2

OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IIE?OAOI?*IEE

OI?AA?NEOAO

?aae/oe Ieaa Aieiaeeie?iae/

OAeE 65.011.46:621.01

?IC?IAEA IAOIAeO EIIIEAENII? IOe?IEE AE?IAIE*I? OAOIIEIA?*IINO?
NO?OEOO?E AE?IAO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.02.08 – oaoiieia?y iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a -1999

1

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Noinueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe ? iaoee Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Caoa?ia Ieeiea
Aieiaeeie?iae/,

Noinueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neo,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aenieoaoaoe?y ? ?aiiio iaoei

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

A?i?ioue?a Ai?en Ieoaeeiae/,

Oe?a?inueea ?iaeaia?ii-iaaeaaia?/ia aeaaeai?y,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oaoiieia?y iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy;

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

?yoianueeee Ieaen?e Aieiaeeie?iae/,

Oa?e?anueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo oaoiieia?? iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy,

cai?niee aee?aeoi?a ?inoeoooo — aee?aeoi? ae?iaieoeoaa.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie
«Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo» I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe ? iaoee Oe?a?ie,
eaoaae?a oaoiieia?? iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 31 aa?aciy 2000 ?ieo i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.64.050.12 o Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
iie?oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith:

61002, i.Oa?e?a, aoe. O?oica, 21, OAeIO

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? OAeIO, 61002,
i.Oa?e?a, aoe. O?oica, 21

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 28 ethoiai 2000 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Ocoiyi I.Ae.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. No/aniee ??aaiue oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano, aeei?enoaiiy
aeinyaiaiue iaoee ? oaoi?ee o ae?iaieoeoa?, aeiiae aei i?aeaeuaiiy
yeino? aeaioiaeaiiy eiino?oeoe?e ae?ia?a, ui iino?eii
oneeaaeiththoueny, aecia/athoue iaiao?aei?noue oaeineiiaethaaiiy ?oiuei?
no?oeoo?e. Iaaeinoaoiy iaoiaee/ia ?ic?iaea ieoaiue e?euee?nii? ioe?iee
oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e, iniaeeai c o?aooaaiiyi iiaeeeaino?
?ic?aooie?a ia ?aii?o noaae?yo eiino?oeoi?nueei? i?aeaioiaee
ae?iaieoeoaa, ? ?noioiei no?eioth/ei /eiieeii aeei?enoaiiy
?aoe?iiaeueieo eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue. ?ic?iaea ?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy caoiae?a uiaei caaacia/aiiy oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e
ae?iao a aeaiee /an cae?enith?oueny aieiaiei /eiii ia iniia? ye?nieo
ioe?iie. Oiio aeieeea iio?aaa a ?ic?iaoe? eiiieaeniiai e?euee?niiai
iieacieea, ui aeicaiey? ioe?ithaaoe ??aaiue oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e
ae?iao ia aoaiao neeaaeaiiy, iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee ? caaio?aaeueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa.

??oaiiy caaea/? a?aei?aoeueiaoaaiiy no?oeoo?e ae?iao ia oaoiieia?/i?noue
aeicaiey? iaea?aeaoe a?aeiia?ae? ia ieoaiiy: ia yeo e?euee?noue
neeaaeaeueieo iaeeieoeue, i?e aei/ii-iiaeoeueiiio eiino?othaaii?,
?aoe?iiaeueii ?icae?eeoe ae??a; /e ?aoe?iiaeueii c iiaeyaeo oaoiieia??
aeeiiaia /eaioaaiiy ae?iao ia neeaaeaeuei? /anoeie; /e ?aoe?iiaeueia
no?oeoo?a ae?iao aeey aoai?a iaoaiiia?iaee ? caaio?aaeueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa.

O caaaeuei?e no?oeoo?? nia?aa?oino? aeaioiaeaiiy iaoei neeaaeaiiy
iin?aea? 25…40%, o i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaii? 40…70%. O iaoeiiaoaeoaaii?
iaoai?ciaaii 25…30%, o i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaii? 12…15% neeaaeaeueieo
iia?aoe?e, a aaoiiaoeciaaii — ia a?eueo 5…6%. A oe?eyo ciaiueoaiiy
aeo?ao i?aoe? iaiao?aeii iioei?coaaoe neeaaeaeuei? i?ioeane, aecia/eoe
aca?iica’ycie aeaiaio?a ae?iao ? iiaeeea? aa??aioe iine?aeiaiino?
neeaaeaiiy, oe?oa canoiniaoaaoe iaoiaee aaoiiaoeciaaii? i?aeaioiaee
neeaaeaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, a oaeiae iaoaiaoe/iiai iieno oaoiieia?/ieo
i?ioean?a ?c aeei?enoaiiyi eiii’thoa?ii? oaoi?ee. Neeaaeaiiy ?
caeeth/iei ? aecia/aeueiei aoaiii ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano, ui caaacia/o?
oaoi?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ae?ia?a ? ?oith ye?noue.

Aoaeo a?ae iioei?caoe?? no?oeoo?e ae?iao aeyaey?oueny ia an?o noaae?yo
?ic?iaee. Aiae?c iai?yie?a oaeineiiaethaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee
ae?iaieoeoaa iieacaa, ui cia/ia /anoea aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
ae?iaieoeoaa aeinyaa?oueny ia aoai? eiino?othaaiiy ae?ia?a. Ca aeaieie
N.-Iaoa?ao?anueeeo i?aei?e?inoa: EIII ?i. A.?.Eai?ia, “Eai?ia?aaenueeee
Iaoaeaaee caaiae”, “Iaanueeee caaiae” ?i. A.?.Eai?ia, “E??ianueeee
caaiae”, “Aeaeo?ineea” ?i. N.I.E??iaa, caaiaeo i?aeeiiii-o?ainii?oiiai
onoaoeoaaiiy ?i.N.I.E??iaa, “Eaiiie?a?aoiao”, ea?ath?aoi?ii-a?iaoo?iee
?i. A.A.Eoeaeoaaa oa ?i. 60% aoaeoo oaeineiiaethaaiiy i?aeaioiaee
ae?iaieoeoaa i?eiaaea? ia caaacia/aiiy oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e
eiino?oeoe?? ae?iao.

Aeiiae ae?iaieoeoaa iaiao?aeii ?icaeyaeaoe a eiiieaen?, ?c iaoith
iaea?aeaiiy aoaeoo a oe?eiio, a ia ia ie?aieo aoaiao. I?e oeueiio
iiaeeeai aeey aeayeeo aoai?a iaea?aeaiiy ia iaeneiaeueiiai, a
na?aaeiueiai aoaeoo. Caaacia/aiiy oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e ae?iao —
ooieoe?y i?aeaioiaee ae?iaieoeoaa, ui aecia/a? aca?iicaeaaeia ??oaiiy
eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ? oaoiieia?/ieo caaea/, ni?yiiaaieo ia i?aeaeuaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?, aeinyaiaiiy iioeiaeueieo o?oaeiaeo ?
iaoa??aeueieo aeo?ao, ciaioaiiy /ano ia ae?iaieoeoai, oaoi?/ia
ianeoaiaoaaiiy ? ?aiiio. Ca?eueoaiiy aeo?ao ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/io ?ic?iaeo
ia ii/aoeiaeo noaae?yo i?iaeooaaiiy, eiee ae?iaeythoueny iniiai?
eiino?oeoeai? ??oaiiy, ui ianooue aoaeo, aaaaoi?aciai ieoiathoueny i?e
inai?ii? ae?iaieoeoaa e o i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe?? iiai? oaoi?ee. Oea
oaeiae aa?aioo? i?eeiyooy iaea?eueoa aoaeoeaieo ?c iiaeyaeo niiaeeaa/a
e o oe?eiio ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa ?iaeaia?ii-oaoi?/ieo ??oaiue.

