I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao

aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e

Caaei?iaeiee Aiae??e Ieaen?eiae/

OAeE 693.52

?IC?IAEA IIAIAI OAOIIEIA?*IIAI IAEAAeIAIIss AeEss IAIANAIIss IAEI?OOIIEO

AAOIIIEO NOI?OAE CANIAII

IIE?IAI OI?E?AOOAAIIss

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.05.02 — Iaoeie aeey ae?iaieoeoaa

aoae?aaeueieo
iaoa??ae?a ?

eiino?oeoe?e

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioo aeeiiaii a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e ia eaoaae?? “Iaoai?caoe?y aoae?aaeueieo
i?ioean?a”

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — ?iaeueyiiaa ?iaa Aiaoiei?aia

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

eaoaae?e “Iaoai?caoe?y
aoae?aaeueieo

i?ioean?a” Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai

oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
aoae?aieoeoaa

oa a?o?oaeoo?e

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — Iaca?aiei ?aai ?aaiiae/

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith “?aiiio
oa

aenieoaoaoe?y aoae?aaeueieo
iaoei”

Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oaoi?/iiai

oi?aa?neoaoo aoae?aieoeoaa oa
a?o?oaeoo?e

Aethaeaiei Ieoaeei
Aai?a?eiae/

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani?

eaoaae?e “Oaoiieia?y
aoae?aaeueiiai

ae?iaieoeoaa ?
aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a”

Oa?e?anueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai??

i?nueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Iieoaanueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee

oi?aa?neoao

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny _15 a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 1200 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 02.07.03 i?e Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, ca aae?anith: 310002, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. Noinueea, 40.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e ca
aae?anith: 310002, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. Noinueea, 40.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?icineaii “ 14 ” eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee
?iaeueyiiaa ?. A.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 12. 11. 98 ?. Oi?iao 60 o 90/16

Ae?oe ia ??cia?ao?. Oiiai. ae?oe. a?e. 1.5,

Iae. — aeae. a?e. 1.5 Iaeeaae 100. Cai. ? 123

Aeaeaaie/ee oeaio? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai

oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e

(310002, Oa?e?a, aoe. Noinueea, 40)

3

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe. I?e iiaeo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiineiao a Oe?a?i?
aoae?aieoeoai aeiaaa? cai?ie iaeiaoaeoeaiiai oa canoa??eiai ia?eo iaoei
ia no/aniee.

Aeooaeueiith noa? i?iaeaia noai?aiiy iaeiaaaa?eoiiai oi?aa?naeueiiai
iaeaaeiaiiy aeey oiia ?aeiino?oeoe?? ? ?anoaa?aoe?? ae?th/eo aoaeeie?a
oa nii?oae.

Ianyae aaoiiieo ?ia?o aeey aeuacacia/aieo oiia c eiaeiei aeiai
c?inoathoue, a aoaeoeaia iaeaaeiaiiy, caeaoia aeeiiaoe oae? ?iaioe ia
i?noe?, a noeniaieo oiiaao, i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?.

C oeeo iiceoe?e aeeeeea? ?ioa?an iaeaaeiaiiy oi?e?aooaaiiy, ui aeicaiey?
aeaioiaeyoe aaoiii? iie?eooy aaciiaeoai/ii ?c aeei?enoaiiyi iioa?iaiai
oeeaaeaiiy aaoiiii? noi?o? aaciina?aaeiuei ia anoaiiaeaiee a?iiea?ean.
Nooo?a? iaaeie?ee i?ioeano nooiai oi?e?aooaaiiy: aenieee a?aenioie
a?aeneieo, ao?aoe ii/aoeiai? aaoiiii? noi?o?, ui iai?eaeaoia aeey
iiaoi?iiai aeei?enoaiiy; i?aeaeuaia caieeai?noue ciooo? i?aoethaaoe iaae
noai?aiiyi a?eueo aoaeoeaiiai iaeaaeiaiiy oa iiaeo oaoiieia?e.

I?ioean iie?iai oi?e?aooaaiiy iaei aea/aiee. Aoaeoeaia iaeiaaaa?eoia
iaeaaeiaiiy aeey ?iaioe ia oe?ie?e aai? noi?oae, aeeth/ath/e iaei?ooii?,
a?aenooi?. O ca’yceo c oeei, oai?aoe/i? ? aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaiiai iai?yieo aeicaieythoue noai?eoe iiaa iaeaaeiaiiy,
ui ae??oo? cia/i? i?iaeaie o aoae?aieoeoa?.

Iaoa ?iaioe. Noai?aiiy i?yiioi/iiai aeaiii?oiaaiai ?ic/eii- aaoiiiianina
c eiionieie i?aei?oaeeiaieie eeaiaiaie, eiino?oeoeai? iniaeeaino? yeiai
aeicaieythoue canoiniaoaaoe eiai aeey iaianaiiy eiioeaio?iaaieo iioie?a
iaei?ooiieo aaoiiieo noi?oae c caiiaithaa/ai aei 10 ii a oiiaao iie?iai
oi?e?aooaaiiy i?e aeei?enoaii? niiea c e?eueoeaaei ianaaeeii.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy icia/aii? iaoe aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaea/?:

a) aiae?oe/ii iienaoe iia?o?yii-aaoiiiee iio?e noi?o? a i?ioean?
iaa?eceo, iaaaaeaiee o aeaeyae? nenoaie “iia?o?y — aaoiiia noi?o”:

— aea/eoe oa?aeoa? ?aae?aeueiiai ?iciiae?eo /anoie noi?o? a ia?a??c?
iioieo;

— aea/eoe iniaeeaino? ?iciiae?eo oeeo /anoie a ia?a??c? iioieo a
caeaaeiino? a?ae a?aenoai? aei iiaa?oi?, ui aaoiio?oueny;

— ciaeoe caeaaeiino? aeey aecia/aiiy na?aaeiueicaaaeaii? oaeaeeino? ?
e?iaoe/ii? aia?a?? /anoie noi?o? a iia?o?yii-aaoiiiiio iioioe?;

— aea/eoe i?ioean iaa?eceo /anoie c iiceoe?? i?i?iaeueiiai a?aeneieo
iaeneiaeueiiai caiiaithaa/a oa iaeaaeiiai ou?eueiaiiy;

-aeine?aeeoe nenoaio “noenea iia?o?y — aaoiiia noi?o” i?e aeei?enoaii?
niiea c e?eueoeaaei ianaaeeii.

a) aecia/eoe ?iai/? ia?aiao?e ui aeine?aeaeothoueny o aeaiii?oiaaeo
?ic/eii-aaoiiiianinao:

4

— aea/eoe ?iaioo eeaiai?a o eiino?oeoe?yo ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianin?a, ui
c?noaaeythoueny;

— ciaeoe caeaaei?noue aeey aecia/aiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino?
?ic/eii-aaoiiiianina;

— aecia/eoe ia’?iiee E. E. Ae. oa iiooaei? aeo?aoe iaoei, ui
aeine?aeaeothoueny.

a) aenia?eiaioaeueii aeine?aeeoe i?ioean ?iaioe i?yiioi/iiai
aeaiii?oiaaiai ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianina ?c ?ici?uaiiyi oeee?iae??a iaeei
iaae ae?oaei:

— c?noaaeoe ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue;

— aeyaeoe oiiae iioei?caoe?? ?iaioe i?yiioi/ieo aeaiii?oiaaeo
?ic/eii-aaoiiiianin?a.

a) ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooie?a niiea c e?eueoeaaei ianaaeeii oa
i?yiioi/iiai aeaiii?oiaaiai ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianina.

ae) ?ic?iaeoe oaoi?/io aeieoiaioaoe?th ia iiaee i?yiioi/iee
aeaiii?oiaaee ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianin oa eiiieaeo iiaeo ?iai/eo niiae.

a) ai?iaaaeeoe ?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?/ia iaeaaeiaiiy a aoae?aieoeoai.

Iaoeiaa ?aeay. Iaianaiiy ye?nieo iie?eoue i?e i?i?iaeuei?e aaee/ei?
a?aeneieo caiiaithaa/a oa i?e aeei?enoaii? iaei?ooiieo noi?oae ca
?aooiie ?oiuei? i?yiioi/ii? eiioeaio?iaaii? iiaea/? niieaie ?c
e?eueoeaaei ianaaeeii.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia:

anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? aca?iiae?? oi?e?ao-niiea c iioieii
iia?o?yii-aaoiiii? noi?o?, ia i?aenoaa? yeeo iiaoaeiaaia
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue i?ioeano iaa?eceo i?e iie?iio oi?e?aooaaii?
? iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo oaeeo niiae;

aecia/ai? iniiai? ia?aiao?e oa noai?aia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo ii?oiaaeo
ianin?a caaaeyee aiae?co ?iaioe aniieooth/iai oa iaai?oaeueiiai
eeaiai?a.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny:

iiai eiino?oeoei( ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianina oa niiea c eieueoeaaei ianaaeeii,
a oaeiae can?a iie?iai oi?e?aooaaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith icia/aiiai
iaeaaeiaiiy;

caeaaeiino? aeey aecia/aiiy iniiaieo ia?aiao??a i?yiioi/ieo ii?oiaaeo
ianin?a ?c ?ici?uaiiyi oeee?iae??a iaeei iaae ae?oaei;

o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue i?ioeano iie?iai oi?e?aooaaiiy
iia?o?yii-aaoiiiei iioieii noi?o?;

?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao ia?aiao??a
?ic/eii-aaoiiiianina ? i?ioeano iie?iai oi?e?aooaaiiy ia
o?ceei-iaoai?/i? iieacieee oi?e?ao-aaoiio.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue i?noyoue a nia? oai??? aa?i ? a?ae?iaeeiaiiee,
i?eeeaaeii? iaoai?ee, iaoiaee iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee oa
ieaioaaiiy AII.

