3

I?EACIANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Iaea?aiei Iaoae?y
Ieaen??aia

OAeE 621. 791. 927. 5

?IC?IAEA IEACIIAIAI I?IOeANO C AEN?AEUeIEI

IIAeAAAIIssI II?IOEIAIAI Ae?IOA AeEss IAIEAAEAIIss

I?AN-OI?I

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05. 03. 06 Caa?thaaiiy ? nii??aeiai? oaoiieia??

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ia?ioiieue – 1999Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aeiiaanuee?e aea?aeaai?e iaoeiiaoae?ai?e aeaaeai??
(AeAeIA) I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i.E?aiaoi?nuee

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Ea?iaiei Aieiaeeie? Ieoaeeiae/,

AeAeIA, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith
“Caa?thaaeueia

ae?iaieoeoai”

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe – aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

*eaa?ueia Aaea??e Aaneeueiae/,

I?eacianueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee
oi?aa?neoao,

Caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith “Iaoaeo?a?y ?
oaoiieia?y

caa?thaaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa”;

Eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, n. i. n
.

?yaoeaa ?ai? Ieaenaiae?iae/,

?inoeooo aeaeo?icaa?thaaiiy ?i. ?.
I.Iaoiia IAI

Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie

“Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”
I?i?noa?noaa

ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a, Eaoaae?a “A?aeiiaeaiiy aeaoaeae iaoei”.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 27 n?/iy 2000 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.12.052.01. i?e I?eacianueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca a?aeanith: 87500, i. Ia??oiieue,
i?ia.?anioae?ee, 7.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? IAeOO: i.Ia??oiieue,
aoe.Aiaoiaa, 115.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 23 a?oaeiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
Ianeia A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa i?enay/aia ?ic?iaoe? iaoa??ae?a,
oaoiieia?? oa iaeaaeiaiiy aeey ieaciiaiai iaieaaeaiiy c
aen?aeueiith iiaea/ath ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioa (IIAIIAe) i?an-oi?i aeey
ae?iaieoeoaa neeyieo icieyoi??a oa ?ioeo ae?ia?a. Canoinoaaiiy
iiaiai i?ioeano iaieaaee coiiaeei aeeiiaoe eiiieaen aeine?aeaeaiue oa
io?eiaoe iaiao?aei? aeey ??oaiiy i?aeoe/ieo caaea/ i?aeaeuaiiy
no?eeinoi i?an-oi?i, cieaeaiiy nia?aa?oino? aeaioiaeaiiy.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A?aenooi?noue aeinoaoiuei aeeaieeo aeine?aeaeaiue
i?ioeano IIAIIAe, a?aenooi?noue niaoe?aeueii i?ecia/aieo aeey oeueiai
i?ioeano ii?ioeiaeo ae?io?a, a oaeiae ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii ?o noai?aiith
?noioii oneeaaeith? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oeueiai i?ia?aneaiiai oa aeiiiiiiai
aeaeo iaieaaeaiiy.

O?aaa aecia/eoe, ui a e?oa?aoo?? ia iienaii niaoe?ae?ciaaia
iaeaaeiaiiy aeey oeueiai aeaeo iaieaaeaiiy. ?niothoue eeoa aeac?aee,
ui aeeaeaiiy aeoae ieaaeiai aeaeo?iaea cae?enith?oueny a?ae
aeaea?aea aeeaeaiiy c aei?noeith oa?aeoa?enoeeith, a aeeaeaiiy
ieaciiai? aeoae — a?ae aeaea?aea c e?ooiiaaeath/ith oa?aeoa?enoeeith.
C aiae?co iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui i?ioean IIAIIAe ia aoa
aeinoaoiuei aea/aiee aeey oiai, uia eiai ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe aei oe?ieiai
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy, aea a?aeiii, ui eiai oaoiieia?/i? iiaeeeaino? e?au?
?ioeo niinia?a ieaciiaiai iaieaaeaiiy. Cie?aia , caaaeyee iia?e noai?
iiaeaaaiiy ieaaeiai aeaeo?iaea, c’yaey?oueny iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy o
neeaae? oeooe ooaiieaaeeo niieoe, ciaioeoe e?euee?noue aaciooai?thth/eo
?a/iaei oiui. O ii?aeiaii? c aeiaeaaeeiaith ae??th ieaciiai? aeoae ia
aaiio oa iiaa?oith aaeeea c’yaey?oueny iiaeeea?noue iie?ioaiiy yeino?
iaieaaeaiiai iaoaeo, cie?aia no?eeino? i?an-oi?i.

Aeooaeuei?noue i?aeaeuaiiy no?eeino? i?an-oi?i oa cieaeaiiy a?ae a?aeo
ae?ia?a ca oaia??oiueiai /ano ae?inei a ca’yceo c i?aeaeuaiiyi oe?i ia
aia?aiiin?? oa iaoae.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia ia iniia?
i?ia?ai IAe? ? IE? AeAIA ni?eueii c? Neaa’yinueeeie caaiaeaie «Oa?iiao»
(1985-1986 ??.), AI «Oiii?ii» (1987–1989 ??.), AO «NA?C-Aia?a?y»
(1989–1995??.).

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ae?na?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? oaoiieia?? iaieaaeaiiy iaoae?a, iie?ioaiiy
yeino? iaieaaeaiiiai iaoaeo oeyoii noai?aiiy iaeaaeiaiiy oa iaoa??ae?a,
ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue ieaciiaiio i?ioeano c aen?aeueiei iiaeaaaiiyi
ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioo.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe iaiao?aeii aoei:

— aecia/eoe iioeiaeuei? ia?aiao?e i?ioeano ieaciiaiai iaieaaeaiiy,
cie?aia ni?a?aeiioaiiy no?oio ieaciiai? aeoae ? aee?oo ieaaeiai
aeaeo?iaea;

— ?ic?iaeoe iaoiae?eo ? aea/eoe i?ioean iaa??ao ? oaieio?ce/iee noai
ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioa i?e aeneaeuei?e iiaea/? o ieaciiao aeoao;

— ?ic?iaeoe caniae ? oiiae aeiaeaoeiaiai iaa??ao ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioa;

— aecia/eoe oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? IIAIIAe ;

— aea/eoe aieea iaiaoaeaai? oace na?oeaaeie ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioo ia
iaieaaeaiee iaoae;

— aecia/eoe eiiiiiaioe aacioeaeiooai?thth/eo nenoai oeooe;

— ?ic?iaeoe neeaae ii?ioeiaeo ae?io?a aeey ieaciiaiai i?ioeano
iaieaaeaiiy;

— ?ic?iaeoe eiino?oeoe?th ieaciio?iia, aecia/eoe aeiiae aei aeaea?ae
aeeaeaiiy ? caa?thaaeueii? aia?aoo?e;

— ?ic?iaeoe oaoiieia?th IIAIIAe eiie?aoieo ae?ia?a, i?iaanoe i?iieneia?
aei?iaoaaiiy ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?iaie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aeine?aeaeaia caeaaei?noue
oaieii?ia?aeiinoi na?oeaaeie ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioo a?ae iaiaoaeaai? oace.
Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iinoi iaa??ao ieaaeiai
aeaeo?iaeo ieaciiaith aeoaith ia ??ciiiai?oieo ae?eyieao caeaaeii
a?ae ?yaeo oaeoi??a: aeiaiao?a ieaciiooai?thth/iai niiea, neee no?oio
oiui.

Oeyoii iiaeaethaaiiy ? ?ic?aooieiai-oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co
i?ioeano iaa??ao ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioa no?oiii, ui i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac
iueiai, aeoaith, ui ai?eoue iaae e?ioeai aeaeo?iaea ? ae?iaii,
iioieii ieacie iaaeiei aeaeo?iaea, a aia?oa aeyaeaii iioeiaeueiee ?aaeei
iaieaaeaiiy ? e?eoe/i? ?aaeeie, i?e yeeo iiaeeeaa i?iai?aiiy
iaieiiee ae?ioo. Aea/aii aieea iaiaoaeaai? oace na?oeaaeie
ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioa ia eiai oaieii?ia?aei?noue.

Aia?oa aecia/ai? oaiia?aoo?i? oiiae, a yeeo ciaoiaeeoueny
ii?ioeiaee ae?io, ui iiaea? e??cue niiei ieaciio?iio, /ei
iieacaia iiaeeea?noue ?icoe?aiiy ae?aiaciio iaoa??ae?a, ui
canoiniaothoueny aeey oeooe. Aea/ai? eiiieaene neeaae?a ?ic?iaeaieo ?
caoeuaiieo aaoi?nueeeie na?aeioeoaaie ii?ioeiaeo ae?io?a ?
anoaiiaeaii, ui aeiiaith aei iaoa??aeo iaieaaee i?an-oi?i aeey neea
, aethi?i?th ? aeaoaeae o?i?/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy iaeneiaeueii
a?aeiia?aea? iaoae, ui i?noeoue ooi?eae ai?o. Iieacaii, ui
aeiaeaoeiaee iaa??a ciie iaieaaeaiiy ieaciiaith aeoaith ni?ey?
ia?aoiaeo ai?o c eiai ooi?enoeo c’?aeiaiue o iaieaaeaiiee iaoae.
Aeey iie?ioaiiy yeino? iaieaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii aaiaeeoe o neeaae
ii?ioeiaai ae?ioo aaoaeoeeo NuC1. EC1, a oaeiae eiiiiiaioe, ui
aeae?eythoue i?e iaa??a? oao?aooi?eae ai?o.

Anoaiiaeai? iioeiaeuei? ia?aiao?e ?aaeeio iaieaaee ii?ioeiaei
ae?ioii c aeei?enoaiiyi ieaciaii? aeoae ? ca?eueoaiei aeeueioii
ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioa.

Aia?oa ?ic?iaeaiee i?eioeei iiaoaeiae eiia?iiaaieo ( ?c na??eieo )
aeaea?ae aeeaeaiiy aeey ieaciiai? iaieaaee ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioa c
ie?aiei cai?ioiei ca’yceii ii iai?oc? iaae aeaiia aeoaiaeie
i?ioeanaie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aea/ai? iniaeeaino?
caoaeaeaiiy aeoae o ieaciio?iiao. ?ic?iaeai? niiniae onoiaiiy
i?iiaethaaiiy iaieiiee ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioa. ?ic?iaeai? noaie
iiaea?i?caoe?? i?iieneiaeo onoaiiaie aeey IIAIIAe. Noai?ai?
eiino?oeoe?? ieaciio?ii?a, ui aeicaieythoue ?aaoethaaoe aeeueio
aeaeo?iaeiiai ae?ioo, ui ieaaeoueny oeyoii ci?ie no?oiii?aeaiaeo.
Cai?iiiiiaaii ? aei?iaiaaii aaio neeaae?a iaieaai/ieo iaoa??ae?a,
caoeuaieo aaoi?nueeeie na?aeioeoaaie, c yeeo aenia?eiaioaeueii
aea?ai? iaea?eueo iioeiaeuei? neeaaee aeey iaieaaeaiiy i?an-oi?i aeey
neea , aethi?i?th, iaieaaeaiiy aaee?a o?i?/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy .

