OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IIE?OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Oeioe?i Na?a?e Ieaenaiae?iae/

OAeE 539.3

?IC?IAEA IAOIAeO ?IC?AOOIEO I?OeIINO? IAIEIIEIAEO EIINO?OEOe?E I?E
INANEIAO?E*IIIO OeEEE?*IIIO IAAAIOAAEAII? OA IIACO*INO?

05.02.09 — aeeiai?ea oa i?oei?noue iaoei

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999 Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? «Aeeiai?ea oa i?oei?noue iaoei»
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo; I?i?noa?noai
ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Ii?a/eianueeee Ieaa Einoyioeiiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao; caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?ith «Oai?aoe/ia iaoai?ea».

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Oii?/ia Iao?i Ieaenaiae?iae/,

Aea?aeaaiee a??ieini?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.?.AEoeianueeiai (OA?);
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith «Iaoai?ea oa i?oei?noue e?oaeueieo aia?ao?a».

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio,

?iiaiaiei Eaii?ae A?eai?iae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaei?e oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao;
aeioeaio eaoaae?e «Oai?aoe/ia iaoai?ea oa a?ae?aae?ea»

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo i?iaeai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy IAI Oe?a?ie

?i. A.I.I?aeai?iiai; i. Oa?e?a;

a?aeae?e i?oeiino? oiieino?iieo eiino?oeoe?e.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 6 aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 1230 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.050.10 a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
iie?oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 310002, i. Oa?e?a-2, aoe.
O?oica, 21.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 310002, i.
Oa?e?a, aoe. O?oica, 21.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 27 na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ai?oiaee A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. No/ani? iaoeiiaoae?ai? eiino?oeoe??
aenieoaoothoueny a oiiaao aenieeo oaiia?aoo?, eiia?iiaaiiai noaoe/iiai
oa oeeee?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy. I?e oeueiio a eiino?oeoe?yo ia? i?noea
oeeee?/ia iiaco/?noue c ?ioaineaiei iaeiie/oaaiiyi iacai?ioieo
caeeoeiaeo aeaoi?iaoe?e, ui i?ecaiaeyoue aei ?oeioaaiiy.

Iaieiieia? eiino?oeoeai? aeaiaioe oe?iei ?iciianthaeaeai? o
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?e oaoi?oe?, ia?aaeon?i o oaeeo aaeocyo iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy,
ye oo?aiaoaeoaaiiy, aeaeaoiiaoaeoaaiiy, ?aeaoia oaoi?ea, iaeaaeiaiiy
o?i?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa. ?ic?aooiee ia iiaco/?noue iaieiieiaeo eiino?oeoe?e
o oaia??oi?e /an a?aoiaothoue ia?aaaaeii ae?? o?eueee noaoe/ieo nee,
oiio ui iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo aeey oeeee?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy i?aeoe/ii
a?aenooi?. Ie?ai? iaoiaee ?niothoue aeey ?ic?aooie?a ia iaeioeeeeiao
aoiio, eiee iiaco/?noue ianooo?aa. ?acii c oei, ?c i?aeoe/iiai aeina?aeo
a?aeiii, ui iaa?oue iae? a?a?aoe?? nooo?ai i?aeaeuothoue oaeaee?noue
iiaco/ino?, aieeaathoue ia iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai ? i?ecaiaeyoue
aei nei?i/aiiy /ano aei ?oeioaaiiy. C oeueiai i?eaiaeo ?ic?iaea
aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo ia iiaco/?noue iaieiieiaeo aeaiaio?a
eiino?oeoe?e, ui aenieoaoothoueny i?e eiia?iiaaiiio noaoe/iiio oa
oeeee?/iiio iaaaioaaeaii? — aeooaeueia iaoeiaa oa i?aeoe/ia i?iaeaia.
?nioth/ee aeina?ae ?ic?aooie?a eiino?oeoe?e ia iiaco/?noue ?icaeaa?oueny
a iai?yieo noai?aiiy iiaeo iaoiae?a aiae?co iae?i?eiiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy
iaieiiie c o?aooaaiiyi iioeiaeaeaiino? i?e iaeeaaeaieo iaaaioaaeaiiyo,
ui ci?iththoueny oeeee?/ii. Ia oaia??oi?e /an ?ica’ycai? caaea/?
ia?aaaaeii oeeee?/ii? iiaco/ino? iaoa??ae?a, a o caaaeuei?e oai???
oeeee?/ii? iiaco/ino? ? aeooaeueieie ?ic?iaee iaoiae?a ?ic?aooie?a
eiino?oeoe?e.

Inaneiao?e/ii iaaaioaaeai? iaieiiee ?iciianthaeaeai? o no/ani?e
oaoi?oe?, iai?eeeaae, a aia?aaoe/iiio iaoeiiaoaeoaaii? — oea
o?oaii?iaiaee, iaieiiee oa ei?ione aeaeaoi?a, yaea?ieo ?aaeoi??a oiui.
Eiia?iiaaia oeeee?/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy ? oeiiaei aeey oaeeo eiino?oeoe?e.
Iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee iiaeo iaoiae?a aiae?co iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai
noaio iaieiieiaeo eiino?oeoe?e i?e iiaco/ino? a oiiaao eiia?iiaaiiai
noaoe/iiai oa oeeee?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny i?aeoe/ieie
iio?aaaie. Aeei?enoaiiy oaeeo iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo aeicaieeoue ua i?e
i?iaeooaaii? eiino?oeoe?e ioe?ieoe ?oith aeiaaio?eaaeo i?oei?noue i?e
iiaco/ino? oa i?iaiicoaaoe aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeanoeaino?. A?aenooi?noue
?ic?iaie ii oe?e oai? iii?oii no?eio? i?ia?an a iaeano? i?iaeooaaiiy
a?aeiia?aeaeueii? oaoi?ee, ui iaa?oioiao? aeooaeuei?noue oaie ?iaioe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiioaaeany a ?aieao aea?aeaaieo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?ia?ai
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie ii oaiao, ui aeeiiothoueny o Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio iie?oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?: «?ica’ycie i?iaeaie
aeaoi?ioaaiiy oa ?oeioaaiiy o?e aiane?aeie noaoe/ii? ? aeeiai?/ii?
iiaco/ino? c iaoith ?ic?aooie?a o?eaaei? i?oeiino? oa oaoiieia?e
oaieiaiai neeaaeaiiy eiino?oeoe?e» o 1993-96 ??. (? Ae.?. 0195U009046),
«Iiaoaeiaa oai?aoe/ieo iniia ?ic?aooie?a iae?i?eii? iiaco/ino? oa
?oeioaaiiy aeaoi?iiaieo o?e ca oiia ae?? ciai?oi?o oaeaeei inoeeethth/eo
iie?a iaaaioaaeaiiy» o 1996-98 ??. (? Ae.?. 0197U001933).

Iaoa oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoith ?iaioe ?: ?ic?iaea iaoiaeo
?ic?aooieo i?oeiino? oiieino?iieo iaieiieiaeo eiino?oeoe?e i?e
inaneiao?e/iiio oeeee?/iiio iaaaioaaeaii? oa iiaco/ino?; oai?aoe/ia oa
aenia?eiaioaeueia iaa?oiooaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaiiai iaoiaeo; anoaiiaeaiiy
iiaeo caeiiii??iinoae oeeee?/ii? iiaco/ino? iaieiiie; aeei?enoaiiy
?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe o ?ica’yceo iaoeiaeo oa i?eeeaaeieo caaea/
i?iaeooaaiiy a?aeiia?aeaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iiaeie iaoeiaeie
?acoeueoaoaie, iaea?aeaieie a ?iaio?, ?:

iaoiae oa aeai?eoi ?ic?aooieo i?oeiino? iaieiieiaeo eiino?oeoe?e i?e
inaneiao?e/iiio oeeee?/iiio iaaaioaaeaii? oa iiaco/ino?;

/enaeueii oa aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? oeeee?/ii?
iiaco/ino? oa ?oeioaaiiy iaieiieiaeo eiino?oeoe?e ? ieanoei i?e
neeaaeiiio iai?oaeaiiio noai?;

aenia?eiaioaeueia iaeaaeiaiiy, iaoiaeeee aenia?eiaio?a oa io?eiai?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? uiaei aeeiai?/ii? iiaco/ino? ieanoei i?e caei?.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o:

noai?aiiio iaoiaeo ?ic?aooieo ia iiaco/?noue oa aeiaaio?eaaeo i?oei?noue
inaneiao?e/ii iaaaioaaeaieo iaieiieiaeo eiino?oeoe?e, ui
aenieoaoothoueny a oiiaao aaaaoioeeee?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy c a?aie/iei
/eneii oeeee?a N ( (1…5).105;