24

ananuaathuaai e iaaiaoaoaeueiiai eeaiaiia. Auyaeaiu caaeneiinoe
i?i/iinoiuo oa?aeoa?enoee oi?e?ao-aaoiia e ioneiea /anoeoe io
oi?e?aoe?oaiie iiaa?oiinoe, io ii?aaeaeythueo ia?aiao?ia ?aai/aai
i?ioeanna.

?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea e aeai?eoi ?an/aoa niiae n eieueoeaaui ianaaeeii.
Ia iniiaaiee ?acoeueoaoia oai?aoe/aneeo e yenia?eiaioaeueiuo
enneaaeiaaiee nicaeaiiia iai?oaeiaaiea aiaae?aii ia iauaeoao a.
Oa?ueeiaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?yiioi/iue ?anoai?i — aaoiiiianin, oi?e?ao — niiei n
eieueoeaaui ianaaeeii, iaeiiiaeaeaeiay aaoiiiay nianue, aicaeooii —
aaoiiiue iioie, iauaiiue eiyooeoeeaio iieaciiai aeaenoaey, iaiiaaiiay
iiaea/a, i?iioneiay niiniaiinoue.

THE SUMMARY

Zadorojni A. A.“ Development of the new process equipment for drawing
small mobilition of concrete mixes by wet way of torkret”.

The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate
of engineering science on a speciality 05. 05. 02 — machine for
manufacture of building materials and designs — Kharkov state technical
university of construction and architecture.

Is created direct current two-piston solution-concretpomp with cjne
under a spring by valves, which design feature allow to apply him to
drawing the concentrated flows small mobility of concrete mixes with to
fill up to 10 mm in conditions wet torkret at use pipes with ring
landing.

The laws of interaction torkret-pipe with a flow aire-concrete mix, and
also for definition of the basic parameters solution-concretpomp are
established.

The adequate physico-mathematical model for definition volumetric
efficiency useful actions is constructed the dependences for definition
of the basic parameters solution-concretpomp are found on the basis of
work soaking up and to press of valves. The dependences strongs of the
characteristics of torkret-concrete and to fall of particles from
torkret of a surface, from determining parameters of working process are
revealed.

The technique and algorithm pipe with ring landing is developed. On the
basis of results theoretical and experimental researches the created
equipment is introduced on objects of Kharkov.

Key words: direct current solution-betonpomp, torkret-pipe with ring
landing, small mobility a concrete mix, aire-concrete flow, volumetric
efficiency useful fctions, instant submission, throughput

5

Aeinoia??i?noue aecia/a?oueny aeei?enoaiiyi noaiaea?oieo i?eiouaiue oa
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ca?aii oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue i?e a?aeoeeaii? oaeoe/ieo oa ?ic?aooieiaeo aeaieo ia
a?eueo 5 %. Aeinoia??i?noue aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoa??aeo i?e aecia/aii?
iaoai?/ii? iioeiinoi caaacia/oaaeanue iaiao?aeiei /eneii iiaoi??a.
Aeine?aee i?iaiaeeeenue c aeinoia??i?noth (i ( ( 2(, I=0.95.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue:

cai?iiiiiaaiee iiaee can?a io?eiaiiy oi?e?ao-aaoiio i?e aeei?enoaii?
i?yiioi/iiai ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianina oa niiea c eieueoeaaei ianaaeeii.

?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo i?yiioi/ieo ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianin?a oa
niiae c e?eueoeaaei ianaaeeii.

?ic?iaeaia oaoi?/ia aeieoiaioaoe?y ia i?yiioi/iee ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianin c
i?aei?oaeeiaieie eiionieie eeaiaiaie oa eiiieaeo oi?e?ao-niiae c
e?eueoeaaei ianaaeeii.

?aae?caoe?y ?iaioe. ?iaioa ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue aea?aeathaeaeaoii( oaie ? 0041 “?ic?iaea oai???,
iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo i?ioeano iie?iai oi?e?aooaaiiy i?e aeei?enoaii?
iaeaaeiaiiy aaaaoioe?eueiaiai i?ecia/aiiy c i?ia?aiiei caaacia/aiiyi”,
yea aeeiio(oueny ca?aeii i?ei?eoaoiiio iai?yieo “Aeieia?/ii /enoa
aia?aaoeea oa ?ano?nicaa??aath/? oaoiieia??” 1997-99 ?.?.

A?aeiia?aeii oaoi?/i?e aeieoiaioaoe?? aeaioiaeai? i?yiioi/iee
?ic/eii-aaoiiiianin ? niiei c e?eueoeaaei ianaaeeii, ui
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue i?e aeeiiaii? oi?e?ao-?ia?o a oiiaao ?aeiino?oeoe??
aoaeeieo ia aoe. Ie?iiineoeueea, 44 (i. Oa?e?a) oa i?e iaianaii?
a?ae?i?cieyoe?eiiai iie?eooy ia oiioai o aioaeueiiio eiiieaen?, ui
aoaeo?oueny ia aoe. Noinueea, 50 (i. Oa?e?a).

Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaothoueny oaeiae a
o/aiaiio i?ioean? i?e /eoaii? eaeoe?e ca niaoeeo?nii “Oaoiieia?/i?
eiiieaene”, a eo?niaiio oa aeeieiiiiio i?iaeooaaii?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe oa iaoa??aee
aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo: ia
50-e tha?eaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? (1995 ?.), 51-e (1996
?.), 52-e (1997 ?.), oa 53-e (1998 ?.); ia ia?o?e anaoe?a?inuee?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?ia?anneaiua oaoiieiaee e iaoeiu
aeey i?iecaiaenoaa no?ieiaoa?eaeia, ecaeaeee e eiino?oeoeee».
Iieoaaa, 1996 a.; ia ?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??»
I?iaeaiu nicaeaiey iiauo iaoei e oaoiieiaee», E?aiai/oa, 1996 a.; ia
I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai- oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «?acaeoea no?ieoaeueiuo
iaoei, iaoaiecaoeee e aaoiiaoecaoeee no?ieoaeuenoaa e ioe?uouo
ai?iuo ?aaio». Iineaa 1996 a.; ia I?aeia?iaei?e oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??
«I?iiuoeaiiinoue no?ieiaoa?eaeia e no?ieeiaeono?ey, yiapai- e
?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea a oneiaeyo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee», Aaeaipiae, 1997 a.;
ia I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Interstroimech-98”.
Ai?iiaae. 1998 ?.

6

Ioaeeeaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aena?oeaii o 11
ioae?eaoe?yo. ? oei/aniaee iaoaio Oe?a?ie ? 18160A. A04A 1/00, E04B
1/04. 10.02.97 ?. “Can?a iaea?aeaiiy oi?e?ao-aaoiio” oa iiceoeai?
??oaiiy ca cayaeaie ? 96104017. 04.11.97 ?. “I?yiioi/iee
aeaioeeeiiae?iaee aeeoa?aioeieiee ?ic/eiiianin” ? ? 97062663. 17.06.98
?. “Eiioniee i?aei?oaeeiaiee eeaiai i?yiioi/iiai ?ic/eiiianina”.

I?iniaeo iiaiai iaeaaeiaiiy aeniiioaaany ia aenoaaoe? “Aunoea e
n?aaeiea i?ioanneiiaeueiua o/aaiua caaaaeaiey: ia?aciaaiea, iaoea,
i?iecaiaenoai” AaeAOANI 1998?.

Ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 5 ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, i?noeoue 178 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, 72 ?enoie?a, 51
oaaeeoe? iineeaiue c? 110 iaeiaioaaiue oa 2 aeiaeaoe?a.

Aaoi? aaey/iee aeioeaioo, e. o. i. Aa?aiiao A. I. (O?IA) ca
eiinoeueoaoeaio aeiiiiiao a ?iaio? iaae aeena?oaoe??th.

EI?IOEEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

1 Noai oa aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie

Oi?e?aooaaiiy ? iaeiei ?c cania?a iaa?eceo aoae?aaeueii? noi?o?,
oeeaaeaiiy oa ou?eueiaiiy yei? cae?enith?oueny ca ?aooiie aia?a??
noeneiai iia?o?y.

A?aeii? ?acoeueoaoe aaaaoueio aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue caniao
nooiai oi?e?aooaaiiy, ii/eiath/e c XX-ai noi??//y.

Aea/aiiyi i?ioeano nooiai oi?e?aooaaiiy caeiaeeny: ?iae. Aaaa?, I.
Eeaaai, I. ?. Eoeieoeueeee, A. A. Nei/einueeee, A. A. Eeth/ainueeee.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyie uiaei aeyaeaiiy neeaae?a aaoiiii? noi?o? i?e
oi?e?aooaaii? oa aea/aiiyi yaeua a?aeneieo caeiaeeny oaeiae I. ?.
Aeoaeaa, N. ?. Ae?oaeei?i, I. A?ao.