Aiane?aeie i?iaaaeaieo a oe?e ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaiue, cai?iiiiiaaia
oaoiieia?y IIAIIAe ? iaeaaeiaiiy aeey eiai cae?eniaiiy, iaiao?aei? aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? iaieaiiy e iie?ioaiiy yeino?
iaieaaeaiiiai iaoaeo.

Iiaea?iici?iaaii na??eia iaeaaeiaiiy, c?a?ai? iinoe iaieaaeaiiy ia
A?iaoo?ii-icieyoi?iiio caaiae? (i. Neaa’yinuee, AAO «A?C- Aia?a?y » ),
a oaeiae aenia?eiaioaeuei? iinoe ia AI » Oiii?ii » i. Neaa’yinuee)
? AI » Neaa’yinueeoa?iiao «.

Canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo iaoa??ae?a ? oaoiieia?e aeaioiaeaiiy oa
iiiiaethaaiiy i?an-oi?i aeey ae?iaieoeoaa neeyieo icieyoi??a aeicaieeei
i?aeaeueoe ?o no?ee?noue i?eaeecii a 4 ?ace a ii??aiyii? c ?ai?oa
canoiniaoaaieie eaaiaaieie /aaoiieie.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a. Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaia noaia i?ioeano
ieaciiaiai iaieaaeaiiy c aen?aeueiith iiaea/ath ii?ioeiaiai
ae?ioo i?e iiia?aaeiueiio i?aeia??a? c ?aaoethaaiiyi aeeueioo.
Aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ? iaaeaii? iiyniaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy oaieii?ia?aeiinoi ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioa ? iaa??aa eiai
i?e aen?aeueiiio iiaeaaaii? o ieaciiao aeoao.

Cai?iiiiiaaiee ?yae eiiiiiaio?a oeooe, ui aeicaieythoue
cieceoe e?euee?noue iaiaoaeaaeo ae?aieaiue o iaieaaeaiee iaoae,
ca?eueoeoe no?ee?noue i?ioe ooai?aiiy n?oee ?iciaeo. ?ic?iaeai?
i?eioeeiia? noaie onoaiiaie ieaciiaiai iaieaaeaiiy c
aen?aeueiei iiaeaaaiiyi ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioa, noai?ai? eiino?oeoe??
ieaciio?ii?a c ?aaoeyoe??th iieiaeaiiy no?oiii?aeaiaeo. I?e
iniaeno?e o/ano? aaoi?a iaeaaeiaiiy ? oaoiieia?e ai?iaaaeaeai? ia
AO » A?C — Aia?a?y «, ii?iaoaai? ia IO » Oiii?ii «. Aaoi?ii
i?aeoaa?aeaeaii i/?eoaaia i?aeaeuaiiy no?eeinoi i?anoi?i aeey
ae?iaieoeoaa neeyieo icieyoi??a o ii??aiyii? c ?ai?oa
aeei?enoiaoaaieie ia i?aei?e?inoaao oaoiieia?yie aeaioiaeaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny ia Ananithci?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??
«Aaia?aeinianeea /oaiey» ( i. Iaaiiai, 1985 ??e ); ia Ananithci?e
eiioa?aioe?? «Neaayiianeea /oaiey » (i. Ia?iue, 1988 ??e ); ia
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio nai?ia?? «Aeinyaiaiiy ? ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo
caa?thaaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa» (i. Iineaa, 1988 ??e ); ia 1
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo o aaeoc? caa?thaaiiy ?
noi?aeieo oaoiieia?e (i. Ee?a, 1989 ??e ); ia Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe??
“Noai ? ia?niaeoeaa ?icaeoeo aeaeo?ioaoiieia?e” (i.?aaiiai, — 1989 ??e)
; ia Ananithciiio nai?ia?? «Oai?aoe/i? ? oaoiieia?/i? iniiae
iaieaaee, iaeaaeiaiiy oa iaoa??aee aeey iaieaaeaiiy » (i. Ee?a, 1990
??e); ia I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? (i. Ee?a, 1998 ??e
); ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao eaoaae?e » Caa?thaaeueia ae?iaieoeoai »
Aeiiaanueei? aea?aeaaii? iaoeiiaoae?aii? aeaaeai?? (i. E?aiaoi?nuee,
1998, 1999 ?iee ); ia I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? »
Neaayiianeea /oaiey » (i. Eiiaoeuee, 1999 ?. ).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue a?aeaeo? a 28
?iaioao, a oiio /ene? 6 o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo AAE Oe?a?ie, 6 o
ca??ieeao aeiiia?aeae ? oacen?a aeiiia?aeae ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo, iaea?aeaii 16 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoa ia aeiaoiaee.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 4
?icae?e?a ? aeiaeaoe?a c caaaeueiith e?euee?nooth 215 noi??iie,
aeeth/ath/e 131 noi??ieo iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, 55 iaethie?a, 11
oaaeeoeue; nienie e?oa?aoo?e – 233 iaeiaioaaiiy.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Anooiia /anoeia. Iainiiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie,
noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa ? can?a ??oaiiy i?iaeaie, ui ii?aoeueiaaia,
aecia/aia iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe, i?eaaaeaii
ia?ae?e iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e, aea ii?iaoaaeenue ?acoeueoaoe ?
e?euee?noue ioae?eaoe?e e aeiaoiae?a, ui a?aeiinyoueny aei oaie
aeena?oaoe??.

?icae?e 1. Noai ieoaiiy. Iaaaaeaii aiae?c iaoa??ae?a, ui
canoiniaothoueny aeey i?an-oi?i, ?ioeo ?ino?oiaio?a ? aeaoaeae iaoei,
ye? i?aoeththoue i?e oa?iioeeee?/iiio iaaaioaaeai? ? a aa?aneaiiio
na?aaeiaeu?. C iaoe?iiai niaeo?o iaoa??ae?a iiaeii a?aeie?aieoe noae? ?
/aaoie, eaaiaai? o?iiii, i?eaeai, aieueo?aiii, /e iie?aaeaiii ?
aaiaae??i. Iioei?caoe?y neeaaeo iniiaiiai ? iaieaaeaiiiai iaoaeo iiaea
i?iaaaeeoenue oeyoii ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oaeoi??a c a?eueo aenieei nooiaiai,
oaeeo ye aenieoaoaoe?eia caeaoi?noue i?ann-oi?i, aa?o?noue iaoiaeo ?
nia?aa?o?noue ?ia?o. Ocaaaeueiai? i?e/eie ?oeioaaiiy ? caniae
iie?ioaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae. Iniiaieie aeaeaie ?oeioaaiiy
?iai/i? iiaa?oii i?an-oi?i aeey neea ? ooai?aiiy n?oee ?iciaeo ?
noa?oy. O?oaeiiu? oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy ? ?aiiioo coiiaeai? oei, ui
aei iaieaaeaiiai iaoa??aeo canoiniaothoueny aeiiae noi?nieoeoaa
aea?ino?eeinoi c aenieith oa?iii?ia?aei?noth. A na?oia?e i?aeoeoe?
iaea?eueo iioeiaeueiith oaoiieia??th, ui caaeiaieueiy? oeei aeiiaai, ?
ieaciiaa iaieaaeaiiy ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioo. Iaeiith c iniiaieo caaea/ ?
?ic?iaea neeaae?a ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioa. Aiae?c iniiaieo noai i?ioean?a
ieaciiaiai iaieaaeaiiy iieacaa, ui iaea?eueoeie oaoiieia?/ieie
iiaeeeainoyie aieiae?? IIAIIAe. Oaea noaia aeicaiey? caaania/eoe
noaa?eueia aeiaeaoeiaa iaa??aaiiy ae?ioo ? ?icoe?aiiy ae?aiaciio
canoinoaaiiy eiiiiiaio?a oeooe. Ieaciiaa iaieaaeaiiy iaa??oei ae?ioii
a?aee?eaa? oe?ie? iiaeeeaino? aeey iaea?aeaiiy aenieino?eeeo,
ei?icieiino?eeeo ae?ia?a.

Aea aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo ? iiia?aaei? ania?eiaioe aaoi?a
iieacaee, ui i?e ieaciiaiio iaieaaeaii? ii?ioeiaei ae?ioii iiaeeea?
ii?ooaiiy noaa?eueiino? i?ioeano, ui aeeeeeathoueny ooiooaaiiyi aeoae,
i?iiaeii iaieiiee ae?ioo, cai?cieiiyi ieaaeaiiy na?oeaaeie, caoa?auaiiyi
niiea ieaciio?iia oiui. Oe? ii?ooaiiy i?ecaiaeyoue aei ia??aiii??iino?
o?i?/iiai neeaaeo iaieaaeaiiiai iaoaeo, oeaeiaei ae?aieaiiyi, iaieeaai
oa ?ioei aeaoaeoai.

?icae?e 2. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaa??aaiiy ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioa i?e
ieaciiaiio iaieaaeaii? c aen?aeueiei iiaeaaaiiyi ieaaeiai aeaeo?iaeo.
Iniaeea?noth i?ioeano, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny ? ?nioaaiiy iaeii/anii aeaio
aeoa, eiioeaio?e/ii ?ici?uaieo o i?inoi??. I?e aea/aii? i?ioeano
ai??iiy aeoa, ie??i ?a?no?aoe?? aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aiao??a ?aaeeio aaeenue
niinoa?aaeaiiy ca i?iaeoe?yie ia ae?ai?, aeey /iai canoiniaoaaeenue
nenoaie c aeiaaioieoniei ia’?eoeaii.

Aeine?aeaeoaaiee niin?a aeoaiai? ia?iaee a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?ioeo
niinia?a aeoaiaiai caa?thaaiiy oa iaieaaeaiiy oei, ui iaa??aaiiy ?
ieaaeaiiy aeaeo?iaeo ia a?ae??ceo aeaeeiiai aeeueioo aeeiio?oueny
aeiaeaoeiai oaieii aeoae, ui ai?eoue c e?eueoeaaiai iaieaaeiai
aeaeo?iaeo. I?e oae?e noai? iaa??aaiiy aea/aiiy oaieiaeo iie?a o
ieaaeiio ii?ioeiaiio aeaeo?iae? oneeaaeith?oueny oei, ui oeae aeaeo?iae
ia? iaoaeaao iaieiieo, yea aeia?a i?iaiaeeoue no?oi ? oaiei oa ii?ioeiao
na?oeaaeio c aenieei aeaeo?iiii?ii oa iecueeith oaieii?ia?aei?noth.