Ca’ycie oaie c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeaia ?iaioa
aeeiiaia a ?aieao aea?aeathaeaeaoii? oaie 0197U016597 “?ic?iaea
iaoiaeeee i?iaeooaaiiy aenieiaoaeoeaieo ia?aiaeaaiaeaeo?ieo
aaoiiaoeciaaieo neeaaeaeueieo oaoiieia?/ieo nenoai”. Oaeiae iaoa??aee
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e ?ic?iaoe? aea?aeoaie
0194U009734 “?ic?iaea iaoiae?a ? iaoiaeee noai?aiiy oaoi?/ieo nenoai
(iia?aoe?eieo eiiieaen?a) aeey i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? ae?ia?a o
iaoeiiaoaeoaaii?”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe —
?ic?iaea iaoiaeo eiiieaenii? ioe?iee ae?iaie/i? oaoiieia?/iino?
no?oeoo?e ae?iao.

Aeey ?aae?caoe?? noi?ioeueiaaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe oae? caaea/?:

— aecia/eoe eiiieaeniee e?eoa??e oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e ae?iao i?e
aeaioiaeaii?;

— aecia/eoe no?oeoo?o eiiieaeniiai iieacieea oaoiieia?/iino?
eiino?oeoe?? ae?iao aeey aoai?a neeaaeaiiy, iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee ?
caaio?aaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa;

— ?ic?iaeoe iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue eiiieaeniiai e?eoa??th oaoiieia?/iino?
no?oeoo?e ae?iao ia an?o aoaiao aeaioiaeaiiy;

— aeyaeoe ca’ycie no?oeoo?e ae?iao c eiiieaeniei e?eoa???i ia aoaiao
neeaaeaiiy, iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee ? caaio?aaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa;

— ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy eiiieaeniiai e?eoa??th oaoiieia?/iino?
no?oeoo?e ae?iao i?e aeaioiaeaii? ? aeyaeoe ca’ycie neeaaeiaiai oeueiai
e?eoa??th c oaoi?/ieie iieacieeaie;

— ?ic?iaeoe iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue aeey aecia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueii?
no?oeoo?e ae?iao ii eiiieaeniiio e?eoa??th;

— ?ic?iaeoe iaoiae eiiieaenii? ioe?iee ae?iaie/i? oaoiieia?/iino?
no?oeoo?e ae?ia?a;

— ?ic?iaeoe i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy aeey ia/eneaiiy eiiieaeniiai
e?eoa??th oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e ae?iao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o oiio, ui:

— aia?oa ?ic?iaeaii iaoiae eiiieaenii? ioe?iee ae?iaie/i?
oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e ae?iao, ui aeicaiey? aea?aoe ?aoe?iiaeueiee ii
nia?aa?oino? aa??aio no?oeoo?e c o?aooaaiiyi neeaaeaeueiiai,
iaoaiiia?iaethth/iai ? caaio?aaeueiiai aoai?a.

— aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii aeai?eoi aecia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e
ae?iao a neeaaeaeueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?, ui aeicaiey? aeae?aoe no?oeoo?iee
aeae oaoiieia?/ii? noaie neeaaeaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio ae?iaieoeoaa
? oi?ioaaoe iaeanoue iiooeo ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aa??aioo no?oeoo?e ae?iao ii
niaoe?aeueiiio oaoi?/iiio iieacieeo.

— cai?iiiiiaaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue aeey iieno no?oeoo?e aeaoae? ?
no?oeoo?e oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee, yea aeicaiey?
aeae?aoe ?aoe?iiaeueiee aa??aio oaoiieia?? ii nia?aa?oino? aeaioiaeaiiy
i?e eiiieaeni?e ioe?ioe? ae?iao ia ae?iaie/o oaoiieia?/i?noue.

— ?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue aeey ?ic?aooieo eiiieaeniiai
iieacieea oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e aeaoae? a caaio?aaeueiiio
ae?iaieoeoa?, yea aeicaiey? a?aoiaoaaoe aeo?aoe i?e ci?i? iaoiae?a ?
niinia?a iaea?aeaiiy ? iaoa??aeo caaioiaee. ?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoi
aecia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e aeaoae?, oaoiieia?/ii? ia
caaio?aaeueiiio aoai?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui
?ic?iaeaiee iaoiae eiiieaenii? ioe?iee ae?iaie/i? oaoiieia?/iino?
no?oeoo?e ae?iao. Cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoiae aeicaiey? ia aoai? i?aeaioiaee
ae?iaieoeoaa aecia/eoe ??aaiue oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e ae?iao ca
e?eoa???i nia?aa?oino? ? c?iaeoe a?aei?aoeueiaoaaiiy no?oeoo?e ae?iao ia
oaoiieia?/i?noue. Io?eiaiee a ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiae iiaea
aooe aeei?enoaiee i?e i?iaeooaaii? iiaeo ae?ia?a ia iaoeiiaoae?aieo
i?aei?e?inoaao ? ioe?iee ??aiy oaoiieia?/iino? aaea noai?aieo
eiino?oeoe?e ae?ia?a ?c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy oaoiieia?/iino?
eiino?oeoe??.

Aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy caaacia/o?oueny
aeei?enoaiiyi no/aniiai iaoaiaoe/iiai aia?aoo, nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo,
oai??? a?ao?a, iaoiaeo iioei?caoe?? — iaoiae neaioaaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeai? o ae?iaieoeoai (ia AO NIIAI ?i.
I.A.O?oica ai?iaiaaiee iaoiae eiiieaenii? ioe?iee ae?iaie/i?
oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e ae?iao). Oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy, ye? i?eaaaeai?
a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? ia
eaoaae?? “Iaae?ei?noue ? ?aiiio iaoei” Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoee aeieiaeai? ia:

— 4-o?e, 5-o?e, 6-o?e i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo,
i. Aeoooa, 1997, 1998, 1999 ?ieao;

— 27-th international conference of production engineering, Nish,
Serbia, Yugoslavia, 1998. (27-y i?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioe?y ii i?iaeoeoe??
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, i.I?o, Na?a?y, THaineaa?y, 1998);

— eiioa?aioe?yo aeeeaaea/?a, ni?a?ia?oiee?a ? ani??aio?a Noinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, i.Noi, 1995, 1996 ?ieao;

— iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo aeeeaaea/?a, ni?a?ia?oiee?a ?
ani??aio?a Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? aaie?anueei? ni?aae, i.Noi, 1998,
1999 ?ieao.;

— iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao o Noinueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ia oaio
“Iniiai? e?euee?ni? iieacieee i?e eiiieaeni?e ioe?ioe? oaoiieia?/iino?”
? oaio “Eiiieaenia ioe?iea oaoiieia?/iino? ae?ia?a, aia?aoia ? /aniaa
?aca?aoaaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo nenoai”, i.Noie, 1997 ?.

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaai? a 12
iniiaieo i?aoeyo, a oiio /ene? 4 noaoo? o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao, 4 noaoo? o
ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, 3 noaoo? ? 1 oace aeiiia?aeae o iaoa??aeao
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. ?iaioa i?noeoue: anooi, 4 ?icae?ee, aeniiaee,
nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, aeiaeaoee. Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe??
222 noi??iee, a oiio /ene?: 55 ?enoie?a (5 noi?.), 35 oaaeeoeue (13
noi?.), 132 a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo iaca (13 noi?.), 3 aeiaeaoee (46 noi?.).

