3

IAOe?IIAEUeIA IAOAEO?A?EIA AEAAeAI?ss OE?A?IE

OAeE 669.162.2: 669.18: 681.3.016

ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OIAIAEOeUeEA Aea?’y Ieeiea?aia

?ic?iaea iaoiaeieia?? aiae?co ? iioei?caoe?? i?ioean?a ae?iaieoeoaa
/aaoio ? noae? ia iniia? iiaeaethaaiiy aeanoeainoae oa aca?iiae??
iaoaeo?a?eieo ?icieaa?a

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.16.02- “Iaoaeo?a?y /i?ieo iaoae?a”

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaith

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999

?iaioo aeeiiaii a ?inoeooo? /i?ii? iaoaeo?a?? Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai??
iaoe Oe?a?ie ?i.C.?.Iae?aniaa

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?

I?eoiaeueei Aaeoa?ae
Aaneeueiae/,

?inoeooo /a?ii? iaoaeo?a??
IAI Oe?a?ie,

canooiiee aee?aeoi?a ii
iaoeia?e ?iaio?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: *eai-ei?aniiiaeaio Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe

Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?,

?o?iaiei Aai?a?e A?eai?iae/,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao
Oe?a?ie “EI?”,

iaoeiaee ea??aiee
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? eaai?aoi???

iiaeo i?ioean?a ? oaoiieia?e a
iaoaeo?a??;

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

*a?iyoaae/ Aiaoie?e A?eai?iae/,

Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinueeee aea?aeaaiee
oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith
?oaeiioa?i?/ieo i?ioean?a;

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,

Oa?anaae/ Ieeiea ?aaiiae/,

O?ceei-oaoiieia?/iee ?inoeooo
iaoae?a ? nieaa?a,

caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii iaoaiaoe/ieo
iaoiae?a aeine?ae-

aeaiue oa eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e

Aaaeo/a i?aei?e?inoai: I?eacianueeee Aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee
oi?aa?neoao,

i.Ia??oiieue, eaoaae?a oai???
iaoaeo?a?eieo i?ioean?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “01” aa?aciy 2000 ?. a 12.30 ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? iaoeiai? ?aaee Ae 08.084.03. i?e Iaoe?iiaeuei?e
iaoaeo?a?ei?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie (49005, i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, i?.
Aaaa??ia, 4)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeeeai iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueii?
iaoaeo?a?eii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie (49005, i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, i?.
Aaaa??ia, 4)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “20” n?/iy 2000 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

iaoeiai? ?aaee, aeieo.oaoi.iaoe, i?ioani?
A.E.Oeaiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. ?ic?iaea oeyo?a oaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/eo ?
i?eioeei?aeueii iiaeo oaoiieia?e iaea?aeaiiy iaoaeii?iaeoeoe?? caaeaii?
yeino? i?e cieaeaii? aeiiii?/ieo aeo?ao ? iie?auaiiy aeieia?/ieo
iieaciee?a — oea iaeia c iaeaaaeeea?oeo caaea/, iinoaaeaieo ia?aae
a/aieie-iaoaeo?aaie.

A no/anieo oiiaao ?icaeoeo iaoaeo?a?eiiai ae?iaieoeoaa iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaieie iinoathoue oae? iaoeia? ?ic?iaee, ye? ia’?aeiothoue aenieo
aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue c no/aniei ??aiai eiii’thoa??caoe?? oi?aae?iiy
oaoiieia?/ieie i?ioeanaie ia i?eioeeiao ana a?eueo aeeaieiai ?icoi?iiy
?o o?ceei-o?i?/ii? noo?.

A ?nioth/eo ? ?icaeaath/eo i?ioeanao ae?iaieoeoaa iaoaeo iniaeeai
aaaeeeaa ?ieue o?aaeeoe?eii a?aeaiaeeoueny oi?ioaaiith iioeiaeueiiai
neeaaeo ? o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae oeaeiaeo ? iaoaeaaeo ?icieaa?a,
ye? ooai?ththoueny a iaoaeo?a?eieo aa?aaaoao c a?aeiia?aeieo oeooiaeo
iaoa??ae?a a a?aeiiaethaaeueieo ? ieenethaaeueieo oiiaao.

A e?ea?aeaoe?? noai?aiiai iaaiiai ?ic?eao i?ae ooiaeaiaioaeueieie ?
i?eeeaaeieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie a oe?e iaeano? iniiaio ?ieue i?ecaai?
c?a?aoe no/ani? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? eiii’thoa?i? oaoiieia??, ye? canoiniaii
aei iaoaeo?a??, ia aeaeue, ua ia iaea?aeaee a?aeiia?aeii? oai?aoe/ii?
i?i?iaee.