Aeey aecia/aiiy oaieiaeo iie?a o ii?ioeiaiio ae?io? aoea i?eeiyoa
ianooiia noaia iaa?aaaiiy ae?ioo (iae. 1). Ia ae?eyioe? 1io
ii?ioeiaee ae?io

Iae.1. Noaia ieaciiaiai i?ioeano ca aen?aeueiei iiaeaaaiiyi ieaaeiai
aeaeo?iaea: 1 – ieaaeee ae?io; 2 – e?eueoeaaee iaieaaeee aeaeo?iae; 3 –
ieaciioi?ioth/a niiei; 4 – ii?iaeiueioeee?iae?iaa ieaciiaa aeoaa; 5 –
aeoaa c ieaaeiai ?eaeo?iaea; 6 – e?aiey; 7 – no?oii-

i?aeaiae.

iaa??aa?oueny o?eueee oaieii, ui aeae?ey?oueny a iaieiioe? i?e
i?ioiaeaeaii? ii i?e no?oio aeoae. Ia ae?eyioe? 1ian ae??o
iaa??aa?oueny e??i oeueiai ? oaieii aeoae, ui ai?eoue ia ae?eyioe?
iaieaaeee aeaeo?iae-niiei. Ia ae?eyioe? 1en + 1aa +1ian
iaa??aaiiy ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioo ?aea ye ca ?aooiie no?oio, ui
i?ioiaeeoue ii eiai iaieiioe?, oae ? ca ?aooiie oaiea ieaciiai?
aeoae.

Aoa ?ic?iaeaiee niin?a aecia/aiiy iaa??aaiiy ieaaeiai
aeaeo?iaeo.

Ia?aaeaa/a?oueny iiaea/a ae?ioo c? oaeaee?noth, ui caaacia/o?
noaa?eueia ieaaeaiiy ia aeaeeiiio a?ae??ceo aeoae, i?e oeueiio
aei??ththoue aeiaaeeio 1aa aeaeeiiai iica ieaciio?iiii aeeueioo ae?ioo
? aecia/athoue e?euee?noue oaiea, ui iio?aiey? ia ae??o ca
iaeeieoeth /ano, oiaoi oaieiaee iio?e .

I?ney oeueiai oaeaee?noue iiaea/i ae?ioo ci?iththoue ia iaaio
aecia/aio aaee/eio ? aei??thaathoue iiaa cia/aiiy aeaeeiiai aeeueioo
1aa2, a oaeiae aecia/athoue oaieiaee iio?e , i?ney /iai iaoiaeyo
ieoiiee oaieiaee no?oi

A?aeiii, ui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, Ao
(1)

aea Q — oaieiaa iiooaei?noue, V- oaeaee?noue,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 —
u?euei?noue ae?ioo,
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 — ieoiia i?aeaeuaiiy oaieineeaaeo ae?ioo i?e eiai iaa??aaii? a?ae
ii/aoeiai? oaiia?aoo?e aei oaiia?aoo?e ieaaeaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi oaieioe
ieaaeaiiy. Oei /anii Q= f (V) (2)

Iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui l en = l aa oae ye aeoaa ia ae?eyioe? len aaea
iaaeaoa, a ia ae?eyioe? l aa ua ia iaaeaoa, cia/eoue ?? oaiia?aoo?a ia
ci?iaoueny. Ca?aene iiaeeeai i?eionoeoe, ui e oaieiia?aaea/a ia iaio
ae?eyieao iaeiaeiaa.

Ia aeaye?e a?aenoai? a?ae niiea caa??aa?oueny ti ieaciiai? aeoae
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, Ao
(3)
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 (4)

Oei /anii ieoiiee oaieiaee iio?e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; Ao/i2 (5)

aea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 — ieiua, /a?ac yeo i?ioiaeeoue
oea oaiei.

C oi?ioee (5) aeo?ea?, ui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 (6)

aea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 — aeeaiao? i?iaieiee;

Oiae?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, a

picscalex1000100090000036d0200000200150000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c026002602b1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffa6ffffff202b0000060200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000700010000000fb02a6fddd00000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002
040000002d01000008000000320a7a01c00901000000280010000000fb02a6fddd000000
00009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f0010000
08000000320a7a014e1901000000290010000000fb0205fedd0000000000900100000002
0002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a7e01
102501000000280010000000fb0205fedd00000000009001000000020002001053796d62
6f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320a7e01b12a010000002900
15000000fb0220ff0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f
6d616e00cca4040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320ae001332902000000
cad108000000320ae001ff2502000000c2c208000000320ae001c22302000000c2c20800
0000320ae001e52102000000eff009000000320ae001441c03000000cec1d90008000000
320ae001d01702000000cad108000000320ae0019f1502000000cad108000000320ae001
221402000000eff008000000320ae0018c0f02000000c2c208000000320ae0017e0d0200
0000c2c208000000320ae001010c02000000eff009000000320ae001fd0503000000cec1
d90009000000320ae0014e0103000000cdddd10015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001
010000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e0000a4040000002d0101000400
0000f001000008000000320a8001b028010000006c0008000000320a80017c2501000000
6c0008000000320a8001eb2201000000710008000000320a800102210100000064000800
0000320a8001311b01000000510008000000320a8001f91601000000710008000000320a
80011c15010000006c0008000000320a80013f1301000000640008000000320a8001b50e
01000000710008000000320a8001fb0c010000006c0008000000320a80011e0b01000000
640008000000320a8001ea0401000000510008000000320a80012e000100000051001000
0000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01
000004000000f001010008000000320a80019627010000002b0008000000320a8001ec1e
010000002d0008000000320a8001051a010000003d0008000000320a8001231101000000
2b0008000000320a8001a508010000002d0008000000320a8001be03010000003d001000
0000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01
010004000000f001000008000000320a8001ee1f01000000700008000000320a80012b12
01000000700008000000320a80010a0a0100000070000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff
01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d
00cc040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000,

aea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.

Cia/eoue
picscalex100010009000003940100000200150000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02600200151200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffa6ffffffc0140000060200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000700010000000fb0205fedd00000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002
040000002d01000008000000320a7e01c90e01000000280010000000fb0205fedd000000
00009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f0010000
08000000320a7e016a1401000000290015000000fb0220ff0000000000009001010000cc
0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00cc72040000002d01000004000000f001
010008000000320ae001ec1202000000cad108000000320ae001b80f02000000c2c20800
0000320ae0017b0d02000000c2c208000000320ae0019e0b02000000eff009000000320a
e001fd0503000000cec1d90009000000320ae0014e0103000000cdddd10015000000fb02
80fe0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000072
040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320a80016912010000006c0008000000
320a8001350f010000006c0008000000320a8001a40c01000000710008000000320a8001
bb0a01000000640008000000320a8001ea0401000000510008000000320a80012e000100
0000510010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002
040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a80014f11010000002b0008000000
320a8001a508010000002d0008000000320a8001be03010000003d0010000000fb0280fe
0000000000009001010000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000
f001000008000000320a8001a7090100000070000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100
0000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc
040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000, Ao, (7)

Aecia/eii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, (8)

Ci?ithth/e oaeaee?noue iiaea/? ae?ioo (V1 e V2) iiaeii io?eiaoe
a?aeiia?aeia cia/aiiy caaaeueii? oaieiai? iiooaeiino? Q ii oi?ioe? (1).
Ciaoiaeeii oaieiaee iio?e q aa ii oi?ioeai (5) ? (8).

Iaoiaeeea aeicaiey? aecia/eoe oaieiao iiooaei?noue a ae?io? a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ia?aiao??a ?aaeeio oa ieaciio?iia.

Niin?a, ui i?iiiio?oueny aeey aecia/aiiy iaa??aaiiy, iioeiaeueii
a?aeaeaa? ?aaeuei? oiiae. I?e oeueiio aeei?enoiao?oueny oie aea iaoa??ae
c?acea, ui ? i?e ?aaeueiiio caa?thaaiiy, a?i a?aoiao? aieeae iaoaeo, ui
caa?th?oueny, ia i?ioean o aeoc? ? aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe aei??thaaiiy i?e
o?e aea oaeaeeino? caa?thaaiiy, ui canoiniao?oueny i?e ?aaeueiiio
caa?thaaii?.

Ae?io, ui iiiaaea? o aeoao iaieaaeiai aeaeo?iaea, iaa??aa?oueny ia
aeaio iniiaieo ae?eueieoeyo — ana?aaeei? ieaciio?iio ia aeiaaeei? 1ie
a?ae oi?oey iaieaaeiai aeaeo?iaea, aei ciai?oiueiai c??co
ieaciiooai?thth/iai niiea, naia ia oe?e ae?eueieoe? ana?aaeei?
ieaciio?iio aeoaa eiioaeoo? c ae?ioii, oa ia ae?eueieoe? 1aa iica
ieaciio?iio — a?ae ciai?oiueiai oi?oey ieaciiooai?thth/iai niiea aei
i?noey ?icieaaeaiiy ae?ioo. Ae?eueieoeth iaa??ao ae?ioo o
ieaciio?ii? 1ie iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia aea? ae?eueieoe? : 1ian —
ae?eueieoey aeaeo?iae–niiei, ui ia ieaaeoueny, oa 1en — ae?eueieoey,
a?aeiia?aeia aioo??oiueiio eaiaeo ieaciiooai?thth/iai niiea.

Aenia?eiaioaeueiei oeyoii ciaeaeaii aaee/eie oaieiaeo iioie?a a?ae
ciai?oi?o ieaciiaeo aieea?a aei ae?ioo ia ??cieo ae?eyieao
oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano. A?aeiii, ui no?oi, yeee i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac
iaieiieo ia e?eueea ii?yaee?a a?eueoa no?oio ii?ioeiai? na?oeaaeie, a
nayceo c /ei aaaaea?oueny aeioe?eueiei a oaieia?e iaoaiaoe/i?e iiaeae?
ciaoooaaoe no?oiii /a?ac na?oeaaeio, aaaaeath/e ui aioo??ii? ia’?ii?
aeaea?aea oaiea ooai?ai? no?oiii, ui i?ioiaeeoue, ?iciianthaeaeai? a
iaieiioe? ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioo. A ?acoeueoao? oaieioa a?ae iaa??oi?
no?oiii iaieiiee oeee?iae?e/iiai ae?ioo ia?aaea?oueny na?oeaaei?.

Iiooaei?noue aioo??oi?o ia’?iieo ?iciiae?eaieo aeaea?ae oaiea
?ic?aoiao?oueny ca ae?acii, ui a?aoiao? neeo no?oio, yeee i?ioiaeeoue
/a?ac iaieiieo ieaaeiai aeaeo?iaea, oa eiai aeaeo?e/iee ii??. Aeae?eaiiy
oa iiaeeiaiiy oaiea, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ae /an o?i?/ieo ?aaeoe?e a
na?oeaaei? ae?ioo iiaeia ia a?aoiaoaaoe. Iaoiaeii ieaioaaiiy
aenia?eiaio?a aoea aecia/aia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue oaieiai? nenoaie a
oaoiieia?/iiio i?ioean? IIAIIAe a oeee?iae?iaeo eii?aeeiaoao.