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ?iaioe iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie eiiieaenii? ioe?iee
ae?iaie/i? oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e ae?iao. Iaaaaeai?: iaoa ?iaioe ?
caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue; aecia/aia iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe ? io?eiai?
i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe; iieacaiee ca’ycie oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe c
iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, oaiaie, ieaiaie; ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i ai?iaaoe?th
?iaioe; iniiai? ioae?eaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaiee aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e c ieoaiiue e?euee?nii?
ioe?iee oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e ae?iao. Aiae?c i?iaiaeeany c oi/ee
ci?o iiaeeeaino? i?iaaaeaiiy ?ic?aooie?a ??aiy oaoiieia?/iino? ia ?aii?o
noaae?yo i?iaeooaaiiy eiino?oeoe?? oa ??aiy aoaeoeaiino? ?ia?o aeey
??cieo noaae?yo i?aeaioiaee ae?iaieoeoaa. Anoaiiaeaiii, ui ioe?ieo ??aiy
oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e ae?iao aeioe?eueii i?iaiaeeoe ia ?aii?o
noaae?yo i?iaeooaaiiy (oaoi?/ia i?iiiceoe?y ? ane?ciee i?iaeo).

I?iaaaeaiee iaeyae oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a, eio??
aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e ioe?ioe? oaoiieia?/iino? eiino?oeoe?? ae?iao
aeicaiey? c?iaeoe ianooii? aeniiaee:

— aeey ioe?iee oaoiieia?/iino? ae?ia?a ia ??cieo aoaiao aeeoo?aiai
oeeeeo iiaeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe 161 oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iee iieaciee;

— oe? iieacieee iiaeia ?icae?eeoe ia 9 a?oi ii ne?aeoth/ei iciaeai:1)
iieacieee o?oaeii?noeino?; 2) iieacieee nia?aa?oino?; 3) iieacieee
oi?o?eaoe?? ? noaiaea?oecaoe?? eiino?oeoe??; 4) iieacieee
aeei?enoiao?ieo oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a; 5) oaoi?/i? iieacieee
aeei?enoiao?iiai iaoa??aeo; 6) oaoi?/i? iieacieee neeaaeo eiino?oeoe??;
7) iieacieee oaoiieia?/ii? ?aoe?iiaeueiino?; 8) oaoi?/i? iieacieee
ia?iaee; 9) oaoi?/i? iieacieee aia?aii?noeino?.

— aeey eiiieaenii? ioe?iee ??aiy oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e ae?iao
aeei?enoiaothoue ne?aeoth/e iieacieee: nia?aa?o?noue aeaioiaeaiiy
ae?iao; o?oaeii?noe?noue aeaioiaeaiiy ae?iao; iaoa??aeii?noe?noue
ae?iao; aia?aii?noe?noue ae?iao.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c ?nioth/eo iaoiae?a eiiieaenii? ioe?iee
oaoiieia?/iino? ae?ia?a iieacaa, ui ?nio? iiaeeea?noue eiiieaenii?
ioe?iee eeoa ia ie?aieo aoaiao aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo ae?iao (neeaaeaiiy,
iaoai?/ia ia?iaea, caaio?aaeueia ae?iaieoeoai). Iaoiaee eiiieaenii?
ioe?iee oaoiieia?/iino? ae?ia?a iiaeia eeaneo?eoaaoe ii ne?aeoth/ei
e?eoa??yi: ia iniia? ?ic?aooieo noia?ieo aeo?ao ia aoaiao aeeoo?aiai
oeeeeo ae?iao; ii eiiieaeniiio oaoi?/iiio e?eoa??th; ii ia?aiao?ai
no?oeoo?e c ianooiiei i?iaaaeaiiyi oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co; ii
oaoi?/iei iieacieeai, eio?? a?oiothoueny a eiiieaeniee iieaciee
oaoiieia?/iino?; ii iciaeai (aeiiaai) eio?? i?aae’yaeythoue aei ae?iao ?
i?ioeano aeaioiaeaiiy ae?iao; ia iniia? ooieoe?iiaeueii-eiooi?eniiai
aiae?co.

Aeey ?ic?aooieo eiiieaenieo iieaciee?a oaoiieia?/iino? ia ?aii?o
noaae?yo i?iaeooaaiiy aeei?enoiaothoue ne?aeoth/e oe?oiiaii? iaoiaee
?ic?aooieo: iaoiae ei?aeyoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy; aaaiaee iaoiae; iaoiae
aaeiai? ioe?iee; iaoiae eiao?oe??io?a; iaoiae ?ic?aooieo ii ieoiiiio
iieacieeo; iaoiae noaoenoe/iiai aiae?co no?oeoo?e nia?aa?oino?; iaoiae
o?aooaaiiy neeaaeiino?.

Aeey ooi/iaiiy ?ic?aooie?a eiiieaeniiai iieacieea oaoiieia?/iino?
aeei?enoiaothoue iiaeaiaioiee iaoiae oa iaoiae
ii?iaoeaii-eaeueeoeyoe?eiiai aiae?co.

I?e aiae?c? e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ii aeaiiiio ieoaiith aoee ?icaeyioo?
iaoa??aee oaeeo a?aeiieo o/aieo, ye: I.N. Eaaaaeianueeiai, A.E.
Aaeoey, A.?. Oaaeioiaa, A.A. Aon?aa, A.A. Eineeiaa, I.A. Caoa?iaa, TH.A.
Oeiio??aa, TH.Ae. Ai??iaa, A.I. Aaeaaaiiaa, A.N. Aaeaeoeia, A.I.
Aaa?eoa, E.N. ssiiieuenueeiai, I.I. Eaiono?ia, A.A. Iaaeiaa, A.Ae.
Oeaaoeiaa, A.A. Iaoae?ia, A.I. Eiaaia, N.I I?o?ioaiiaa, I.I. Ieoaeeiaa
oa ?i.

Aea/aiiy ieoaiiy iieacaei iaaeinoaoith iaoiaee/io ?ic?iaeo e?euee?nii?
ioe?iee oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e ae?iao, iniaeeai c o?aooaaiiyi
iiaeeeaino? i?iaaaeaiiy ?ic?aooie?a ia ?aii?o noaae?yo i?aeaioiaee
ae?iaieoeoaa. ?ic?iaea ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy caoiae?a uiaei caaacia/aiiy
oaoiieia?/iino? ae?ia?a o iao /an cae?enith?oueny aieiaiei /eiii ia
iniia? ye?nieo ioe?iie, oiio aeieeea iio?aaa a ?ic?iaoe? e?euee?niiai
iaoiaeo eiiieaenii? ioe?iee ae?iaie/i? oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e ae?iao.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e ?iaioe i?enay/aiee ieoaiiyi ?ic?iaee iaoiae?a
e?euee?nii? ioe?iee oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e ia aoaiao aeaioiaeaiiy
ae?iao. Aeey oiai, uia e?euee?nii ioe?ieoe oaoiieia?/i?noue no?oeoo?e
ae?iao i?e ae?iaieoeoa?, iaiao?aeii a?ae?a?aoe aeae?eueea no?oeoo? ii
oaoi?/iei iieacieeai. Oe? iieacieee iiaeii? iaiaaeoaaoe iaeanoue iiooeo
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aa??aioo no?oeoo?e ae?iao, aea a??ia?aei?noue ciaeaeaiiy
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aa??aioo no?oeoo?e naia aeniea. E?eoa???i
?aoe?iiaeueiino? i?eeiyoi nia?aa?o?noue aeaioiaeaiiy ae?iao.

Ia neeaaeaeueiiio aoai? iaa?oioiaaii a?aeiia?aei?noue no?oeoo?e ae?iao
oeio ae?iaieoeoaa. No?oeoo?o ae?iao i?e neeaaeaii? a?aeoai?th?
oaoiieia?/ia noaia neeaaeaiiy (ONN). No?oeoo?iee aeae ONN ae?iao, yeee
a?aeiia?aea? oeio ae?iaieoeoaa, i?aaenoaaeaii a oaaeeoe? 1.

