 iN ? aiiaeii? aonoeie
no?oio 0,8 ? 104 A/i2 oeyoii iiaeaaaiiy aiaeyii? ia?e aei i?eeaoiaeiiai
i?inoi?o o ?icoii NaOH c ?ioaineai?noth 133,4 a/i2 · oa aeinyaiooi
oiia?eueiaiiy eaoiaeii? ei?ic?? noae? No3 a?eueo ye ia 2
ii?yaeee.

I?iaaaeaii aiae?c oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a ?ic?iaeaieo oaoiieia?e
o ii??aiyii? c e?aueie aiaeiaaie, aeey /iai ia’?eoe ia?a?iaee
(aieueo?aiai?ni? a?aeoiaee) iiae?eaii ia 3 a?oie — eoneia? a?aeoiaee
oaa?aeeo nieaa?a, a?aeoiaee oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo oa a?aeoiaee
aeiaciiai ?ino?oiaioo. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aiae?co c?iaeaii oae? aeniiaee:

-canoinoaaiiy ?icoiieaieo nieae aeey ia?a?iaee eoneiaeo
aieueo?aiai?nieo a?aeoiae?a ? aeioe?eueiei, ine?eueee i?e oeueiio
iaea?aeothoueny a?eueo eiiaeeoe?ei? e?ioeaa? i?iaeoeoe, ye? iathoue
oe?oee niaeo? canoinoaaiiy;

— oeueiio ae iaoiaeo ne?ae iaaeaoe ia?aaaao ii a?aeiioaiith aei iaoiaea
aacioaciiai ieeniaiiy o aeiaaeeo oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo. Oea
coiiaeth?oueny ye aeuith ye?noth e?ioeaaeo i?iaeoeo?a, oae ?
aeiiii?/ieie i??eoaaiiyie;

— iaoiae ia?a?iaee aeiaciiai ?ino?oiaioo ?c canoinoaaiiyi aeaeo?ie?co a
eoaeieo ?icoiiao oa?aeoa?eco?oueny cia/ii a?eueoith ?ioaineai?noth
ii??aiyii c eeneioiei iaoiaeii, aea iio?aao? cia/ii a?eueoeo aia?ai- oa
i?aoeaaeo?ao. I?ioa aeiiii?/i? ia?aaaae eeneioiiai iaoiaeo caiaeyoueny
iai?aaoeue, ine?eueee ?aaaia?aoe?y inoaii?i 1 ea ea?a?aeo aieueo?aio
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aeeeaeii 0,6 i3 NO2 , aeey ciaoeiaeaeaiiy yeiai
iaiaoiaeia ie?aia onoaiiaea.

Oaeei /eiei, ca oiiae eiiieaenii? ia?a?iaee anio o?ueio a?oi aiaeoiaeia
ia iaeiie aeieueieoei aeioeieueii canoiniaoaaoe iaoiaee, ui
a?oioothoueny ia ia?iaoei oeeo iaoa??ae?a eoaeieie (eoaeii-nieueiaeie)
?icoiiaie. Ani oaoiieiai/ii i?ioeane caeieniththoueny ia iaeiie
onoaiiaoei ci niieueiei aiae?iiaoaeo?aieiei ”oainoii“ aac cae?eniaiiy
aeiaeaoeiaeo i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo caoiaeia i c iaea?aeaiiyi yeinieo
eiioeaaeo i?iaeoeoia, i?eaeaoieo aeey iiaeaeueoiai aeei?enoaiiy o
ae?iaieoeoai oaa?aeinieaaiiai oa aeiaciiai iino?oiaioo.

