iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe oe?a?ie

o?ceei-iaoai?/iee ?inoeooo ?i. a.a.eA?IAIEA

AOIAIAOeUeEEE

Oa?an Aieiaeeie?iae/

OAeE 620.197.6: 678.043

?ic?iaea iiaeo aioeei?ic?eieo iie?eoo?a ia iniia?
aiieneiaooiiie?ia?ieo eiiiiceoe?e

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.17.14 — O?i?/iee ii?? iaoa??ae?a ? caoeno a?ae
ei?ic??

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

euea?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a O?ceei-iaoai?/iiio ?inoeooo?

?i. A.A.Ea?iaiea IAI Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee
Oe?a?ie,/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie,aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?Iioio?nueeee Aaneeue ?aaiiae/O?ceei-iaoai?/iee ?inoeooo ?i.
A.A.Ea?iaieaIAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo o?ceei-o?i?/ieoiaoiae?a
ci?oeiaiiy iaoa??ae?a, i.Euea?aIo?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo
iaoeAa?aneiaiei TH??e Noaiaiiae/Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao
Oe?a?ie «Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo», caa?aeoaa/ naeoi?o
ei?ic?iiao??? eaoaae?e OAOA o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo, i.
Ee?aeaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe,noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oieeEaa?eoei
Aiaaeai Ieeieaeiae/aee?aeoi? Aea?aeaaiiai ?iaeaia?iiai oeaio?o
«Euea?aaioeei?», i.Euea?aI?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee
o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao, IAe? Aaeueaaiio?i??,
i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 24 » aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 14-30 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.226.02. o
O?ceei-iaoai?/iiio ?inoeooo? ?i.A.A.Ea?iaiea IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:
290601, i.Euea?a, INI, aoe.Iaoeiaa,5.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? O?ceei-iaoai?/iiai
?inoeoooo ?i.A.A.Ea?iaiea IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 290601, i.Euea?a,
INI, aoe.Iaoeiaa,5.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 23 «ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ieeeoi?/ei A.I.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue.

Ia aeaiee /an iaaecae/aeii aino?i iinoa? i?iaeaia caoenoo iaoaeioiiaeo
Oe?a?ie a?ae ei?ic??, ao?aoe a?ae yei? noaiiaeyoue i?eueeiie oii iaoaeo
ui??/ii. Iaea?eueo aeinooiiei ? aoaeoeaiei caniaii aioeei?ic?eiiai
caoenoo ? eaeioa?aia? iaoa??aee, iiooaeiino? c ae?iaieoeoaa yeeo ia
Oe?a?i? neeaaeathoue aeecueei 400 oen.o ia ??e. Cia/ia /anoeia c ieo
i?eiaaea? ia iaoa??aee, a yeeo aeei?enoiaothoueny aiieneaei? niiee.
Iaeiae aiieneaei? niiee ? a?aeiinii aei?iaeie i?iaeoeoaie, a caoeni?
iie?eooy, iaea?aeai? ia ?o iniia?, iii?e aeia?? o?ceei-o?i?/i? oa
iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? iathoue ?yae nooo?aeo iaaeie?e?a, ye? iaiaaeothoue
?oi? canoinoaaiiy aeey noai?aiiy aioeei?ic?eieo eiiiiceoe?e. Oea
iaaeinoaoiy ieanoe/i?noue, o?eae?noue o aiae? oa ?ic/eiao nieae ?
eeneio, aenie? aioo??oi? iai?oaeaiiy, iecueea noaa?euei?noue
aaeaac?eiiai cayceo a aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeuao. Oiio iino?eii aaaeaoueny
iiooe iiaeo eiiiiiaio?a-iiaeeo?eaoi??a aiieneaeieo eiiiiceoe?e c iaoith
onoiaiiy caaaeaieo iaaeie?e?a ? i?aeaeuaiiy aioeei?ic?eieo aeanoeainoae
aiieneaeieo iie?eoo?a.

?acii c oei ia a?eueoino? iaooiia?a?iaieo ? iaooio?i?/ieo caaiae?a ?
e?oiiioiiaaei? a?aeoiaee i?ioean?a aoi?eiii? ia?a?iaee iaooii?iaeoeo?a,
ia iniia? yeeo iaoiaeii iie?ia?ecaoe?? aeioneathoue iecueeiiieaeoey?i?
ie?aiia?e, a?aeii? i?ae oaoi?/iith iacaith iaooiiie?ia?i? niiee (IIN).
Oeei iaoiiaeaia aeinooii?noue ? ii??aiyii iaaeniea aa?o?noue IIN. Oe?
niiee oa?iiieanoe/i?, caeaoi? aei ie?aeiooai?aiiy, a?ae?ioiai? ?,
a?aeiia?aeii, iathoue aenieo o?eae?noue o aiae?, aiaeieo ?ic/eiao
eeneio, nieae oa eoa?a. Ioaea, ii?aeiaiiy a iaei?e nenoai?
iaooiiie?ia?ieo ? aiieneaeieo niie iiaea aooe ia?niaeoeaiei aeey
cieaeaiiy nia?aa?oino?, i?aeaeuaiiy aiaei- oa o?ino?eeino? aiieneaeieo
eiiiiceoe?e, a oaeiae ?icoe?aiiy aaeocae aeei?enoaiiy IIN. Aei oiai ae a
aiieneaeieo eiiiiceoe?yo, aeoiaey/e c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo, IIN
aeei?enoiaothoueny ??aeei oa a iacia/ieo e?eueeinoyo a yeino? ?ia?oieo
aeiaaaie aeey iie?auaiiy aiaeio?eaeino?, /ano aeneoaiiy, oaa?aeino? oa
aeeneo iie?eoo?a.