Aoei ?ic?iaeaii i?eeaaeaey aeey aecia/aiiy oaieii?iaiaeiinoi oeooe
(iae.2). I?aeiee oeeeiiae?e/anueeee iao?oaie 1 c iaio aie?a
cae??ieaiee caaeooeaie 2 c oeaiaio-acaanoo. Eiioaeoiee aeie 3
c?a?aiee c aeaio i?aeieo iai?aoeeeiiae?e/ieo aeaiaio?a 4, i?ae
ieineeie iiaa?oiyie yeeo o?eno?oueny iio?iiiaee ae??o 5 ae?aiao?ii
0,85ii. I?ino?? o oeee?iae?? caiiaiy?oueny aeine?aeaeo?iith oeooith
6. Aei??thaaiiy oaiia?aoo?e aioo??oiuei? iiaa?oii i?aeiiai iao?oaea
i?iaaaeaii o?ueiia o?iiaeueeiiaeueiaeie oa?iiia?aie 7.

Iae.2. Noaia aenia?eiaioaeueiiai

i?eeaaeaey aeey aecia/aiiy

oaieii?iaiaeiino? oeooe.

I?ioyaii 10 oaeeei aeo?eiee c iioa?aaeii o 1 oaeeeio ci?iaeeny
iieacaiiy oa?iiia?, ye? eiio?iethaaee oaiia?aoo?o aeaeo?iaea ?
oaiia?aoo?o no?iee iao?oaea.

Eiao?oe?aio oaieii?iaiaeiino? aecia/aany ca oi?ioeith:

picscalex100010009000003f50100000300170000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c024004e00c1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffb4ffffffa00c0000f40300000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000f00010000000fb0205fee300000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002
040000002d01000008000000320a8603c50201000000280010000000fb0205fee3000000
00009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f0010000
08000000320a8603a80601000000290009000000fa020000100000000000000022000400
00002d0100000500000014020002b20205000000130200021e090500000014020002b80a
05000000130200028d0c17000000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000cc040200105469
6d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc04040000002d01020004000000f0010100
08000000320ae803e40b01000000310008000000320ad201e80b01000000320017000000
fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e20
43797200cc04040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a6002520902000000
6c6e08000000320a8803120701000000320017000000fb0280fe00000000000090010100
00cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc04040000002d010200
04000000f001010008000000320a8803f30a01000000440008000000320a7201de0a0100
0000440008000000320a88038c08010000006c0008000000320a88038d05010000007400
08000000320a8803310301000000740008000000320a7201100502000000495517000000
fb0220ff0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e20
43797200cc04040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320ae803010601000000
ef0008000000320ae803a80301000000fd0010000000fb0280fe00000000000090010100
00020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a
8803ba0701000000700008000000320a60023400010000006c0010000000fb0280fe0000
000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001
020008000000320a88037904010000002d0008000000320a60027c01010000003d000a00
000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc020000
00cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01020004000000f0010100030000000000

aea I , U, ta , ti – na?aaei?, ia i?ioyc? iaeeii/iiai aeine?aeo,
cia/aiiy neee no?oio, ??cieoe? iioaioe?ae?a ? oaiia?aoo? aeaeo?iaea ?
iao?oaea; D1 ? D2 – ae?aiao?e aioo??oiuei? ? ciai?oiuei? iiaa?oi?
aeaeo?iaea;
l — aeiaaeeia iao?oaea. Aeine?aeaeoaaee /ioe?e oeie oeooe.
Oa?aeoa?iei ? oa ianoaaeia, ui o aaeoc? cia/aiiy oaiia?aoo?,
a?aeiia?aeieo oaiia?aoo?ai ieaaeaiiiy oeooe, niinoa??aa?oueny ??cea
ca?eueoaiiy eiao?oe?aioo oaieii?iaiaeiinoi. Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue
oaieiaiai i?ioeano, a oaeiae i?aaeeiaeaiiee iaoiae ?ic?aooieo
oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a, aeicaieeee ia?aeoe aei aaciina?aaeiueiai
aecia/aiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a o ii?ioeiaiio ae?io?.

Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiaieee ci?ie oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey o
na?oeaaei? ? iaieiioe? c o?aooaaiiyi oiai ui ae?io ciaoiaeeoueny a
aeoc?, aeine?aeaeoaaeeny oaiia?aoo?i? iiey aeey aeo?aeieo aeaieo a
??ciiiai?oi? iiiaioe /ano.

A?aeiii canoinoaaiiy ieaciiai-aeoaiaiai iaa??aaiiy ieaaeiai ?eaeo?iaeo c
iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? iaieaaeaiiy oa ciaiueoaiiy aeeaeie
i?iieaaeaiiy iniiaiiai iaoaeo. I?ae /an IIAIIAe ae?thoue iaeii/anii
oaeoi?e iaa??aaiiy aeeueioo ieaaeiai aeaeo?iaeo oaieii ieaciiai? aeoae
oa aeaeioeaaei oaieii no?oio, ui i?ioiaeeoue aeey caaania/aiiy ai??iiy
aeanii? aeoae. Iaa??aaiiy ieaaeiai aeaeo?iaeo aeaeioeaaei oaieii ia
aieeaa? ia caeiiii??iino? eiai iaa??aaiiy ieaciiaith aeoaith, oiio ui
i?e a?eueoiio ia?aiaae? oaiia?aoo? i?ae iaa??oe ieaaeei aeaeo?iaeii oa
na?aaeiaeuai, ui iaa??aa?oueny ieaciiaith aeoaith, oaieiaee iio?e a
?a/iaeio, ui iaa??aa?oueny ia caeaaeeoue a?ae oaiia?aoo?e eiai
iaa??aaiiy. Oea i?eiouaiiy aeioe?eueia a oiiaao, ui ?icaeyaeathoueny
oiio, ui iaa??aaiiy aeeueioo ieaaeiai aeaeo?iaeo eaea aei oaiia?aoo?
ieaaeaiiy inoaiiueiai, ye? aeey a?eueoino? iaoae?a, ui
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioo eaaeaoue a
iaaeao 1000…2000iE, a oie /an ye oaiia?aoo?a ieacie aeinyaa? a?eueoa 10
000iE.

Aiane?aeie i?iaaaeaieo ?ic?aooie?a aoee aecia/ai? caeaaeiino? : oaieiaeo
no?oi?a o ae?io? a?ae no?oio ieaciiai? aeoae ? ae?aiao?o

ieaciiooai?th?iiai niiea; oaieiaeo no?oi?a o ae?io? a?ae aeaeaoeo

ieaciiooai?th?iiai aaco; oaieiaeo no?oi?a o ae?io? ia ae?eueieoe?

aeaeeiiai aeeueioo a?ae aaee/eie aeaeeiiai aeeueioo e no?oio
ieaciiai? aeoae.

I?ioean ieaciaii-aeoaiaiai ? iaieaaeaiiy c aeneaeueiei iiaeaaaiiyi
ieaaeiai aeaeo?iaea noaiiaeoue noeoii?noue aeaeo?ioice/ieo yaeu ?
neeaaea?oueny c 3 -o iniiaieo ia??iae?a: caoaeaeaiiy iaio aeoa
(ii/aoie iaieaaeaiiy); aeania i?ioean iaieaaeaiiy (noaa?eueia oa/?y
i?ioeano); i?eieiaiiy i?ioeano iaieaaeaiiy. Ia?aiao?e ?aaeeio aca?iii
iia’ycai? ? ?o ci?ia i?eionoeia a iaaeao, ui aeeeth/athoue ?ici?uaiiy
aeoeaieo ieyi ieaciiai? aeoae ia ieaaeiio aeaeo?iae?.

A i?ioeaiiio ?ac? ??cei c?inoa? oaieiaee no?oi o ae??o,
ii?ooo?oueny i?ioean ieaaeaiiy aeaeo?iaea, iaieiiea ?icieaaey?oueny
iica ciiith ooai?aiiy e?aiei ? ?oeio?oueny. Aeine?aeaeaiiy yaeua
ooiooaaiiy i?iaiaeeeiny a?coaeueieie niinoa?aaeaiiyie ca i?ioeanii
ieaaeaiiy ? iieacaiiyie i?eeaae?a. Aaee/eia e?eoe/iiai no?oio iaa?iaii
i?iii?oe?iiaeueia aeaeaoeo ieaciiooai?thth/iai aaco. Aaee/eia e?eoe/iiai
no?oio ciaioo?oueny c? ca?eueoaiiyi oaeaeeino? iiaea/i ? ca?eueoai?
aeaeeiiai aeeueioo ae?ioo. C? ca?eueoaiiyi no?oio ieaciiai? aeoae
aeiaaeeia aeaeeiiai aeeueioo, i?e yeiio ?icii/eia?oueny ooiooaaiiy,
ciaioo?oueny, ui iia’ycaia c ca?eueoaiiyi iaa??ao ae?ioo (iae.3).

Iae.3. Caeaaei?noue e?eoe/ii? aeiaaeeie aeaeeiiai aeeueioo ae?ioo, i?e
ye?e ii/eia?oueny ooiooaaiiy ieaciiai? aeoae a?ae ae?aiao?o eaiaeo
ieaciiooai?thth/iai niiea ? a?ae neee ieaciiai? aeoae
(ae?aiao? ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioo 2 ii).

I?ioean ieaciiaiai iaieaaeaiiy iaiao?aeii ooiooaaiiy ieaciiai?
aeoae. Na?aaeiaeuai aeey iaieaaee aeaeo?iaea, ui caaacia/o?
iaee?au? aia?aaoe/i? ? oaoi?/i? iieacieee a?aii ? aae?e. I?ioean
IIAIIAe aeicaiey? aeei?enoiaoaaoe NI2 — aeey iiaea/? o niiei, ui
caaacia/o? caoeuaiiy ia?ioa??? aeoae ? aaie.

?icae?e 3. ?ic?iaea ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioa aeey IIAIIAe. Aiae?c
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo ii neeaaeai iaieaaeaiiiai iaoaeo aeey i?an-oi?i
iieacaa, ui canoiniao?oueny aace?/ neeaae?a , ui a?ae??ciythoueny ye
eiiiiceoe??th eaaoaaeueieo aeaiaio?a, oae ? ?o ai?noii .Aeey caoaeaiiy
ia?aieo iaae eaaoaaiiy iaieaaeaiiiai iaoaeo i?iaiaeeeeny aei?iaoaaiiy
ia /ooeea?noue eiai aei ooai?aiiy n?oee ?icaa?o. Aei?iaoaaiiy
i?iaiaeeeenue ia niaoe?aeuei?e onoaiiaoe? , ui aeicaieyea aeeiioaaoe
iaa??a iaieaaeaiiiai iaoaeo c ianooiiei ioieiaeaeaiiyi o
niaoe?aeueiiio na?aaeiaeu?. A ?acoeueoao? iiia?aaei?o aeine?ae?a a
eiai iniiao iieeaaeaiee iaoae oeio 2O13I12AN2?2.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? ?ic?iaee ae?ioo aoa aecia/aiee neeaae
oeaeiaaciooai?thaaeueii? iniiae. C iaoith ii?aeiaiiy aiaeith a HF , o
neeaae oeooe cai?iaaaeaeai? c’?aeiaiiy, ye? i?noyoue ieenue ai?o A2I3 ?
ooi?eaee aeoeaiiai ?iceenieea AlF3, MgF2, CrF2 . A cii? iaa??ao ae?ioo,
a oaeiae o noaae?? aeaeo?iaeii? e?aie? ? a aaii? ae??oueny ?ioaineaia
?aaeoe?y i?ae oeeie eiiiiiaioaie c aeieeiaiiyi BF3 .