?aae?ciaaiiio i?ia?aiiiio caaacia/aii? aeey aeeiiaiiy ?ic?aooie?a ia
oeeee?/io iiaco/?noue iaieiieiaeo aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e ia aoai?
i?iaeooaaiiy, ui aeicaieeoue aoaeoeaii ae??ooaaoe i?iaeaie aiae?co
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio oa i?iaiicoaaoe aenieoaoaoe?ei? yeino?
oeeo aeaiaio?a;

?ica’ycaieo caaea/ao aeiaaio?eaaei? i?oeiino? i?e i?iaeooaaii? ei?iona
oi?oeaaiai caoai?o aacinoaoe/ii? onoaiiaee «AAON 4/1500-200/4000», ui
i?ecia/aia aeey i?aeaioiaee a?aei?aoeueiaaieo oaieiaeae?eyth/eo ca??ie
yaea?ieo ?aaeoi??a aei o?eaaeiai caa??aaiiy. O aeiaeaoeo aei
aeena?oaoe?? iaaaaeaiee aeo i?i aeei?enoaiiy o Iaoe?iiaeueiiio iaoeiaiio
oeaio?? «Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo» /enaeueieo aeaieo
?ic?aooie?a oa c?iaeaieo aeniiae?a uiaei i?eionoeiiai ??aith
oaoiieia?/iiai oeneo, i?e yeiio caaacia/o?oueny ii?iaoeaiee ?ano?n
aeiaaii??iiai aacinoaoa aenieiai oeneo, ui i?iaeoo?oueny o IIOe OOO?;

noai?aiiio aenia?eiaioaeueiiio iaeaaeiaii?, iaoiaeeeao aei?iaoaaiue ia
oeeee?/io iiaco/?noue oa o iaea?aeaieo aeaieo uiaei oi?iiooai?aiiy ?
?oeioaaiiy oeeee?/ii iaaaioaaeaieo oiieeo ieanoei i?e caei?.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? o ianooiiiio:

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo, aeai?eoi oa i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy aeey
/enaeueiiai ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/ aeeiai?/ii? iiaco/ino? oa aeiaaio?eaaei?
i?oeiino? iaieiieiaeo aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e; ?ica’ycaii oanoia?
caaea/?; iaea?aeaii aeai? oa i?iaaaeaii aiae?c caeiiii??iinoae
oeeee?/ii? iiaco/ino? inaneiao?e/ieo ieanoei oa iaieiiie [1, 3-7];

aeeiiaii ?ic?aooiee aeey aacinoao?a, ui i?iaeoothoueny o IIOe OOO? (i.
Oa?e?a), oa ye? i?ecia/ai? aeey ia?a?iaee a?aei?aoeueiaaieo
oaieiaeae?eyth/eo ca??ie yaea?ieo ?aaeoi??a, a oaeiae iaaeaii
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeai?o oaoiieia?/iiai oeneo [2];

noai?aii iia? aocee aeey iiaeeo?eaoe?? ?nioth/iai aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
iaeaaeiaiiy, ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo oa aeeiiaii aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiai?/ii? iiaco/ino? eaaeiai nieaao Ae16AO oa ieanoei c
oeueiai iaoa??aeo, ye? aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe nooi?iue a??ia?aeiino?
?ic?aooie?a, aeeiiaieo ia aac? cai?iiiiiaaiiai o ?iaio? iaoiaeo [4,
7-9].

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe,
iaaaaeai? o aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, aoee ?icaeyioo? oa iaaiai?thaaeeny
ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo: «Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee, iaoea, oaoieea,
oaoiieiaey, ia?aciaaiea, caei?iauea (MicroCad-System)», Oa?e?a,
1995-1997 ??.; i?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? «17 Symposium on Experimental
Mechanics of Solids», Aa?oaaa (Iieueua), 1996 ?.; 1-e i?nueeee
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iee eiioa?aioe?? «Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie no/anii? iaoee o
aeine?aeaeaiiyo iieiaeeo a/aieo i. Oa?eiaa», Oa?e?a, 1997 ?.; iaoeiaeo
nai?ia?ao eaoaae? «Aeeiai?ea oa i?oei?noue iaoei» ? «Oai?aoe/ia
iaoai?ea» OAeIO, 1997-1998 ??.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii ?acoeueoaoao aeine?aeaeaiue, iaaaaeaieo o
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, iioae?eiaaii 9 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o, c ieo 5 noaoae ?
iaoa??aee 4-o aeiiia?aeae ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo.

A??ia?aei?noue oa iaa?oioiaai?noue aeniiae?a, io?eiaieo i?e /enaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo ia iniia? noai?aiiai o ?iaio? iaoiaeo ?ic?aooieo oa
?ic?iaeaiiai i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy, i?aeoaa?aeaeaia caaeia?eueiith
a?aeiia?aei?noth ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooie?a o oanoiaeo i?eeeaaeao, aeey
yeeo a?aeii? aiae?oe/i?, /enaeuei? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?, io?eiai?
o ?iaio?, aai ?ioeie aaoi?aie, a oaeiae caaeia?eueiith a?aeiia?aei?noth
?ic?aooieiaeo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo uiaei oeeee?/ii? iiaco/ino?
eaaeiai nieaao Ae16AO oa ieanoei c oeueiai iaoa??aeo i?e caei?.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiaeo, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?c 160
iaeiaioaaiue, 2 aeiaeaoe?a, 60 ?enoie?a, 24 oaaeeoeue. Caaaeueiee ianya
?iaioe — 196 noi??iie, na?aae ieo 146 noi??iie ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii iaoeiao aeooaeuei?noue oa i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue
oaie o ca’yceo c iio?aaith a ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo aeai?eoi?a ? i?ia?ai aeey
?ic?aooie?a oeeee?/ii? iiaco/ino? oa aeiaaio?eaaei? i?oeiino?
iaieiieiaeo aeaiaio?a a?aeiia?aeaeueieo iaoeiiaoae?aieo eiino?oeoe?e.
Noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo oa caaea/? iiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, iaaeaii ia?ae?e
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo oai, o ?aieao yeeo aeeiioaaeany ?iaioa, a oaeiae
iaaaaeaii eaae?o?eaoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeena?oaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ia iniia? iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, o yeeo
iaaiai?ththoueny ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue o aaeoc? iiaco/ino?
oa aeiaaio?eaaei? i?oeiino? iaoa??ae?a oa aeaiaio?a iaoeiiaoae?aieo
eiino?oeoe?e, iaaeaii ioe?ieo noaio i?iaeaie ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe. A?aecia/aii, ui iiaco/?noue iaoa??ae?a ? eiino?oeoe?e i?e
noaoe/iiio iaaaioaaeaii? aea/aii aeinoaoiuei iiaii, aea iaoiaee oa
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iiaco/ino? i?e eiia?iiaaiiio oeeee?/iiio oa
noaoe/iiio iaaaioaaeaii? i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?.

I?aaenoaaeai? no/ani? i?aeoiaee aei ?ic?aooie?a ia iiaco/?noue ?
aeiaaio?eaaeo i?oei?noue, iniiai? iieiaeaiiy eiioeioaeueii? iaoai?ee
iioeiaeaeaiino?, ui canoiniaothoueny o ?ic?aooieao aeey iieno
iiaco/ino?. Iniiaiiieiaei? aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei iiaco/ino? iaaeaii o
?iaioao O.Oaeea?noa, ?.Aaee?, N.Niaea?aa?aa, A.Iaaea?, E.I.Ea/aiiaa,
TH.I.?aaioiiaa, I.I.Iae?i?ia, I.A.Nini?ia, E.Aeaaaiii?oa, I.Ethaeaeea.
?ic?aooiee ia iiaco/?noue ? aeiaaio?eaaeo i?oei?noue aeaiaio?a
eiino?oeoe?e a iniiaiiio i?aaenoaaeai? o ?iaioao ?.A.A??aa?a,
Aeae.Aieea, A.A.Ao?eaeiaa, E.I.Ea/aiiaa, A.?.Eueaiaa, Aeae.Niaina,
I.I.Iae?i?ia, I.E.Ii?a/eianueeiai, A.I.I?aeai?iiai, A.I.Iioeaaeiaa,
TH.I.?aaioiiaa, Ae.Oaeoa?noa, TH.I.Oaa/aiea, N.I.Oanoa?eeiaa oa ?ioeo.
?icaeyiooi aeine?aeaeaiiy oeeee?/ii? iiaco/ino? iaoa??ae?a, ui
i?iaaaeaii A.I.Aieoaii, TH.I.?aaioiiaei, N.Oae?ie oa ?ioeie.
I?aaenoaaeaiee iaeyae iiaeaeae, ui ocaaaeueiththoue iaeiia?nuei?
caeiiii??iino? oeeee?/ii? iiaco/ino? aeey aeiaaeeo neeaaeiiai
iai?oaeaiiai noaio. Iienaii aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino?
iiaco/ino? oa aeiaaio?eaaei? i?oeiino? iaoa??ae?a i?e oeeee?/iiio
iaaaioaaeaii?. Iaaaaeaii iaeyae aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei aeeiai?/ii?
iiaco/ino? o?e, ye? aeeiiaii ia i?aenoaa? ?ica’yceo ii/aoeiai-e?aeiaeo
caaea/, io?eiaieo iaoiaeii aneiioioe/ieo ?iceeaae?a ca iaeei ia?aiao?ii
c ooieoe?yie, caeaaeieie a?ae aeaio ianooaa?a /ano, ui ?icaeaa?oueny o
?iaioao I.E.Ii?a/eianueeiai oa ?ioeo.