Aea?? no?oeoo?iiai aeaeo ONN ae?iao a?aeiia?aeii aei oeio ae?iaieoeoaa
aeicaiey? nei?ioeoe /enei no?oeoo? ?c iiaeeeaeo aa??aio?a.

Aeey neeaaeaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa iaeanoue iiooeo ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aa??aioo no?oeoo?e ae?iao iaiaaeo?oueny oaoi?/iei iieacieeii —
e?euee?noue aeaoaeae, eio?? ia a?eoee aei neeaaeo neeaaeaeueieo
iaeeieoeue Ae. Aeaiee iieaciee ?ic?aoiaaiiee c o?aooaaiiyi
aei/ii-iiaeoeueiiai eiino?othaaiiy. Iioeiaeueiee aa??aio /enaeueiino?
aeaoaeae a iaeiiio aeioe? iiaeiai aooe a iaaeao A= 4 — 6 oooe. A
oaaeeoe? 2 i?eaaaeaii ?ioa?aae ci?ie Ae a?aeiia?aeii aei oei?a
ae?iaieoeoaa.

Ia ?enoieo 1 i?aaenoaaeaiii oa?aeoa? ci?ie Ae a?ae e?eueeino? aeaoaeae o
ae?ia? N aeey ??cieo oei?a ae?iaieoeoaa.

Oaeei /eiii, aea?? no?oeoo?e ae?iao aeey eiiieaenii? ioe?iee
cae?enith?oueny ?c iaeano? iiooeo ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aa??aioo ii
eiao?oe??ioo aeaea noaie Ea.n.. Iiooe a?aeaoaa?oueny o aeae?eueea
i?eaeeaeaiue. O ia?oiio i?eaeeaeaii? aea?? i?iaiaeyoue ii ae?aco:

Aea?aia oaeei /eiii no?oeoo?a ae?iao a neeaaeaeueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?
i?eeia? cia/aiiy aaciai? no?oeoo?e. Aeey oe??? no?oeoo?e ?ic?aoiaothoue
eiiieaeniee iieaciee oaoiieia?/iino? — nia?aa?o?noue neeaaeaeueiiai
aoaio Cnee , iaoiaeii noaoenoe/iiai aiae?co no?oeoo?e nia?aa?oino?.

Aeae? eiiieaenia ioe?iea oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e ae?iao ia?aoiaeeoue
ia aoai iaoaiiia?iaee. Aacia?e no?oeoo?? ae?iao i?e neeaaeaii?
a?aeiia?aea? aaciaa no?oeoo?a ae?iao i?e iaoai?/i?e ia?iaoe? ?
caaio?aaeueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?.

Ia aoai? iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee ae?ia?a ?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue, yea
a?aeaeaa? no?oeoo?o aeaoae? oa no?oeoo?o oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano
iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee. No?oeoo?a ae?iao ia aoai? iaoaiiia?iaee i?aaenoaaey?
noia?iiceoe?th ie?aieo aeaiaio?a — aeaoaeae. A?ao no?oeoo?e eiino?oeoe??
aeaoae? i?aaenoaaeaiee ia ?enoieo 2.

sse a?aeiii, oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee a caeaaeiino? a?ae
oa?aeoa?o ? oi/iino? iia?aoe?e ?iciiae?ey?oueny ia 13 aoai?a.
A?aeiia?aeii ? a?ao no?oeoo?e ae?iao ia aoai? iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee ia? 11
??ai?a (2 ??ai? a?aeianaii aei caaio?aaeueiiai aoaio). Eiaeia
aeaiaioa?ia iiaa?oiy aeaoae? i?aeaea?oueny ia?iaoe? ia iaaieo aoaiao
oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano a caeaaeiino? a?ae o?ceei-oaoiieia?/ieo aeiia,
i?aae’yaeaieo aei ia?. Oaeei /eiii, aeaiaioa?ia iiaa?oiy ae?iao
iicia/a?oueny ia a?aeiia?aeiiio aoai? a?aoa aea aiia i?aeaea?oueny
iaoai?/i?e ia?iaoe?.

Aeey iiaoaeiaaiiai a?aoa no?oeoo?e aeaoae? caiiaith?oueny iao?eoey
aeeiiaiiy iia?aoe?e iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee (?enoiie3). No?ieaie iao?eoe?
aoaeooue aoaie iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee, a noiai/eeaie — aeaiaioa?i? iiaa?oi?.
Cia/aiiy aeaiaioo iao?eoe? aei??aith? 1, yeui a?aeiia?aeii aeaiaioa?ia
iiaa?oiy ia?iaey?oueny ia a?aeiia?aeiiio aoai? oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano
iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee. I?aaenoaaeaiiy no?oeoo?e eiino?oeoe?? aeaoae? o
aeaeyae? iao?eoe? aeicaiey? nenoaiaoecoaaoe iien ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i
eiino?oeoe?th aeaoae? ia on?o aoaiao oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano iaoai?/ii?
ia?iaee. Aeae? ?ic?aoiaothoue eiiieaeniee iieaciee oaoiieia?/iino? —
nia?aa?o?noue aoaio iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee aaaiaei iaoiaeii.

I?e aianaii? ci?i o eiino?oeoe?th, i?aaenoaaeaiiy no?oeoo?e aeaoae? o
aeaeyae? iao?eoe? aeicaiey? a?aoe aei ?icaeyaeo eeo o? aoaie
oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee, eoaee aoee aianaii? ci?ie.
Nia?aa?o?noue aoaio iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee aeaoae?, eiino?oeoe?y yei? aoea
ci?iaia, ?ic?aoiao?oueny ca oi?ioeith.

Aeae? eiiieaenia ioe?iea oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e ae?iao ia?aoiaeeoue
ia caaio?aaeueiee aoai.

Ia caaio?aaeueiiio aoai? ae??a i?aaenoaaey? noia?iiceoe?th ie?aieo
aeaiaio?a – caaio?aie. Oiio no?oeoo?a ae?iao ?iceeaaea?oueny ia
no?oeoo?e caaio?aie. Aeey caaio?aaeueiiai aoaio ?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia
iiaeaeue aeey ?ic?aooieo eiiieaeniiai iieacieea oaoiieia?/iino?
no?oeoo?e aeaoae?. Noaia iaea?aeaiiy aeaoae? ia caaio?aaeueiiio aoai?
i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?enoieo 4. Eiiieaeniee iieaciee oaoiieia?/iino? aeaoae?
ia caaio?aaeueiiio aoai? a?aoiao? aeo?aoe, iia’ycai? c iaoiaeii ?
niiniaii iaea?aeaiiy caaio?aie, iaoa??aeii caaio?aee ? iia?aoe?yie ii
ciyooth caeaeo i?eione?a ? iaione?a. Aea?? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aa??aioo
no?oeoo?e aeaoae? a caaio?aaeueiiio ae?iaieoeoa? i?iaiaeyoue ii
e?eoa??th i?i?iaeueii? nia?aa?oino? caaio?aaeueiiai aoaio Nc.a.