Oi?e?ao-no?oieia aea/aeany A. I. Oei?eiaei oa A. E. Ei?ieueiaei. Caiaeii
a?eueo aeaoaeueii i?ioean nooiai oi?e?aooaaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaany I. A.
Aethaeaiei, A. ss. Aaae/aiei oa ?io. Iaeiae oe? aeine?aeaeaiiy iineee
eieaeueiee oa aenia?eiaioaeueiee oa?aeoa?.

Iniiai? iaaeie?ee i?ioeano nooiai oi?e?aooaaiiy ia iaee
ooiaeaiaioaeueii? oai?aoe/ii? iniiae aeine?aeaeaiue, oiio ?aaeeeaeueieo
iie?ioaiue i?ioeano ia niinoa??aaeiny. Oeaiaio-iooee, ui c’yaeeeny, ia
iaee oai?aoe/ii? aace. Aein? i?ioean nooiai oi?e?aooaaiiy ia iienaiee
no?ieiith o?ceei- iaoaiaoe/iith iiaeaeeth.

Can?a iie?iai oi?e?aooaaiiy, cai?iiiiiaaiee o na?aaeei? 20-o ?ie?a OO-ai
noi??//y ?iaeaia?ii Iica?ii, aeicaieea e?ea?aeoaaoe ?yae iaaeie?e?a, ui
ia? i?ioean nooiai oi?e?aooaaiiy: ??cea cieaeaiiy aaee/eie a?aeneieo
noi?o?, iiaeeea?noue ?? iiaoi?iiai aeei?enoaiiy, iie?ioaiiy
nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/ieo oiia ? o.ae.

23

iaoa??ae?a ? eiino?oeoe?e — Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee
oi?aa?neoao aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e.

Noai?aii i?yiioi/iee aeaiii?oiaaee ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianin c eiionieie
i?aei?oaeeiaieie eeaiaiaie, eiino?oeoeai? iniaeeaino? yeiai
aeicaieythoue canoiniaoaaoe eiai aeey iaianaiiy eiioeaio?iaaieo iioie?a
iaei?ooiieo aaoiiieo noi?oae c caiiaithaa/ai aei 10 ii a oiiaao iie?iai
oi?e?aooaaiiy i?e aeei?enoaii? niiea c e?eueoeaaei ianaaeeii.

Ciaeaeai? caeiiii??iino? aca?iiae?? oi?e?ao-niiea c iioieii iia?o?yii —
aaoiiii? noi?o?, a oaeiae aeey aecia/aiiy iniiaieo ia?aiao??a
?ic/eii-aaoiiiianin?a.

Iiaoaeiaaii aaeaeaaoio o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue aeey aecia/aiiy
ia’?iiiai E. E. Ae. Iaea?aeai? caeaaeiino? aeey aecia/aiiy iniiaieo
ia?aiao??a ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianina ia i?aenoaa? ?iaioe aniieooth/iai ?
iaai?oaeueiiai eeaiai?a. Aeyaeai? caeaaeiino? i?oeiinoieo oa?aeoa?enoee
oi?e?ao-aaoiio oa a?aeneieo /anoie a?ae iiaa?oi?, ui oi?e?aoo?oueny,
a?ae aecia/aeueieo ia?aiao??a ?iai/iai i?ioeano.

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea oa aeai?eoi ?ic?aooieo niiae c e?eueoeaaei
ianaaeeii. Ia i?aenoaa? ?acoeueoao?a oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue noai?aia iaeaaeiaiiy ai?iaaaeaeaia ia ia’?eoao i.
Oa?eiaa.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?yiioi/iee aeaiii?oiaaee ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianin, niiei c
e?eueoeaaei ianaaeeii, iaei?ooiia aaoiiia noi?o, iia?o?yii — aaoiiiee
iio?e, ia’?iiee eiao?oe??io ei?enii? ae??, ieoo?aa iiaea/a, i?iioneia
ni?iiiaei?noue.

AIIIOAOeEss

Caaei?iaeiue A. A. “?ac?aaioea iiaiai oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey
aeey iaianaiey iaeiiiaeaeaeiuo aaoiiiuo nianae niiniaii iie?iai
oi?e?aoe?iaaiey”.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05. 05. 02 — iaoeiu aeey i?iecaiaenoaa no?ieoaeueiuo
iaoa?eaeia e eiino?oeoeee — Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee
oieaa?neoao no?ieoaeuenoaa e a?oeoaeoo?u.

Nicaeai i?yiioi/iue aeaooii?oiaaie ?anoai?i — aaoiiiianin n eiioniuie
iiaei?oaeeiaiiuie eeaiaiaie, eiino?oeoeaiua iniaaiiinoe eioi?iai
iicaieytho i?eiaiyoue aai aeey iaianaiey eiioeaio?e?iaaiiuo iioieia
iaeiiiaeaeaeiuo aaoiiiuo nianae n caiieieoaeai aei 10 ii a oneiaeyo
iie?iai oi?e?aoe?iaaiey i?e eniieueciaaiee niiea n eieueoeaaui
ianaaeeii.

Iaeaeaiu caeiiiia?iinoe acaeiiaeaenoaey oi?e?ao — niiea n iioieii n
aicaeooii — aaoiiiie niane, a oaeaea aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iniiaiuo
ia?aiao?ia ?anoai?i — aaoiiiianinia .

Iino?iaia aaeaeaaoiay oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
iauaiiiai E. I. Ae. Iaeaeaiu caaeneiinoe aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iniiaiuo
ia?aiao?ia ?anoai?i — aaoiiiianinia ia iniiaaiee ?aaiou

22

6. Aiaeueyiiaa E. A., Aii/a?aiei Ae. O., Aa?aiia A. I., Caaei?iaeiue
A.A. I?aaeiinueee e noaaeeecaoeee i?ioeanna iie?iai oi?e?aoe?iaaiey //
Aoaeiaieoeoai Oe?a?ie, 1996, N 6, n.36-38.

Aiaeueyiiaa E. A., Aii/a?aiei Ae. O., Aa?aiia A. I., Caaei?iaeiue A.A.
Aiaeec eiino?oeoeaiuo iniaaiiinoae i?yiioi/iiai aeaooii?oiaaiai
?anoai?iianina, eniieuecoaiiai aeey iie?iai oi?e?aoe?iaaiey
no?ieoaeueiuo nianae. //Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe oaoiieiae/aneeo
eiiieaenia e iai?oaeiaaiey a i?iiuoeaiiinoe no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia e
no?ieoaeuenoaa: Na. aeiee. Iaaeaeoia?. eiio.

«I?iiuoeaiiinoue no?ieiaoa?eaeia e no?ieeiaeono?ey yiapai- e
?ano?ninaa?aaeaiey a oneiaeyo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee», Aaeaipiae, 1997, /.4
,n. 197-201.

8. Aiaeueyiiaa E. A., Aii/a?aiei Ae. O., Aa?aiia A. I., Caaei?iaeiue
A.A. Ii?aaeaeaiea neipinoe /anoeoe iaapucaeaaaiiai iioiea
nopieoaeueiie niane ipe «iiepii» oipepaoepiaaiee. //Iaoeiaee
a?niee aoae?aieoeoaa, aei. 1, Oa?e?a, 1997,n.20-23.

9. Aiaeueyiiaa E. A., Aa?aiia A. I., Caaei?iaeiue A.A., I?ioeaiei A.
I. ?an/ao iniiaiuo ?aai/eo ia?aiao?ia i?yiioi/iiai ?anoai?iianina.
/Oeaiaio Oe?aeiu. ? 1. Oa?ueeia 1997,n. 42-43

10. Aiaeueyiiaa E. A., Aa?aiia A. I., Caaei?iaeiue A.A., I?ioeaiei A.
I., ?aaie O.E. Eniieueciaaiea iai?oaeiaaiey «iie?iai» oi?e?aoe?iaaiey a
oneiaeyo ?aeiino?oeoeee caeaiee e nii?oaeaiee. // — OAeOOAA — OIOA- AAO
Oa?e?a: Iaoeiaee a?niee aoae?aieoeoaa ? 2.-1998. N. 26-29.

11. Caaei?iaeiee A. A. Iai?oaeiaaiea iie?iai oi?e?aoe?iaaiey i?e
i?iaaaeaiee aeae?iecieyoeeiiiuo ?aaio.//I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee
a?niee. Oaoi?/i? iaoee ? 72 (139), na?iaiue 1998 ?. no. 6-10.

12. Iaoaio Oe?a?ie ? 18160A. A04A 1/00, E04B 1/04. Niin?a iaea?aeaiiy
oi?e?ao-aaoiio. / ?i?eueyiiaa I. A., Aa?aiia A. I. Caaei?iaeiee A.I.
10.02.97.

13. Aiaeueyiiaa E. A., Aii/a?aiei Ae. O., Aa?aiia A. I., Eaaiia A. I.,
Caaei?iaeiue A. A. I?yiioi/iee aeaioeeeiiae?iaee aeeoa?aioeieiee
?ic/eiiianin. Iiceoeaia ?ioaiiy ? 96104017. 1997 ?ie.

14. Aiaeueyiiaa E. A., Aa?aiia A. I., Caaei?iaeiue A. A., I?ioeaiei A.
I. Eiioniee i?aei?oaeeiaiee eeaiai i?yiioi/iiai ?ic/eiiianino.
Iiceoeaia ?ioaiiy ? 97062663. 1998 ?ie.