Noi?ioeueiaaii iniiai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei oaie aeena?oaoe??,
ye? aeeth/athoue ?ic?iaeo iaoiaeo ?ic?aooieo, i?iaaaeaiiy /enaeueieo oa
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy a??ia?aeiino?
cai?iiiiiaaieo o ?iaio? iaoiaeo oa aeai?eoio ?ic?aooie?a, a oaeiae aeey
anoaiiaeaiiy iiaeo caeiiii??iinoae oeeee?/ii? iiaco/ino? oa ?oeioaaiiy
eiino?oeoe?e i?e neeaaeiiio iai?oaeaiiio noai?. Iaa?oioiaaii ?oith
iiaecio oa i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iaaeaii iaoaiaoe/io iinoaiiaeo ii/aoeiai-e?aeiai?
caaea/? oeeee?/ii? iiaco/ino? c iioeiaeaeai?noth iaieiieiaeo aeaiaio?a
eiino?oeoe?e i?e eiia?iiaaiiio noaoe/iiio oa oeeee?/iiio iaaaioaaeaii?,
ui oaeaeei ci?ith?oueny o /an?.

— noaoe/ia oa aiie?ooaeia neeaaeia? oaeaeeici?iii? oeeee?/ii?
neeaaeiai? iaaaioaaeaiiy, ia??iae ci?ie yei? aaaaea?oueny cia/ii iaioei,
i?ae /an aei ?oeioaaiiy iaieiiee aiane?aeie iiaco/ino?.

?en. 1. Iaieiiea iaa?oaiiy

Iniiai? e?iaiaoe/i? oa noaoe/i? ??aiyiiy i?eeiyo? o ?aieao a?iioac
E??oaioa-Eyaa i?e iaeeo aeaoi?iaoe?yo ? ia?ai?uaiiyo. Iiai? aeaoi?iaoe??
neeaaeathoueny c ieoo?aeo oa?iii?oaeieo oa iacai?ioieo aeaoi?iaoe?e
iiaco/ino?. Iaaaaeaii nenoaio noaoe/ieo, aaiiao?e/ieo oa o?ce/ieo
??aiyiue. Inoaii? a?aeiia?aeathoue aa??aioo oai??? iiaco/ino?
TH.I.?aaioiiaa c o?aooaaiiyi iioeiaeaeaiino?, ye? aeia?a iaa?oioiaai? o
?aieao eiioeioaeueii? iaoai?ee aeaoi?iiaaieo o?e, ui iioeiaeaeothoueny.

O ?iaio? ?icaeyaea?oueny aaaaoioeeee?/ia iiaco/?noue, eiee ?oeioaaiiy
aiane?aeie iiaco/ino? o?aiey?oueny i?e /ene? oeeee?a N ( (1…5).105, oa
/an aei ?oeioaaiiy T* cia/ii a?eueoa, i?ae ia??iae iaaaioaaeaiiy T(.
Caeii oeeee?/ii? iiaco/ino? iaoa??aeo, ye anoaiiaeaii aeine?aeaie, i?e
/anoioao a?eueoeo i?ae 3…10 Aoe ia caeaaeeoue a?ae /anoioe
iaaaioaaeaiiy, a oaeaee?noue iiaco/ino? iae?i?eii caeaaeeoue a?ae
eiao?oe??ioo aneiao??? oeeeeo iai?oaeaiue. Inoaii?e iaiaaeaiee e?eoe/iei
cia/aiiyi, oa?aeoa?iei aeey eiaeiiai iaoa??aeo. Oaea yaeua o e?oa?aoo??
io?eiaei iaeiaioaaiiy aeeiai?/ii? iiaco/ino? oa a?aeaoaa?oueny c
a?eueoith oaeaee?noth oa ca iaioee /an aei ?oeioaaiiy o ii??aiyii? c?
noaoe/iith.

Aeey ?ica’yceo noi?ioeueiaaii? ii/aoeiai-e?aeiai? caaea/? oeeee?/ii?
iiaco/ino? canoiniaaii aneiioioe/i? ?iceeaaee iaa?aeiieo ca iaoiaeii
aeaio ianooaa?a /ano. Nooue eiai iieyaa? o ianooiiiio: o ca’yceo c oei,
ui /anoioa inoeeethth/iai i?ioeano ? cia/ii a?eueoith /anoioe iniiaiiai,
aeey iaa?aeiieo z c iiaii? nenoaie ??aiyiue iiaeia canoinoaaoe
aneiioioe/i? ?iceeaaee (A?) ca iaeei ia?aiao?ii ( = T( / T* c
eiao?oe??ioaie, ui caeaaeaoue ye a?ae «iia?eueii?» t, oae ? a?ae
«oaeaeei?» ( ci?iiith /ano, ye? i?eeiathoueny ye iacaeaaei?.

.

Oaeaeeici?ii? ooieoe?? z1 aaaaeathoueny iaeiiia??iaee/ieie ooieoe?yie

.

I?e oeeo i?eiouaiiyo iniiaia nenoaia ??aiyiue o ?iaio? ia?aoai?aia ia
aea? ?aeo?aioi? nenoaie ii/aoeiai-e?aeiaeo caaea/ aeey «iia?eueieo»

(1)

; (2)

;

; (1, 2) (3)

oa «oaeaeeeo» ci?iieo:

(4)

; (5)

;

, (1, 2) (6)

Ia?oa c ieo (1)-(3) — ii/aoeiai-e?aeiaa caaea/a iiaco/ino? c ooieoe?yie
iniiaiiai ?ooo, ui ?icooeothoueny oa ye? iia?eueii ci?iththoueny ca
ianooaaii iae?ineii?/iiai («iia?eueiiai») /ano. ?ica’yceii oe??? caaea/?
aecia/a?oueny aeiaaeueiee i?ioean iiaco/ino? aei ?oeioaaiiy. Ae?oaa
nenoaia (4)-(6) a?aeiia?aea? ?ooo o ianooaa? «oaeaeeiai» /ano oa iieno?
aeiooai? eieeaaiiy, ui anoaiiaeeeny.

Oe? aea? nenoaie ia ? iacaeaaeieie, oiio ui aiie ? iia’ycaieie
??aiyiiyie noaio aeeiai?/ii? iiaco/ino?

, (7)

— eiie?aoecothoueny ca iaeiiaei??ieie e?eaeie oeeee?/ii? iiaco/ino?;

A — ia?aiao? aneiao??? oeeeeo iai?oaeaiue;

— aea?aaeaioi? iai?oaeaiiy, ui i?ae?aoiaothoueny ca ?ica’yceaie ia?oi?
oa ae?oai? caaea/? a?aeiia?aeii aei ?aeo?aioii? nenoaie ??aiyiue.

O ?iaio? ?icaeyiooi o?e aeiaaeee eiie?aoecaoe?? ??aiyiue noaio (7):

;

; (8)

O ia?oeo aeaio aeiaaeeao ??aiino? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey iiaco/ino?,
ui ia anoaiiaeeany, oa a?aeaoaa?oueny aac iioeiaeaeaiino?, aea c
o?aooaaiiyi aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai ci?oeiaiiy aai ci?oeiaiiy ca /anii. O
inoaiiueiio a?aoiao?oueny iioeiaeaeai?noue ? ??aiyiiy (7) ?
ocaaaeueiaiiyi caeiio oeia Aaee?-Ii?oiia, aea ooieoe?? H(A), K(A)
ia/eneththoueny /enaeueii:

;

.

A ??aiyiiyo noaio on? iaoa??aeuei? noae? oa ooieoe?? aecia/athoueny ca
aeaieie aenia?eiaio?a ia iiaco/?noue i?e i?inoiio iai?oaeaiiio noai?.

Aeey ?ica’yceo noi?ioeueiaaieo caaea/ i?eeiyoee iaoiae ne?i/aieo
aeaiaio?a (INA). I?eeia?ii, ui iaieiieo iaa?oaiiy ?icaeoi ia ne?i/ai?
aeaiaioe o aeaeyae? on?/aieo eiion?a ? a iaaeao aeaiaioo
aeei?enoiaothoueny ooieoe?? oi?i

.

Ia iniia? aa??aoe?eii? ??aiino? Eaa?aiaea c aeiaeaoeiaeie iai?oaeaiiyie
iaea?aeai? ??aiyiiy aeey ?ica’yceo caaea/? iiaco/ino? o «iia?eueiiio»
/an? o aeae?