Oaeei /eiii, nia?aa?o?noue caaio?aaeueiiai aoaio ?ic?aoiao?oueny ii
oi?ioe?:

,

aea — nia?aa?o?noue iaoa??aeo ?-i? caaio?aee;

— nia?aa?o?noue iaea?aeaiiy ?-i? caaio?aee;

— nia?aa?o?noue aeeiiaiiy iia?aoe?e ii ciyooth caeaeo i?eione?a
? iaione?a;

– e?euee?noue caaio?aie o ae?ia?.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c nia?aa?oino? caaio?aee iieacaa, ui: 1) i?e
ca?eueoaii? i?eioneo ia ?ici?? caaio?aee, O3 (?enoiie 5), a?aeiia?aeii
ca?eueoothoueny aeo?aoe ia iaoa??ae (Ni?). I?e oeueiio a?aeiia?aeii aei
noaoenoe/ieo aeaiieo ciaioothoueny aeo?aoe ia aeaioiaeaiiy caaio?aee
(Nc?) ? ca?eueoothoueny aeo?aoe ia iia?aoe?? ii ciyooth caeaeo i?eione?a
? iaione?a (Ni?), ui iia’ycaii ?c ca?eueoaiiyi caeaeo i?eione?a ?
iaione?a; 2) i?e ciaioaii? i?eioneo ia ?ici?? caaio?aee, O2, O1 (aeea.
?enoiie 5), ciaioothoueny aeo?aoe ia iaoa??ae ? ia aeeiiaiiy iia?aoe?e
ii ciyooth caeaeo i?eione?a ? iaione?a, aea i?e oeueiio ca?eueoothoueny
aeo?aoe iia’ycai? c i?ioeanii aeaioiaeaiiy caaio?aee.

Aea?? ?aoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e aeaoae? ia caaio?aaeueiiio aoai?
i?iaiaeyoue o ne?aeoth/ee iine?aeiaiino?:

— oi?iothoue ianea iaoiae?a ? niinia?a aeaioiaeaiiy caaio?aie, ye?
iiaeeeai oaoi?/ii ?aae?coaaoe o aeaieo ae?iaie/eo oiiaao;

— ii?aae?eythoue ? aeey iaeiiai niiniao;

— oi?iothoue ianea iia?aoe?e ii ciyooth caeaeo i?eione?a ? iaione?a, ye?
iiaeeeai ?aae?coaaoe o aeaieo ae?iaie/eo oiiaao;

— ii?aae?eythoue ;

— ?ic?aoiaothoue Nc.a.? aeey ae?oaeo niinia?a aeaioiaeaiiy caaio?aie,
eio?? oa?eoee aei ianeao oaoi?/ii ?aae?co?ieo o aeaieo ae?iaie/eo oiiaao
?, aea??athoue caaio?aeo aeey eio?i? Nc.a.? ia? i?i?iaeueia cia/aiiy.

Eiiieaeniee iieaciee ae?iaie/i? oaoiieia?/iino? aaciai? no?oeoo?e
ae?iao Na ?ic?aoiaothoue ca oi?ioeith:

aea Ni – nia?aa?o?noue iieoiieo aeaoaeae.

Oaeei /eiii, ?ic?aoiaothoue eiiieaeniee iieaciee ae?iaie/i?
oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e ae?iao a ia?oiio i?eaeeaeaii?.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue eiiieaeniiai
iieacieea ae?iaie/i? oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e ae?iao c o?aooaaiiyi
aoai?a neeaaeaiiy, iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee ? caaio?aaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa.
A?ao aeey ?ic?aooieo eiiieaeniiai iieacieea i?eaaaeaiee ia ?enoieo 6.

Aa?oiy /anoeia a?aoo iieno? no?oeoo?o ae?iao ? ia aoai? neeaaeaiiy.
Ethaee ae??a iiaeii neeaaeaoe ii aeae?eueeii oaoiieia?/iei i?ioeanai,
e?euee?noue yeeo m. Ae??a neeaaea?oueny ?c neeaaeaeueieo iaeeieoeue,
e?euee?noue yeeo aei??aith? d. Ia naiiio ieaeiueiio ??ai? ?ic/eaioaaiiy
ae?iao ia ninoaai? aeaiaioe ciaoiaeyoueny aeaoae? D, e?euee?noue yeeo N.
Oaeei /eiii, oa /anoeia a?aoo, yea a?aeoai?th? neeaaeaeueia ae?iaieoeoai
o aa?oeiao ciaoiaeyoueny neeaaeaeuei? aeaiaioe (aeaoae?, neeaaeaeuei?
iaeeieoe?), a ?aa?ai a?aeiia?aeathoue neeaaeaeuei? iia?aoe?? (?oiy
nia?aa?o?noue). Na?aaeiy /anoeia a?aoo a?aeoai?th? no?oeoo?o ae?iao ia
aoai? iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee aeaoaeae D. E?euee?noue iiaeeeaeo oaoiieia?/ieo
i?ioean?a ia?iaee aei??aith? n. Aeaoaeue neeaaea?oueny ?c iiaa?oiiue ?,
e?euee?noue eio?eo j. Eiaeia iiaa?oiy ia? ioai?e I, e?euee?noue eio?eo b
? eiioo?e E e?euee?noue eio?eo q. Eiaeiee ioa?? ? eiioo? (aeaiaioa?i?
iiaa?oi?) a i?ioean? iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee i?eeiathoue i?ii?aeiee noai,
a?aeiia?aeii aei iia?aoe?e oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano. Oaeei /eiii, a
na?aaei?e /anoei? a?aoo, yea a?aeoai?th? aoai iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee, a
oceao ciaoiaeyoueny i?ii?aei? noaie ioai??a ? eiioo??a, a ?aa?a –
oaoiieia?/i? iia?aoe?? iaoaiiia?iaee (?oiy nia?aa?o?noue). Ieaeiy
/anoeia a?aeoai?th? caaio?aaeueia ae?iaieoeoai. Ocae z – caaio?aea. Ocee
IN a?aeoai?ththoue iaoiae oa niin?a aeaioiaeaiiy caaioiaee. ?aa?a, ye?
c’?aeiothoue ocee a?aeoai?ththoue oaoiieia?/i? iia?aoe?? aeaioiaeaiiy
caaio?aie (?oith nia?aa?o?noue).

A ?icae?e? ?ic?iaeaiee iaoiae eiiieaenii? ioe?iee ae?iaie/i?
oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e ae?iao. ?ic?aooiee i?iaiaeyoue a?aeiia?aeii
aei aeie-noaie, iaaaaeai?e ia ?enoieo 7. Nooue iaoiaeo neeaaea?oueny a
oiio, ui no?oeoo?o ae?iao ?icaeyaeathoue iine?aeiaii, ii/eiath/e c aoaio
neeaaeaiiy. Ia aoai? neeaaeaiiy aeae?athoue iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueiee
aa??aio no?oeoo?e ae?iao. I?e aeai?? aeei?enoiaothoue iaiaaeaiiy: oei
ae?iaieoeoaa; e?euee?noue aeaoaeae, eio?? ia oa?eoee aei neeaaeaeueieo
iaeeieoeue, eiao?oe??io aeaeo noaie. Aeey aaciai? no?oeoo?e ia aoai?
neeaaeaiiy ?ic?aoiaothoue nia?aa?o?noue. Aeae? ?icaeyaeathoue aoai
iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee ? ?ic?aoiaothoue nia?aa?o?noue iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee ia
iniia? ia?iaee ae?iao-aiaeiao. Ia?aeaeueii ?ic?aoiaothoue nia?aa?o?noue
iieoiieo aeaoaeae. Aeae? aeey caaio?aaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa ciaoiaeyoue
?aoe?iiaeueio no?oeoo?o ae?iao ii e?eoa??th i?i?iaeueii? nia?aa?oino?
caaio?aaeueiiai aoaio. Ia ianooiiiio e?ioe? ?ic?aoiaothoue nia?aa?o?noue
ae?iao c o?aooaaiiyi aoaio neeaaeaiiy, iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee oa
caaio?aaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Oe? iia?aoe?? aoiaeyoue aei i?aei?ia?aie
?ic?aooieo nia?aa?oino? o ia?oiio i?eaeeaeai? (aeie 2, ?enoiie 7). Aeae?
i?iaiaeyoue ?ic?aooiie nia?aa?oino? no?oeoo? ae?ia?a, eio?? iiiaee a
iaeanoue iiooeo ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aa??aioo oaoiieia?/ii? noaie neeaaeaiiy
ae?iao. Ii??aiththoue aeaii? no?oeoo?e ii eiiieaeniiio iieacieeo –
nia?aa?oino? aeaioiaeaiiy ae?iao ? ciaoiaeyoue no?oeoo?o, yea ia?
i?i?iaeueia cia/aiiy oeueiai iieacieea. Oey no?oeoo?a aoaea
oaoiieia?/iith aeey aeaieo ae?iaie/eo oiia. Aeai?eoi aeai?o
oaoiieia?/ii? no?oeoo?e ?aae?ciaaiee ia eiii’thoa?? o ae?aeiaiaiio
?aaeei?.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee ieoaiiyi i?aeoe/iiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iaoiaeo eiiieaenii? ioe?iee no?oeoo?e ae?iao ia i?eeeaae? oanoa?aiiiai
ianino. Iaoa eiiieaenii? ioe?iee ae?iaie/i? oaoiieia?/iino? oanoa?aiiiai
ianino — i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy oaoiieia?/iino? aaea ni?iaeoiaaii?
eiino?oeoe??.