Aeniiaee

1. Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo, iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo oa iaoaioieo
aeaea?ae anoaiiaeaii, ui a a?naiae? a?aeiieo niinia?a ?iceeaaeo
aieueo?aiai?nieo a?aeoiae?a oa oaoiieia?e ?o ia?a?iaee a?aenooi?
?ic?iaee, ui caaacia/oaaee a aenieo aoaeoeai?noue, aoee aeieia?/ii
aacia/ieie ? ae??ciyeeny a oi?aa?naeueieie iiaeeeainoyie canoinoaaiiy
iacaeaaeii a?ae oeio ? aeaeo a?aeoiae?a (oaa?ae? aieueo?ai-eiaaeueoia?
nieaae, eiiiiceoe ia iniia? ea?a?aeo aieueo?aio, ui i?noyoue i?e?iaei?
/e ooo/i? aeiace, aieueo?ai — o aeaeyae? ?iai/eo aeaiaio?a, oiaoe?a aai
o neeaae? a?aei?aoeueiaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo /e ?ioeo ae?ia?a).

2. Anoaiiaeaii aeaye? iniiai? caeiiii??iino? iiaaae?iee
aieueo?ai-eiaaeueoiaeo nieaa?a o eoaeieo ?icoiiao:

— o ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? 300-500 iN aea/aii e?iaoeeo ?o ?iceeaaeo a
?icoiieaieo noi?oao NaII-NaNI3 . Aeyaeaii, ui ?iceeaae oaa?aeeo nieaa?a
i?e iaeeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo ieenieea aai iii??ieo oaiia?aoo?ao ia ? /enoi
e?iaoe/iei i?ioeanii, a oneeaaeith?oueny iiaa?oiaaeie yaeuaie. Oa?aeoa?
ci?ie oaeaeeino? i?ioeano c i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e nooo?ai caeaaeeoue
a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? ieenieea. Cie?aia, aeey noi?o? neeaaeo 2NaII-NaNI3
i?e 400-450 iN niinoa??aa?oueny aiiiaeueiee aoaeo — cieaeaiiy
?ioaineaiino? ?iceeaaeo, yeee c iiaeaeueoei iacia/iei i?aeaeuaiiyi
oaiia?aoo?e ??cei ci?ia?oueny;

— oaeaee?noue ?iceeaaeo nieaa?a aieueo?ai–eiaaeueoiai? a?oie (V)
aecia/a?oueny eiioeaio?aoe??th ea?a?aeo aieueo?aio a nieaa? (Nwc), a
naia: i?ae oeeie ia?aiao?aie ?nio? caeaaei?noue V ?icee. nieaao = V
?icee. WC — E lg NWC ;

— nieaae aieueo?ai-eiaaeueoiai? oa oeoai-eiaaeueoiai? a?oie
i?aeaeathoueny aeoeaiiio ?iceeaaeo i?e ?o aiiaei?e iiey?ecaoe??, a
aoaeoeai?noue ae?? no?oio aecia/a?oueny ye eiai aonoeiith, oae ?
i?e?iaeith ?icoiio oa nieaao. Oiiaiee aeo?ae ca no?oiii o aaaaoueio
aeiaaeeao cia/ii ia?aaeuo? 100% ? i?aeoe/ii caaaeaee ciaioo?oueny c
?inoii eiai aonoeie. Aeey nieaao c aenieei ai?noii eiaaeueoo a eoaeieo
?icoiiao, ui a?aecia/athoueny i?aeaeuaieie ieenethaaeueieie
aeanoeainoyie, niinoa??aa?oueny aeieoaaiiy i?ioeano ?iceeaaeo,
i/aaeaeii, ca ?aooiie ooai?aiiy ieneaeii? (oi?iae?aeii?) ie?aee.