, (9)

aea [K] — iao?eoey aei?noeino? iaieiiee;

{(} — aaeoi? aoceiaeo ocaaaeueiaieo ia?ai?uaiue;

— aaeoi?e aoceiaeo nee a?ae caaeaieo o aoceao ia’?iieo ? iiaa?oiaaeo
iaaaioaaeaiue a?aeiia?aeii;

{FT}, {Fc} — aaeoi?e aoceiaeo nee, iaoiiaeai? aeiaeaoeiaeie
iai?oaeaiiyie, ui iia’ycai? c oaiia?aoo?ieie aeaoi?iaoe?yie oa
aeaoi?iaoe?yie iiaco/ino?.

Aiaeia?/ii, aeey caaea/? aeiooaieo eieeaaiue, ui anoaiiaeeeny, o
«oaeaeeiio» /an? nenoaia ??aiyiue ia? aeaeyae:

, (10)

aea [KAe] = ([K] — (2[M]) — iao?eoey «aeeiai?/ii? aei?noeino?»;

{Ra} — aaeoi? aoceiaeo nee, ui aecia/a?oueny ca aiie?ooaeieie cia/aiiyie
iiaa?oiaaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy {qa};

— aaeoi? aiie?ooae ia?ai?uaiue o aoceao iaieiiee.

Aeey ?ioaa?oaaiiy ??aiyiue noaio (7), (8) ca /anii i?eeiyoi iaoiae
i?iaiico-ei?aeoe?? o?aoueiai ii?yaeeo c aaoiiaoe/iei aeai?ii e?ieo, ui
aeicaieeei i?aeaeueoe oi/i?noue ?ioaa?oaaiiy o ii??aiyii? c iaoiaeii
Aeea?a.

O /enaeuei?e ?aae?caoe?? aeei?enoai? iaoiaee Aaona oa Iuethoiia-Eioana
aeey ?ioaa?oaaiiy ii aeiaaeei? oa oiauei? oa??ii? iaieiiee aeey
i?ae?aoiaoaaiiy aeaiaio?a iao?eoeue aei?noeino?, ian oa eiiiiiaio?a
aaeoi?o iaaaioaaeaiue, ui aecia/athoueny ca iacai?ioieie aeaoi?iaoe?yie
iiaco/ino?.

Aeey ?ica’yceo caaea/ oa?iiiiaco/ino? (9) oa aeiooaieo eieeaaiue (10)
ia?aii iiaeeo?eaoe?th o?iioaeueiiai iaoiaeo. O inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo
aeei?enoaiee aeai?eoi o?eeooiueiai ?iceeaaeaiiy aeeiai?/ii? iao?eoe?
aei?noeino? [KAe] c /anoeiaei aeai?ii aieiaiiai iicaae?aaiiaeueiiai
aeaiaioo. I?e aiae?c? a?eueieo eieeaaiue iaieiiee, iaeii??aei? ??aiyiiy
aeaeo (10) cacaeaeaa?aeue ?c aeiiiiiaith o?eeooiuei? oaeoi?ecaoe??
iao?eoe? ian ca noaiith Oieaoeueeiai i?eaiaeeeanue aei noaiaea?oii?
oi?ie iiaii? i?iaeaie aeanieo cia/aiue, yea ?ica’ycoaaeanue ca iaoiaeii
sseia?.

C iaoith ?aae?caoe?? cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee ?ic?iaeaii iaeao
i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai, ui neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio iacaeaaeieo /anoei:
i?ia?aia aeey ?ic?aooieo ia oeeee?/io iiaco/?noue; i?ia?aia aeey
aecia/aiiy aeanieo /anoio ? oi?i a?eueieo eieeaaiue; i?ia?aia aeey
a?ao?/iiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a.

Aeiaeaoeiai o oeueiio ?icae?e? i?aaenoaaeaii aeai?eoi ooi/iaiiy
?ic?aooie?a aeey aeiaaeeo aaeeeeo i?iaei?a o ?aieao a?aeiii? oai???
aaiiao?e/ii iae?i?eiiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaieiiie o eaaae?aoe/iiio
iaaeeaeaii?. Aeai?eoi aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey aeiaaee?a, eiee aiane?aeie
iiaco/ino? ii?iaeuei? i?iaeie iaaoaathoue cia/aiue, a?eueoeo i?ae
oiaueia iaieiiee.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? i?aaenoaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe /enaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue iiaco/ino? oiieeo inaneiao?e/ieo iaieiiie ? ieanoei i?e
ni?euei?e ae?? noaoe/ieo ? oeeee?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue.

Aeey anoaiiaeaiiy a??ia?aeiino? oa oi/iino? ?ic?aooie?a o ?iaio?
?icaeyiooi oanoia? caaea/?, o yeeo /enaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe ii??aithaaeeny
c aiae?oe/ieie oa aenia?eiaioaeueieie, ui a?aeii? c e?oa?aoo?e, aai
/enaeueii io?eiai? ?ioeie aaoi?aie. Aea/aii aieea nooiaith
aeene?aoecaoe?? iaieiiee ne?i/aieie aeaiaioaie oa iieacaii, ui ia
oeueiio oeyoo iiaeia aeiaeoeny a?aeciaee o ?acoeueoaoao, ui ia ia?aaeuo?
5 % i?e caa?aaeaii? oaeaeeino? ia/eneaiue oa i?i?iaeueiiai ia’?io
iia?aoeaii? iai’yo?.

Iaaaaeaii ii??aiyiiy noaoe/ii? oa oeeee?/ii? iiaco/ino? o?oa c? noaee
20 (T = 773 K). *enaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei iiaco/ino? o?oa i?ae
iino?eiei oeneii aenia?eiaioaeueii aea/aeeny O.I.Eaoeai (OeEOE,
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a) ? /enaeueii I.A.A?eiaei oa aeaaeai?eii TH.I.Oaa/aieii a
?inoeooo? iaoai?ee (Ee?a).

Ia ?en. 2 nooe?eueieie e?eaeie iieacai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? eieia?
aeaoi?iaoe?? o?oa i?e noaoe/iiio oeneo o aeaio ia?a??cao; cia/aiiy
aeaoi?iaoe?e, ui cai??yi? a iiiaio ?oeioaaiiy, a?aei?/aii /i?ieie
oi/eaie A oa B.

?en. 2. Eieia? aeaoi?iaoe?? o?oa

: oi/ee ( — ( = 0; ( — ( = 0.5; ( — ( = 1. Ii??aiyiiyi ?ic?aooieiaeo
aeaieo c ona?aaeiaieie aenia?eiaioaeueieie anoaiiaeaii, ui iaee?aua
a?aeiia?aei?noue aeey /ano ?oeioaaiiy ia? i?noea i?e aea?aaeaioieo
iai?oaeaiiyo o e?iaoe/iiio ??aiyii? aeey iioeiaeaeaiino?, ye?
a?aeiia?aeathoue e?eoa??th iaeneiaeueieo aieiaieo iai?oaeaiue, ui ia
noia?a/eoue aeniiaeai I.A.A?eiaa.

Aeine?aeaeaii aieea eiia?iiaaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy o?oa oeneii ?
oeeee?/iei iaaaioaaeaiiyi aeaio aeae?a: eiee oeeee?/ii ci?ith?oueny oene
oa eiee oeeee?/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy cae?enith?oueny i?eeeaaeaiith inueiaith
neeith. Anoaiiaeaii, ui c? ca?eueoaiiyi eiao?oe??ioo aneiao??? oeeeeo
ciaioo?oueny /an ?oeioaaiiy o?oa ? iii?oii c?inoathoue oaeaeeino?
ie?oaeieo aeaoi?iaoe?e, ui iniaeeai iii?oii i?e ae?? inueiai? neee, yea
ci?ith?oueny oeeee?/ii.

O aeena?oaoe?? i?aaenoaaeaii ?ic?aooiee aeiaaio?eaaei? i?oeiino?
ei?iona oi?oeaaiai caoai?o aacinoaoe/ii? onoaiiaee «AAON
4/1500-200/4000», ui i?ecia/aia aeey i?aeaioiaee a?aei?aoeueiaaieo
oaieiaeae?eyth/eo ca??ie (OAC) aoiiieo aeaeo?inoaioe?e aei o?eaaeiai
caa??aaiiy. Oi?oeaaee caoai? iiaeiai iaae?eii aa?iaoecoaaoe ?iai/o ciio
aacinoaoo i?e aenieeo oeneao oa oaiia?aoo?ao, ui iaiao?aei? aeey ia?iaee
aiioe c a?aei?aoeueiaaieie OAC. Ei?ion aacinoaoo iaaaioaaeaii ?iai/ei
oeneii, ?iciiae?eaieie neeaie o ??cueaiaiio c’?aeiaii? ei?iona c
i?iaeith oa coneeeyie, aeeeeeaieie iiia?aaeiueith iinaaeeith aeaioa?iai?
no?iee ei?iona. Ia??iaee/iei oeeee?/iei iaaaioaaeaiiyi ei?iono
iiaeaethaaany oaoiieia?/iee oeeee ia?iaee aiioe. ?ic?aooieia? aeai?
iaeii?aciaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy aoei oeeee?/ii i?iaeiaaeaii ye aacia?a?ai? c
aiie?ooaeaie iai?oaeaiue, ui aei??aiththoue iieiaei? iaeneiaeueieo ?o
cia/aiue ca oeeee. Aeine?aeieoeuee? aeai? uiaei iacai?ioiiai oeeee?/iiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy oa ?oeioaaiiy iaoa??aeo ei?iona aeicaieeee aecia/eoe
iaoa??aeuei? noae? o ??aiyiiyo noaio.