Ca’ycie c iaoeiaeie oaiaie.

?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue a ?aieao athaeaeaoieo oai OI? ?i.A.A.Ea?iaiea IAI
Oe?a?ie ?A ?11/136 a?ae 26.01.1993?. «Noai?aiiy iiaeo aenieiaoaeoeaieo
ei?ic?eiino?eeeo iie?ia?ieo iie?eoue c aeei?enoaiiyi
iie?ooieoe?iiaeueieo iiaeeo?eaoi??a», ?A ?11/162 a?ae 21.05.1996 ?.
«Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a aeaa?aaeaoe?? iie?ia?ieo iie?eoue i?e ae??
iaoaiio?i?/ieo oaeoi??a oa ?ic?iaea iaoiae?a i?aeaeuaiiy ?o ei?ic?eii?
no?eeino? oa caoenieo aeanoeainoae» oa Oaiaee c AAO «Aaeeae»
(i.Ai?eneaa) ?76/104 a?ae 1.04.96?. «Aecia/aiiy aioeei?ic?eieo
aeanoeainoae eaeioa?aiaeo iaoa??ae?a AAO «Aaeeae» a na?aaeiaeuao,
aeecueeeo aei aenieoaoaoe?eieo».

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

?ic?iaea iiaeo aioeei?ic?eieo iie?eoo?a ia iniia? aiieneae?aiiai? oa
iaea?i?ciaaieo iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe iaiao?aeii aoei:

1. Anoaiiaeoe iiaeeea?noue ? aeine?aeeoe o?i?/io aca?iiae?th
aiieneae?aiiai? oa iaea?i?ciaaieo iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie (IIIN);

2. Aea/eoe aieea eiioeaio?aoe?? eiiiiiaio?a, nooiaiy iiaeeo?eaoe?? IIIN
? oiia oaa?aeiaiiy ia no?oeoo?o aiieneiaooiiie?ia?ieo eiiiiceoe?e;

3. Aeine?aeeoe aieea neeaaeo aiieneiaooiiie?ia?ieo eiiiiceoe?e ia
caoeni? aeanoeaino? aioeei?ic?eieo iie?eoo?a ia ?o iniia?;

4. ?ic?iaeoe oaoiieia?/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey noai?aiiy aioeei?ic?eieo
caoenieo iie?eoo?a ia iniia? aiieneiaooiiie?ia?ieo eiiiiceoe?e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

1. Iieacaii, ui a?aeii? i?iieneia? iaooiiie?ia?i? niiee ia noi?uathoueny
oa o?i?/ii ia aca?iiae?thoue c aiieneae?aiiaith niieith. Aeey
caaacia/aiiy ?o ?aaeoe?eii? caeaoiino? iaiao?aeia o?i?/ia iiaeeo?eaoe?y
IIN oeyoii aaaaeaiiy a ?o no?oeoo?o ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?oi, cie?aia
aia?ae?eaeieo.

2. ?ice?eoi o?i?ci ?aaeoe?? i?ae aiieneae?aiiaith oa iaea?i?ciaaiith
iaooiiie?ia?iith niieaie, yeee iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?ae?eaei? a?oie IIN
?aaaothoue c a?ae?ieneeueieie oa aiieneaeieie a?oiaie aiieneaeii? niiee
c ooai?aiiyi i?inoi?iai coeoeo ni?aiie?ia?ieo i?iaeoeo?a c aiieneaeieie
e iaooiiie?ia?ieie eaieaie oa, a?aeiia?aeii, ye?nii iiaeie
aeanoeainoyie.

3. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy o?i?cio ?aaeoe?? aca?iiae??
aiieneae?aiiai? oa IIIN ? caoenieo aeanoeainoae iie?eoo?a ia iniia?
oaei? nenoaie ?ic?iaeaii oa iioei?ciaaii ?aoeaioo?o
aiieneiaooiiie?ia?ieo eiiiiceoe?e ? aeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey noai?aiiy
iiaeo aioeei?ic?eieo iie?eoo?a c aenieith aiaei- oa o?i?/iith
no?ee?noth, i?oei?noth, ye? ? a?aeiinii aeaoaaeie, iathoue oe?ieo
ne?iaeiio aaco oa ciaeaeooue canoinoaaiiy a aaaaoueio aaeocyo
i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

?ic?iaeaii iia? iie?ia?i? eiiiiceoe?? aeey aioeei?ic?eieo iie?eoo?a
(Iaoaio Oe?a?ie ia aeiao?ae ?13884A) ia iniia? aiieneaeieo ?
iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie;

Iioei?ciaaii neeaae aiieneiaooiiie?ia?ieo eiiiiceoe?e ? iieacaii, ui
aeey iie?eoo?a ia ?o iniia?, ye? i?aoeththoue a oiiaao i?aeaeuaieo
iaoai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue iioeiaeueiei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi i?ae aiieneaeiith
oa iaooiiie?ia?iith niieaie ? 55…65/45…35 ian.%; a aeey iie?eoo?a,
ye? aenieoaoothoueny a oiiaao ae?? ei?ic?eiiaeoeaieo na?aaeiaeu
aeuacaaaeaia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iiaeiii noaiiaeoe 35…45/55…65 ian.%;

Aeei?enoaiiy a aiieneiaooiiie?ia?ieo eiiiiceoe?yo ye eaoae?caoi?a
o?aoeiieo ai?i?a, cie?aia aeeiaoeeai?e?io, aeicaiey? nei?ioeoe /an
oaa?aeiaiiy iie?eoo?a c 3 aei 0,5 aiae oa cieceoe oaiia?aoo?o ?aaeoe?? c
180 aei 150°N;

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe i?ieoee aeine?aeii-i?iieneiao ia?aa??eo ia AAO
«Aaeeae» (i.Ai?eneaa) oa Aea?aeaaiiio ?iaeaia?iiio oeaio??
«Euea?aaioeei?».

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a.

I?eaiooaaiiy iie?ia?ieo eiiiiceoe?e ? iie?eoo?a, ia?iaea, aiae?c ?
ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/iiai,
?*-niaeo?ineii?/iiai oa aeeoa?aioe?eii-oa?i?/iiai aiae?c?a. Aea/aiiy
aioeei?ic?eieo aeanoeainoae iie?eoo?a, iioei?caoe?y neeaaeo eiiiiceoe?e,
oaoiieia?/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a oa aeniiaee.

Ioae?eaoe?? oa ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii 12 noaoae,
io?eiaii 1 iaoaio Oe?a?ie ia aeiao?ae. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue ? iiaeeeaino? ?o canoinoaaiiy aeeeaaeai? oa iaa?oioiaai?
ia I?aei. eiio.-aeno. «I?iaeaie ei?ic?? oa i?ioeei?ic?eiiai caoenoo
eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a» Euea?a, 1994, 1996, 1998; VIII oe?. eiio. c
aenieiiieae. ciieoe, Ee?a, 1996; IV krajowej konf. korozyjnej
«Korozija’93», Warszawa (Poland), 1993; Konf. «Problems of surface
treatments and corrosion», «INTERANTICOR`96», Koice (Slovak Republic),
1996; Miedzynarod. semin.”Inzynieria powierzchni`97”, Warszawa (?iland),
1997.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??.

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 5 ?icae?e?a, iniiaieo aeniiae?a,
nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e oa 2 aeiaeaoe?a. Iaoa??ae aeeeaaeaii ia
153 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo. O ?iaio? iiaeaii 43 ?ethno?aoe??, 18
oaaeeoeue ? a?ae?ia?ao?/iee nienie 197 aeaea?ae.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue, iaoeiao oa i?aeoe/io aaaii?noue
caaaeaiue, ye? ? i?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiue aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii aiae?c iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e oa
iaoaioii-?ioi?iaoe?eieo aeaea?ae c ieoaiue ?ic?iaee eiiiiceoe?e ia
iniia? ye aiieneaeieo ie?aiia??a, oae ? iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie. Iieacaii
?o iniiai? ia?aaaae oa iaaeie?ee. Iaa?oioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue
ii?aeiaiiy a iaei?e nenoai? aiieneae?aiiai? oa iaea?i?ciaaii?
iaooiiie?ia?ii? niie ye ca’ycoth/iai i?e noai?aii? eiiiiceoe?e aeey
aioeei?ic?eieo iie?eoo?a.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iienaii ia’?eoe oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. sse
a’yaeo/a aeei?enoiaoaaee aiieneae?aiiaee ie?aiia? AAe-20 (AINO 10587-84)
oa iaooiiie?ia?i? niiee noe?ie-?iaeai-aeeoeeeeiiaioaae??iiaiai oeio,
iiaeeo?eiaai? iaea?iiaei aia?ae?eaeii (IIIN), ye? oaeiae i?aoethaaee ye
oaa?aeieee aiieneaeii? niiee a eiiiiceoe?yo aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai
oaa?aeiaiiy. sse eaoae?caoi? canoiniaoaaee aeeiaoeeai?e?i (AeIA). Aeey
eiio?ieueieo aiieneaeieo eiiiiceoe?e ye oaa?aeiee aeei?enoiaoaaee
iaea?iiaee aia?ae?eae (IA). Eiiiiceoe?? oieiaeiiai oaa?aeiaiiy
caoaa?aeaeoaaee iie?aoeeaiiie?ai?iii (IAIA) (OO 6-02-594-86A). sse
ieanoeo?eaoi?e canoiniaoaaeeny aeeieoeeooaeao (AeIO) (AINO 8728-86),
neioaoe/iee aooaae??ii?o?eeueiee eao/oe NEI-30-EO? (AIE) (OO
38–103474-80), neioaoe/iee ie?aii?ia?eeaiiaee eao/oe (NEII) (AINO
773879A).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy noi?niino? aae-20 oa iiin i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeii neaioth/i?
aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii??, a aca?iiae?th i?ae ieie oeyoii aecia/aiiy
ai?noo aaeue-o?aeoe?? oa iaoiaeaie ?*-niaeo?ineii??,
aeeoa?aioe?eii-oa?i?/iiai e oa?iia?aa?iao?e/iiai aiae?co.