3. Aeeiiaii oa?iiaeeiai?/iee aiae?c ?aaeoe?e ?iceeaaeo ea?a?aeo
aieueo?aio i?o?eoii ? i?o?aoii iao??th, a oiio /ene? ca iayaiino?
a?ae?ieneaeo iao??th. O ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? 298-1000 E oaaoeueiaaii
aaee/eie aia?a?e A?aana ? oaieio ?aaeoe?e, inoaii? c yeeo iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? a ?ic?aooieao oaieiaiai aaeaino ?aaeoi?a i?e ia?a?ea/anoiio
i?iaaaeaii? i?ioeano. Canoiniaaii iao?aaeeoe?eiee i?aeo?ae, yeee
aeicaiey? aecia/eoe ia?aaaaeiee ia?aa?a ?aaeoe?e, cie?aia ooai?aiiy
ia?aeiiiai i?iaeoeoo aca?iiae??. Iieacaii, ui o aeiaaeeo ?iceeaaeo
ea?a?aeo aieueo?aio ?icoiieaieie i?o?eoii aai i?o?aoii iao??th ia?aeii?
?aaeoe?? iaeii/anii ? a?oooi-?aaeoe?yie. Aecia/aii eiinoaioe ??aiiaaae
?aaeoe?e NI ? NI2 c ?icoiieaiei a?ae?ieneaeii iao??th oa NI c
?icoiieaieie i?o?eoii oa i?o?aoii iao??th. Iieacaii, ui o i?ioean?
?iceeaaeo ea?a?aeo aieueo?aio a a?ia?ieo noi?oao NaII-NaNI3 ? NaII-NaNI2
?ieue eoao caiaeeoueny aei iiaeeiaiiy oeeo oe?aeeeaeo aac?a, ui ?iaeoue
i?ioean aeieia?/ii aacia/iei.

4. Oa?iiaeeiai?/ii iaa?oioiaaii iaea?eueo eiia??i? ?aaeoe?? aieueo?aio
c ?icoiieaieie i?o?eoii oa i?o?aoii iao??th, o oiio /ene? ca iayaiino?
a?ae?ieneaeo iao??th, ?ic?aoiaaii ?o oaieia? aoaeoe. O ae?aiacii?
oaiia?aoo? 280-550 iN aea/aio e?iaoeeo aca?iiae?? eiiiaeoiiai aieueo?aio
c ?icoiiaie nenoaie NaII-NaNI3. Aecia/aii, ui aeine?aeaeoaaiee i?ioean
ia?aaaaeii a?aeaoaa?oueny a e?iaoe/i?e iaeano?. Aeey ??cieo noi?oae
NaII-NaNI3 aecia/aii ii?iaia? oaiia?aoo?e, ca yeeo i?ioean ii/eia?
?icaeaaoeny iaeiio?ieueiaaii. Iaaiai?th?oueny eiia??iee iaoai?ci
aca?iiae?? c ooai?aiiyi ieneaeo aieueo?aio ye i?ii?aeiiai i?iaeoeoo.

5. I?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c iieaciee?a aeei?enoaiiy ?icoiieaieo
noi?oae NaII-NaNI3 ? NaII-NaNI2 aeey ia?a?iaee a?aeoiae?a aieueo?aio
aei aieueo?aiaoo iao??th, aeyaeaii ia?aaaae aeei?enoaiiy i?o?eoo
iao??th.

6. O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai ii??aiyeueiiai oa?iia?aa?iao?e/iiai
aiae?co no?eeino? aeiac?a oa ea?a?aeo aieueo?aio a ?icoiieaiiio NaII
aecia/aii a?aie/io oaiia?aoo?o (550 iN), ca yei? noa? iiaeeeaei
aea??eiaa ?oeioaaiiy aeiacii-oaa?aeinieaaieo eiiiiceoe?e o i?enooiino?
iia?o?y. C o?aooaaiiyi aenia?eiaioaeueieo cia/aiue aeaeo?iaeieo
iioaioe?ae?a cae?ca, aieueo?aio oa ea?a?aeo aieueo?aio cai?iiiiiaaii
canoiniaoaaoe aiiaeio iiey?ecaoe?th aeey ?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?ioeano
ieeniaiiy ea?a?aeii? neeaaeiai? aeine?aeaeoaaieo eiiiiceoe?e.