Ioe?iee ?ano?no aacinoaoo ?ic?aooieaie ia aeiaaio?eaaeo i?oei?noue
ei?iona aeeiiaii aeey ??cieo ??ai?a oaoiieia?/iiai oeneo. Ia ?en. 3
iaaaaeaii ?ic?aooieia? aeai? a?aie/iiai /enea oeeee?a aei ?oeioaaiiy
no?iee ei?iona a caeaaeiino? a?ae aaee/eie iaeneiaeueiiai oaoiieia?/iiai
oeneo a oeeee?.

Ca aeaieie ?ic?aooie?a ciaeaeaii caaeia?eueiee ca aeiaaia?/i?noth oa
ooieoe?iiaeueieie aeiiaaie ae?aiacii ?iai/eo oene?a. O /enaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo ii??aiyii aeai? uiaei oi?iiooai?aiiy oa
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ei?iono o ae?aiacii? oaoiieia?/ieo
oene?a 300…400 IIa, yeee ?aeiiaiaeiaaii i?e aenieoaoaoe??.

?en. 3. ?ano?n ei?iono i?e ??cieo ??aiyo ?iai/iai oeneo

O ?iaio? aeeiiaii oeeee /enaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue iiaco/ino? oa
?oeioaaiiy e?oaeeo ieanoei, aei?noei caoeniooeo ia ciai?oiueiio ?aae?on?
oa iineaaeaieo o oeaio?? ioai?ii ?c aei?noeei anoaaeaiiyi. Ieanoeie
iaaaioaaeaii iiia?a/iith oeaio?aeueiith neeith ?, ui ci?ith?oueny ca
aa?iii?eiei caeiiii P = P0 + Pasin (2(ft). Aea/aeeny ieanoeie c
aethi?i??aiai nieaao Ae16AO, iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee yeiai i?e
T = 573 E anoaiiaeaii o ?iaio? c aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo. C?noaaeaiiyi
?ic?aooieiaeo aeaieo uiaei /ano aei ?oeioaaiiy i?e noaoe/i?e oa
aeeiai?/i?e iiaco/ino? anoaiiaeaii, ui a iaio aeiaaeeao i?aeaeueoe
?ano?n iiaeeeai ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy oiaueie aai ?aae?ono ioai?o
ieanoeie. Aeiaeaaaiiy oeeee?/ii? neeaaeiai? iaaaioaaeaiiy caaaeaee
nei?i/o? /an aei ?oeioaaiiy.

O oaae. 1 ii??aiththoueny cia/aiiy /ano aei ?oeioaaiiy ieanoei ?c
ciai?oi?i ?aae?onii 48.10-3 i, P0 = 40 I, Pa = 32 I, f = 25 Aoe, ui
a?ae??ciythoueny oiaueiith h oa ?aae?onii ioai?o a. Aeai? o /enaeueieeo
a?aeiia?aeathoue noaoe/iiio, a o ciaiaiieeo — eiia?iiaaiiio
iaaaioaaeaiith.

Oaaeeoey 1

*an aei ?oeioaaiiy ieanoei, aiae.

O oeeo oa ?ioeo ?ic?aooieao ieanoei i?e caei? anoaiiaeaii iniiai?
caeiiii??iino? uiaei aieeao oeeee?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy: aeiaeaaaiiy aei
noaoe/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy iaa?oue iaei? oeeee?/ii? neeaaeiai? nei?i/o?
/an aei ?oeioaaiiy; oi?iiooai?aiiy oa ia?a?iciiae?e iai?oaeaiue aeey
noaoe/ii? oa oeeee?/ii? iiaco/ino? aaaiii a?ae??ciythoueny e?euee?nii; a
iaeano? eiioeaio?aoe?? iai?oaeaiue (iiaeeco ioai?o) oaeaee?noue
?aeaenaoe?? oa eiao?oe??io aneiao??? oeeeeo iai?oaeaiue o iiiaio
?oeioaaiiy noathoue oei a?eueoa, /ei aeua ??aaiue ii/aoeiaeo iai?oaeaiue
o oe?e iaeano?, i?e oeueiio eiao?oe??io eiioeaio?aoe?? iai?oaeaiue i?e
iiaco/ino? cieaeo?oueny, a eiao?oe??io aneiao??? oeeeeo iai?oaeaiue
i?aeaeuo?oueny oa iaeaeaa eiao?oe??ioe iiaeooue a?ae??ciyoeny a?ae
ii/aoeiaeo cia/aiue o aeae?eueea ?ac?a.

O ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaii aieea oi?ie oa??ii? iaieiiee (oeee?iae?, eiion,
noa?a) ia oi?iiooai?aiiy oa ?oeioaaiiy aiane?aeie iiaco/ino?. ?icaeyiooi
iaieiiee, iaaaioaaeai? aioo??oi?i oeneii, ui ci?ith?oueny ca caeiiii
p = p0 + pasin (Wt). O ?ic?aooieao aea/aii aieea /anoioe iaaaioaaeaiiy,
eiee /anoioa W ieae/a oa aeua i?i?iaeueii? aeanii? /anoioe iaieiiee.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e oeeee?/iiio iaaaioaaeaii? /an aei ?oeioaaiiy
iaieiiie cia/ii nei?i/o?oueny ii??aiyii c? noaoe/iei iaaaioaaeaiiyi,
i?e/iio oaea nei?i/aiiy i?aeoe/ii aeey on?o aeae?a iaieiiie oei a?eueoa,
/ei aeeae/a /anoioa ciai?oiueiai iaaaioaaeaiiy aei ia?oi? aeanii?
/anoioe a?aeiia?aeii? iaieiiee.

Ia ?en. 4 i?aaenoaaeaiee ?iciiae?e ia?aiao?o aneiao??? oeeeeo
iai?oaeaiue A ia?aae ?oeioaaiiyi acaeiaae oa??ii? iaieiiie o aeiaaeeo,
eiee ( = 46496 ?aae/n. Oey /anoioa aeua ia?oi? aeanii? /anoioe noa?e/ii?
iaieiiee oa eiiono, aea ieae/a ia?oi? aeanii? /anoioe oeee?iae?o oa
eiiono ?c iaioei eooii eiioniino?. A?ae ?iciiae?eo oeueiai ia?aiao?o
caeaaeeoue oaeaee?noue iiaco/ino? oa /an aei ?oeioaaiiy iaieiiie.

?en. 4. ?iciiae?e ia?aiao?o aneiao??? oeeeeo iai?oaeaiue

?iciiae?eo A aeey oeee?iae?e/ii? iaieiiee a?aeiia?aea? e?eaa 1
(T* = 79.2 aiaeei), aeey eiion?a: c iaioei eooii eiioniino? — 2 (29.6
a.), c a?eueoei eooii eiioniino? — 3 (22.3 a.), aeey noa?e/ii? iaieiiee
— 4 (851.7 a.).

?ic?aooieaie anoaiiaeaii, ui e?euee?ni? oa ye?ni? aeai? uiaei
oi?iiooai?aiiy oa ?oeioaaiiy iaieiiie i?e oeeee?/iiio iaaaioaaeaii?
nooo?ai caeaaeaoue ye a?ae ??aiy, oae ? a?ae ?iciiae?eo aiie?ooaeieo
iai?oaeaiue i?e aeiooaieo eieeaaiiyo, ye? ? iaiaeiaeiaeie aeey ??cieo
oi?i oa??ii? iaieiiee oa aeey ??cieo a?aeiioaiue /anoioe iaaaioaaeaiiy
aei i?i?iaeueii? aeanii? /anoioe. O i?iaaaeaieo ?ic?aooieao eeoa aeey
noa?e/ii? iaieiiee aeyaeeiny iaeiaioei oi?iiooai?aiiy oa iaea?eueoei —
/an aei ?oeioaaiiy.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? i?aaenoaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue noaoe/ii? oa aeeiai?/ii? iiaco/ino? iaoa??ae?a ? oiieeo
e?oaeeo ieanoei. Aeieeaaeii iienaii caniae aei?iaoaaiue ? eiio?ieth,
iaoiaeeea oa aeai? oanooaaiiy, ui aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe iao?ieia?/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee cania?a aei?iaoaaiue, i?e yeeo caaacia/o?oueny
iaae?ei?noue aei???a.