Iiia?aaei?ie aenia?eiaioaie anoaiiaeaii iiceoeaiee aieea ia ?aoiioaaiiy
iaieaaeaiiiai iaoaeo aaaaeaiiyi o neeaae na?oeaaeie ii?ioeiaeo
ae?io?a ooi?eae?a oa oei?eae?a c iecueeith oaiia?aoo?ith
aeenioe?aoe?? (ooi?ai?aoa eaeith, ooi?inoiai aa?ith, oeac?y oa
?ioeo), ui i?e ieaciaii-aeoaiaiio iaieaaeaii? ?c canoinoaaiiyi
caoeniiai aaco a?aiio o?aaa canoiniaoaaoe cai?noue ia?io?o, ?ooeeo oa
?ioeo aacioeaeiooai?thth/eo eiiiiiaio?a. I?e iaa??a? a?aeaoaa?oueny
?iciaae ooi?eaeieo ? oei?eaeieo c’?aeiaiue c aeae?eaiiyi ooi?o ?
oei?o, ui anooiathoue o ?aaeoe?th c ieneaeaii ia iiaa?oi?
iaoaeaaeo neeaaeiaeo, ye? aoiaeyoue o oeooo na?oeaaeie ii?ioeiaiai
ae?ioo ? ia?aaiaeyoue ?o o eaaeiieaaei niieo/aiiy. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue
aei aeiaeaoeiaiai ?aoiioaaiiy iaieaaeaiiiai iaoaeo ia ieneaee.
Ooai?aiiy iaaeoaiei? oa oe?iei? aaie, a oaeiae aieea
ii?iaeiueioeeeiiae?e/ii? aeoae i?e ieaciiaiio iaieaaeaii? ni?eythoue
iioainio?eaoei? i?ioiaeaeaiith iai?iieo ?aaeoe?e iaae oeaeaie ?
?icieaaeaiiei iaoaeii. Aaeiaaieaee iaoae?a iiaeooue ?ic/eiyoe o nia?
ieneaee.

Ii caaeaiiio oeio iaieaaeaiiai iaoaeo ?ic?iaeaii neeaae ii?ioeiaeo
ae?io?a aeey IIAIIAe. Neeaae eaaoth/i? /anoeie na?oeaaeie
ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioa a?aei?aoeueiaoaaany oeyoii iaaeeaeaiiy neeaaeo
iaieaaeaiiiai iaoaeo aei caaeaiiai. Neeaae aacioeaeiooai?thth/ee iniiae
aeae?aany ii aieeao ia oi?ioaaiiy aaeeea, i?i?iaeuei? ao?aoe
aeaeo?iaeiiai iaoaeo ia aeaa? ? ?ica?eneoaaiiy. Iaieaaeaiiy
aeeiioaaeenue ia ?aaeeiao: ieaaeee aeaeo?iae — no?oi 220…300 A, iai?oaa
ia aeoc? 24…26 A; ieaciiaa aeoaa – no?oi 350…380 A, iai?oaa – 40 A;
oaeaee?noue iaieaaeaiiy – 23 i/a. ?c cai?iiiiiaaieo neeaae?a oeooe
aeaioiaeaii ae?io aeeaiao?ii 2,0… 3, 0 ii c eiao?oe?aioii caiiaiaiiy 0,
39-0, 42 c noaeaai? no??/ee ia?ee 08 ei ia?aoeiii 0, 5o14 ii2.
I?e oeueiio niinia? iaieaaeaiiy aeinyaioo? aenie? iieacieee
eiao?oe?aioo ia?aoiaeo eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a.

I?e IIAIIAe io?eiai? ianooii? caa?thaaeueii-oaoiieia?/i? iieacieee :
eiao?oe?aio iaieaaeaiiy (i = 16-18 a /a/; ao?aoe ia aeaa? ?
?ica?ecaoaaiiy (a. ?. = 4 -6%; aeoiae i?eaeaoiiai iaoaeo Ea = 89%).

?icae?e 4. ?ic?iaea iaeaaeiaiiy ? oaoiieia?? aeey IIAIIAe. Aoee
?ic?iaeai? i?eioeeiia? noaie iiaea?i?caoe?? aeiiaeieo ? oe?enoi?ieo
caa?thaaeueieo aei?yiey/?a c o?aooaaiiyi niiniao , ui eiia?ioaaany
ieaciaii-aeoaiaei iaieaaeaiiyi ?c i?ae?a??aii ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioo a?ae
ie?aiiai aeaea?aea aai c aeei?enoaiiyineeiaeo eaioetha?a oa?enoi?ieo caa
?thaaeueieo aei?yiey/?a. I?e oeueiio ia?oueny ia oaac?, ui iai?oaa ia
aeo?aeieo eeaiao aei?yiey/a aoaea ieae/a ia aaee/eio iaae?iiy a
eiioi?eaoe?yo ? aeaeo?iaeiiio ae?io?.

Iae.4. Noaia i?aeeeth/aiiy ieaciio?iia: 1 – aeaea?aea aeeaeaiiy
ieaciiai? aeoae; 2 –aeaea?aea aeeaeaiiy aeoae ieaaeiai aeaeo?iaea; 3 —
niiei oi?ioth/a; 4 –aooeea; 5 – ii?iaeiueioeee?iae?e/iee aeaeo?iae; 6 –
ieaei?e ioiaeoooe; 7 – ?cieyoe?eiee eaiae; 8 – ecieyoe?eia aooeea; 9 –
aa?oi?e ioiaeoooe.

Noaia caa?thaaeueiiai iinoa o?aoiao? iniaeea?noue i?ioeano ?
neeaaea?oueny ia iniia? na??eieo aeaea?ae aeeaeaiiy: aeey ieaciiai?
aeoae c iaaeath/ith aieueoaiia?iith oa?aeoa?enoeeith aeey ieaaeiai – c
aei?noeith oa?aeoa?enoeeith. Aeey i?ioiaeaeaiiy no?oia /a?ac
ca?eueoaiee aeeueio aeaeo?iaea eiioaeo cae?enith?oueny e??cue aa?oi?e
ioiaeoooe. Ieaei?e ioiaeoooe aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey iaea?aeaiiy
neaiaeo cai?ioiueiai ca’yceo aeey caa?thaaeueiiai aei?yiey/a, oiaoi
?c oi/ee aeeueioo, iaeneiaeueii aeecueei? aei aeoae (iae.4.).

Aeey iaieaaeaiiy, cie?aia, canoiniaoaaeeny onoaiiaee ia
aac? aaoiiaoo A874i c iiaea?iiciaaiei aei?yiey/ai AAeO1601.
Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeey aeeaeaiiy ieaciiai? aeoae onoaiiaee OI?-201 iieacaei
iaae?eia caoaeaeaiiy ieaciiai? aeoae, a?aenooi?noue i?iaeia?a iaieiiee
ae?ioo caaaeyee aenie?e iai?oc? oieinoiai oiaeo. Aeey aeeaeaiiy
ieaciiai? aeoae canoiniaoaaeanue onoaiiaea OIN- 301. E??i oiai
?ic?iaeaia noaia onoaiiaee ieaciiaiai iaieaaeaiiy c
aeeaeaiiyi a?ae oeaoiaiai ?icaiaeo aaaaoiiinoiaiai ?o/iiai
caa?thaaiiy, iniiaaiiio ia aeaea?ae? aeeaeaiiy iai?aaaoiiaoa.

Aoaeoeai?noue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ieaciiai-aeoaiaeo i?ioean?a a
cia/i?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae eiino?oeoe?? ieaciio?iia. I?e caa?thaai?
ia iino?eiiio no?oi? cai?ioiuei? iiey?iinoi canoiniaaii i?aeiee
aiaeiioieiaeaeoaath/ee aeaeo?iae.

Ca?aeii c ?ici??ii aioo??oiueiai oi?ioth/iai niiea
cai?iaaaeaeothoueny ? ?ici??e ?ioeo aeaiaio?a, ui eiai ioiieththoue:
ciai?oiueiai niiea aeey iiaea/? caoeniiai aaca, e?ei?aeii? aaeea oiui.
Aeey iie?ioaiiy iiaieueiinoi ieaciio?iia, iiaeeeaino? iaieaaee
e?eaieii?eieo oaiooeo iiaa?oiiue ciai?oi? niiea aeeiiai? o aeaeyae?
on?/aiiai eiiona, oi?aoeue yeeo ciaoiaeeoueny ia ??ai? e?eueoeaaiai
aeaeo?iaea-niiea.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oi?ie oa?a ? ciie oa?i?/iiai aieeao i?iaiaeeeeny ii
iae?ioeioai. Aeine?aeaeaiiy /anoee o/ano? iniiaiiai iaoaeo ?
neeaae ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioo a iaieaaeaiiio iaoae? i?iaiaeeee ii
aeaii i?ia?aiai : 1 ) i?e ci?i? neee no?oio ieaciiai? aeoae ?
iino?eiiio no?oi? aeoae ieaaeiai aeaeo?iaeo; 2 ) i?e iino?eiiio
cia/ai? no?oio ieaciiai? aeoae ? no?oi? ieaaeiai aeaeo?iaea, ui
ci?ithaaany o ae?aiacii? ?iai/eo ?aaeei?a aeoae, ui ai?eoue i?ae
ieaaeei aeaeo?iaeii ? ae?iaii. A on?o aeiaaeeao oaeaee?noue
ia?ai?uoaaiiy ieaciio?iia aoea iino?eiith (Vi=30 i //). Aoei
anoaiiaeaii, ui /anoea iniiaiiai iaoaeo a aeiaiacii? oaoiieia?/ieo
?aaeei?a ci?ith?oueny a?ae 0, 15 aei 0, 17. Ia aaee/eio /anoee
iaieaaeaiiai iaoaeo, cia/iee aieea aeyaey? no?oi aeoae ieaaeiai
aeaeo?iaea. Iaaaeeea ? iino?eia ii aaee/ei? aeeaeia ieaaeaiiy a
ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie niiniaaie iaieaaee iieaaoo? ?ic?aooiie
neeaaeo o oeoo?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo? iaoaeo aaeeea, ciie nieaaeaiiy ?
ciieoa?i?/iiai aieeao iieacaee, ui iniiaiee iaoae ia?ai?oo?oueny c

iaoaeii iaieaaee o?eueee a ieaei?e /anoei? aaeeea ? aaee/eia
ciie, ui neeaaea?oueny c nieaao iniiaiiai ? iaieaaeaiiai iaoaeo
aei??aith? 0,5…0,7 ii.