Iie?ia?i? eiiiiceoe?? aiooaaee ?aoaeueiei ci?ooaaiiyi /e nieaaeaiiyi
eiiiiiaio?a. Inoaii?, a caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio eiiiiceoe?e, iiia?aaeiuei
?ic/eiyee aai aeiaeaaaee ?ic/eiieee aei ci?oaieo /e nieaaeaieo
eiiiiiaio?a. Ia ooi?iieanoia? /e iaoae?/i? c?acee eiiiiceoe?? iaiineee
aie?eaoi?ii aai c aeiiiiiaith iaicey.

Iiaia oaa?aeiaiiy eiiiiceoe?e i?iaiaeeee a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?o oeio ca
ianooiieie ?aaeeiaie:

3/4 aeey aiieneiaooiiie?ia?ieo i?e oaiia?aoo?? 180°C — 3 aiae, a
i?enooiino? o?aoeiiiai ai?io 0,5…0,7 aiae;

3/4 aeey aiien?ai?iieo i?e oaiia?aoo?? 80…90°N — 3…5 aiae, i?e
e?iiaoi?e — 24…36aiae (a oeueiio aeiaaeeo i?e iaiao?aeiino? c
oa?iiia?iaeith i?ioyaii 1…2 aiae i?e 70…80°N). Aeey aiien?ai?iieo
eiiiiceoe?e, iiaeeo?eiaaieo IIN, a ie?aieo aa??aioao i?iaiaeeee ua
aeiaeaoeiao oa?iiia?iaeo i?e 150°N i?ioyaii 1…2 aiae.

Oiaueia ie?aie ? iie?eoo?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae iaoiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
aoea a iaaeao 20…300 iei.

O?ceei-o?i?/i? oa aioeei?ic?ei? aeanoeaino? iie?eoo?a ia iniia?
aiieneiaooiiie?ia?ieo eiiiiceoe?e aea/aee ca noaiaea?oieie oa
i?ea?iaeueieie iaoiaeeeaie.

Aaeaac?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee, i?oei?noue aei oaea?o, aioo??oi? iai?oaeaiiy,
aiaei- oa o?i?/io o?eae?noue iie?eoo?a aecia/aee ca noaiaea?oieie
iaoiaeeeaie. Ioe?ieo ei?ic?eii-aeaeo?io?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae iie?eoo?a
i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeii ?iiaaeaino, yeee aaco?oueny ia ci?i? ?iiino? oa
iii?o iie?ia?iiai oa?o, iaianaiiai ia noaeaao i?aeeeaaeeo i?e eiai
aeo?eioe? a ei??ic?eiiaeoeaieo na?aaeiaeuao. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiue
aeei?enoiaoaaee i?no ci?iiiai no?oio ?-5083 c aaoiiaoe/iith o?enaoe??th
?iiino? oa iii?o a niaoe?aeueii aeaioiaeai?e aeaeo?io?i?/i?e eii??oe?.
?iai/eie iiaa?oiyie (aeaeo?iaeaie) neoaeeee ae?eyiee iie?eoo?a
ae?aiao?ii 30 ii, aeiiii?aeiei aeaeo?iaeii neoaeeea ieaoeiiaa ni??aeue.
Aei??thaaiiy i?iaiaeeee i?e aeae?eueeio o?eniaaieo /anoioao.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy aiaei- oa o?i?/ii? no?eeino? i?iaiaeeee a aeenoeeueiaai?e
aiae? oa 10%eo aiaeieo ?ic/eiao EOH oa H2SO4.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aii aea/aiith noi?niino? oa ?aaeoe?? aca?iiae??
i?ae AAe-20 oa IIIN.