7. ?ic?iaeaii aoaeoeaio, aeieia?/ii aacia/io oaoiieia?th ia?a?iaee
oaa?aeinieaaiiai aeiaciiai ?ino?oiaioo, ui aeeth/a? ye iniiaio
iia?aoe?th ?iceeaae eiai ?iai/i? /anoeie a eoaeiiio ?icoii? i?e aiiaei?e
iiey?ecaoe??, c io?eiaiiyi ia o?i?o? i?e?iaeieo /e ooo/ieo aeiac?a,
eiiaeeoe?eiiai ieneaeo aieueo?aio oa ii?ioe?a iaoae?a — eiaaeueoo,
i?eaeth, i?ae?. I?e oeueiio ?ic?iaeaii iioeiaeuei? ia?aiao?e ?iceeaaeo
iao?eoe? aeiaciiai ?ino?oiaioo; iioei?ciaaii oaoiieia?/io noaio
ia?a?iaee i?iaeoeo?a ?iceeaaeo (oeai, ieaa, i?iieai? aiaee).

8. A?aei?aoeueiaaii aa??aioe oaoiieia?? ?iceeaaeo eoneiaeo a?aeoiae?a
oaa?aeeo nieaa?a oa aieueo?aio c aeei?enoaiiyi ?icoii?a NaII-NaNI2 ?
NaII-NaNI3. Ca iioeiaeueiei aa??aioii ?iceeaae cae?eniththoue o eoaeiiio
?icoii? ca oaiia?aoo?e 500-700 iN c iaeii/aniei aianaiiyi aei iueiai
ii?oe?e NaNI2 ?acii c oaa?aeinieaaieie a?aeoiaeaie o iaaiiio
ni?aa?aeiioaii?.

9. ?ic?iaeaii i?iieneiao onoaiiaeo aeey ia?a?iaee a?aei?aoeueiaaiiai
aeiaciiai ?ino?oiaioo oeyoii aiiaeii? ia?iaee a eoaeieo ?icoiiao
(i?noe?noue aeaeo?ie?ca?a 80-90 ea ?icoiio, iii?iaeueiee no?oi
aeaeo?ie?co 1,2-1,8 eA, i?iaeoeoeai?noue aeecueei 1 ea oaa?aeinieaaii?
eiiiiceoe?? ca aiaeeio). Onoaoeoaaiiy iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia oaeiae aeey
aeaeo?io?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee oaa?aeinieaaiiai ao?iaiai oa ??caeueiiai
?ino?oiaioo ? aeey o?i?/iiai ?iceeaaeo eoneiaeo aieueo?aiai?nieo
a?aeoiae?a (oaa?aeeo nieaa?a oa aieueo?aio) o eoaeieo ?icoiiao.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe

1. Ca?oaeoeueeee I.A., Aeieo?oe A.O., Aey/aiei I.I. Ia?niaeoeae
aeei?enoaiiy eoaeieo ?icoii?a aeey noai?aiiy aeieia?/ii /enoeo
oaoiieia?e ia?a?iaee aoi?ne?iaeie// Anaoe?a?inueea eiioa?aioe?y
«Aeieia?y oa ?iaeaia??y. Noai, iane?aeee, oeyoe ooai?aiiy aeieia?/ii
/enoeo oaoiieia?e». (Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinuee, AeAeOO, 1996 ?.) : Oace
aeii.- Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinuee: aeaeaaieoeoai AeAeOO.- 1996.- N.79-80.

2. Aeieo?oe A.O., Ca?oaeoeeee I.A., I?ae A.I., Aey/aiei I.I.
Oa?iiaeeiaieea ?aceiaeaiey ea?aeaea aieueo?aia // Iai?aaie/aneea
iaoa?eaeu.- 1997.- O.33, ?9.- N.1072-1075.- Aeaeeia?.: 14 iaca.

3. Zarubitskii O.G., Dmitruk D.F., Orel V.P., Dyachenko N.M. Ecological
pure process of the diamond tool recuperation in ionic melts// The 1997
Joint International Meeting 182 ES USA and 48 ISE (Paris, France, 1997):
V. 97-2.- P.775.

4. Dyachenko N.M., Zarubitskii O.G., Dmitruk D.F. Chemical reactions of
tungstem, molybdenum and its carbides with hydroxide-salt melts //
European Research/EUCHEM Conference on Molten Salts (Porquerolles,
France, June 27 – Jule 3. 1998): Abstracts.- Porquerolles, France:
Institut Universitaire des Systems Thermiques Industriels, 1998.- P.
A30.