Aeiaeaoeiaee iaa??a aaiie ii e?ayi ? a oainoia?e /anoei? caaacia/o?
?ino?eaiiy iaieaaeaiiai iaoaeo aac iaieea?a i?e aenio? aaeeeo, a 1,
5 …2 ?ace oe?oa, ui ia?aaeuo? n?aaeith aaee/eio aaeeea, iaieaaeaiiai
aac aieeao ieaciiai? aeoae.

Iaeiei c iniiaieo caaaeaiue i?e ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?? iaieaaee ?
ca?eueoaiiy oe?eie iaieaaeaiiai oa?o i?e iei?iaeuei?e oi?noeino?,
oaeeynoino? oa aeeaei? i?iieaaeaiiy. Aoea ia?aia eii?eia o?aaeoi??y
ia?ai?uoaaiiy iaeueieea; iaeiioa?iaa aaaaoi?yaeia iaieaaeaiiy ia
?aaeeiao, ui caaacia/othoue aenioo iaeeii/iiai aaeeea 4… 5 ii i?e
oe?ei? 13…14 ii.

I?e IIAIIAe aeiiii?y iaieaaeaiiai iaoaeo aeinyaa?oueny aeaiia
oeyoaie:

1) caaaeaiiy aei i?i?ioio aeeaeie i?iieaaeaiiy ? /anoee iniiaiiai
iaoaeo o iaieaaoe?; 2) ooai?aiiy aeiiiiii eaaiaaieo ii?ioeiaeo
ae?io?a. Ae?aiao? ciie iaa??aaiiy ii?iaeiueioeeeiiae?e/iith aeoaith c
e?eueoeaaiai aeaeo?iaea a?aeiia?aea? oe?ei? ? aeiaaeei? aaiie, ? oaeei
/eiii /anoeia oaiea ieaciiai? aeoae aeo?a/a?oueny ia aeiaeaoeiaee
iaa??a aaiie. Oey iniaeea?noue i?ioeano coiiaeth? iiceoeaiee aoaeo ia
cii/oaai? e?iiie oa aeio?thaaiiy oeaeiaeo ae?aieaiue. Ciia iaieaaeaiiy
aea?/e ia?aoeia?oueny ieaciiaith ii?iaeiueioeeeiiae?e/iith aeoaith.
Ia?aaei?e o?iio ieaciiai? aeoae cacaeaeaa?aeue i?ae?a??aa?
ae?eueieoeth, i?iaiaeeoue iaeii/anii i/enoeo iiaa?oii ca ?aooiie
eaoiaeiiai ?icieeaiiy. Oaiea oe??? aeoae aeinoaoiuei aeey eieaeueiiai
?icieaaeaiiy oiieiai oa?o ia iiaa?oii ae?iao, eoaee ? aeo/athoue
e?aiei aeaeo?iaeiiai iaoaeo. Oi?ioaaiiy iaieaaeaiiiai aaeeea
a?aeaoaa?oueny ia o?eueee i?ae ae??th cae/aeieo nee ( iiaa?oiueiai
iaoyao, oyae?iiy, iaaiioiaiae?iaeiiai?/eo oa ?ioeo), aea ? aeiaeaoeiaiai
ieaciaii-aaciaiai iaii?o. E??i oeneo, oeae iai?? i?ae?a?aaa?
canoeaath/o aaiio.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui o iaieaaeaiiiio iaoae? ia ia? aeaoaeo?a.
I?e?ino?oeoo?a iaoaeo iaieaaee, aeayeeie ?ic?iaeaieie ii?ioeiaeie
ae?ioaie i?aaenoaaey? niaith ae??aiiaeenia?nio ia?oainioio iao?eoeth c
ia?aieaiiyi o?iinoioii, aeiaaoei ii ei?aeiiai aonoai?oieo ca?ai.
Oaa?ae?noue ia?oainioieo iao?eoeue I-670… 840, oaa?ae?noue
o?iinoioieo i?ioa?ie I-365… 470. ?ici?? ca?ai 6…7 aae?a. ?ic?iaeaii
aea? aa??aioa oaoiieia?/ieo iia?aoe?e, ui caniiaai? ia IIAIIAe, aeey
aeaioiaeaiiy aeine?aeii? ia?o?? i?an-oi?i aeey neeyieo icieyoi??a
IN-70Ae. ?nieoe no?eeinoi i?an-oi?i o ae?iaie/eo oiiaao iieacaee :
no?ee?noue iaieaaeaieo i?an-oi?i c?inea c 10 aei 42 aiaeei. ??/iee
aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiai? oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy
i?an-oi?i o 1999 ?ioe? neeaa 128266 a?i.

CAAAEUeI? AENIIAEE

1. Anoaiiaeaii, ui oaieia? iioiee o ae?io?, ui iiaea?oueny
aeniaeueii o ieaciiao aeoao, iathoue iaea?eueoa cia/aiiy ia ae?eyioe?
aeeueioo aeaeeiiai iica ieaciio?iiii. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi no?oio
ieaciiai? aeoae oaieia? iioiee o ae??o ca?eueoothoueny.

2. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey eiaeiiai ae?aiao?o niiea ?nio? e?eoe/ia
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aaee/eie no?oio ieaciiai? aeoae ? aeiaaeeie
aeaeeiiai aeeueioo, i?e yeiio ii/eia?oueny ooiooaaiiy ieaciiai?
aeoae.

3. Ia iniia? aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo ? ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue iaieaaeaiieo iaoae?a ia ?o no?ee?noue i?ioe
ooai?aiiy n?oee ?iciaeo anoaiiaeaia, ui iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei aeey
iaieaaeaiiy i?an-oi?i aeey neea ? iaoae oeio 2O13I12AN2?2.

4. Aeey ieaciaii-aeoaiaiai iaieaaeaiiy c aen?aeueiei iiaeaaaiiyi
ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioo ? aeioe?eueiei iiaoaeiaa aacioeaeiooai?thth/i?
nenoaie iaiiaithaa/a ia iniia? eaaeiieaaeiai aaoaeoe/iiai nieaao
i?ia?ae?a ? nieae ooi?eae?a ? oei?eae?a.

5.Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?aaeei ieaciiai-aeoaiaiai iaieaaeaiiy
?aaoeth?oueny, aeoiaey/e c iniiaii? aeiiae — aeeeth/aiiy i?iiae?a
iaieiiee ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioa. Oae, i?e no?oi? ieaiiai? aeoae 100…200
A, iai?oaa ia ieaciia?e aeoc? 40…45 A; no?oi ieaaeiai aeaeo?iaea
aeeaiao?ii 2ii – 100…120 A; iai?oaa ia aeoc? ieaaeiai aeaeo?iaea – 30…35
A; aeo?aoa ieaciiooai?thth/iai a?aiio – 5…8 e/oa; caoeniiai aaco – 10…12
e/oa; oaeaee?noue iaieaaeaiiy – 30…40 i/aiae.

6.Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey cae?eniaiiy ieaciiaiai iaieaaeaiiy c
aeneaeueiei iiaeaaaiiyi ieaaeiai aeaeo?iaea c ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioo
aeiionoeii canoinoaaiiy na??eiiai iaeaaeiaiiy ; aeeaeaiiy iaio aeoa
iiaeia cae?enithaaoe a?ae ie?aieo aeaea?ae caa?thaaeueiiai no?oio.

7.Anoaiiaeaiii, ui aeey aeeaeaiiy ieaciiai? aeoae
iaiao?aeii

canoiniaoaaoe aeaea?aea aeeaeaiiy c iaaeath/ith aieueoaiia?iith
oa?aeoa?enoeeith. I?ae /an aeai?o aeaea?ae aeeaeaiiy aeoae, ui
ai?eoue c ieaaeiai aeaeo?iaea, iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe iaae?iiy iai?oae
a eiioi?eaoe?yo ? ia aeeueio? aeaeo?iaea aeey /iai canoiniaoaaoe
aeaea?aea c aea?noeith aieueoaiia?iith oa?aeoa?enoeeith.

8.Aeiaaaeaii, ui aeiaeaoeiaa i?ae?a??aaiiy ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioo
cae?enith?oueny caa?thaaeueiei no?oiii, i?ioiaey/ei /a?ac ca?eueoaiee
aee?o, aeey /iai no?oi i?aeaiaeeoueny aei aa?oiuei? /anoeie
ieaciio?iio, a eiio?ieue ca i?ioeanii caoaeaeaiiy ? ieaaeaiiy
cae?enith?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith no?oiii?aeaiaeii? anoaaee, neaiae c
yei? iaaeoiaeeoue a eaioetha cai?ioiiai ca’yceo.

9. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe ia Neaa’yinueeiio a?iaoo?ii
-icieyoi?iiio caaiae? aeey iaieaaeaiiy i?an-oi?i aeey i?anoaaiiy
icieyoi??a ?c neea aeicaieeei i?aeaeueoe ?o no?ee?noue a 4 ?ace o
ii??aiyii? c /aaoiieie i?an-oi?iaie. Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiai? oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy i?an-oi?i noaiiaeoue 128266
a?i.

Nienie iioaeeeiaaiiuo aaoi?ii ?aaioii oaia aeenna?oaoeee.

1. Iaea?aiei I.A. Oniaa?oainoaiaaiea ieaciio?iia e onoaiiaee aeey
ieaciaiiie iaieaaee //Aaoiiaoe/aneay naa?ea.- 1998-?1.- N. 40-43.

2. Iaea?aiei I.A. Ieaciaiiay iaieaaea n aeneaeueiie iiaea/ae ii?ioeiaie
i?iaieiee.// Aaoiiaoe/aneay naa?ea.- 1998.- ? 12.- N. 52-53.

3. A?aiianeee A.A., Aaa?eo I.A., Iaea?aiei I.A. Iaieaaea ei?iona
aaei/iie ai?aeee // Naa?i/iia i?iecaiaenoai. – 1989 — ?9. – N.30.

4. A?aiianeee A.A, Iaea?aiei I.A., Eaniye E.A. Aaoiiiiiay i?enoaaea aeey
naa?ee oeoaia // Naa?i/iia i?iecaiaenoai. — 1990 — ?7. – N.23-24.

5. Ea?iaiei A.I., A?aiianeee A.A., Iaea?aiei I.A. Ono?ienoai
eiioeueniiai aicaoaeaeaiey aeoae i?e ieaciaiiie iaieaaea n aeneaeueiie
iiaea/ae ii?ioeiaie i?iaieiee // Naa?i/iia i?iecaiaenoai. – 1990 — ?7. –
N.18-21.