Noi?ni?noue aiieneae?aiiai? niiee c iaea?i?ciaaiith iaooiiie?ia?iith
aea/aee a ii??aiyii? c a?aeiiith i?iieneiaith iaiiaeeo?eiaaiith IIN
«I??iieano-2″ (II2). Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?i?ciaai? iaooiiie?ia?i? niiee,
ia a?aei?io a?ae iaiiaeeo?eiaaieo i?iieneiaeo IIN, caaaeyee iayaiino? a
nai?e no?oeoo?? iiey?ieo aia?ae?eaeieo a?oi aeia?a noi?uathoueny c
aiieneae?aiiaeie niieaie, ooai?thth/e iie?eooy c iaeii??aeiith
aiiiaaiiith no?oeoo?ith.

Iieacaii oaeiae (?en.1.), ui iaea?i?ciaai? IIN oa aiieneaeia niiea
AAe-20 i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 150…180°C ?aaaothoue i?ae niaith, ooai?thth/e
ni?aiie?ia? c e?i?eiith oa coeoith no?oeoo?ith. Aeo?ae aaeue-o?aeoe??
ia? aeno?aiaeueio caeaaei?noue a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aiieneaeiiai oa
iaooiiie?ia?iiai eiiiiiaio?a c iaeneioiii i?e eiioeaio?aoe?yo IIIN
60…70 ian.%. Aeey eiiiiceoe?? c aeeaieiiaea?i?ciaaiith IIN-???
iaeneioi ia e?ea?e aeoiaeo aaeue-o?aeoe?? o?ioe ci?uaiee a noi?iio
a?eueo aenieeo eiioeaio?aoe?e IIN, ui iiaeia iiynieoe ?? a?eueoith
a’yce?noth. A?aeiia?aeii a oae?e nenoai? aeieeathoue noa?e/i?
cao?oaeiaiiy aeey i?ioiaeaeaiiy ?aaeoe??. Aa?oi cacia/eoe, ui
iaeneiaeueiee ai?no o?eaei??iiai iie?ia?o ia ci?ith?oueny i? c
i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e, i? c? ca?eueoaiiyi o?eaaeino? ?aaeoe??, ui
iaoiiaeaii iayai?noth a IIIN ia?aaeoe?eiicaeaoii? iane/aii? o?aeoe??.
Inoaiith a iio??aieo e?eueeinoyo niaoe?aeueii caeeoathoue o IIN aeey
cieaeaiiy ?o oaiia?aoo?e ?ici’yeoaiiy, aiia iiaea i?noeoe
iecueeiiieaeoey?i?, iacaiie?ia?eciaai? iiiiia?i? oa ie?aiia?i? niieoee,
ye? ?ia?aothoue ?aaeoe?th aca?iiae??. Oiio iioeiaeueieie oiiaaie aeey
iiaii? aca?iiae?? i?ae aiieneaeiith oa iaooiiie?ia?iith niieaie ne?ae
aaaaeaoe aeo?eieo nenoaie i?ioyaii 3 aiae i?e 180°N.

wmetafile8? ??ae

?? ?$???????? ???????yyy???????????? (?en. 1.
Caeaaei?noue aeoiaeo aaeue-o?aeoe?? eiiiiceoe?e a?ae ai?noo IIIN ??cii?
aeeaeie iiaeeo?eaoe?? i?e ianooiieo ?aaeeiao oaa?aeiaiiy: 3 aiae i?e
180°N; a i?enooiino? AeIA — 0,7 aiae i?e 180°N.

Aeiaeaoeiaa aianaiiy iaaaeeeeo e?eueeinoae o?aoeiiiai ai?io ye
eaoae?caoi?a, cie?aia 2 ian.% aeeiaoeeai?e?io, i?enei?th? no?oeoo?oaaiiy
eiiiiceoe?e ? i?aeaeuo? aeo?ae aaeue-o?aeoe?? ia 5…20 %. I?e oeueiio
iaeneiaeueiee aeo?ae o?eaei??iiai iie?ia?o ? aeuei ? aeinyaa?oueny i?e
iaioeo e?eueeinoyo IIIN (55…65 ian.%), a ii??aiyii? c eiiiiceoe??th
aac eaoae?caoi?a. Eiia??ii, ii aiaeia?? c eaoae?ciaaiith ?aaeoe??th
caoaa?aeiaiiy aiieneaeii? niiee iaea?iiaei aia?ae?eaeii o i?enooiino?
o?aoeiieo ai?i?a, aeaiee aoaeo iaoiiaeaiee aeoeaaoe??th ai?iii
aia?ae?eaeieo a?oi IIN c ooai?aiiyi eiiieaeno, yeee aaciina?aaeiuei
aca?iiae?? c aiieneaeiith a?oiith AAe-20. Iayai?noue a?ae?ieneeueii?
a?oie ia ? e?i?ooth/ith, ye o aeiaaeeo iaeaoae?ciaaii? aca?iiae??, ?
?aaeoe?y i?ioiaeeoue i?e ieae/eo eiioeaio?aoe?yo aia?ae?eaeieo a?oi.
Iiae?ai? aoaeoe niinoa??aaee oaeiae aeey eiiiiceoe?e c ?ioeie IIIN.