Aeo?aeieie aeaieie aeey eiiieaenii? ioe?iee ae?iaie/i? oaoiieia?/iino?
aaea ni?iaeoiaaii? eiino?oeoe?? ?: 1) iien noaie ?iaioe ae?iao a
i?iieneiaino?; 2) eiino?oeoe?y ianino; 3) oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean
neeaaeaiiy (/eaioaaiiy ae?iao ia neeaaeaeuei? iaeeieoe?) oa /an
aeeiiaiiy iia?aoe?e neeaaeaiiy; 4) oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean iaoai?/ii?
ia?iaee aeaoaeae (/an aeeiiaiiy iia?aoe?e ii aeaoaeyi); 5) nia?aa?o?noue
iieoiieo aeaoaeae; 6) aeaee caaio?aie aeey aeaoaeae, ui ia?iaeythoueny;
7) i?ia?aia aeioneo ae?ia?a ia ??e.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoiaeo eiiieaenii? ioe?iee ae?iaie/i? oaoiieia?/iino?
no?oeoo?e

ae?iao i?iaaaeaiee aea?? ?aoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e ianino O-8-16.
?acoeueoaoii ?ic?aooie?a ? no?oeoo?a ianino, oa eiiieaeniee iieaciee
ae?iaie/i? oaoiieia?/iino? i?iiiio?iiai ae?iao — oaoiieia?/ia
nia?aa?o?noue aeaioiaeaiiy.

Aianai? ci?ie a eiino?oeoe?th ianina iiaeae? O-8-16 aeicaieeee
i?aeaeueoe noai?thaaiee oene c 0,8 IIa aei 1,6 IIa ? i?aeaeueoe
iaeneiaeueiee ?ico?ae, yeee ni?iiiaeiee noai?eoe ianin c 1 i3/aiae aei
1,87 i3/aiae. Aeaiee iieaciee aeicaiey? aeei?enoiaoaaoe a neoai?
ciacoaaiiy aa?aaao?a ia ai?iicaaaa/oaaeueieo eiia?iaoao cai?noue aeaio —
iaeei ianin. ??/iee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eiino?oeoeaieo
ci?i a no?oeoo?? ae?iao, aeeiiaieo ia iniia? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aei??ith? 61 oen.a?i.

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE ?IAIOE

I?aenoieii ?iaioe ? iaoeia? ? i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe:

1. Eiiieaenio ioe?ieo ae?iaie/i? oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e ae?iao
aeioe?eueii i?iaiaeyoe ii iieacieeo nia?aa?oino? aeaioiaeaiiy ae?iao;

2. ?ic?iaeaiee a?ao aeey ?ic?aooieo eiiieaeniiai iieacieea ae?iaie/i?
oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e ae?iao c o?aooaaiiyi aoai?a neeaaeaiiy,
iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee oa caaio?aaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

3. No?oeoo?iee aeae oaoiieia?/ii? noaie neeaaeaiiy (ONN) caeaaea a?ae
oeio ae?iaieoeoaa: aeey iaeeie/iiai ? ae??aiina??eiiai oeio ae?iaieoeoaa
— ONN iine?aeiaiiai no?oeoo?iiai aeaeo; aeey na?aaeiueina??eiiai — ONN
i?i?iaeueii-ia?aeaeueiiai no?oeoo?iiai aeaeo; aeey aaaaoina??eiiai oa
ianiaiai — ONN iaeneiaeueii-ia?aeaeueiiai no?oeoo?iiai aeaeo.

4. Iaeanoue iiooeo ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aa??aioo oaoiieia?/ii? noaie
neeaaeaiiy ae?iao iaiaaeaia oaoi?/iei iieacieeii, e?euee?noue aeaoaeae,
ye? ia oa?eoee aei neeaaeaeueieo iaeeieoeue. Aea?? oaoiieia?/ii? noaie
neeaaeaiiy ?c iaeano? iiooeo ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aa??aioo cae?enith?oueny ii
eiao?oe??ioo aeaea noaie.

5. ?ic?iaeaiee aeai?eoi aeai?o oaoiieia?/ii? no?oeoo?e ae?iao c
o?aooaaiiyi aoai?a neeaaeaiiy, iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee ? caaio?aaeueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa. Oeae aeai?eoi iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoeny aeey i?iaeooaaiiy
iiaeo ae?ia?a ia iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoaao ? i?e ioe?ioe? ??aiy
oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e aaea noai?aieo eiino?oeoe?e ae?ia?a c iaoith
i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy oaoiieia?/iino?.

6. ?acoeueoaoe i?iieneiaiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoiaeo eiiieaenii? ioe?iee
ae?iaie/i? oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e ae?iao ia i?eeeaae? ianino O-8-16
aeicaieeee i?aeoaa?aeeoe aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy aeaiiai iaoiaeo o
ae?iaieoeoa?. Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae oi?iaaaeaeaiiy neeaa 61oen.
a?eaaiue ia ??e.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. ?aae/oe I.A. Iaoiaeeea eiiieaeniie ioeaiee oaoiieiae/iinoe
eiino?oeoeee ecaeaeey //Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
iieeoaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa.- 1999.- ?47.- N.15-18.

2. ?aae/oe I.A. Eiiieaeniay ioeaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie oaoiieiae/iinoe
no?oeoo?u ecaeaeey //Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
iieeoaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa.- 1999.- ?60.- N.99 — 106.

3. ?aae/oe I.A. Iaoiaeeee eiiieaeniie ioeaiee oaoiieiae/iinoe ecaeaeee
//A?niee Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.- 1997.- ?2(8).- N.86-91.

4. ?aae/oe I.A. Iaoiaeeea io?aaioee ia oaoiieiae/iinoue eiino?oeoeee
ecaeaeey a iaoaiiia?aaaouaathuai i?iecaiaenoaa//A?niee Noinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.- 1999.- ?2(13).- N.80-85.

5. ?aae/oe I.A. Oaoiieiae/iinoue ecaeaeee a iaoaiiia?aaaouaathuai
i?iecaiaenoaa // ?acaiea e eino?oiaio a oaoiieiae/aneeo nenoaiao. Na.
iao/iuo noaoae.- Oa?ueeia: OAIO, 1999, aui. ?53.-N. 145-149.

6. Eiiiieyi/aiei A.A., ?aae/oe I.A., *eae?ye ss.E. ?aoeeiiaeueiia
iino?iaiea oaoiieiae/aneeo nai?i/iuo nenoai //Iaaeaaeiinoue ?aaeouaai
eino?oiaioa e iioeiecaoeey oaoiieiae/aneeo nenoai. Na. iao/iuo noaoae.-
E?aiaoi?ne: AeAIA, 1999.- N.154-160.