6. Ea?iaiei A.I., Iaea?aiei I.A. Enneaaeiaaiea iaa?aaa yeaeo?iaeiie
ii?ioeiaie i?iaieiee, aeneaeueii iiaeaaaaiie /a?ac eaiae ieaciio?iia /
?aae. aeo?iaea “Aaoiiaoe/aneay naa?ea”. – 1997 – 18 n. — Aeaiiie?. a
AIOA Oe?aeiu 11.11.97 a. ?541 – 9 e – 97; Aeae.oeacaoaeue AEIEOE ?AI. –
1998. — ? 1 (313) ? a/i 122; iioaeee. a ?AE “Aeaiiiiaai? iaoeia? ?iaioe”
1998 — ? 1 — ? 465.

7. Aeaieeue/aiei A.A., Iaea?aiei I.A. Ieaciaiii-aeoaiaay iaieaaea n
aeneaeueiie iiaea/ae ieaayuaeny ii?ioeiaie i?iaieiee // I?ia?aneaia
oaoi?ea ? oaoiieia?y iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy ?
caa?thaaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa: I?aoe? “I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?
eiioa?aioe??”. – Ee?a, 1998. — N. 322-325.

8. Ea?iaiei A.I., A?aiianeee A.A., Iaea?aiei I.A. Yeaeo?inii?ioeaeaiea
aueaoa ii?ioeiaie i?iaieiee i?e ieaciaiiie iaieaaea // Na.iao/i.o?.
“Iai?oaeiaaiea e iaoa?eaeu aeey iaieaaee”. Eeaa: EYN ei. A.I. Iaoiia.-
1990. — N.107-108

9. Iaea?aiei I.A. Yoaiu ?acaeoey iaieaaee: io oaoiieiaee Neaayiiaa aei
ieaciaiii-aeoaiauo e yeaeo?ioeaeiauo i?ioeannia.// Aeieeaaeu ?inneeneie
iao/ii-oaoie/.eiioa?aioeee n iaaeaeoia?iaeiui o/anoeai.- Iei.iauaai e
i?io.ia?aciaaiey ?.O.- Eeiaoee.- 1999.- N. 24-29.

10. A.c. 1378211 CCC? , IEE A23E 35/30. Ii?ioeiaay i?iaieiea aeey
iaieaaee / Ea?iaiei A.I., Iaea?aiei I.A., A?aiianeee A.A. e ae?. –
?4085412. – Cayaeaii 7.07.86. A.E .1988 ?8.

11. A.c. 1396424 CCC?, IEE A23E 35/30. Naa?i/iue yeaeo?iae aeey iaieaaee
i?ann-oi?i. / Ea?iaiei A.I., AEeeueoeia A.N., Iaea?aiei I.A. e ae?.
–?4155152. – Cayaeaii 4.12.86.A.E.1988 ?18.

12. A.c. 1401773 CCC?, IEE A23E 35/30. Naa?i/iue yeaeo?iae aeey naa?ee e
iaieaaee i?ann-oi?i aeey eeouey. / Ea?iaiei A.I., Iaea?aiei I.A. e ae?.
– ?4157201. – Cayaeaii 8.12.86.A.E. 1988 ?21.

13. A.c. 1408676 CCC?, IEE A23E 35/30. Ii?ioeiaay i?iaieiea aeey
iaieaaee. / Ea?iaiei A.I., A?aiianeee A.A.,Iaea?aiei I.A. e ae?. –
?4101164. – Cayaeaii 19.05.86.A.E.1988 ?25

14. A.c. 1462622 CCC?, IEE A23E 35/30. Ii?ioeiaay i?iaieiea aeey
iaieaaee. / Ea?iaiei A.I., Iaea?aiei I.A. e ae?. – ?4080115. – Cayaeaii
27.06.86. A.E.1989 ?8.

15. A.c. 1462624 CCC?, IEE A23E 35/30. Ii?ioeiaay i?iaieiea / Ea?iaiei
A.I., Ei?ieaiei A.I., A?aiianeee A.A. Iaea?aiei I.A. e ae?. – ?4196059.
– Cayaeaii 16.02.87. A.E.1989 ?8

16. A.c. 1517235 CCC?, IEE A23E 35/30. Ii?ioeiaay i?iaieiea aeey
iaieaaee i?ann-oi?i / Iaea?aiei I.A. e ae?. – ?4381546. – Cayaeaii
22.02.88. A.E.1989 ?39.

17. A.c. 1563085 CCC?, IEE A23E 35/30. Ninoaa ii?ioeiaie i?iaieiee aeey
iaieaaee / Ea?iaiei A.I., Iaea?aiei I.A. e ae?. – ?4497710. – Cayaeaii
25.10.88. A.E.1990 ?17.

18. A.c. 1570178 CCC?, IEE A23E 35/30. Ninoaa ii?ioeiaie i?iaieiee /
A?aiianeee A.A., Ea?iaiei A.I., Iaea?aiei I.A. e ae?. – ?4423518. –
Cayaeaii 13.05.88. A.E.1990 ?21.

19. A.c. 1575476 CCC?, IEE A23E 35/30. Ninoaa ii?ioeiaie i?iaieiee /
Ea?iaiei A.I., A?aiianeee A.A., Iaea?aiei I.A. e ae?. – ?4491328. –
Cayaeaii 10.10.88. A.E.1990 ?21.

20. A.c. 1580725 CCC?, IEE A23E 35/30. Ii?ioeiaay i?iaieiea aeey
ieaciaiiie iaieaaee n aeneaeueiie iiaea/ae ieaayuaainy yeaeo?iaea /
Eao?aiei A.O., Iaea?aiei I.A. e ae?. – ?4448412. – Cayaeaii 27.06.88.
A.E.1990 ?27.

21. A.c. 1588361 CCC?, IEE A23E 35/30. Ii?ioeiaay i?iaieiea aeey
iaieaaee / Oo?/aiei A.A., Iaea?aiei I.A. e ae?. – ?4382328. – Cayaeaii
22.02.88. A.E.1990 ?32.

22. A.c. 1624844 CCC?, IEE A23E 35/30. Ninoaa ii?ioeiaie i?iaieiee aeey
iaieaaee / Iaea?aiei I.A. e ae?. – ?4602305. – Cayaeaii 4.11.88.A.E.1991
?4..A.c. 1633664 CCC?, IEE A23E 35/30. Ninoaa ii?ioeiaie i?iaieiee /
Iaea?aiei I.A. e ae?. – ?4491911. – Cayaeaii 10.10.88. A.E.1991 ?9.

23. A.c. 1434657 CCC?, IEE A23E 35/30. Ii?ioeiaay i?iaieiea / Iaea?aiei
I.A. e ae?. – ?4246404. – Cayaeaii 18.05.87. A.E.1988 ?40.

24. A.n. 1557834 NNN?, IEE3 A 23 E 9/16. Onoaiiaea aeey ieaciaiiie
iaieaaee / Aeoaeei Ae.A, Ea?iaiei A.I., A?aiianeee A.A., Iaea?aiei I.A.
e ae?. – Iioae. 20.08.90; Athe. ?14.

25. A?aiianeee A.A., Ei?ieaiei A.I., Iaea?aiei I.A. Ieaciio?ii aeey
naa?ee e iaieaaee ieaayueiny e iaieaayueiny yeaeo?iaeii // Oacenu
Ananithciie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee: «“Ninoiyea e ia?niaeoeau
?acaeoey yeaeo?ioaoiieiaee”. – Eaaiiai. – AEIO. – 1985 – N.32-34.

26. Iaea?aiei I.A., A?aiianeee A.A. Iaieaaea aea?ii?i/iuo iaoa?eaeia ia
?aai/oth iiaa?oiinoue i?ann-oi?i // Aeiiaoeeee OeIOE. – 1988.- 4 n.

27. Iaea?aiei I.A. I?eiaiaiea iaieaaee i?e ecaioiaeaiee i?ann-oi?i //
Ananithciiay iao/.-oaoi. eiio. 14-16 naioya?y 1988.: Oac. aeiee. –
Ia?iue, 1988. N. 75-76.

28. Iaea?aiei I.A. Iniaaiiinoe iino?iaiey ii?ioeiaie i?iaieiee i?e
ieaciaiiie iaieaaea n aeneaeueiie iiaea/ae yeaeo?iaea: Oac. aeiee. 1
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee iieiaeuo o/aiuo a iaeanoe naa?ee e
niaaeiuo oaoiieiaee . – Eeaa, 1989. – N.118.

29. Ea?iaiei A.I., A?aiianeee A.A., Iaea?aiei I.A. Aeeyiea iaa?aaa
aueaoa ii?ioeiaie i?iaieiee ia aa yeaeo?inii?ioeaeaiea // Oac.
Ananithciie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee “Ninoiyiey e ia?niaeoeau
?acaeoey yeaeo?ioaoiieiaee” AEIO NNN?, Eaaiiai. — 1989.- 31n.

AIIOAOe?ss

Iaea?aiei I. I. ?ic?iaea ieaciiaiai i?ioeano c aeneaeueiei
iiaeaaaiiyi ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioo aeey iaieaaeaiiy i?an-oi?i. — ?oeiien

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
c niaoe?aeueiino? 05.03.06 – caa?thaaiiy ? nii??aeiai? oaoiieia??. –
I?eacianueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, Ia??oiieue, 1999 ?.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ?ic?iaoe? iaoa??ae?a, oaoiieia?? oa iaeaaeiaiiy
aeey ieaciiaiai iaieaaeaiiy c aeneaeueiei iiaeaaaiiyi ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioo
aeey aeaioiaeaiiy i?an-oi?i aeey neeyieo ?cieyoi??a oa ?ioeo ae?ia?a.
?ic?iaeaia iiaa oaoiieia?y ?c iiaea?eiei aeiaeaoeiaei i?ae?a??aii
ae?ioo ca?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy aeeeioo ? ieaciiai? aeoae. Iniiaia /anoeia
?iaioe i?noeoue aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeeiiai? c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ieaciiaiai iaieaaeaiiy, caaacia/aiiy caaeaieo aeanoeainoae
oeyoii ?ic?iaee iiaeo neeaae?a ii?ioeiaeo ae?io?a. Aecia/ai ae?aiacii
iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a oa aeiia aei ieaciio?ii?a ? aeaea?ae aeeaeaiiy.
Aea/aiee i?ioean iaa??ao aeaeo?iaeiiai ae?ioo, ui iiaea?oueny /a?ac
aioo??oith ii?iaeieio iaieaaeiai aeaeo?iaeo, ii in? ieaciiai? aeoae,
aeae?eaii /ioe?e ae?eueieoe? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy oaiea. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
oaieia? iioiee a iaieiieo ae?ioo iaea?eueo aaeeei ia ae?eueieoeyo
eaiaeo niiea ? aeaeeiiai aeeueioo. Oaieioa a?ae iaieiiee ia?aaea?oueny
na?oeaaei?, eiiiiiaioe yei? i?aeae?aeeny c o?aooaaiiyi iiaeeeaeo
?aaeoe?e i?e aeinoaoiuei aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao. I?e a?aeiia?aeieo
?aaeeiao ai??iiy aeoa, cia/ia /anoeia ieene?a a?aeoeaeiao?oueny
ana?aaeei? ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioo aei eiai ieaaeaiiy, ui ni?eyoeeai
a?aeia?aaea?oueny ia yeino? iaieaaeaiiiai iaoaeo. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
?iaioe caai?iaaaeaeai? i?e iaieaaeaii? ?yaeo aeaoaeae oa iino?oiaio?a,
i?aoethth/eo a aa?aneaiiio na?aaeiaeu? ? i?e ia?ai?iieo oa?i?/ieo
oeeeeao.