Ai?no aaeue-o?aeoe?? a iie?ia?i?e eiiiiceoe?? oa?aeoa?eco? nooi?iue
ca’ycoaaiiy eiiiiiaio?a o ?aeeio o?eaei??io no?oeoo?o, aea ia aeicaiey?
?ice?eoe iaoai?ci aca?iiae?? ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?oi. Oiio e?iaoeeo
oaa?aeiaiiy eiiiiceoe?e aea/aee iaoiaeii ?*-niaeo?ineii??, yeee aea?
iiaeeea?noue eiio?iethaaoe ci?io ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?oi aiieneaeiiai oa
iaooiiie?ia?iiai eiiiiiaio?a i?ae /an ?o aca?iiae??. Aeey aiieneaeii? oa
a?ae?ieneeueii? a?oi aiieneaeii? niiee aea/aee ci?io nioa iiaeeiaiiy i?e
920 oa 3450 ni-1 a?aeiia?aeii, a aeey aia?ae?eaeii? a?oie IIN — nioa i?e
3080, 1880, 1800 oa 1730 ni-1.

wmetafile8? ??m?????????? ???????yyy????????????
(???

???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E?????????????????
????????y? `yyA aa`??y????AAAy?IyiyyayaY????en. 2. Ci?ia
i?eaaaeaii? iioe/ii? aonoeie nioa iiaeeiaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?oi a
i?ioean? oaa?aeiaiiy aiieneiaooiiie?ia?ii? eiiiiceoe??.

A ?acoeueoao? aiae?co niaeo??a oa ci?i iioe/ii? aonoeie nioa iiaeeiaiiy
anoaiiaeaii (?en.2), ui ?aaeoe?y aca?iiae?? i?ae aiieneaeiith oa
iaooiiie?ia?iith neeaaeiaeie eiiiiceoe?? i?ioiaeeoue ianooiiei /eiii. A
ia?oo /a?ao a ?aaeoe?th anooiathoue a?ae?ieneeuei? a?oie, i?i ui
na?ae/eoue ??cea cieaeaiiy ?o iioe/ii? aonoeie iiaeeiaiiy ia i?ioyc?
ia?oeo i?a-aiaeeie. A iiaeaeueoiio e?euee?noue a?ae?ieneeueieo a?oi
noaa?e?co?oueny, oae ye aiie anooiath/e a ?aaeoe?th ia ia?oiio aoai?,
iino?eii ooai?ththoueny ia ae?oaiio. I?ney caaa?oaiiy aca?iiae?? aeayea
?o e?euee?noue caeeoa?oueny a iie?ia?? (nioaa i?e 3450 ni-1
i?iyaey?oueny a niaeo?? caoaa?aeiaii? eiiiiceoe??). Iai?i?aaaiaai?
II-a?oie a iiaeaeueoiio iiaeooue a?aoe o/anoue a ooai?aii? aiaeiaaeo
ca’yce?a, cie?aia, c iiaa?oiath iaoaeo, ui iiaeiii ni?eyoe i?aeaeuaiith
aaeaac?? iie?eoo?a ia iniia? oaeeo eiiiiceoe?e.

I?ney oa?iiia?iaee eiiiiceoe?? a ?? niaeo?? caeeoathoueny nioae
iiaeeiaiiy eieeaaiue aiieneaeieo a?oi i?e 920 ni-1, ye? oaae a i?ioean?
?aaeoe?? aeo?a/athoueny ia iiai?noth, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? iao? iiia?aaei?
i?eiouaiiy. Iiai?noth cieea? nioaa iiaeeiaiiy i?e 3080 ni1, oa?aeoa?ia
aeey eieeaaiue aia?ae?eaeieo a?oi. Aeey ea?aii?eueii? a?oie cieeathoue
nioae iiaeeiaiiy i?e 1880 oa 1800 ni-1, aea caeeoa?oueny nioaa i?e 1730
ni-1. Oea iiaeia iiynieoe oei, ui i?e aeai?e /anoio? aeey ea?aii?eueii?
a?oie aeaia nioaa iiaeeiaiue i?iyaey?oueny ia o?eueee a neeaae?
aia?ae?eaeiiai o?aaiaioo, aea e o neeaaeiiao??ieo ca’yceao, ye?
ooai?ththoueny a ?acoeueoao? ?aaeoe??. Caaaeyee ooai?aiith oaeeo
ca’yce?a i?ae iie?ia?ieie eaioethaaie aiieneaeieo ? iaooiiie?ia?ieo
eiiiiiaio?a, i?ioiaeeoue oi?ioaaiiy o?eaei??ii? no?oeoo?e a eiiiiceoe??.