AIIOAOe?ss

Caaei?iaeiee A. I. “?ic?iaea iiaiai oaoiieia?/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy aeey
iaianaiiy iaei?ooiieo aaoiiieo noi?oae caniaii iie?iai oi?e?aooaaiiy”.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05. 05. 02 — iaoeie aeey
ae?iaieoeoaa aoae?aaeueieo

7

Aeine?aeaeaiiyie a aaeoc? iie?iai oi?e?aooaaiiy caeiaeeny Aia?i I. I.,
?ayinueeee A. I., Ia?/oeia I. N., Oeiianueeee I. I., Oa?ia ?. ?.,
Eiaca?ue ?. ?.

Oeiianueeei I. I. oa Oa?iaei ?. ?. aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui a i?ioean?
o?ainii?ooaaiiy ii iaoa??aeueieo oeaiaao ca ?aooiie /anoeiaiai
ciaaiaeiaiiy iie?auothoueny aeanoeaino? i?uaiiai aaoiio. A?aeii? oaeiae
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue i?oeiinieo oa?aeoa?enoee oi?e?ao-aaoiio a
caeaaeiino? a?ae a?aenoai? niiea aei iiaa?oi?, ui ia?iaey?oueny.

Ia aoae?aaeueieo iaeaeai/eeao aeey o?ainii?ooaaiiy ? oeeaaeaiiy
?ic/eiieo oa aaoiiieo noi?oae a?aeiia aeei?enoaiiy ae?ao?aaiiaeo
ianin?a, iaeiiii?oiaaeo oa aeaiii?oiaaeo.

A Oe?a?i? ia aac? ?ic/eiiianina o??ie “PUTZMEISTER” ?inoeoooii
“OE?I?AOAOAOAe” aoa ?ic?iaeaiee a?o/eciyiee ?ic/eiiianin. C’yaeeeny
iiaeae? ?ic/eiiianin?a ?I-2-4 (i. Iieoaaa) ? ?Ae-2 (i. Oa?e?a).

Aea iaeaaeiaiiy iie?iai oi?e?aooaaiiy aea/aia neaai, a iniiaiiio,
iineoue aenia?eiaioaeueiee oa?aeoa?. Iaoa oe??? ?iaioe aoea
noi?ioeueiaaia ia i?aenoaa? ?acoeueoao?a a?aeiieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
ca?aeii c yeith i?iiiio?oueny i?iaanoe oe?ieee niaeo? aeine?aeaeaiue ?
noai?eoe aoaeoeaia iaeiaaaa?eoia iaeaaeiaiiy iie?iai oi?e?aooaaiiy aeey
iaei?ooiieo aoae?aaeueieo noi?oae.

2 Oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaeaaeiaiiy aeey cae?eniaiiy i?ioeano
iie?iai oi?e?aooaaiiy

Aeey noai?aiiy iaeiaaaa?eoiiai oi?aa?naeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy, ui
aeicaieeoue ia?aea/oaaoe aoae?aaeuei? noi?o? iaei? ?ooiiino? aaciaith
iaoeiith acyoee ?ic/eiiianin ?c ?ici?uaiiyi ii?oi?a iaeei iaae ae?oaei.
Iaeiae i?eioeei i?ioeoi/ii? iiaea/?, ui oe?iei aeei?enoiao?oueny o oaeeo
iaoeiao aeey ia?aea/oaaiiy aoae?aaeueieo ?ic/ei?a ia aeiionoeiee aeey
aaoiiieo noi?oae: iiaeeeaa in?aeaiiy aaeeeiai caiiaithaa/a.

I?e oeueiio niinoa??aa?oueny aoaeo ?icoa?iaoaaiiy noi?o?, ui cieaeo?
E.E.Ae. ianino.

I?yiioi/ia noaia iiaea/? iaei?ooiieo aaoiiieo noi?oae ? aoae?aaeueieo
?ic/ei?a i?ae aeaniith aaaith aeicaiey? e?ea?aeoaaoe aeuacacia/aiee
iaaeie?e. Ia ?en. 1. i?iiiio?oueny iiaa eiino?oeoe?y ianina.

I?yiioi/iee ?ic/eiiianin (oei/aniaee iaoaio Oe?a?ie ? 18160A) ia? aeaa
oeee?iae?e: aa?oi?e ?iai/ee 11 ? ieaei?e eiiiainaoe?eiee 3, ii?oi? yeeo
2,12 i?aoeththoue o i?ioeoac?. ?oo ii?oi?a cae?enith?oueny ca
aeiiiiiaith eoe?ne 15.

Noi?o iaaeoiaeeoue c caaaioaaeoaaeueii? ai?iiee 8 e??cue eeaiai 9 a
?iai/o eaia?o 10 ? ?iai/ee oeee?iae? 11 i?ae aeaniith aaaith i?e ?iaio?
ii?oiy 12 a ?aaeei? aniieooaaiiy. I?ney caiiaiaiiy ?iai/iai oeee?iae?a
ii?oaiue 12, ii/eia? i?aoethaaoe o ?aaeei? iaai?oaiiy, aeo?niyth/e noi?o
i?e a?aee?eoiio eeaiai? 7 o eiiiainaoe?eio eaia?o 4 ? eiiiainaoe?eiee
oeee?iae? 3, ia’?i yeiai ? o aeaa ?ace iaioei a?ae ia’?io ?iai/iai
oeee?iae?a. Eeaiai 9 cae?eaa?oueny.

8

?en. 1. Noaia i?yiioi/iiai ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianina

1 — ?aia; 2 — eiiiainaoe?eiee ii?oaiue; 3-eiiiainaoe?eiee oeee?iae?; 4 —
eiiiainaoe?eia eaia?a; 5 — aeo?aeiee iao?oaie c iaoiiethaaeueiei
e??ieaiiyi o?oaii?iaiaeo; 6 — iaiiiao?; 7 — eiioniee i?aei?oaeeiaiee
eeaiai (iaai?oaeueiee); 8 — caaaioaaeoaaeueia ai?iiea; 9 — eiioniee
i?aei?oaeeiaiee eeaiai (aniieooth/ee); 10 — ?iai/a eaia?a; 11 — ?iai/ee
oeee?iae? , 12 — ?iai/ee ii?oaiue; 13 — aeaeo?iaeaeaoi; 14 — ooie; 15 —
eoe?na; 16 — e?eaioeiii-oaooiiee iaoai?ci; 17 — ooie.

*anoeia noi?o? iiaea?oueny e??cue aeo?aeiee iao?oaie 5 o o?oaii?ia?ae, a
/anoeia caiiaith? ia’?i oeee?iae?a, ui ca?eueiy?oueny ii?oiai 2, yeee
i?aoeth? a ?aaeei? aniieooaaiiy. A i?ioean? iaai?oaeueiiai ?ooo ii?oiy 2
noi?o e??cue aeo?aeiee iao?oaie 5 aeo?niy?oueny o o?oaii?ia?ae. Eeaiai 7
cae?eaa?oueny.

Cai?ioii-iinooiaeueiee ?oo ii?oi?a cae?enith?oueny oeyoii eoe?ne 15,
oa?i??ii c’?aeiaii? c e?eaioeiii-oaooiiei iaoai?ciii 16. Neeiaith
onoaiiaeith i?yiioi/iiai ?ic/eiiianina ? aeaeo?iaeaeaoi 13.

Ei?ion ?ic/eiiianina, eoe?na, e?eaioeiii-oaooiiee iaoai?ci oa ?aaeoeoi?
c aeaeo?iaeaeaoiii anoaiiaeai? ia noaeaa?e caa?i?e ?ai? 1.

21

?ooiiino? aaoiiii? noi?o? o4 — I1= 5- 6ni;

i?ioeaioiiio ci?no? o aaoiii?e noi?o? e?oiiiai caiiaithaa/a o?aeoe?e du1
= 8-10 ii e du2 = 5-7 ii — 34…35 %;

aeo?aoe i?neo e oeaiaioo ia 1i3 oi?e?ao-aaoiio a?aeiia?aeii 820… 840
ea oa 400… 410 ea;

6. ?ic?iaeai?:

iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo niiae c e?eueoeaaei ianaaeeii, ia i?aenoaa? yei?
neeaaeaiee aeai?eoi ?ic?aooieo niiae;

oaoi?/ia aeieoiaioaoe?y ia i?yiioi/iee ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianin c
i?aei?oaeeiaieie eiionieie eeaiaiaie ? eiiieaeo oi?e?ao-niiae c
e?eueoeaaei ianaaeeii.

7.?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?/ia iaeaaeiaiiy ai?iaaaeaeaia i?e aeeiiaii?
oi?e?ao-?ia?o a oiiaao ?aeiino?oeoe?? aoaeeieo ii aoe. Ie?iiineoeuee?e
44 (i.Oa?e?a) ? iaianaii? a?ae?i?cieyoe?eiiai iie?eooy i?e ?anoaa?aoe??
oiioaio a aioaeueiiio eiiieaen?, ui aoaeo?oueny ii aoe. Noinueea 50 (i.
Oa?e?a).