Caeiaoaa/ai iaa?oioiaaia ?aoe?iiaeueia e?euee?noue aeaoaeae 4-6 oooe a
aeioe? (neeaaeaeuei?e iaeeieoe?) i?e aei/ii-iiaeoeueiiio eiino?othaaii?
ae?ia?a.

7. Caoa?ia I.A., Eiiiieyi/aiei A.A., ?aae/oe I.A., *eae?ye ss.E.
Oaoiieiae/iinoue eiino?oeoeee ecaeaeey a nia?aiaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa //
Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia einoeoooa nioeeaeueiiai i?ia?anna.- Oa?ueeia:
OENI, 1998, aui. ?3.- N.104-110.

Caeiaoaa/ai aeyaeai? caeaaeiino? aoaeoeaiino? ? ia’?io ?ia?o ii
caaacia/aiith oaoiieia?/iino? ae?iao ia noaae?yo i?iaeooaaiiy ae?iao.

8. Zakharov N.V., Radchuk O.V. Technologicality of mechanical
engineering ware //Zbornik apstrakta proceedings 27th International
Conference on production engineering of Yugoslavia with foreign
participants Nish-Nishka Banya, 23-25 September1998.- Nish (Serbia,
Yugoslavia).- 1998.- P.80.

Caeiaoaa/ai cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ioe?iee oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e
ae?iao ia neeaaeaeueiiio aoai?.

9. ?aae/oe I.A. Eiiieaeniay ioeaiea oaoiieiae/iinoe ecaeaeee a
iaoeiino?iaiee //Nai?iee iao/iuo noaoae ii iaoa?eaeai 4e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneie eiioa?aioeee “E?eoe/aneea
oaoiieiaee, aaoiiaoecaoeey i?iaeoe?iaaiey e i?iecaiaenoaa ecaeaeee a
iaoeiino?iaiee”.- Eeaa: ENII, Aeoooa, 1997.- N.122-126.

10. ?aae/oe I.A. Aiciiaeiinoue eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiee oaoiieiae/iinoe ia
anao yoaiao aeeciaiiiai oeeeea ecaeaeey // Oaiaoe/aneee nai?iee iao/iuo
noaoae “Nia?aiaiiua oaoiieiaee iaoeiino?iaiey. I?ia?anneaiua iaoiaeeee
i?aiiaeaaaiey a aoca”.- Eeaa: ENII, Noiu, NoiAO, 1997.- N.41-45.

11. ?aae/oe I.A. Auai? oaoiieiae/aneie noaiu nai?ee ecaeaeey aeey
caaeaiiiai oeia i?iecaiaenoaa i?e ioeaiea oaoiieiae/iinoe eiino?oeoeee
// Nai?iee iao/iuo noaoae ii iaoa?eaeai 5e iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneie eiioa?aioeee “Nia?aiaiiua oaoiieiaee, yeiiiieea e
yeieiaey a i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ia o?ainii?oa e a naeueneii oicyenoaa”.-
Eeaa: ENII, Aeoooa, 1998.- N.68-73.

12. ?aae/oe I.A., Eiiiieyi/aiei A.A. Iaoiaeu ?an/aoa naaanoieiinoe i?e
ioeaiea oaoiieiae/iinoe eiino?oeoeee ecaeaeee //Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? aaie?anueei? ni?aae: Iaoa??aee
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? eiioa?aioe?? OAAN, 16-17 ea?oiy 1998?.- Noie:
“?i?oe?aoeaa”, 1998.- N.164-169.

Caeiaoaa/ai aeyaeai? iaoiaee oe?oiiaiiai ?ic?aooieo nia?aa?oino? i?e
ioe?ioe? oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e ae?iao.

AIIOAOe??

?aae/oe I.A. “?ic?iaea iaoiaeo eiiieaenii? ioe?iee ae?iaie/i?
oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e ae?iao”. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe ii
niaoe?aeueiino? 05.02.08 — oaoiieia?y iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy. — Oa?e?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi eiiieaenii? ioe?iee ae?iaie/i?
oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e ae?iao. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiae eiiieaenii? ioe?iee
ae?iaie/i? oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e ae?iao, ui aeicaiey? aea?aoe
?aoe?iiaeueiee ii nia?aa?oino? aa??aio no?oeoo?e ae?iao c o?aooaaiiyi
neeaaeaeueiiai, iaoaiiia?iaethth/iai ? caaio?aaeueiiai aoai?a.
?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoi aeai?o ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aa??aioo no?oeoo?e ae?iao ia
aoai? neeaaeaiiy. ?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue no?oeoo?e ae?iao ia
aoaiao iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee ? caaio?aaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. I?eaaaeaii
aeai?eoie ?ic?aooieo eiiieaeniiai iieacieea oaoiieia?/iino? –
nia?aa?o?noue, ia aoaiao neeaaeaiiy, iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee ?
caaio?aaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. C?iaeaii a?aei?aoeueiaoaaiiy
oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e ianino O-8-16 ii iaoiaeo eiiieaenii? ioe?iee
ae?iaie/i? oaoiieia?/iino? no?oeoo?e ae?iao. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeai? o ae?iaieoeoai ? a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean i?ioean.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ae?iaie/a oaoiieia?/i?noue, no?oeoo?a ae?iao,
eiiieaenia ioe?iea, nia?aa?o?noue.

Radchuk O.V. “ Development of the method of a complex estimation of
industrial fabricability of structure of a product. — Manuscript.

Dissertation on competition of degree candidate of Science by
speciality 05.02.08 — machine-building technology.- Kharkiv State
Polytechnical University, Kharkiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the questions of a complex estimation
of industrial fabricability of the structure of a product. The method
of a complex estimation of industrial fabricability of the structure of
a product allowing to choose rational variant of the structure of a
product on the cost price in view of assembly, machining and procuring
stages is developed. The algorithm of the choice of rational variant of
structure of a product at a stage of assembly is developed. The
mathematical model of structure of a product at stages of machining and
procuring manufacture is developed. The algorithms of account of a
complex parameter of fabricability — cost price at stages of assembly,
machining and procuring manufacture are given. The improvement of
fabricability of structure of a pump O-8-16 product on the method of a
complex estimation of industrial fabricability of structure of a
product is made. The results of dissertation are engaged into
manufacture and the academic process.

Key words: industrial fabricability , structure of a product, complex
estimation, cost price

?aae/oe I.A. “?ac?aaioea iaoiaea eiiieaeniie ioeaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
oaoiieiae/iinoe no?oeoo?u ecaeaeey”.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.02.08 – oaoiieiaey iaoeiino?iaiey.- Oa?ueeianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue iieeoaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia,1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai eiiieaeniie ioeaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
oaoiieiae/iinoe no?oeoo?u ecaeaeey.

Aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa ninoieo ec anooieaiey, 4 ?acaeaeia, auaiaeia,
nienea eniieueciaaiiuo enoi/ieeia, i?eeiaeaiee.

A ia?aii ?acaeaea i?eaaaeai aiaeec eeoa?aoo?u ii aii?inai eiee/anoaaiiie
ioeaiee oaoiieiae/iinoe no?oeoo?u ecaeaeey. Ii ?acoeueoaoai aiaeeca
onoaiiaeaii, /oi ioeaieo o?iaiy oaoiieiae/iinoe no?oeoo?u ecaeaeey
?aoeeiiaeueii i?iaiaeeoue ia ?aiieo yoaiao i?iaeoe?iaaiey (oaoie/aneia
i?aaeeiaeaiea e yneeciue i?iaeo).