Aeeiiaii oeeee aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa /enaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei
iiaco/ino? oa ?oeioaaiiy e?oaeeo ieanoei, aei?noei cao?eniaaieo ia
ciai?oiueiio ?aae?on? oa iineaaeaieo o oeaio?? ioai?ii ?c aei?noeith
anoaaeith. Ieanoeie iaaaioaaeaii iiia?a/iith oeaio?aeueiith neeith ?, ui
ci?ith?oueny ca aa?iii?eiei caeiiii P = P0 + Pasin (2(ft). Aea/aeeny
ieanoeie ciai?oi?i ?aae?onii 48.10-3 i, oiaueiith 10-3 i.

Ia ?en. 5 i?aaenoaaeaii ii??aiyiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue i?iaei?a
ieanoei c o?aooaaiiyi aaiiao?e/ii? iae?i?eiino? i?e iiaco/ino?
(nooe?euei? e?ea?) c ona?aaeiaieie aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie
(aeene?aoi? oi/ee) aeey aeaio oi/ie ca ?aae?onii.

?en. 5. C??aiyiiy /enaeueieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ii i?iaeiai
ieanoei

O ia?oiio aeiaaeeo (e?aee ?enoiie) ?aae?on aei?noeiai oeaio?o noaiiaea
2.5.10-3 i, iaaaioaaeaiiy eiia?iiaaia — P0 = 100 I, Pa = 20 I c
/anoioith f = 25 Aoe. O ae?oaiio aeiaaeeo (i?aaee ?enoiie) a = 7.10-3 i,
P0 = 100 I, Pa = 0.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iioeaea i?ae /enaeueieie cia/aiiyie oa ona?aaeiaieie
aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie iiaoi?ieo aeine?ae?a ia ia?aaeuo? ?iceeaeo
oeeo aeaieo, oa neeaaea? aeey i?iaeio ( 20 %, a aeey /ano aei ?oeioaaiiy
— 16 %. I?e noaoe/i?e iiaco/ino? aenia?eiaioaeuei? oa /enaeuei? aeai?
a?ae??ciythoueny o iaaeao ?iceeaeo, ui ia ia?aaeuo? 15 %. Ca oeeie
aeaieie c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i aeinoaoith i??o a??ia?aeiino?
?acoeueoao?a, iaea?aeaieo ia aac? iaoiaeo ?ic?aooieo, ui i?iiiio?oueny o
?iaio?.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa caaa?oo?oueny ianooiieie aeniiaeaie:

Iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeie iaoeiaeie oa i?aeoe/ieie ?acoeueoaoaie ?iaioe ?:
?ic?iaea, iaoeiaa oa aenia?eiaioaeueia iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaiai iaoiaeo
?ic?aooieo ia iiaco/?noue oa aeiaaio?eaaeo i?oei?noue oeeee?/ii
iaaaioaaeaieo inaneiao?e/ieo iaieiieiaeo aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e, a
oaeiae noai?aia aeey oeueiai i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy.

Cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoiae ?ic?aooieo caniiaaii ia niaoe?aeueieo
aneiioioe/ieo ?iceeaaeao iaa?aeiieo ii/aoeiai-e?aeiai? caaea/?
iiaco/ino? iaieiiie, ui aeicaieeei ia?aoai?eoe ?? aei aeaio ?aeo?aioieo
nenoai ??aiyiue aeey «iia?eueieo» ? «oaeaeeeo» ci?iieo. Ia?oa
a?aeiia?aea? ii/aoeiai-e?aeia?e caaea/?, iiae?ai?e caaea/? noaoe/ii?
iiaco/ino? c ??aiyiiyie noaio, ui caeaaeaoue a?ae ia?aiao?o aneiao???
oeeeeo iai?oaeaiue ? iioeiaeaeaiino?, ae?oaa — caaea/? i?i i?oaei?
aeiooai? eieeaaiiy iaieiiie, ?ica’ycie yei? aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey
caieiaiiy aeaio ?aeo?aioieo nenoai ??aiyiiyie noaio oeeee?/ii?
iiaco/ino?.

?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoie /enaeueii? ?aae?caoe?? iaoiaeo ?ic?aooieo ia
iiaco/?noue ? aeiaaio?eaaeo i?oei?noue ?icaeyiooeo iaieiiie c
o?aooaaiiyi aaiiao?e/ii? iae?i?eiino? ia iniia? iaoiaeo ne?i/aieo
aeaiaio?a o ii?aeiaii? c iaoiaeii i?iaiico-ei?aeoe?? aeey iie?ieiaiai
?ioaa?oaaiiy ca /anii oa noai?aii i?ia?aii? caniae aeey IAII IBM PC, ui
?aae?cothoue ?ic?aooiee iaieiiie i?e oeeee?/iiio iaaaioaaeaii? oa
iiaco/ino?.

A??ia?aei?noue oa aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?aooie?a anoaiiaeaii caaeia?eueiith
a?aeiia?aei?noth ciaeaeaieo ?ica’yce?a aiae?oe/iei oa aeaiei, ui
iaea?aeai? ?ioeie /enaeueieie iaoiaeaie, a oaeiae aenia?eiaioaeueiei
aeaiei.

Anoaiiaeaii iia? caeiiii??iino? uiaei aieeao oeeee?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
ia iiaco/?noue iaieiiie. Aei iniiaieo c ieo iiaeia a?aeianoe:
aeiaeaaaiiy aei noaoe/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy iaa?oue iaei? oeeee?/ii?
neeaaeiai? nei?i/o? /an aei ?oeioaaiiy; e?euee?ni? oa ye?ni? aeai? uiaei
oi?iiooai?aiiy oa ?oeioaaiiy iaieiiie i?e oeeee?/iiio iaaaioaaeaii?
aaaiii caeaaeaoue a?ae ?iciiae?eo aiie?ooaeieo cia/aiue iai?oaeaiue i?e
aeiooaieo eieeaaiiyo ? a?ae ci?ie ia?aiao?o aneiao??? oeeeeo iai?oaeaiue
ca /an iiaco/ino? aei ?oeioaaiiy.

?ica’ycaii caaea/o aeiaaio?eaaei? i?oeiino? ei?iono oi?oeaaiai caoai?o
aacinoaoe/ii? onoaiiaee i?e iiaoi?iiio aaaaoioeeeeiaiio iaaaioaaeaii?.
?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a oa aeniiaee uiaei i?oeiino? onoaiiaee
aeei?enoaii o IIOe OOO? (i. Oa?e?a) i?e i?iaeooaaii? aacinoaoo.
Ciaeaeaii ae?aiacii oaoiieia?/ieo oene?a, ye?e caaacia/o? ??aaiue
aeiaaio?eaaei? i?oeiino?, ui a?aeiia?aea? ii?iai i?oeiino? aeey noaeei
aenieiai oeneo.

Noai?aii aenia?eiaioaeueia iaeaaeiaiiy, iaoiaeeeo aei?iaoaaiue oa
iaea?aeaii aeine?aeieoeuee? aeai? uiaei aeeiai?/ii? iiaco/ino?
iaoa??ae?a ? e?oaeeo ieanoei. Aenia?eiaioe c oeeee?/iiai caeio ieanoei,
ui iineaaeai? o oeaio?? ioai?ii ?c aei?noeei anoaaeaiiyi, iieacaee, ui
?ic?aooieia? aeai?, ye? iaea?aeaii o ?iaio?, a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae
aenia?eiaioaeueieo o iaaeao ?iceeaeo oa oe? a?aei?iiino? ia
ia?aaeuothoue 20 % uiaei oi?iiooai?aiiy oa 16 % — uiaei /ano aei
?oeioaaiiy. Caaeia?eueiith ?o a?aeiia?aei?noth i?aeoaa?aeaeaii
a??ia?aei?noue ?ic?iaeaiiai iaoiaeo, aeai?eoi?a oa i?ia?ai ?ic?aooieo
aeeiai?/ii? iiaco/ino? iaieiieiaeo aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe, aeniiaee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, iaaaaeai? o ?iaio?,
aeei?enoai? i?e aeeiiaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?ia?ai I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie a iaeano? ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aeia?aeeith, yea iaaaaeaia o aeiaeaoeo.

IAOEIA? I?AOe?, UI IIOAE?EIAAI? CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

Aieuaiei A.I., A?aneaaneee Ae.A., Ao?eaaiei A.I., Ii?a/eianeee I.E.,
*oi?uiei A.A., Oeioeei N.A. Iaeao i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aii aeey ?an/aoia
iieco/anoe e aeeeoaeueiie i?i/iinoe yeaiaioia iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo
eiino?oeoeee // O?oaeu iaaeaeoia?. iao/.-oaoi. eiio. «Eioi?iaoeeiiiua
oaoiieiaee: iaoea, oaoieea, oaoiieiaey, ia?aciaaiea, caei?iauea». —
Oa?ueeia: Oa?uee. ain. iieeoaoi. oi-o. — 1995. — N. 18.