8 Ca ?acoeueoaoaie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaiai oaoiieia?/iiai eiiieaeoo
iaeaaeiaiiy ia ae?iaie/eo ia’?eoao a ia?a?aooieo ia ??/io i?ia?aio 10000
i3/??e aeiiii?/iee aoaeo neeaa 143214 a?i.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii a oaeeo i?aoeyo

1. Aiaeueyiiaa E. A., Aa?aiia A. I., Caaei?iaeiue A. A. E aii?ino
noaaeeecaoeee i?ioeanna iie?iai oi?e?aoe?iaaiey.//Oacenu aeieeaaeia
50-ie thaeeaeiie IOE «Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe no?ieoaeuenoaa». Oa?ueeia,
1995, n.57-58.

2. Aiaeueyiiaa E. A., Aa?aiia A. I., Caaei?iaeiue A. A. I?ioeann iie?iai
oi?e?aoe?iaaiey i?e eniieueciaaiee yooaeoa «aicaeooiie niacee».
//Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie IOE «?acaeoea no?ieoaeueiuo iaoei,
iaoaiecaoeee e aaoiiaoecaoeee no?ieoaeuenoaa e ioe?uouo ai?iuo
?aaio». Iineaa 1996,n.108-111.

3. Aiaeueyiiaa E. A., Aa?aiia A. I., Caaei?iaeiue A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea
iioiea /anoeoe i?e iie?ii oi?e?aoe?iaaiee.// Iaoa?eaeu ia?aie
anaoe?aeineie iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee «I?ia?anne?iaaiea
oaoiieiaee e iaoeiu aeey i?iecaiaenoaa no?ieiaoa?eaeia, ecaeaeee e
eiino?oeoeee». Iieoaaa, 1996,n.26-29.

Aiaeueyiiaa E. A., Aa?aiia A. I., Caaei?iaeiue A.A. Eeiaoe/aneay
yia?aey iioiea nopieoaeueiie niane ipe iiepii oipepaoepiaaiee n
o/aoii o?aeoeeiiiiai ninoaaa caiieieoaey. //Hao/iua o?oaeu
?aaeiiaeueiie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee «I?iaeaiu nicaeaiey
iiauo iaoei e oaoiieiaee», E?aiai/oa, 1996,n 160-162.

Aiaeueyiiaa E. A., Aa?aiia A. I., Caaei?iaeiue A.A. Aiaeec iiaaaeaiey
iioiea aicaeooii-aaoiiiie niane i?e iie?ii oi?e?aoe?iaaiee.

//EE N 144-96, Oa?ueeia, 1996.

20

Ee?anueeei ?inoeoooii “I?iaeoaoaeiaoai?caoe?y” aeaia caeeth/aiiy i?i
aeioe?euei?noue na??eiiai aeaioiaeaiiy aeaiii?oiaaiai i?yiioi/iiai
?ic/eii-aaoiiiianina c eiiieaeoii niiae, ui iathoue e?eueoeaaee
ianaaeie.

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE OA AENIIAEE

1. Noai?aii i?yiioi/iee aeaiii?oiaaee ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianin c eiionieie
i?aei?oaeeiaieie eeaiaiaie, eiino?oeoeai? iniaeeaino? yeiai
aeicaieythoue canoiniaoaaoe eiai aeey iaianaiiy eiioeaio?iaaieo iioie?a
iaei?ooiieo aaoiiieo noi?oae c caiiaithaa/ai aei 10 ii a oiiaao iie?iai
oi?e?aooaaiiy i?e aeei?enoaii? niiea c e?eueoeaaei ianaaeeii.

2. Anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? aca?iiae?? oi?e?ao-niiea c iioieii
iia?o?yii-aaoiiii? noi?o?, ia i?aenoaa? yeeo iiaoaeiaaia
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue i?ioeano iie?iai oi?e?aooaaiiy:

ciaeaeai? caeaaeiino? aeey aecia/aiiy na?aaeiueicaaaeaii? oaeaeeino?
/anoie noi?o? a iioioe? oa ?oiueiai caiano e?iaoe/ii? aia?a?? c
o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae ?iciiae?eo o oeueiio iioioe?;

iaea?aeaia caeaaei?noue aeey aecia/aiiy oaeaeeino? /anoie noi?o? o
iia?aie/iiio oa?? aca?iiae?? iniiaiiai oa aeiaeaoeiaiai iioie?a iia?o?y;

aeyaeai? oiiae i?i?i?caoe?? a?aeneieo e?oiiiai caiiaithaa/a.

3.Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co ?iaioe aniieooth/iai oa iaai?oaeueiiai eeaiai?a
ciaeaeai? caeaaeiino? aeey aecia/aiiy iniiaieo
ia?aiao??a i?io?ai ? i?yiioi/iiai ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianin?a.
?icoiaeaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo ? ?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue oaeaeeino?
/anoie noi?o? o iia?o?yii-aaoiiiiio iioioe? ia ia?aaeuo? 3…5 %, a
iiooaeieo aeo?ao ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianinii — 12…16 %.

4. Iiaoaeiaaii aaeaeaaoio iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue caeaaeiino?
ia’?iiiai E. E. Ae.. a?ae ae?aiao?a iniiae eeaiaia dini., eooa iaoeeo
eiai eiiona aei iniiae ( ? ?ooiiino? aaoiiii? noi?o? I1.
Iaeneiaeueiee ia’?iiee E. E. Ae.= 0.65…0.75 aeinyaiooi i?e dini. = 55
ii, ( = 45( e I1=9 ni.

5. Iiaoaeiaaii eiiieaeni? caeaaeiino? i?oeiino? oi?e?ao-aaoiio i?e
noeneo Rnae., i?e aeaei? Reca. oa a?aeneieo /anoie aaoiiii? noi?o? a?ae
oi?e?aoiaaii? iiaa?oi? I, (%) a caeaaeiino? a?ae aecia/aeueieo
ia?aiao??a i?ioeano iie?iai oi?e?aooaaiiy. Iioei?caoeey i?ioeano
aeinyaiooa i?e:

a?aenoai? aei iiaa?oi?, ui oi?e?aoo?oueny L=0.8…0.9 i;

ii/aoeiai? oaeaeeino? iia?o?yii-aaoiiiiai iioieo ia c??c? oi?e?ao-niiea(
0 ia.i.=60…70 i/n;

ii/aoeiai? oaeaeeino? iioieo ia c??c? e?eueoeaaiai ianaaeea

( 0 e.i.=90…110 i/n;

9

Aei eiiiainaoe?eii? eaia?e 4 oeaioeaaei c’?aeiaiiyi cae??ieth?oueny
aeo?aeiee iao?oaie 5 c iaai?oaeueiei o?oaii?iaiaeii, iaeaaeiaiee
iaiiiao?ii 6 aeey a?coaeueiiai eiio?ieth ca oeneii. Iaai?oaeueiee
o?oaii?ia?ae ia? i?io?aeiee ia?a??c 50 ii oa ?ic?aoiaaiee ia oene aei 2
IIA.

?ic?iaeaia iaoeia i?ecia/aia aeey aenieoaoaoe?? ye ia aoae?aaeueieo,
?ic/eiao, oae ? ia aaoiiieo noi?oao. Oaeee ianin aoaea iaceaaoeny
?ic/eii-aaoiiiianinii.

A?ae ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianina ii o?oaii?iaiaeo noi?o iiaea?oueny aei
oi?e?ao-niiea, ca?aeee iioieii /anoie aaoiiii? noi?o? aee?oa? ?c
caaeaiei caianii e?iaoe/ii? aia?a?? ? iaa?eceo?oueny ia iiaa?oith, ui
ia?iaey?oueny.

Aei ?ic?iaeaiiai ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianina i?iiiio?oueny eiiieaeo iiaeo niiae
c e?eueoeaaei ianaaeeii, ui aeicaiey? a iioioe? noai?eoe ??aiioe?ii?
oiiae aeey iaa?eceo /anoie ??cii? e?oiiino?.

Ia ?en. 2. i?aaenoaaeaia eiino?oeoe?y oi?e?ao-niiea aeey iaianaiiy
iaei?ooiieo aoae?aaeueieo ?ic/ei?a ? aaoiiieo noi?oae c e?oii?noth
caiiaithaa/a aei 10 ii. Aei e?eueoeaaiai ianaaeeo 9 iiaea?oueny noeniaia
iia?o?y.

?en. 2. Oi?e?ao-niiei c e?eueoeaaei ianaaeeii

1 — eaia?a ci?ooaaiiy; 2 — ei?ion ?iai/i? iia?o?yii? eaia?e; 3
-iaoiiethaaeueiee caiie o?oaii?iaiaea; 4 — a?aeeeaeiee aieo; 5, 10 —
i?aeaaaeaiiy noeniaiiai iia?o?y; 6,8 — eiio?aaeea; 7 — ia?ao?aeiee; 9 —
ei?ion e?eueoeaaiai ianaaeea; 11 — niiei.

Aeei?enoaiiy a aoae?aaeueieo ?iaioao i?yiioi/iiai aeaiii?oiaaiai
?ic/eii-aaoiiiianina oa oi?e?ao-niiea c e?eueoeaaei ianaaeeii aeicaiey?
ii-iiaiio ae??oeoe i?ioean iaa?eceo noi?o? i?e iie?iio oi?e?aooaaii?:
iio?e noi?o? i?e aeoiae? c niiea ciaoiaeeoueny a e?eueoe? noeniaiiai
iia?o?y.