5. Zarubitskii O.G., Dmitruk D.F., Orel V.P., Dyachenko N.M. Corrosion
of alloys in hydroxide melts// 49th Annual Meeting of ISE. 9Kitakyushu,
Japan, 1998): Extended Abstracts.- (Poster p5-15-1).- P. 371.

6. Aeieo?oe A.O., Ca?oaeoeueeee I.A., Aey/aiei I.I., Aeoaiaee I.A.
Aca?iiae?y aieueo?aio c ?icoiieaieie noi?oaie NaOH-NaNO3//
Oe?.o?i.aeo?i.- 1999.-O.65, ?3.- N.12-18.- A?ae?ia?. 9 iaca.

7. Aey/aiei I.I., Ca?oaeoeeee I.A., Aeieo?oe A.O. ?ac?aaioea e
i?iiuoeaiiia inaiaiea oaoiieiaee ?aaaia?aoeee eiiiiiaioia io?aaioaiiiai
oaa?aeinieaaiiai eino?oiaioa a ?anieaaao // Eiioa?aioe?y “Aeeo/aiiy
eieuei?iaeo, ??aee?nieo oa aei?iaioe?iieo iaoae?a c a?aeoiae?a
i?iieneiaeo oa thaae??ieo i?aei?e?inoa Oe?a?ie”. (sseoa, 1998 ?.):
Oac.aeiee.- Eeaa: A.E.- 1998.- N.10-12.- A?ae?ia?. 7 iaca.

8. Aeieo?oe A.O., Ca?oaeoeueeee I.A., Aey/aiei I.I., Nooeinueeee I.I.
?iceeaae aieueo?ai-eiaaeueoiaeo nieaa?a o ?icoiieaieo noi?oao
NaOH-NaNO3// “A?niee Oe?a?inueeiai Aoaeeieo aeiiii?/ieo oa
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ciaiue” (”Aeei?enoaiiy a?aeoiae?a ae?iaieoeoaa”).-
1999.- ?4.- N.98-101.

aiioaoe??

Aey/aiei I.I. ?ic?iaea i?ioean?a iaea?aeaiiy ieneaeo aieueo?aio oa
noiooi?o ?a/iaei oeyoii ?iceeaaeo aieueo?aiai?nieo a?aeoiae?a o eoaeieo
?icoiiao.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.17.01 – oaoiieia?y iai?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei.
Ee?anueeee oaoi?/iee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao “EI?”. Ee?a. 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi ia?a?iaee aoi?eiii? aieueo?aiai?nii?
ne?iaeie — eoneiaeo a?aeoiae?a aieueo?aio ? oaa?aeeo nieaa?a ia iniia?
eiai ea?a?aeo, a?aei?aoeueiaaiiai oaa?aeinieaaiiai oa
aeiacii-oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo) iaea?aeaiiyi ieneaeo aieueo?aio,
i?e?iaeieo ? ooo/ieo aeiac?a, i?ae?, eiaaeueoo, i?eaeth. Anoaiiaeaii
e?iaoe/i? caeiiii??iino? ? iniaeeaino? oa aeine?aeaeaii oa?iiaeeiai?eo
aca?iiae?? aieueo?aio, ea?a?aeo aieueo?aio ? oaa?aeeo nieaa?a c
?icoiieaieie a?ia?ieie noi?oaie a?ae?ieneaeo iao??th c eiai i?o?aoii
aai i?o?eoii. ?ic?iaeaii aoaeoeaiee iaoiae aeaeo?io?i?/iiai ?iceeaaeo
aeiacii-oaa?aeinieaaieo eiiiiceoe?e o eoaeieo ?icoiiao, oaoiieia?/io
noaio a?ae?iiaoaeo?a?eii? ia?a?iaee iaea?aeaieo ieaao oa oeaio aei
eiiaeeoe?eieo i?iaeoeo?a, o?i?/i? iaoiaee ia?a?iaee eoneiaeo a?aeoiae?a
oaa?aeeo nieaa?a oa aieueo?aio. Ni?iaeoiaaii a?aeiia?aeia oaoiieia?/ia
iaeaaeiaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eoaeiee ?icoii, aieueo?aiai?ni? a?aeoiaee, ?iceeaae,
aieueo?ai, aeiac, aeeo/aiiy.