Ae?theia I.A., A?aneaaneee Ae.A., Ii?a/eianeee I.E., Oeioeei N.A. Iooe
iiauoaiey i?i/iinoe eiino?oeoeaiuo yeaiaioia aacinoaoia aeey iiaeaioiaee
io?aaioaiiuo nai?ie OAN e aeeeoaeueiiio o?aiaieth // Aii?inu aoiiiie
iaoee e oaoieee. Oeceea ?aaeeaoeeiiiuo iia?aaeaeaiee e ?aaeeaoeeiiiia
iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiea. Oa?ueeia: Iaoeeiiaeueiue iao/iue oeaio? «Oa?ueeianeee
oeceei-oaoie/aneee einoeooo». — 1998. — Aui. 3(69)-4(70). — N. 94-96.

Ao?eaaiei A.I., *oi?uiei A.A., Oeioeei N.A. Iieco/anoue e ?ac?ooaiea
oiieeo ieanoei e iaiei/ae i?e oeeeee/aneii iaa?oaeaiee // O?oaeu
iaaeaeoia?. iao/.-oaoi. eiio. «Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee: iaoea,
oaoieea, oaoiieiaey, ia?aciaaiea, caei?iauea» (MicroCad 97). — *. 1. —
Oa?ueeia, Ieoeieueoe, Iaaaeaao?a: Oa?uee. ain. iieeoaoi. oi-o,
Ieoeieueoe. oi-o, Iaaaeaao?a. oi-o. — 1997. — n. 66-70.

Ii?a/eianueeee I.E., Oeioe?i N.I. Iiaco/?noue oiieeo inaneiao?e/ieo
iaieiiie i?e aeniei/anoioiiio oeeee?/iiio iaaaioaaeaii? // A?niee
Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. — 1998. — O. 3,
? 1. — n. 19-25.

Oeioeei N.A. Oai?aoe/aneia e yenia?eiaioaeueiia iainiiaaiea ?an/aoia
aeeiaie/aneie iieco/anoe oiieeo iaiei/ae e ieanoei // Aeooaeuei?
i?iaeaie no/anii? iaoee o aeine?aeaeaiiyo iieiaeeo a/aieo i. Oa?eiaa:
Ca??iee aeiiia?aeae 1-i? i?nueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. —
Oa?e?a: AO «A?cian-?ioi?i». — 1997. — N. 101-103.

Oeioeei N.A. Iieco/anoue e ?ac?ooaiea e?oaeuo ieanoei i?e niaianoiii
aeaenoaee noaoe/aneie e oeeeee/aneie iaa?ocie // Eioi?iaoeeiiiua
oaoiieiaee: iaoea, oaoieea, oaoiieiaey, ia?aciaaiea, caei?iauea. Nai?iee
iao/iuo o?oaeia OAIO. — Oa?ueeia: Oa?uee. ain. iieeoaoi. oi-o. — 1998. —
Aui. 6. — *. 1. — N. 164-167.

Oeioeei N.A. Oai?aoe/aneia e yenia?eiaioaeueiia iainiiaaiea iiaeaee
aeaoi?ie?iaaiey ?ac?ooathueony i?e iieco/anoe oiieinoaiiuo o?oa aeey
yia?aaoeee // Iiaua ?aoaiey a nia?aiaiiuo oaoiieiaeyo. Aanoiee Oa?uee.
Ain. iieeoaoi. oi-oa. — Oa?ueeia: OAIO. — 1998. — Aui. 9. — N. 52-56.

Oeioeei N.A. Yenia?eiaioaeueiua e /eneaiiua enneaaeiaaiey oeeeee/aneie
iieco/anoe e?oaeuo ieanoei // Aanoiee Oa?uee. Ain. iieeoaoi. oi-oa. —
Oa?ueeia: AI «Aecian-Eioi?i». — 1998. — Aui. 27. — N. 162-165.

Breslavsky D.V., Morachkovsky O.K., Shipulin S.A. Creep and rupture of
notched plates under fast cyclic load // Proc. 17th Symp. on
Experimental Mechanics of Solids. — Warsaw: VP. — 1996. — P. 118-123.

AIIOAOe??

Oeioe?i N.I. ?ic?iaea iaoiaeo ?ic?aooieo i?oeiino? iaieiieiaeo
eiino?oeoe?e i?e inaneiao?e/iiio oeeee?/iiio iaaaioaaeaii? oa
iiaco/ino?. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaith eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.02.09 — aeeiai?ea oa i?oei?noue iaoei. —
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1999.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? o ?ic?iaeaiiio iiaiio iaoiae? oa
i?ia?aiiiio caaacia/aii? aeey ?ic?aooieo aaaaoioeeee?/ii? iiaco/ino? oa
aeiaaio?eaaei? i?oeiino? oeeee?/ii iaaaioaaeaieo inaneiao?e/ieo
iaieiieiaeo aeaiaio?a iaoeiiaoae?aieo eiino?oeoe?e. Iaaeaii oai?aoe/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoiaeo. A??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a i?aeoaa?aeaeaii
caaeia?eueiith a?aeiia?aei?noth ciaeaeaieo /enaeueieo ?ica’yce?a c
a?aeiieie aiae?oe/ieie oa aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie. Noai?aii
aenia?eiaioaeueia iaeaaeiaiiy, io?eiai? iia? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?
uiaei oeeee?/ii? iiaco/ino? iaoa??ae?a oa e?oaeeo ieanoei i?e caei?.
Anoaiiaeaii iia? caeiiii??iino? oeeee?/ii? iiaco/ino? iaieiiie ?
iieacaii nooo?aee aieea oeeee?/ii? neeaaeiai? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
oi?iiooai?aiiy oa /an aei ?oeioaaiiy iaieiiie i?e iiaco/ino?. Iaoiae
i???ioiaaiee oa aeei?enoaiee aeey ?ic?aooie?a ia oeeee?/io iiaco/?noue
iaieiieiaeo aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e ia aoai? i?iaeooaaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iiaco/?noue, iioeiaeaeai?noue, ?oeioaaiiy, oeeee?/ia
iaaaioaaeaiiy, inaneiao?e/i? iaieiiee, e?oae? ieanoeie, iaoiae
aneiioioe/ieo ?iceeaae?a ca aeaiia ianooaaaie /ano, iaoiae ne?i/aieo
aeaiaio?a, aenia?eiaio.

Oeioeei N.A. ?ac?aaioea iaoiaea ?an/aoa i?i/iinoe iaiei/a/iuo
eiino?oeoeee i?e inaneiiao?e/iii oeeeee/aneii iaa?oaeaiee e iieco/anoe.
— ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.02.09 — aeeiaieea e i?i/iinoue iaoei. —
Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue iieeoaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa iinayuaia i?iaeaia iieco/anoe oiieeo
inaneiiao?e/iuo iaiei/ae i?e eiiaeie?iaaiiii noaoe/aneii e oeeeee/aneii
iaa?oaeaiee. A iaci?a ioa/anoaaiiie e ca?oaaaeiie eeoa?aoo?u ioia/aii,
/oi enneaaeiaaiey aunieioaiia?aoo?iie oeeeee/aneie iieco/anoe oae i?e
neiaeiii iai?yaeaiiii ninoiyiee iaei/eneaiiu e auiieiaiu a iniiaiii ca
iineaaeiea aiaeu. Iainiiaaia aeooaeueiinoue oaiu aeenna?oaoeee a iao/iii
e i?eeeaaeiii ioiioaiee, noi?ioee?iaaiu oeaee e caaea/e enneaaeiaaiee,
eioi?ua aeeth/atho: ?ac?aaioeo iaoiaea, aeai?eoia e i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey aeey ?an/aoia ia i?i/iinoue oiieinoaiiuo iaiei/a/iuo
eiino?oeoeee i?e inaneiiao?e/iii oeeeee/aneii iaa?oaeaiee e iieco/anoe;
i?iaaaeaiea ia yoie iniiaa /eneaiiuo e yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee
aeey onoaiiaeaiey aeinoiaa?iinoe ?an/aoia e iiauo caeiiiia?iinoae
oeeeee/aneie iieco/anoe iaiei/ae; ?aoaiea i?eeeaaeiuo caaea/
i?iaeoe?iaaiey ioaaonoaaiiuo eiino?oeoeee.