Eeth/ia? neiaa : caa?thaaiiy ieaaeaiiyi, caa?thaaeueia iaeaaeiaiiy,
ieaciiaa iaieaaeaiiy, ii?ioeiaee ae??o, i?an-oi?ia.

Aiiioaoeey

Iaea?aiei I.A. ?ac?aaioea ieaciaiiiai i?ioeanna n aeneaeueiie iiaea/ae
ii?ioeiaie i?iaieiee aeey iaieaaee i?ann-oi?i. — ?oeiienue

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.03.06. – “Naa?ea e ?iaenoaaiiua oaoiieiaee”. –
I?eacianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao Ieienoa?noaa
ia?aciaaiey Oe?aeiu, Ia?eoiieue, 1999 a.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?ac?aaioea iaoa?eaeia, oaoiieiaee e
iai?oaeiaaiey aeey ieaciaiiie iaieaaee n aeneaeueiie iiaea/ae
ii?ioeiaie i?iaieiee i?eiaieoaeueii e i?ann-oi?iai aeey i?iecaiaenoaa
noaeeyiiuo ecieyoi?ia e ae?oaeo ecaeaeee ec iaoa?eaeia, oeie/anee
aeoeaiuo a ai?y/ai ninoiyiee. Oaeea i?ann-oi?iu ?aaioatho i?e
oa?iioeeeee/aneeo iaa?oceao a aa?anneaiie n?aaea e aeey eo ecaioiaeaiey
eniieuecotho eiiieaenii-eaae?iaaiiua noaee, ieceieaae?iaaiiua /oaoiu,
nieaau ia iniiaa iaaee. O?oaeiinoe oaoiieiaee ecaioiaeaiey e ?aiiioa
iaoneiaeaiu o?aaiaaieyie niaiauaiey aea?inoieeinoe n aunieie
oaieii?iaiaeiinoueth. A ie?iaie i?aeoeea iaeaieaa iioeiaeueiie
oaoiieiaeae i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aiiioa, oaeiaeaoai?ythueo yoei o?aaiaaieyi,
yaeyaony ieaciaiiay iaieaaea ii?ioeiaie i?iaieieie ?aai/ae iiaa?oiinoe
eino?oiaioa. Oe?ieeie oaoiieiae/aneeie aiciiaeiinoyie iaeaaeaao
ieaciaiiue i?ioeann n aeneaeueiie iiaea/ae i?iaieiee. Iniiaiuie
caaea/aie i?e aiaae?aiee yoiai niiniaa yaeythony ii?aaeaeaiea iooae
iiauoaiey iaaeaaeiinoe i?ioeanna, ?ac?aaioea ninoaaa i?iaieiee aeey
iaieaaee ia eiie?aoiua ecaeaeey, onoaiiaeaiea iioeiaeueiuo ?aaeeiia,
nicaeaiea iaaeaaeiuo ieaciio?iiia e ii?aaeaeaiea o?aaiaaiee e enoi/ieeai
ieoaiey.

A ?aaioa enneaaeiaai i?ioeann iaa?aaa yeaeo?iaeiie i?iaieiee,
iiaeathuaeny /a?ac aioo?aiithth iieinoue iaieaayuaainy yeaeo?iaea ii ine
ieaciaiiie aeoae, auaeaeaiu /aou?a o/anoea iinooieaiey oaiea.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi oaieiaua iioiee a iaiei/eo i?iaieiee iaeaieaa aaeeee ia
o/anoeao eaiaea niiea e aeaeeiiai aueaoa. Oaieioa io iaiei/ee
ia?aaeaaony na?aea/ieeo, eiiiiiaiou eioi?iai iiaeae?aeenue n o/aoii
aiciiaeiuo ?aaeoeee i?e aeinoaoi/ii aunieeo oaiia?aoo?ao. I?e
niioaaonoaothueo ?aaeeiao ai?aiey aeoa, iooeaeiauaaiea cia/eoaeueiie
/anoe ieeneia i?ienoiaeeo aioo?e ii?ioeiaie i?iaieiee aei aa ieaaeaiey,
/oi aeaaii?eyoii neacuaaaony ia ea/anoai iaieaaeaiiiai iaoaeea.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aeey eaaeaeiai aeeaiao?a niiea nouanoaoao e?eoe/aneia
niioiioaiea aaee/eiu oiea ieaciaiiie aeoae e aeeeiu aeaeeiiai aueaoa,
i?e eioi?ie ia/eiaaony ooioe?iaaiea ieaciaiiie aeoae; ii?aaeaeai
aeeaiacii iioeiaeueiuo ?aaeeiia. ?aaeei ieaciaiii-aeoaiaie iaieaaee
?aaoee?oaony ec iniiaiiai o?aaiaaiey – eneeth/aiea i?iaeiaia iaiei/ee
ii?ioeiaie i?iaieiee.

A ninoaa na?aea/ieea ii?ioeiauo i?iaieie aaaaeaiu ooi?eaeu e oei?eaeu
iaoaeeia n ieceie oaiia?aoo?ie aeennioeeaoeee. Aoiia?iua ooi? e oei?
anooiatho a ?aaeoeeth n ieneaeaie ia iiaa?oiinoe iaoaeee/aneeo
ninoaaeythueo oeoou, ia?aaiaey eo a eaaeiieaaeea niaaeeiaiey.
Ia?aciaaiea ia aeoaieie e oe?ieie aaiiu, a oaeaea aicaeaenoaea
iieioeeeeiae?e/aneie aeoae i?e ieaciaiiie iaieaaea niinianoaoao
eioaineoeeaoeee i?ioaeaiey iaiaiiuo ?aaeoeee iaaeaeo oeaeaie e
?anieaaeaiiui iaoaeeii. Ninoaa eaae?othuae /anoe iaiieieoaey ii?ioeiaie
i?iaieiee io?aaaouaaeny iooai i?eaeeaeaiey ninoaaa iaieaaeaiiiai iaoaeea
e caaeaiiiio. I?e yoii aeaaiaea?y iioeiaeueiiio ninoaao
aacioeaeiia?acothuae iniiau e o/anoeth a caueoa ciiu naa?ee a?aiia
aeinoeaioou aunieea iieacaoaee ia?aoiaea eaae?othueo yeaiaioia. A
niioaaonoaee n ?ac?aaioaiiuie ninoaaaie ecaioaaeeaaeanue i?iaieiea
aeeaiao?ii 2,0 e 3,0 ii n eiyooeoeeaioii caiieiaiey 0,39…0,42.

Aeey inouanoaeaiey ieaciaiiie iaieaaee n aeneaeueiie iiaea/ae ieaayuaeny
ii?ioeiaie i?iaieiee ?ac?aaioaiu noaiu i?eiaiaiey na?eeiiai
iai?oaeiaaiey; ieoaiey aeoa iiaeii inouanoaeyoue io ioaeaeueiuo
enoi/ieeia naa?i/iiai oiea. Aeey ieoaiey ieaciaiiie aeoae i?eiaiaiu
enoi/ieee n iieiaiiaaeathuae aieueoaiia?iie oa?aeoa?enoeeie. I?e auai?a
enoi/ieeia ieoaiey aeoae, ai?yuae n ieaayuaeny i?iaieiee, o/eouaaaony
iaaeaiea iai?yaeaiey a eiiioieeaoeeyo e i?eiaiythony enoi/ieee n
aeanoeie aieueoaiia?iie oa?aeoa?enoeeie. Ii?ioeiaay i?iaieiea
aeiiieieoaeueii iiaeia?aaaaony naa?i/iui oieii, i?ioiaeyuei /a?ac
oaaee/aiiue aueao, aeey /aai oie iiaeaiaeeony a aa?oiae /anoe
ieaciio?iia, a eiio?ieue ca i?ioeannii aicaoaeaeaiey e ieaaeaiey
inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth oieiiiaeaiaeyuae anoaaee, neaiae n eioi?ie
iinooiaao a oeaie ia?aoiie nayce. ?ac?aaioaiu oaoiieiae/aneea noaiu
iaieaaee, iaeneiaeueii o/eouaathuea aiciiaeiinoe i?ioeanna.

?acoeueoaou ?aaiou aiaae?aiu ia Neaayineii a?iaoo?ii-ecieyoi?iii caaiaea
aeey iaieaaee i?ann-oi?i aeey i?anniaaiey ec noaeea, /oi iicaieeei
iiauneoue eo noieeinoue a /aou?a ?aca ii n?aaiaieth n i?ann-oi?iaie ec
eaae?iaaiiiai /oaoia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: naa?ea ieaaeaieai, naa?i/iia iai?oaeiaaiea, ieaciaiiay
iaieaaea, ii?ioeiaay i?iaieiea, i?ann-oi?ia.

ABSTRACT

Makarenko N.A. DEVELOPMENT OF PLASMA PROCESS WITH AN AXIAL
FEEDING OF FLUX-CORED WIRE FOR HARDFACING PRESS-MOLDS —
Manuscript.

Thesis for a scientific degree of Candidate of Sciences
(Engineering) in specialty 05.03.06 — Welding and Related
Technologies- Preazovsky State Technical University,-Ministry
ofEducation Of Ukraine, Mariupol, 1999.

The thesis deals with the development of equipment, materials
and technology of plasma hardfacing of press-moldsusing axial
feeding of flux-cored wire. A new technology with adouble additional
preheating of wire due to increase of its stickout and by
plasma arc. The main part of the work contains investigations which
were carried out to increase the efficiency of the plasma hardfacing
and to provide the preset properties by the development of new
compositions of flux-cored wires. Requirement for plasmatrons
were formulated and a range of optimum parameters was
established. The process of heating electrode wire, which is fed
through the inner cavity of the non-consumable electrode along the
plasma arc axis, is studiedand four regions of heat enter are
distiguished. It is established that the heat flows into the wire
sheath are largestat the regions of nozzle channel and a visible
stickout. The heat from the sheath is transferred to the core, whose
components were selected taking into account the possible
reactions at sufficiently high temperatures. At appropriate conditions
of arc burning, deslagging of a large part of oxides occurs inside
theflux-cored wire before its melting, thus favouring the quality of the
deposited metal. The condition parameters are controlled within the
range, which prevents the burning-through of the flux-cored wire
sheath. For the industrial application of the process the plasmatrons
and electrical circuits of the equipment are developed. The main
results of the work have been implemented in hardfacing of a number
of parts and tools operating in aggressive medium and at
alternating thermal cycles.

Keywords : fusion welding, welding equipment, plasma
hardfacing, flux-cored wire, press-mold.

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