Aey/aiei I.I. ?ac?aaioea i?ioeannia iieo/aiey ieneaea aieueo?aia e
niioonoaothueo aauanoa iooai ?aceiaeaiey aieueo?ainiaea?aeaueo iooiaeia
a uaei/iuo ?anieaaao.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.17.01 – oaoiieiaey iai?aaie/aneeo aauanoa.
Eeaaneee oaoie/aneee iaoeeiiaeueiue oieaa?neoao “EIE”. Eeaa. 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai ia?a?aaioee aoi?e/iiai
aieueo?ai-niaea?aeauaai nu?uey (eoneiaua iooiaeu aieueo?aia e oaa?aeuo
nieaaia ia iniiaa aai ea?aeaea io?aaioaiiiai oaa?aeinieaaiiai e
aeiacii-oaa?aeinieaaiiai eino?oiaioa) n ecaea/aieai ieneaea aieueo?aia,
i?e?iaeiuo e eneonnoaaiiuo aeiacia, iaaee, eiaaeueoa, ieeaey.
Onoaiiaeaiu eeiaoe/aneea caeiiiia?iinoe (e iniaaiiinoe) e enneaaeiaaii
oa?iiaeeiaieeo acaeiiaeaenoaey aieueo?aia, ea?aeaea aieueo?aia e
oaa?aeuo nieaaia n ?anieaaeaiiuie aeia?iuie nianyie – aeae?ieneaeii
iao?ey n aai ieo?aoii eee ieo?eoii. ?ac?aaioai yooaeoeaiue iaoiae
yeaeo?ioeie/aneiai ?aceiaeaiey aeiacii-oaa?aeinieaaiuo eiiiiceoeee a
uaei/iuo ?anieaaao, nicaeaia oaoiieiae/aneay noaia
aeae?iiaoaeeo?ae/aneie ia?a?aaioee iieo/aiiuo ieaaa e oeaia aei
eiiaeeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoeoia, oeie/aneea iaoiaeu ia?a?aaioee eoneiauo
iooiaeia oaa?aeuo nieaaia e aieueo?aia. Ni?iaeoe?iaaii niioaaonoaothuaa
oaoiieiae/aneia iai?oaeiaaiea n oieaa?naeueiuie aiciiaeiinoyie aeey
ia?a?aaioee aieueo?ainiaea?aeaueo iooiaeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: uaei/iie ?anieaa, aieueo?ainiaea?aeauea iooiaeu,
?aceiaeaiea, aieueo?ai, aeiac, ecaea/aiea.

Dyachenko N.M. Development of process for making tungsten oxides and
accompanying substances by the decomposition of tungsten-containing
wastes in alkaline melts. — Manuscript.

A thesis for the degree of Candidate of Technical Science (specialty
05.17.01 – technology of inorganic substances). National Technical
University of Kyiv “KPI”, Kyiv, 1999.

The thesis deals with questions of processing tungsten-containing
secondary row materials (lump used carbide and diamond-carbide tool
wastes containing tungsten and hard alloys based on its carbide) with
recovering tungsten oxide, natural and man-made diamonds, copper, cobalt
and nickel. Kinetic relations (and peculiarities) have been established,
and the thermodynamics of interaction of tungsten, tungsten carbide and
hard alloys with molten binary mixtures (of sodium hydroxide and sodium
nitrate or nitrite) has been investigated. An efficient method for the
electrochemical decomposition of diamond-hard alloy compositions in
alkaline melts, a flow diagram for the hydrometallurgical processing of
the fusion cake and slime formed into conditioned products and chemical
methods for processing lump wastes containing hard alloys and tungsten
have been developed. Appropriate process equipment with universal
capabilities for processing tungsten-containing wastes has been
designed.

Key words: alkaline melt, tungsten-containing wastes, decomposition,
tungsten, diamond, recovering.

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