I?aaenoaaeaia iaoaiaoe/aneay iinoaiiaea ia/aeueii-e?aaaie caaea/e
oeeeee/aneie iieco/anoe n iia?aaeaeaaiinoueth oiieinoaiiuo iaiei/ae
a?auaiey, iniiaiua o?aaiaiey eioi?ie caienuaathony a ?aieao aeiioac
Ee?aioa-Eyaa i?e iaeuo aeaoi?iaoeeyo. Enoiaeiay nenoaia o?aaiaiee ia
iniiaa aneiioioe/aneeo ?aceiaeaiee iaoiaea aeaoo ianooaaia a?aiaie
i?aia?aciaaia e aeaoi ?aeo??aioiui nenoaiai. Ia?aay ec ieo —
ia/aeueii-e?aaaay caaea/a iieco/anoe n eneiiuie ooieoeeyie iniiaiiai
aeaeaeaiey, iaaeeaiii eciaiythuaainy a ianooaaa iae?ineiie/aneiai
«iaaeeaiiiai» a?aiaie, ?aoaieai eioi?ie ii?aaeaeyaony aeiaaeueiue
i?ioeann iieco/anoe aieioue aei caaa?oaiey ne?uoiai ?ac?ooaiey. Aoi?ay
caaea/a ioaa/aao aeaeaeaieth a ianooaaa «auno?iai» a?aiaie e iienuaaao
onoaiiaeaoeany auioaeaeaiiua eieaaaiey iaiei/ee. Iaa caaea/e naycaiu
o?aaiaieyie ninoiyiey aunieioeeeee/aneie iieco/anoe, iaiauathueo
ecaanoiua caeiiu noaoe/aneie iieco/anoe aeey neo/ay oeeeee/anee
eciaiythueony iai?yaeaiee.

?aoaiey caaea/ iieo/aiu iaoiaeii eiia/iuo yeaiaioia. Aeey caaea/
iieco/anoe eniieueciaai iaoiae i?iaiica-ei??aeoeee i?e eioaa?e?iaaiee ii
a?aiaie. Eiia/iua yeaiaiou i?eiyou a aeaea eiie/aneeo iaiei/ae n
eeiaeiuie ooieoeeyie oi?i aeey iaia?aiiuo ia?aiauaiee e eoae/aneie
ooieoeee aeey ii?iaeueiuo ia?aiauaiee. Iieo/aiu ?ac?aoathuea o?aaiaiey
IEY aeey iienaiey i?ioeannia iieco/anoe a «iaaeeaiiii» a?aiaie e aeey
?an/aoa auioaeaeaiiuo eieaaaiee. ?anniio?aiu iniiaiua yoaiu ?an/aoia e
eo /eneaiiay ?aaeecaoeey n iiiiuueth iaoiaeia /eneaiiiai eioaa?e?iaaiey
Aaonna e Iuethoiia-Eioana aeey iiaen/aoa iao?eoe aeanoeinoae e iann e
eiiiiiaioia aaeoi?ia iaa?ocie; iaoiaeia o?aoaieueiie oaeoi?ecaoeee
Oieaoeeiai, sseiae e o?iioaeueiiai iaoiaea aeey ?aoaiey caaea/
oa?iiiieco/anoe, naiaiaeiuo e auioaeaeaiiuo eieaaaiee; iaoiaea
i?iaiica-ei??aeoeee o?aoueaai ii?yaeea n aaoiiaoe/aneei auai?ii oaaa
aeey eioaa?e?iaaiey o?aaiaiee ninoiyiey ii a?aiaie. ?anniio?ai aeai?eoi
ooi/iaiey ?an/aoia i?e aieueoeo ia?aiauaieyo aneaaenoaea iieco/anoe.

?anniio?aiu oanoiaua i?eia?u, a eioi?uo aeinoiaa?iinoue /eneaiiuo
?acoeueoaoia onoaiiaeaia oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiui eo niioaaonoaeai
aiaeeoe/aneei e yenia?eiaioaeueiui aeaiiui, ecaanoiuie a eeoa?aoo?a, eee
/eneaiii iieo/aiiuie ae?oaeie aaoi?aie. Eco/aii aeeyiea noaiaie
aeene?aoecaoeee ia aeinoiaa?iinoue ?an/aoia. ?acoeueoaou ?an/aoia
iaiei/ae e ieanoei iicaieeee naeaeaoue auaiae i aunieie noaiaie
aaeaeaaoiinoe eniieuecoaiuo iiaeaeae, iaoiaea e /eneaiiuo aeai?eoiia.
?an/aou ia iieco/anoue, auiieiaiiua aeey o?oa iiae aeaaeaieai,
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii niioaaonoaotho yenia?eiaioaeueiui (O.I.Eaoe,
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a) e ecaanoiui /eneaiiui aeaiiui (A.A.Aaeia,
TH.I.Oaa/aiei, Eeaa). Enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea ia iieco/anoue o?oa
oeeeee/aneie iaa?ocee. I?e /eneaiiuo enneaaeiaaieyo onoaiiaeaiu
caeiiiia?iinoe oeeeee/aneie iieco/anoe e ?ac?ooaiey e?oaeuo ieanoei ec
aethieieaaiai nieaaa Ae16AO, ineaaeaiiuo a oeaio?a ioaa?noeai n aeanoeie
anoaaeie, i?e ecaeaa oeaio?aeueiie neeie. Eco/aiu aii?inu aeeyiey oi?iu
iaiei/ee (oeeeeiae?, eiion, noa?a) ia oi?iiia?aciaaiea e ?ac?ooaiea
aneaaenoaea oeeeee/aneie iieco/anoe.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?aaenoaaeaiu ?an/aou aeeeoaeueiie i?i/iinoe ei?iona
oi?oeaaiai caoai?a aacinoaoe/aneie onoaiiaee, i?aaeiacia/aiiie aeey
iiaeaioiaee io?aaioaiiuo oaieiauaeaeythueo nai?ie aoiiiuo
yeaeo?inoaioeee e aeeeoaeueiiio o?aiaieth. Aeey ioeaiee ?ano?na
aacinoaoa ?an/aou aeeeoaeueiie i?i/iinoe ei?iona auiieiyeenue aeey
?acee/iuo o?iaiae oaoiieiae/aneeo aeaaeaiee. Iieo/aiu ?an/aoiua aeaiiua
aeey i?aaeaeueiiai /enea oeeeeia aei ?ac?ooaiey noaiee ei?iona a
caaeneiinoe io aaee/eiu iaeneiaeueiiai oaoiieiae/aneiai aeaaeaiey a
oeeeea. Ii?aaeaeai aeeaiacii ?aai/eo aeaaeaiee, ioaa/athuee ii?iai ii
aeieaiaa/iinoe e ooieoeeiiaeueiiio iacia/aieth aacinoaoa.

Onoaiiaeaiiua /eneaiii caeiiiia?iinoe oeeeee/aneie iieco/anoe a ?aaioa
iaoee yenia?eiaioaeueiia iainiiaaiea. A yenia?eiaioao onoaiiaeaiu
caeiiiia?iinoe noaoe/aneie e aeeiaie/aneie iieco/anoe aethieieaaiai
nieaaa Ae16AO e e?oaeuo ieanoei ec yoiai iaoa?eaea i?e ecaeaa.
Niiinoaaeaieai ?an/aoiuo e?eauo iieco/anoe, i?iaeaia e a?aiaie aei
?ac?ooaiey ieanoei n yenia?eiaioaeueiuie aeaiiuie onoaiiaeaii, /oi eo
ioee/ea iaoiaeeony a i?aaeaeao ?aca?ina iiuoiuo aeaiiuo e ia
i?aainoiaeeo 20 % ii i?iaeaai, e 16% — ii a?aiaie aei ?ac?ooaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iieco/anoue, iia?aaeaeaaiinoue, ?ac?ooaiea,
oeeeee/aneia iaa?oaeaiea, inaneiiao?e/iua iaiei/ee, e?oaeua ieanoeiu,
iaoiae aneiioioe/aneeo ?aceiaeaiee ii aeaoi ianooaaai a?aiaie, iaoiae
eiia/iuo yeaiaioia, yenia?eiaio.

Shipulin S.A. Development of a method for strength calculation of shell
structures at axisymmetrical cyclical loading and creep. — Manuscript.

Thesis on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of
engineering science on a speciality 05.02.09 — dynamics and strength of
machines. — Kharkov State Politechnical University, Kharkov, 1999.

The scientific novelty of work consists in the developing the new
method and software for calculation of high-cyclic creep and durable
strength of axially symmetric cyclic loaded shell elements of machinery
structures. The theoretical justification of a method is given. The
reliability of results is confirmed by the satisfactory correspondence
of the numerical solutions had been found and known analytical and
experimental data. The experimental equipment is created, the new
experimental data on a cyclic creep of materials and round plates under
bending are obtained. The new laws of a cyclic creep and damage of
shells are established and the essential influence of cyclic loading on
formation and time to fracture is shown. The method is aimed and used
for cyclic creep calculations of on a design stage.

Key word: creep, damage, fracture, cyclic loading, axisymmetrical
shells, round plates, method of asymptotic expansions on two time
scales, finite element method, experiment.

I?aei. aei ae?oeo 29.04.1999 ?. Oi?iao 60(84/16. Iai?? CopyRex.

Oi. ae?oe. a?e. 1.0. Oe?aae 100. Cai. 119-10.

Iaae?oeiaaii ia ?ecia?ao? OAeIO.

310002, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. O?oica, 21.

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