Ooai?aiiy iiaeo coeoeo no?oeoo? i?ney oaa?aeiaiiy aiieneiaooiiie?ia?ieo
eiiiiceoe?e i?aeoaa?aeaeaii iaoiaeaie AeO ? OA aiae?c?a. Oae oaiia?aoo?e
5-, 10-, 15%ieo ao?ao iane oa?iiia?iaeaieo eiiiiceoe?e cia/ii
ia?aaeuothoue a?aeiia?aei? oaiia?aoo?e iaoa?iiia?iaeaieo ? ie?aieo
eiiiiiaio?a, ui na?ae/eoue i?i i?io?eaiiy o?i?/ii? aca?iiae?? i?ae ieie
oa ooai?aiiy a eiiiiceoe?yo iiaeo oa?iino?eeeo no?oeoo?. Iaeiaio? ao?aoe
iane oa, a?aeiia?aeii, iaee?auo oa?i?/io o?eae?noue ia? eiiiiceoe?y c
iaeneiaeueiei ai?noii o?eaei??iiai ni?aiie?ia?o. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo ia
e?ea?e AeOA niinoa??aa?oueny iaeeia?iee aecioa?i?/iee i?e a iaeano?
300…380°N, i/aaeaeii, coiiaeaiee ?aaeoe?yie oa?iiieenethaaeueii?
aeano?oeoe?? o?eaei??ieo no?oeoo?. I?e iaaeeeoeo iaeiiai c eiiiiiaio?a
i?iyaey?oueny ua iaeei oaieiaee aoaeo a iaeano? 240…300°N, eiia??ii,
aiane?aeie ieeneaiiy iano?oeoo?iaaii? iecueeiiieaeoey?ii? o?aeoe??.
Iaoa?iiia?iaeai? eiiiiceoe?? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aeaiia /?oeeie
aecioa?i?/ieie i?eaie, ye? /anoeiai iiaeia a?aeianoe ia ?aooiie
i?ioean?a oa?iiieenethaaeueii? aeano?oeoe?? eiaeii? ?c neeaaeiaeo
cie?aia. Ia?oee i?e, i/aaeaeii, oa?aeoa?eco? ieeneaiiy IIN, ae?oaee —
aiieneaeiiai ie?aiia?o. Oaea i?eiouaiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny iayai?noth
ia AeOA-e?eaeo ie?aieo eiiiiiaio?a iaeeia?ieo i?e?a o a?aeiia?aeieo
ae?aiaciiao oaiia?aoo?. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? oiai /e ?ioiai
eiiiiiaioo oaieiaee aoaeo, iia’ycaiee c iei, oaeiae c?inoa?.

Aeiaeaoeiaa aianaiiy a ?aaeoe?eio nenoaio 1…2 ian.% AeIA coiiaeth? iiyao
ua iaeiiai aecioa?i?/iiai aoaeoo i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 100…150°N, yeee
iiaeia a?aeianoe aei eaoae?ciaaii? o?aoeiiei ai?iii ?aaeoe?? aca?iiae??
aia?ae?eaeieo a?oi IIN ? aiieneaeieo a?oi AAe-20, oae ye a oeueiio ae
ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? niinoa??aa?oueny aecioa?i?/iee i?e i?e
caoaa?aeiaii? aiieneaeii? niiee iaea?iiaei aia?ae?eaeii a i?enooiino?
AeIA.

Aeey an?o oa?iiia?iaeaieo eiiiiceoe?e, ia a?aei?io a?ae nieaaeaieo,
a?aenooi?e aiaeioa?i?/iee i?e, oa?aeoa?iee aeey i?ioeano ieaaeaiiy, ui
oaeiae na?ae/eoue i?i ooai?aiiy a ieo coeoi? no?oeoo?e.

Oaeei /eiii, a ?acoeueoao? aea/aiiy aca?iiae?? i?ae aiieneae?aiiaith oa
iaea?i?ciaaieie iaooiiie?ia?ieie niieaie anoaiiaeaii, ui ?aaeoe?y
i?aeii?yaeeiao?oueny a?aeiiiio iaoai?ciia? caoaa?aeiaiiy aiieneaeieo
ie?aiia??a aia?ae?eaeaie aeeea?aiiiaeo eeneio ? i?ioiaeeoue a aeae?eueea
aoai?a. Nii/aoeo a?ae?ieneeueia a?oia aiieneae?aiiaiai ie?aiia?o ?aaao?
c aia?ae?eaeiith a?oiith IIN c ooai?aiiyi iiiiao??o c a?eueiith
ea?aieneeueiith a?oiith, yea a iiaeaeueoiio ca’yco?oueny c aiieneaeiith
a?oiith aiieneaeiiai ie?aiia?o c ooai?aiiyi aeeao??o oa iiai?
a?ae?ieneeueii? a?oie. Inoaiiy ciiao ?aaao? c aia?ae?eaeiith a?oiith
IIN. A i?enooiino? eaoae?caoi?a i?ioiaeeoue aeoeaaoe?y aia?ae?eaeieo
a?oi IIN c ooai?aiiyi eiiieaeno, yeee iai?yio aca?iiae?? c aiieneaeiith
a?oiith AAe-20. A ?acoeueoao? oaea aca?iiae?y i?eaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy
o?eaei??ieo ni?aiie?ia?ieo i?iaeoeo?a c aenieith oa?iino?ee?noth, ye?
i?noyoue a nai?e no?oeoo?? aiieneaei? oa iaooiiie?ia?i? eaiee.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeoaaee caoeni? aeanoeaino? aioeei?ic?eieo
iie?eoo?a ?ic?iaeaieo ia iniia? aiieneiaooiiie?ia?ieo eiiiiceoe?e o
ii??aiyii? c a?aeiieie aiieneaeieie a caeaaeiino? a?ae eiiiiiaioiiai
neeaaeo, ?aaeei?a oi?ioaaiiy, aaaaeaiiy ??ciiai oeio ieanoeo?eaoi??a.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaee?au? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeanoea? aeey eiiiiceoe?e,
caoaa?aeiaieo aeeaieiiaea?i?ciaaiith IIN-??? oa ieanoeo?eiaaieo AIE,
yeee aeia?a noi?ua?oueny c aiieneaeiith oa iaooiiie?ia?iith neeaaeiaeie
eiiiiceoe?e. Oae? eiiiiceoe?? ooai?ththoue iie?eooy c iaeii??aeiith,
aiiiaaiiith no?oeoo?ith, ui anoaiiaeaii aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ieie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie, oiae? ye aeey aiieneaeieo eiiiiceoe?e, ieanoeo?eiaaieo
oaeiai oeio eao/oeaie niinoa??aa?oueny /?oei ae?aaeaia aeaiooacia
nenoaia.