Iaiao?aei?noue eiiieaeniiai ii?aeiaiiy oai?aoe/ieo ? i?eeeaaeieo
?ic?iaie, nenoaiaoecaoe?? oiiaeo ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeey noai?aiiy oaeeo oaoiieia?e aoea iaa?oioiaaia a
eaiaeeaeaonuee?e aeena?oaoe?? aaoi?a, i?enay/ai?e ieoaiith aeai?o
aaciaiai ?aaeeio aeiiaiii? ieaaee ia iniia? eiiieaeniiai aeei?enoaiiy
iaoiae?a iaoaiaoe/iiai oa o?ceei-o?i?/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy. Oe?iea
iaaiai?aiiy iaoiaeieia?? ? ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe ?i?oe?thaaei iinoaiiaeo
i?iaeaie ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy iaoaeo?a?? ia i?aeaaeocaaiio ??ai?
c aeoeaioii ia aeei?enoaii? aeinyaiaiue ooiaeaiaioaeueieo iaoe.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a?aeiia?aeii c eii?aeeiaoe?eieie ieaiaie aaeocaaiai
caeaco I?i?noa?noaa i?iieneiai? iie?oeee ii iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei iai?yieai
“Aeiiaiia ? noaeaieaaeeueia ae?iaieoeoai”, Aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?
i?ia?aie 7.6 AeEIO “Eiii’thoa?ia iaoa??aeiaaaeaiiy ? ?ioi?iaoecaoe?y
noai?aiiy iiaeo niieo/aiue ? iaoa??ae?a”, a oaeiae ii ?yaeo oai
a?aeii/iai caeaco IAI Oe?a?ie, ui aeiaeaoeiai i?aeoaa?aeaeo? ??
aeooaeuei?noue.

Iaoa ?iaioe: ?ic?iaea iaoeiaeo ? iaoiaeieia?/ieo iniia, i?eeeaaeieo
?ino?oiaioaeueieo cania?a aeey aiae?co ? iioei?caoe?? oaoiieia?e
iaea?aeaiiy iaoaeo ? caaacia/aiiy yeino? iaoaeii?iaeoeoe??, yea
aeeth/a?:

— iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie oai??? iaoaeo?a?eieo i?ioean?a oeyoii
eiie?aoecaoe?? no/anieo oyaeaiue i?i ?ieue i?aeaoiiii? aca?iiae?? a
oi?ioaaii? no?oeoo?e ? aeanoeainoae ?icieaa?a;

— aaoiiaoeciaai? aace aeaieo (AAe) ii o?ceei-o?i?/iei ? oaoiieia?/iei
aeanoeainoyi iaoaeaaeo ? oeaeiaeo ?icieaa?a, cae?ci?oaeieo iaoa??ae?a;

— aace iiaeaeae (AI o?ceei-o?i?/ieo nenoai ? oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a;

— i?iaeaiii-i???ioiaai? i?eeeaaei? i?ia?aie (III) aeey i?iaiico ia AII
iiaaae?iee o?ceei-o?i?/ieo nenoai a oaoiieia?/ieo aa?aaaoao ?
iioei?caoe?? oaoiieia?e ae?iaieoeoaa /i?ieo iaoae?a.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue: — aeeiiaoe aiae?c ?ioi?iaoe?eii? neooaoe?? a
aaeoc? ? ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeieia?th noai?aiiy ?ii?iaoe?eii-aiae?oe/ieo
nenoai aeey caaacia/aiiy aeine?aeiee?a-iaoaeo?a?a aenia?eiaioaeueieie
aeaieie i?i aeanoeaino? cae?ci?oaeieo iaoa??ae?a oa iaoaeo?a?eieo
?icieaa?a;

— iaa?oiooaaoe ? aea?aoe o?ceei-o?i?/i? e?eoa??? “cai?oee” ?ioi?iaoe??
i?i o?i?/iee neeaae aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo cae?ci?oaeieo iaoa??ae?a,
oeaeiaeo ? iaoaeaaeo ?icieaa?a c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? iieno ?o
aeanoeainoae ? ?acoeueoao?a aca?iiae??;

— ?ic?iaeoe o?ceei-o?i?/i? iiaeae? aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy ii neeaaeo
aeanoeainoae cae?ci?oaeieo iaoa??ae?a, oeaeiaeo ?icieaa?a ?
oeaeiooai?thth/eo noi?oae;