Iio?e iia?o?yii-aaoiiii? noi?o?, ui aee?oa? c niiea, iiaea aooe
i?aaenoaaeaiei o aeaeyae? aeaio ??ciiiai?oieo iaoa??aeueieo na?aaeiaeu:
a?eueii-caoiieaiiai no?oiaiy iia?o?y oa /anoie aaoiiii? noi?o?, ui
eaoyoue a iueiio.

10

Oa?aeoa?enoeee a?eueii — caoiieaiiai no?oiaiy oa iioieo /anoie noi?o?,
aecia/athoueny ?ici??aie eaia?e ci?ooaaiiy oi?e?ao-niiea, aeiaaeeia ?
a?aeiia?aeiith aeiaaeei? o/anoea o?oaii?iaiaea a?ae i?noey iiaea/?
noeniaiiai iia?o?y o noi?o, ui o?ainii?oo?oueny aei c??co niiea.

Oaeaee?noue /anoie noi?o? ??cii? e?oiiino? ia c??c? niiea iiaea aooe
ciaeaeaia ye:

(1)

— ii/aoeiaa oaeaee?noue iia?o?yiiai iioieo ia c??c? niiea;

d — ae?aiao? /anoee;

( — oiaueia oa?o neeaaeiai? ?ic/eio ia /anooe? noi?o?;

g — i?enei?aiiy a?eueiiai iaae?iiy;

( — aeeiai?/ia a’yce?noue iia?o?y;

(i, (a- a?aeiia?aeii u?euei?noue /anoee noi?o? ? iia?o?y;

( — ii?? /anoee.

I?e a?aeiiiio eoo? ?ice?eooy iia?o?yii-aaoiiiiai no?oiaiy ? iino?eieo
cia/aiiyo ( = 1.84(10-6 ea(n/i2; ( = 0.58; (i = 2630 ea/i3; (a = 1.2
ea/i3, ei?enooth/enue caeaaei?noth (1), iiaeia aecia/eoe ii/aoeia?
oaeaeeino? /anoie noi?o? ??cii? e?oiiino?.

Oaeaee?noue iia?o?yiiai iioieo (0 i.a.i i?e aeuacacia/aieo const-ao
?icaeyaea?oueny ye aeiaooie iaeneiaeueii? oaeaeeino? ia in? iioieo oa
eiao?oe?aioa ci?ie oaeaeeino? o caeaaeiino? a?ae ?aae?ona ia?a??co
iioieo.

Aeey aeyaeaiiy oa?aeoa?o ?aae?aeueiiai ?iciiae?eo /anoie noi?o? ia?a??c
iioieo aaciina?aaeiuei ia aeoiae? c niiea (L=0) oiiaii ?icaeyaeaany
neeaaeaiei c i’yoe eiioeaio?e/ieo cii, /ioe?e c yeeo yaeythoue niaith
e?eueoey iaeiaeiai? oe?eie (R2-R1), (R3-R2), (R4-R3), (R5-R4) — nonst.
I?e oeueiio, iia?o?yii-aaoiiiee iio?e ?icaeyaeaany oo?eioth/ei /anoee
caiiaithaa/a ??cii? e?oiiino?: a?ae 0.5 ii aei 10 ii.

A iniiao aeine?aeaeaiue i?ioeano iie?iai oi?e?aooaaiiy iieeaaeaia
a?iioaca: o oeaio?? iioieo noi?o? eiioeaio?othoueny aaeee? /anoee
iioieo, a ia ia?eoa??? niinoa??aa?oueny ieeiaeaeia oia?a, ui
neeaaea?oueny, ia?aaaaeii c /anoie ?ic/eiii? noi?o?.

Aiae?c iiaaae?iee /anoie noi?o? a caeaaeiino? a?ae a?aenoai? iioieo aei
iiaa?oi?, ui oi?e?aoo?oueny iieacaa, ui iia?o?yii-aaoiiiee iio?e ?c
a?aeaeaeaiiyi a?ae c??co niiea ?ice?eaa?oueny a iaaeao eooa ( =
tg11(, a eiai ae?aiao? c?inoa? i?iii?oe?eii a?aenoai? aei iiaa?oi?.
Ieiua ia?a??co no?oio ?aae?onii Ri? ia a?aenoai? a?ae c??co niiea Li
aei iiaa?oi?, ui aaoiio?oueny, iiaeia aecia/eoe, aeei?enoiaoth/e
caeaaei?noue:

(2)

19

Aea/aiiy i?oeiino? ye ooieoe?? a?ae ainueie iacaeaaeieo oaeoi??a
Y1,Y2,Y3= = f(o1, o2, o3, o4, o5, o6, o7, o8) i?iaiaeeeeny c
aeei?enoaiiyi D — iioeiaeueiiai ieaio c ci?yieie oi/eaie.

A ?acoeueoao? iaoaiaoe/ii? ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo io?eiai?
aaeaeaaoi? ??aiyiiy ?aa?an?? caeaaeiinoae aeuaiaaaaeaieo ooieoe?e a?ae
icia/aieo oaeoi??a.

Aeey aeeo/aiiy nenoaiaoe/ieo iiieeie i?iaaaeaia ?aiaeii?caoe?y aeine?aeo
ii aeao/eeo aeiaaeeiaeo /enae.

Iaeii??aei?noue aeenia?n?? ia?aa??yeany ii e?eoa??th Eio?aia, ui
aeicaieeei c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i iiaiioo oaeoi??a.

Ia?aa??ea aaeaeaaoiino? iieno iiaa?oiiue a?aeaoeo iie?iiiii 2-ai nooiaiy
i?iaiaeeeiny ii F — e?eoa??th (e?eoa??th O?oa?a).

Aoea aecia/aia iioeiaeueia iaeanoue oaeoi?iiai i?inoi?o, ui caaacia/eea
iaeneiaeuei? i?oeiinoi? iieacieee oi?e?ao-aaoiio i?e i?i?iaeueiiio
a?aeneioe?:

Ni?anoaaeaiiy i?oeiinoieo oa?aeoa?enoee oi?e?ao-aaoiio ? aaoiio, ui
a?a?oaaany i?e ?aeaioe/iino? oiia oi?ioaaiiy, iieacaee, ui i?oei?noue
oi?e?ao-aaoiio ia?aaeuo? i?oei?noue aaoiio, ui a?a?oaaany ia, 11-17%.
Aiaeiiiaeeiaiiy aaoiio, ui a?a?oaaany ia?aaeuo? aiaeiiiaeeiaiiy
oi?e?ao-aaoiio ia 8…12 %.

Oaeei /eiii, aeiaaaeaia aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?iaeaiiai ?
aeaioiaeaiiai iaeaaeiaiiy, ui aeeth/a? i?yiioi/iee ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianin
oa oi?e?ao-niiei c e?eueoeaaei ianaaeeii.

I?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue

Ia i?aenoaa? ?acoeueoao?a oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue:

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo niiae c e?eueoeaaei ianaaeeii, ia iniia?
yei? neeaaeaiee aeai?eoi ?ic?aooieo niiae.

?ic?iaeaia oaoi?/ia aeieoiaioaoe?y ia i?yiioi/iee ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianin c
i?aei?oaeeiaieie eiionieie eeaiaiaie.

?ic?iaeaia oaoi?/ia aeieoiaioaoe?y ia eiiieaeo oi?e?ao-niiae c
e?eueoeaaei ianaaeeii.

Iiaa oaoiieia?/ia iaeaaeiaiiy ai?iaaaeaeaia i?e aeeiiaii? oi?e?ao-?ia?o
a oiiaao ?aeiino?oeoe?? aoaeeieo ii aoe. Ie?iiineoeuee?e 44 (i. Oa?e?a)
? iaianaii? a?ae?i?cieyoe?eiiai iie?eooy i?e ?anoaa?aoe?? oiioaio a
aioaeueiiio eiiieaen?, ui aoaeo?oueny ii aoe. Noinueea 50 (i. Oa?e?a).
A ia?ae?/aii? ia ??/io i?ia?aio 10000 i3/??e, aeiiii?/iee aoaeo neeaa
143214 a?i.

?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaii? ?iaioe aeei?enoiaothoueny a eaeoe?yo c? niaoeeo?no
“Oaoiieia?/i? eiiieaene”, a eo?niaiio oa aeeieiiiiio i?iaeooaaii?.

18

a
a a

?en. 5. Caeaaeiino? ia’?iiiai E. E. Ae.. a?ae: a — ?ooiiino? aaoiiii?
noi?o? I1; a — ae?aiao?a iniiae eeaiaia dini; n — eooa iaoeeo ui
ooai?eoue eiion ( aei iniiae eeaiaia.

I?oei?noue oi?e?ao-aaoiio ciaeaeaia a caeaaeiino? a?ae aecia/aeueieo
ia?aiao??a ?iai/iai i?ioeano iie?iai oi?e?aooaaiiy i?e aeei?enoaii?
i?yiioi/iiai ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianina oa oi?e?ao-niiea c e?eueoeaaei
ianaaeeii.