Iaoiaeaie aecia/aiiy ai?noo aaeue-o?aeoe?? anoaiiaeaii, ui caaaeyee
iayaiino? a no?oeoo?? AIE ?aaeoe?eiicaeaoieo ea?aieneeueieo a?oi, a?i
i?e oaa?aeiaii? aiieneiaooiiie?ia?ii? eiiiiceoe?? ?aaao? c aiieneaeieie
a?oiaie aiieneaeiiai ie?aiia?o, ca’ycoth/enue a ?aeeio o?eaei??io n?oeo
c ?ioeie eiiiiiaioaie. A oae?e nenoai? aca?iiae?y a?aeaoaa?oueny
iiia?ii: AAe-20 ? IIIN oa AAe-20 ? AIE. Iaeaea? /anoeia? ?aaeoe??
coeaaiiy ? eiieo?oth/eie. Oae i?e iacia/iiio ai?no? IIIN (aei 40 ian.%)
aiia ia anooia? a ?aaeoe?th, aca?iiae?y eaea a iniiaiiio ca ?aooiie
ea?aieneeueieo a?oi eao/oeo, c? ca?eueoaiiyi ai?noo yeiai c?inoa? ai?no
aaeue-o?aeoe?? a eiiiiceoe??. C ia?aaeuaiiyi ai?noo IIIN iiiaae 50 ian.%
ia?aaaaeath/ith ? ?aaeoe?y i?ae IIIN oa AAe ? ai?no AIE nooo?ai ia
aieeaa? ia aeo?ae coeoeo no?oeoo?. Iaeneiaeueia coeaaiiy
aiieneiaooiiie?ia?ieo eiiiiceoe?e niinoa??aa?oueny i?e ai?no? IIIN 60
ian.%, AIE — 30 ian.%.

?acoeueoaoe aaeue-o?aeoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny
aea/aiiyi oa?iiieenethaaeueii? aeano?oeoe?? caoaa?aeiaieo
aiieneiaooiiie?ia?ieo eiiiiceoe?e, ieanoeo?eiaaieo AIE. Oae, ia e?ea?e
AeOA eiiiiceoe?? c iaeneiaeueiei ai?noii coeoeo no?oeoo? a?ae ?o
oa?iiieenethaaeueii? aeano?oeoe?? niinoa??aa?oueny iaeei aecioa?i?/iee
i?e i?e 350°N. Aeey eiiiiceoe?? c ieae/ei ai?noii aaeue-o?aeoe?? a
iaeano? a?eueo iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? (274°N) i?iyaey?oueny ua iaeei
aecioa?i?/iee aoaeo, iaoiiaeaiee ieeneaiiyi iaca’ycaieo eiiiiiaio?a.

A?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy AAe/IIIN o cia/i?e i??? caeaaeaoue o?ceei-o?i?/i?
oa aioeei?ic?ei? aeanoeaino? iie?eoo?a ia iniia? oaeeo eiiiiceoe?e. Oae
i?e iaaaeeeeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo IIIN aiaei- oa o?io?eae?noue c?inoa? c?
ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino? eao/oeo a eiiiiceoe??, i/aaeaeii ca ?aooiie
i?aeaeuaiiy a i?e ai?noo coeoeo no?oeoo?. I?e ia?aaeuaii? ai?noo
iaooiiie?ia?ii? neeaaeiai? a?eueoa 45 ian.% ciinoa??aa?oueny cai?ioi?e
aoaeo, aecia/aeueiee aieea iathoue iaca’ycai? ea?aieneeuei? a?oie
eao/oeo, ye? iathoue caeaoi?noue i?eoyaoaaoe iieaeoee aiaee ca ?aooiie
ooai?aiiy c ieie aiaeiaaeo ca’yce?a.

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