— iaa?oiooaaoe e?eoa??? ? ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo o?ceei-o?i?/iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy aca?iiae?? a nenoai? “iaoae-oeae” ye eiiia?aoeaiiai
?iiiiai?iiiai i?ioeano ? aecia/aiiy nooiaith eiai iaaeeaeaiiy aei
??aiiaaae;

— ?ic?iaeoe aaciaa i?eeeaaeia ? nenoaiia i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy
oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, iia?aoeaiiai aiae?co ? iioei?caoe??
ae?iaieoeoaa iaoaeii?iaeoeoe?? a eiie?aoieo ne?iaeiieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo
oiiaao c aeei?enoaiiyi ?ic?iaeaieo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo iiaeaeae ? e?eoa???a;

— ia iniia? iieo/aieo ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?iaeoe ? oi?iaaaeeoe oaoiieia?th
eiii’thoa??caoe?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo neoaea iaoaeo?a?eiiai i?aei?e?inoaa,
caaacia/oth/o “iane??ciee” aiae?c ae?iaieoeoaa ? yeino?
iaoaeii?iaeoeoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iieo/aieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaa?oioiaaiee aea?? e?eoa???a ?
?ic?iaeai? iiaeae? aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo
aeanoeainoae iaoaeo?a?eieo oeae?a ia iniia? aiae?co ia?aiao??a
i?aeaoiiii? aca?iiae?? a ?icieaaao.

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy e?euee?nieo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo e?eoa???a
aeey ioe?iee aieeao aeanoeainoae ? eieaeueiiai ioi/aiiy aeeooiaeoth/iai
aeaiaioo na?aaeiaeua ia eiai ?iciiae?e a nenoai? “iaoae-oeae”.

?ic?iaeaia o?ceei-o?i?/ia iiaeaeue aeiiaiii? oeooe, aeicaieyth/a c
?aeeieo oai?aoe/ieo iiceoe?e ocaaaeueieoe ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i aieea
o?i?/iiai neeaaeo cae?ci?oaeieo iaoa??ae?a ia ?o o?ceei-o?i?/i? ?
iaoaeo?a?ei? aeanoeaino?.

?ic?iaeai? i?eioeeie nenoaiaoecaoe?? ? ianii?oecaoe?? o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ?
oaoiieia?/ieo aeaieo. Noai?aia nenoaia ?ii?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy
aeine?aeaeoaa/?a-iaoaeo?a?a ooiaeaiaioaeueieie o?ceei-o?i?/ieie aeaieie
i?i aeanoeaino? iaoaeo?a?eieo ?icieaa?a ? ?acoeueoaoao ?o aca?iiae?? a
aeaeyae? aac aeaieo “Oeae”, “Oeaeiooai?thth/? noi?o?”, “Oeooa”,
“Oeae-Iaoae-Aac”.

Noai?aia aaca ?ao?iniaeoeaieo aeaieo i?i ??aiiaaaeiee ?iciiae?e n??ee oa
oinoi?o i?ae iaoaeii ? oeaeii ? iaea?aeai? iiaeae? aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy ?o
??aiiaaaeieo eiao?oe??io?a ?iciiae?eo a oiiaao a?aeiiaethaaeueii? oa
ieenethaaeueii? ieaaie.

Aia?oa ia nenoaiiiio ??ai? i?i?iaeaia ieoaiiy ? ?ic?iaeai? iniiae aeey
eiiieaenii? eiii’thoa??caoe?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo neoaea iaoaeo?a?eiiai
eiia?iaoo, noai?aiiy A?I?a — oaoiieia?a aeey “iane??ciiai” aiae?co
ae?iaieoeoaa ? yeino? iaoaeo. Cae?eniaii ?o i?iieneiaa oi?iaaaeaeaiiy.

Aeinoia??i?noue iniiaieo ?acoeueoao?a caaacia/aia aeei?enoaiiyi
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo iieiaeaiue nenoaiiiai aiae?co, oiiaeo
aeieoiaioaeueii-oaeoia?ao?/ieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo i?i aeanoeaino?
iaoaeo?a?eieo ?icieaa?a ? oeooiaeo iaoa??ae?a, ocaiaeaeaiiyi
?acoeueoao?a, iaea?aeaieo ??cieie iaoiaeaie aeine?aeaeaiue, ia?aa??eith
?o a ae?iaie/eo oiiaao.