Aeey ??oaiiy iinoaaeaii? caaea/? aeei?enoiaoaaany oeaio?aeueiee
eiiiiceoe?eiee ieai 2-ai ii?yaeeo. A yeino? ooieoe?e ? ia?aiao??a
iioei?caoe?? i?eeiyo?:

Y1- i?oei?noue i?e noeneo Rnae., IIa

Y2- i?oei?noue i?e aeaei? Reca., IIa

Y3- a?aeneie /anoie aaoiiii? noi?o? a?ae iiaa?oi?, ui oi?e?aoo?oueny I,
%;

Caaea/a ae??ooaaeany i?e ianooiieo oaeoi?ao:

o1 — a?aenoaiue aei oi?e?aoiaaii? iiaa?oi? (L, i);

o2 -ii/aoeiaa oaeaee?noue iia?o?yii-aaoiiiiai iioieo ia c??c?
oi?e?ao-niiea ((0 a.i., i/n);

o3 -ii/aoeiaa oaeaee?noue iia?o?yiiai iioieo ia c??c? e?eueoeaaiai
ianaaeea ((0 e.i., i/n);

o4 — ?ooii?noue aaoiiii? noi?o? (I1, ni);

o5 -i?ioeaioiee ci?no e?oiiiai caiiaithaa/a ae?aiao?ii 8…10 ii a
aaoiii?e noi?o? (du1 ,%);

o6 — i?ioeaioiee ci?no e?oiiiai caiiaithaa/a ae?aiao?ii 5…7 ii a
aaoiii?e noi?o? (du2 ,%);

o7 — aeo?aoa i?neo ia 1i3 aaoiii?e noi?o? (I, ea);

o8 — aeo?aoa oeaiaioo ia 1i3 aaoiii?e noi?o? (Oe, ea);

11

aea ( — eoo ?ice?eooy nooiaiy iia?o?yii-aaoiiiiai iioieo;

Li- a?aenoaiue aei ia?aiiai ia?a??co ?aae?onii Rii a?ae c??co
niiea;

.

Na?aaeiueicaaaeaia oaeaee?noue /anoie aaoiiii? noi?o? a caeaaeiino? a?ae
iane /anoie a iioioe?, a oaeiae ?o ianiaiai ?iciiae?eo o iaaeao i’yoe
cii iiaea aooe i?aaenoaaeaia caeaaei?noth:

(3)

aea Ry (L) — ?aae?on ia?a??co no?oiaiy ia a?aenoai? y a?ae c??co
niiea;

— caaaeueia iana /anoie ?aae?onii r;

.

?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieo oaeaeeinoae /anoie aaoiiii? noi?o? ca?aeii
caeaaeiino? (3) ia a?aenoaiyo L= 0.6; 0.8; 1.0; 1.6 i a?ae c??co niiea
i?aaenoaaeai? a oaaeeoe? 1.

Oaaeeoey 1.

Na?aaeiueicaaaeaia oaeaee?noue /anoie aaoiiii? noi?o?.

?aae?on

no?oiaiy,

R?? Ae?aiao?

/anoie,

d ii Iana

aaoii-ii? noi?o?,

ea

Oaeaee?noue /anoie ia a?aenoai? L. i

L=0.6 L=0.8 L=1.0 L=1.6

8-10 480 64.5 64.5 59.1 51.34

5-7 127.5 68.42 66.2 63.5 47.19

R1 3-4 42.2 70.58 66.49 60.6 42.87

1-2 187.5 77.95 61.55 55.9 37.93

0-0.5 26.2 73.6 57 51.39 33.4

5-7 382.5 64.58 53.3 52.9 40.53

(R2-R1) 3-4 126.6 60.73 50.94 49.95 36.24

1-2 56.25 62.2 47.2 45.35 31.3

0-0.5 78.6 57.8 42.47 40.9 27.71

3-4 211.1 43.85 36.72 34.35 27.02

(R3-R2) 1-2 93.75 40.25 32.69 30.28 22.07

0-0.5 131 35.9 26.25 25.84 17.55

(R4-R3) 1-2 131.25 22.73 19.45 18.51 14.13

0-0.5 183.4 18 14.93 13.8 10.2

(R5-R4) 0-0.5 235.8 8.03 7.45 7.1 6

12

E?iaoe/ia aia?a?y iia?o?yii-aaoiiiiai iioieo noi?o? aecia/a?oueny i?e
oiia?, ui ?? /anoee a?aeiia?aeii ?icoaooaaiith a iioioe? iathoue ??cio
oaeaee?noue.

Ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe, ui /anoeia ?ic/eiiai? neeaaeiai? iie?eaa? /anoee
e?oiiiai caiiaithaa/a, a ae?oaa ?? /anoeia ? a?eueiith a iioioe? noi?o?.

Oaeaee?noue /anoie aeenia?aiaaii? ?ic/eiiai? neeaaeiai? ? aeecueeith aei
oaeaeeino? iia?o?yiiai iioieo. Oaeaee?noue /anoie ?ic/eiiai? neeaaeiai?
ia ca?iao e?oiiiai caiiaithaa/a aecia/a?oueny oaeaee?noth naieo ca?ai.

Oiae? caian e?iaoe/ii? aia?a?? /anoie iia?o?yii-aaoiiiiai iioieo noi?o?
iiaea aooe ciaeaeaiee ca?aeii caeaaeiino?:

(4)

aea mc.e. — iana caiiaithaa/a a e?eueoe?, ui ia? ?iaeaen e, ia?a??co
iioieo;

me — caaaeueia iana neeaaeiai? ?ic/eio a e?eueoe?, ui ia? ?iaeaen
e, ia?a??co iioieo;

mae.?.n.e — iana aeenia?aiaaii? neeaaeiai? ?ic/eio a e?eueoe?, ui
ia? ?iaeaen e, ia?a??co iioieo;

( c.e.(ri) — oaeaee?noue /anoie caiiaithaa/a ?aae?onii (ri) a
e?eueoe?, ui ia? ?iaeaen e, ia?a??co iioieo;

(?.n.e. — oaeaee?noue /anoie neeaaeiai? ?ic/eio a e?eueoe?, ui
ia? ?iaeaen e, ia?a??co iioieo.

Aeai? oaaeeoe? 1 na?ae/aoue, ui ia ia?eoa??? iioieo oaeaeeino?
a?eueoino? ae??aieo /anoie iae? aeey oiai, uia aiie iiaee aeieao?oe aei
iiaa?oi?, ui oi?e?aoo?oueny.

Aeey e?ea?aeaoe?? aeacaiiai yaeua i?iiiio?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith iiaiai
oi?e?ao-niiea (?en. 2.) a ciie iaeeo oaeaeeinoae, ia?aeaeueii no?oiaith
iia?o?yii-aaoiiiiai iioieo, iiaeaaaoe iaeiioaciee e?eueoeaaee iio?e
noeniaiiai iia?o?y c? oaeaee?noth (no.a > (i.a.i

aea (no.a- oaeaee?noue e?eueoeaaiai iioieo noeniaiiai iia?o?y;

(i.a.i- oaeaee?noue iia?o?yii-aaoiiiiai iioieo.

O oaeiio aeiaaeeo, iio?e noi?o?, ui iaa?eceo?oueny ia iiaa?oith,
neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio /anoei: a — “aaoiiia noi?o — noeniaia iia?o?y”; b
— “aaoiiia noi?o — noeniaia iia?o?y” — “noeniaia iia?o?y”; c — “noeniaia
iia?o?y — iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua”.

Oiae?, oaeaee?noue /anoie iia?o?yii-aaoiiiiai iioieo (z o iia?aie/iiio
oa?? aca?iiae?? iniiaiiai oa aeiaeaoeiaiai e?eueoeaaiai

17

Io?eiai? oaeee ia?iaeyeeny ia AII 5o86 a i?ia?aiiiio iaeao?
“Fhotochop-3”. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aenia?eiaio?a i?aeoaa?aeeee
i?aaii??i?noue ?ai?oa io?eiaieo caeaaeiinoae.

I?iaiaeeeenue cai??e iiooaeieo aeo?ao aeaeaoia ?aea oa oene o
?ic/eii-aaoiiiianin?, ui ia?aea/oaaa aaoiii? noi?o? ?ooeea?noth
I1=3,5,7,9,11ni, a oaeiae aecia/aeany eiai i?iaeoeoeai?noue Q.
?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aenia?eiaio?a ciaeoee a?aeaeooy o a?ao?/ieo
caeaaeiinoyo (?en. 4).

Ia’?iiee E. E. Ae. ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianina aea/aany a caeaaeiino? a?ae
ae?aiao?a iniiae eeaiaia dini., eooa iaoeeo iniiae eeaiaia (, ??cii?
?ooiiino?, aaoiiii? noi?o? I1. ?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue:

(ia.=11.739 + 0.1456I1- 0.15919 dini.- 0.3168( — 0.0082 I12

— 0.000722 I1( dini.+0.000353 I1(( — 0.0011 d2ini.
(11)

+ 0.00644 dini. (( — 0.000442( 2

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee aeyaeoe oa?aeoa? caeaaeiinoae
ia’?iiiai E. E. Ae. a?ae aeuaiaaaaeaieo ia?aiao??a oa aecia/eoe ?oi?
cia/aiiy i?e iioeiaeueiiio ?aaeei? ?iaioe ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianina
(?en. 5.).

?en. 4. Caeaaeiino? iiooaeiino?, ui niiaeeaa?oueny ?aea, oeneo ? oa
aeo?aoe Q ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianina a?ae ?ooiiino? aaoiiii? noi?o?

16

(9)

— aenioa eiioniiai eeaiaia.