I?e ioeaiea oaoiieiae/iinoe ecaeaeee ia ?acee/iuo yoaiao aeeciaiiiai
oeeeea iiaeii eniieueciaaoue 161 oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneee iieacaoaeue. I?e
eiiieaeniie ioeaiea o?iaiy oaoiieiae/iinoe no?oeoo?u ecaeaeey
eniieuecotho neaaeothuea iieacaoaee: naaanoieiinoue ecaioiaeaiey
ecaeaeey; iaoa?eaeiaieinoue ecaeaeey; o?oaeiaieinoue ecaioiaeaiey
ecaeaeey; yia?aiaieinoue ecaeaeey.

I?iaaaeaiiue aiaeec nouanoaothueo iaoiaeia eiiieaeniie ioeaiee
oaoiieiae/iinoe ecaeaeee iieacae, /oi nouanoaoao aiciiaeiinoue
eiiieaeniie ioeaiee, eeoue ia ioaeaeueiuo yoaiao aeeciaiiiai oeeeea
ecaeaeey (nai?ea, iaoaie/aneay ia?aaioea, caaioiaeoaeueiia
i?iecaiaenoai). Aeey ?an/aoa eiiieaeniiai iieacaoaey oaoiieiae/iinoe ia
?aiieo noaaeeyo i?iaeoe?iaaiey eniieuecotho oe?oiiaiiua iaoiaeu ?an/aoa.
Aeey ooi/iaiiuo ?an/aoia eniieuecotho iiyeaiaioiue iaoiae e iaoiae
ii?iaoeaii-eaeueeoeyoeeiiiiai aiaeeca.

Ai aoi?ii ?acaeaea ?anniio?aiu ana yoaiu ecaioiaeaiey. Ia nai?i/iii
yoaia no?oeoo?a ecaeaeey ioia?aaeaaony oaoiieiae/aneie noaiie nai?ee
(ONN). I?iaaaeaiiua enneaaeiaaiey iicaieytho naeaeaoue auaiaeu, /oi aeey
aaeeie/iiai e iaeeina?eeiiai oeiia i?iecaiaenoaa ?aoeeiiaeueii
i?eiaiyoue ONN iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai no?oeoo?iiai aeaea; aeey
n?aaeiana?eeiiai – ONN ieieiaeueii ia?aeeaeueiiai no?oeoo?iiai aeaea;
aeey e?oiiina?eeiiai e ianniaiai – ONN iaeneiaeueii ia?aeeaeueiiai
no?oeoo?iiai aeaea.

Aeey nai?i/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa iaeanoue iienea ?aoeeiiaeueiiai aa?eaioa
no?oeoo?u ecaeaeey ia?aie/eaaaony oaoie/aneei iieacaoaeai – eiee/anoai
aeaoaeae, eioi?ua ia aioee a nai?i/iua aaeeieoeu. Aeaiiue iieacaoaeue
?ann/eouaaaony n o/aoii aei/ii-iiaeoeueiiai eiino?oe?iaaiey e caaeneo io
oeia i?iecaiaenoaa e eiee/anoaa aeaoaeae a ecaeaeee. Auai?
?aoeeiiaeueiie ONN i?iecaiaeeony ii eiyooeoeeaioo aeaea noaiu.

Ia yoaia iaoaie/aneie ia?aaioee ecaeaeee ?ac?aaioaia iaoaiaoe/aneay
iiaeaeue, eioi?ay io?aaeaao no?oeoo?o aeaoaee e no?oeoo?o
oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna iaoaie/aneie ia?aaioee. No?oeoo?a
eiino?oeoeee aeaoaee ioia?aaeaaony a aeaea a?aoa. Aeey aeaiiiai a?aoa
no?ieony iao?eoea auiieiaiey oe?oiiaiiuo iia?aoeee. No?ieaie iao?eoeu
yaeythony yoaiu iaoaie/aneie ia?aaioee, a noieaoeaie – yeaiaioa?iua
iiaa?oiinoe. I?e aianaiee eciaiaiee a eiino?oeoeeth, i?aaenoaaeaiea
no?oeoo?u aeaoaee a aeaea iao?eoeu iicaieyao ?anniao?eaaoue eeoue oa
yoaiu oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna iaoaie/aneie ia?aaioee, eioi?ua
iiaeaa?aeenue eciaiaieth. Eiiieaeniue iieacaoaeue oaoiieiae/iinoe
no?oeoo?u aeaoaee, eioi?ay iiaeaa?aeanue eciaiaieth, ?ann/eouaaaony
iooai eciaiaiey aai ia ioaeaeueiuo yoaiao oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna
iaoaie/aneie ia?aaioee, eioi?ua iiaeaa?aeenue eciaiaieth.

Ia caaioiaeoaeueiii yoaia ?ac?aaioaia iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue aeey
ii?aaeaeaiey eiiieaeniiai iieacaoaey oaoiieiae/iinoe no?oeoo?u ecaeaeey.
Aeaiiay iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue iicaieyao o/eouaaoue cao?aou i?e
eciaiaiee niiniaa, iaoiaea iieo/aiey e iaoa?eaea caaioiaee. Aeey
caaioiaeoaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa eiiieaeniue iieacaoaeue oaoiieiae/iinoe
– oaoiieiae/aneay naaanoieiinoue caaioiaeoaeueiiai yoaia.

A o?aoueai ?acaeaea ?ac?aaioaia iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue aeey
ii?aaeaeaiey eiiieaeniiai iieacaoaey oaoiieiae/iinoe ecaioiaeaiey
ecaeaeey, i?aaenoaaeaiiay a aeaea a?aoa. ?ac?aaioai iaoiae eiiieaeniie
ioeaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiie oaoiieiae/iinoe no?oeoo?u ecaeaeey. Nooue
iaoiaea ninoieo a oii, /oi no?oeoo?o ecaeaeey ?anniao?eaatho
iineaaeiaaoaeueii, ia/eiay n yoaia nai?ee. Ia yoaia nai?ee auae?atho
iaeaieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiue aa?eaio, eniieuecoy ia?aie/aiey: oei
i?iecaiaenoaa; eiee/anoai aeaoaeae, eioi?ua ia aioee a nai?i/iua
aaeeieoeu; eiyooeoeeaio aeaea noaiu. Caoai ?anniao?eaatho yoai
iaoaie/aneie ia?aaioee e caaioiaeoaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai. Ii?aaeaeytho
naaanoieiinoue ecaeaeey i?e ecaioiaeaiee. Iinea yoiai auae?atho
neaaeothuoth ONN, eioi?ay iiiaea a iaeanoue iienea ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
aa?eaioa ONN ecaeaeey. N?aaieaay aeaiiua no?oeoo?u ii eiiieaeniiio
iieacaoaeth – naaanoieiinoe, ii?aaeaeytho no?oeoo?o, eioi?ay eiaao
ieieiaeueiia cia/aiea yoiai iieacaoaey.

A /aoaa?oii ?acaeaea i?iecaaaeaia ioeaiea oaoiieiae/iinoe no?oeoo?u
ecaeaeey ia i?eia?a oanoa?ai/aoiai ianina iiaeaee O-8-16 ii iaoiaeo
eiiieaeniie ioeaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiie oaoiieiae/iinoe no?oeoo?u
ecaeaeey. I?eiaiaiea iaoiaea iicaieeei oniaa?oainoaiaaoue eiino?oeoeeth
e iiauneoue iio?aaeoaeueneea oa?aeoa?enoeee ecaeaeey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?iecaiaenoaaiiay oaoiieiae/iinoue, no?oeoo?a ecaeaeey,
eiee/anoaaiiay ioeaiea, naaanoieiinoue.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 10.02.2000 ?. Oi?iao 60o90/16.

Oi?iao 60o90/16. Ianya. 0,9 aaoi?. a?e..

Iaeeaae 100. Cai. 55

Noie, ??AA Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai

oi?aa?neoaoo, aoe.
E??iaa 160

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