I?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue ?aaioe neeaaeathoue:

— iiaeae? aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo
aeanoeainoae oeaeiaeo ?icieaa?a — a’yceino?, ieaaeino?, oaa?aeino?,
aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino?, iiaa?oiiniiai iaoyao, n??eiiiaeeiath/i? caeaoiino?;

— iiaeae? aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy aeanoeainoae cae?ci?oaeieo iaoa??ae?a —
ieaaeino?, i?oeiino?, a?aeiiaethaaeueiino?, nooi?iue iaoae?caoe??,
aacii?iieeiaiiy;

— iiaeae? aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy eiao?oe??io?a ?iciiae?eo n??ee, ia?aaioeth,
e?aii?th, oinoi?o a nenoai? “iaoae-oeae” a oiiaao a?aeiiaethaaeueii? ?
ieenethaaeueii? ieaaie;

— aace aeieoiaioaeueii-oaeoia?ao?/ieo aeaieo i?i iniiai? aeanoeaino?
oeaeiaeo ?icieaa?a aeiiaiiiai ? noaeaieaaeeueiiai ia?aae?e?a, iicai?/ii?
ia?iaee /oaoio ? noae? (OEAE, OIN);

— aaca aeaieo i?i o?ceei-o?i?/i? ? iaoaeo?a?ei? aeanoeaino?
cae?ci?oaeieo iaoa??ae?a “Oeooa”;

— aaciaa i?eeeaaeia i?ia?aiia caaania/aiiy aeey aiae?co o?ceei-o?i?/ii?
? oaoiieia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??, ye? aeeth/athoue caniae ?iaioe c aacaie,
na?a?n ?iaioe c aaaaoii??ieie aeaieie ? ?ino?oiaioaeuei? caniae
“cai?oee” o?ceei-o?i?/ii? ? oaoiieia?/ii? eioi?iaoe??, i?ea?iaeuei?
caniae aaaaoie?eoa??aeueii? iioei?caoe?? oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a;

— ?ioi?iaoe?eii-iaoaiaoe/ia caaacia/aiiy A?I?a-oaoiieia?a ? aeina?ae
“iane??cii?” eiii’thoa??caoe?? ia ?o iniia? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo neoaae
eiia?iaoo ?i.Aeca?aeeinueeiai.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeieeaaeai?
ia 29 I?aeia?iaeieo, Ananithcieo ? ?anioae?eainueeeo nai?ia?ao, ia?aaeao
? eiioa?aioe?yo, a oiio /ene?: Ananithcieo eiioa?aioe?yo ii oai??? ?
i?aeoeoe? ae?iaieoeoaa /aaoio ? noae? ? ?o iicai?/ii? ia?iaee (i.Iineaa
1985, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee 1990); VI ? VII Ananithcieo eiioa?aioe?yo ii
aoaeia? ? aeanoeainoyo iaoaeaaeo ? oeaeiaeo ?icieaa?a (i.Naa?aeeianuee
1986 ?.; i.*aeya?inuee 1990 ?.), Ananithcieo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ia?aaeao
ii canoinoaaiith AII a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo ? ?ic?iaeao (i.Iineaa
1988 ?.; i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee 1989 ?.), Ananithcieo i?aeaaeocaaeo
ia?aaeao ii aacao o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo aeaieo aeey
iioei?caoe?? iaoaeo?a?eieo oaoiieia?e (i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee 1988 ?.;
i.Eo?aai 1990 ?.; i.Iiaieociaoeuee 1991 ?.), I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??
ii oaeineiiaeaiith oaoiieia?? ieoneoaaiiy ne?iaeie ? ae?iaieoeoaa /aaoio
? oa?inieaa?a (Aieaa??y 1990 ?.), I?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo ii
ae?iaieoeoao noae? (i.Iineaa 1994 ?.; i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee 1998 ?.),
I?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo ii aaeiaeiiaiiiio ae?iaieoeoao (i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee 1995 ?.; i.Ia??oiieue 1997 ?.), III ? IV ?in?enueeiio
nai?ia?ao ii eiii’thoa?iiio iiaeaethaaiith o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae
neea ? ?icieaa?a (i.Eo?aai 1996 e 1998 ?.?.), IV I?aeia?iaeiiio eiia?an?
noaeaieaaeeueiee?a (i.Iineaa 1996 ?.), V I?aeia?iaeiiio eiia?an?
aeiiaiuee?a (i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, E?eaie ??a 1999).

I?aaeiao caoenoo. Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny:

— Nenoaiia iiaeaiiy i?iaeaie ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacna/aiiy iaoaeo?a??,
iaoiaeieia?y noai?aiiy aac aeaieo ? iiaeaeae iaoaeo?a?eieo nenoai,
i?aai?ciaaieo ii i?eioeeio aca?iii? aeiiiaiaiino?, caniae
aaaaoie?eoa??aeueii? iioei?caoe?? oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a.