Aeio?eiaiiy oiiae ??aiioe?iii? i?iioneii? ni?iiiaeiino? aniieooth/iai ?
iaai?oaeueiiai eeaiai?a i?e caaeaiiio (iaiao?aeiiio) ? oa eiie?aoieo
?iai/eo noi?oao aeicaiey? i?ae?eoe aei iaa?oioiaaiiai aecia/aiiy
eiino?oeoeaieo ia?aiao??a ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianina R1, R2, l.

?ic?aooiie iiooaeieo aeo?ao ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianina iiaea aooe c?iaeaiee,
aeoiaey/e c ieoo?ai? iiaea/? noi?o? o oeee?iae?e ? oeneo, ui
?icaeaa?oueny a ieo, ca?aeii oi?ioe?:

(10)

aea S?. oa Se.- ieiu? ?iai/iai ? eiiiainaoe?eiiai ii?oi?a;

le., lo.- a?aeiia?aeii aeiaaeeie e?eaioeia oa oaooia;

?a.oe. — oene o a?ae?ioeee?iae??;

/an ia?ai?uaiiy ii?oi?a.

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?yiioi/iiai aeaiii?oiaaiai
?ic/eii-aaoiiiianina a oiiaao i?ioeano iie?iai oi?e?aooaaiiy

Aeey aenia?eiaioaeueii? ia?aa??ee aenoiooi? a?iioace i?i
ia??aiii??i?noue ?iciiae?eo /anoie aaoiiii? noi?o? ii ia?a??co iioieo ?
aecia/aiiy ?o oaeaeeinoae ?ooo, aoa aeaioiaeaiee niaoe?aeueiee noaiae.

O ?iai/?e eaia?? ? e?eueoeaaiio ianaaeeo oi?e?ao-niiea oene aei??thaaany
ca aeiiiiiaith iaiiiao??a IOI-16 oa IOI-25.

Oa?e?oaaiiy noaiaeo cae?enithaaeiny ca aeiiiiiaith iiaeaaeii?
iia?o?iaeoaee ? aiaiiiao?a O5 AeINO 6376-84.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny i?e oaeaeeinoyo iia?o?yiiai iioieo (i.i=50,
60, 87, 100, 108 i/n oa ae?aiao?ao niiea d1=35 ii e d2=47 ii.

Aenoiooa a?iioaca ciaeoea aenia?eiaioaeuei? i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeaeeinoae /anoie aaoiiii? noi?o? o iia?o?yii-aaoiiiiio
iioioe? aac iayaiino? e?eueoeaaiai ianaaeea oa c e?eueoeaaei ianaaeeii
i?iaiaeeeeny ca aeiiiiiaith oioia?aooaaiiy. Oioia?ao?? neaioaaeenue ia
neaia?? “Skanjet 5S” ?c ni?iiiaei?noth, ui aeicaiey? 900 dpi ia aethei2.

13

iioie?a noeniaiiai iia?o?y ia ?aae?on? Rz a?aeiinii in? iiaea aooe
aecia/aia ye:

(5)

e.i — oaeaee?noue e?eueoeaaiai iioieo noeniaiiai iia?o?y;

Rz — ?aae?on iioieo a cii? ci?ooaaiiy iniiaiiai oa aeiaeaoeiaiai
e?eueoeaaeo iioie?a.

i/n.

Aiae?c aeaieo oaaeeoe? 2. iieaco? aoaeoeai?noue iayaiino? e?eueoeaaiai
iia?o?yiiai iioieo: oaeaeeino? /anoie noi?o? ii anueiio ia?a??co,
aeeth/ath/e ia?eoa??th, ae??aiththoueny.

Oaaeeoey 2.

Oaeaeeino? /anoie ii an?o ciiai ia?a??co iioieo ia ??cieo ?aae?onao oa
a?aenoai? aei oi?e?aoiaaii? iiaa?oi?.

Iio?e iia?o?yii-aaoiiii? noi?o?

L, i

Ciia R, i

8-10

5-7

R1 3-4

1-2

0-0.5

5-7

(R2-R1) 3-4

1-2

0-0.5
0.6

64.5

68.42

70.58

77.95

73.6

64.58

60.73

62.2

57.8 0.8

64.5

66.2

66.49

61.55

57

53.3

50.94

47.2

42.47 1.0

59.1

63.5

60.6

55.9

51.39

52.9

49.95

45.35

40.9 1.6

51.34

47.19

42.87

37.93

34.4

40.53

36.23

31.3

27.71

Iio?e iia?o?yii-aaoiiii? noi?o? c e?eueoeaaei iia?o?yiei iioieii
3-4

(R3-R2) 1-2

0-0.5

(R4-R3) 1-2

0-0.5

(R5-R4) 0-0.5 73.9

71.14

67.82

70.41

66.3

57.2 61.44

60.29

54.82

61.79

57.11

49.73 57.33

53.70

50.17

56.15

40.95

36.05 32.64

27.57

21.13

19.42

16.2

11.8

14

Oaeei /eiii, i?aeoaa?aeaeaia aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy oi?e?ao-niiea c
e?eueoeaaei ianaaeeii.

Aaciaei iaeaaeiaiiyi caiaoaioiaaii? oaoiieia?/ii? noaie ? i?yiioi/iee
?ic/eii-aaoiiiianin.

?aaeueia i?iaeoeoeai?noue oaeeo iaoei iiaea aooe aecia/aia ca
i?iioneiith ni?iiiaei?noth eeaiai?a. Iaiao?aeia iieiaeaiiy ii?oi?a o
i?ioean? ?iaioe iaoeie caaacia/o?oueny iaiao?aeiei aeey oeueiai
coneeeyi (?en. 3.).

F e. 1
2

.
3 Fi?. 4

?en. 3. ?ic?aooieiaa noaia eeaiaiiiai aocea i?yiioi/iiai
?ic/eii-aaoiiiianina

1 — eiion; 2 — n?aeei eeaiaia; 3 — i?oaeeia; 4 — iaiaaeoaa/.

Aeey a?aenooiino? aeo?eaiue e??cue i?aei?oaeeiaiee eeaiai ca oiiae, ui
a?i cae?eoee, noia?ia iaaaioaaeaiiy Fe iiaeiia aooe iaioei aai
aei??aithaaoe coneeeth i?oaeeie Fi?, o.e. Fe ( Fi?.

I?e ?ic?yaeaeaii? o ia??iae aniieooaaiiy, eiee eeaiai a?aee?eoee, Fe >
Fi?.

C oiia ia?ic?eai?no? iioieo oa i?i?i?caoe?? ao?ao aaee/eia ci?uaiiy
aniieooth/iai eeaiaia aecia/a?oueny ye:

(6)

15

(u — oaeaee?noue aeo?eaiiy aaoiiii? noi?o? e??cue u?eeio i?ae n?aeeii oa
iniiaith a?aee?eoiai eeaiaia;

dnaae.- ae?aiao? n?aeea eeaiaia;

S?.- ieiua ?iai/iai ii?oiy;

— ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iea/ae eoe?ne;

( — eooiaa oaeaee?noue e?eaioeia;

r — ?aae?on e?eaioeia.

I?ioiaeaeaiiy aaoiiii? noi?o? e??cue n?aeei i?e a?aee?eoiio eeaiai?
?icaeyaea?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith ??aiyiue Iaa’?-Noiena: caa?oo — e??cue
e?eueoeaao u?eeio, a ianooiiee ?? ?oo — ye ?oo o o?oaii?iaiae?.

Ca iayaiino? e?eueoeaaiai ia?a??co aeeoa?aioe?aeuei? ??aiyiiy ?ooo
noi?o? o oeee?iae?e/ieo eii?aeeiaoao caiaeyoueny aei ??aiyiiy:

(7)

Caeii ?iciiae?eo oaeaeeinoae ?ooo /anoie noi?o? o e?eueoeaaiio ia?a??c?,
ooai?aiiio iniiaith eeaiaia oa ei?ionii ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianina,
i?aaenoaaeaiee caeaaei?noth:

(8)

aea z — iioi/ia eii?aeeiaoa /anoee aaoiiii? noi?o?, ui ?ooa?oueny o
i?aeeeaiaiiiio i?inoi??;

R1- ?aae?on iniiae eeaiaia;

R2- ?aae?on ei?iona ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianina;

ri — ?aae?on ia yeiio aeine?aeaeothoueny ie?ai? /anoee iioieo
aaoiiii? noi?o?;

p — oene o e?eueoeaaiio ia?a??c?.

aeo?aoa noi?o? Q ? ioaea, i?iaeoeoeai?noue ?ic/eii-aaoiiiianina
aaciina?aaeiuei ii i?iionei?e ni?iiiaeiino? iaai?oaeueiiai eeaiaia aoaea
??aia:

0.9

2.3

2.4

IIa

3.5

1

ni3/n

Q

2.5

?aea

?

5

6

7

8

9

Paea. y

?

?aea

Q

2.2

2

0.5

0.6

1.9

2.5

0.7

2.0

2.1

3

4

eAo

3

0.8

I1, ni

30

40

50

60

(

d = 5 5

I 1 = 5

0.7

3

0.6

4

0.65

5

6

( i a

0.75

7

8

9

I 1

( = 4 5 (

d = 5 5

50

55

60

d ini

0.6

0.65

0.7

0.75

( i a

I 1 = 5

( = 4 5 (

0.6

0.65

0.7

0.75

( i a

140

2

1

3

35

7

6

465

4

5

8

9

10

11

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