— Nenoaia ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy aeine?aeiee?a-iaoaeo?a?a aeaieie
i?i o?ceei-o?i?/i? ? oaoiieia?/i? aeanoeaino? iaoaeo?a?eieo oeae?a ?
cae?ci?oaeieo iaoa??ae?a.

— Aea?? o?ceei-o?i?/ieo e?eoa???a aeey “cai?oee” ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i
o?i?/iee neeaae aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo cae?ci?oaeieo iaoa??ae?a, oeaeiaeo ?
iaoaeaaeo ?icieaa?a aeey iieno ?o aeanoeainoae ? ?acoeueoao?a
aca?iiae??.

— O?ceei-o?i?/i? iiaeae? aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy aeanoeainoae cae?ci?oaeieo
iaoa??ae?a, oeae?a ? oeaeiooai?thth/eo noi?oae.

— E?eoa??? ? iaoiaeeea iiaeaethaaiiy aca?iiae?? a nenoai? “iaoae-oeae”
ye eiia?aoeaiiai ?iiiiai?iiiai i?ioeano ? aecia/aiiy nooiaiy ??
i?eaeeaeaiiy aei ??aiiae??.

— Aaciaa i?eeeaaeia ? nenoaiia i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy aeey aiae?co ia
oe?e iniia? o?ceei-o?i?/ii? ? oaoiieia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??.

— ?acoeueoaoe cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoiaeieia?/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo ?ic?iaie
i?e iane??ciiio aiae?c? ae?iaieoeoaa ? yeino? i?iaeoeoe?? iaoaeo?a?eiiai
eiia?iaoo.

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeeeaaeai? a a?ioth?? ? 35 iniiaieo
noaooyo a iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao ? ca??ieeao, a oaeiae ia? 50 noaoae ?
oac?n?a aeieeaae?a ii oai? aeena?oaoe??, ye? ia aa?eoee a i?eeeaaeaiee
nienie i?aoeue.

No?oeoo?a ? ia’?i ?iaioe. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a ? aeniiae?a, aeeeaaeaia ia 431 noi??ieao, aeeth/ath/e 49
oaaeeoeue, 77 iaethie?a, 6 aeiaeaoe?a ? nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae c 242 iaca.

Iniaenoee aeeaae aaoi?a a aeeiiaio ?iaioo. Aaoi? c 1974 ?. aoea
ea??aieeii oai ? IAe?, a oaeiae a?aeiia?aeaeueiei ea??aieeii ?ia?o ii
oaeineiiaeaiith ? iioei?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa iaoaeii?iaeoeoe??, i?eeiaea
aaciina?aaeith o/anoue a iinoaiiaoe? caaea/, ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeee
aeine?aeaeaiue ? o?ceei-o?i?/ieo iiaeaeae, noai?aiiy aac aeaieo, ?o
aeai?eoi?/iiai ? i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy, oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaii?
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Ocaaaeueiaiiiy ?acoeueoao?a, iaienaiiy noaoae
noeoiii c aaoi?aie a?aeaoeiny i?e aaciina?aaei?e o/ano? aaoi?a. Iniiai?
?aea?, iaoeia? ? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy, iieacai? a ?iaio?, ?ic?iaeai?
aaoi?ii iniaenoi.

Aaoi? aeneiaeth? ue?o iiaeyeo aeieo. oaoi. iaoe, i?io. I?eoiaeueei A.A.,
no.iaoe.ni?a?ia., eaiae.oaoi.iaoe AEiieae?io A.?., aeieo.oaoi.iaoe,
i?io. sseiaeaao TH.I., ni?a?ia?oieeai oaoiieia?/ieo a?aeae?e?a ?*I IAI
Oe?a?ie ca ie?aeia ni?a?ia?oieoeoai i?e aeeiiaii? aeine?aeaeaiue, a
oaeiae aaia?aeueiiio aee?aeoi?o iaoaeo?a?eiiai eiia?iaoo ?i.
Aeca?aeeinueeiai e.o.i. A?iaenueeiio N.N., aaaeo/ei niaoe?ae?noai
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo neoaea iaoaeo?a?eieo eiia?iao?a ?i. Aeca?aeeinueeiai,
?ee?/a, CNIE, caaaeyee ni?eyiith yeeo iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeiaaaeai?
aei i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy.

Aaaaeath nai?i iaia’yceii aeneiaeoe iniaeeao aaey/i?noue a?oi?
i?ia?ai?no?a, ye? ai?iaeiaae aaaaoueio ?ie?a i?aoethaaee i?ae ii?i
ea??aieoeoaii, ni?a?ia?oieeai a?aeae?eo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo i?iaeai ?*I ca
?o i?ioan?iiaeueio i?aeo?eieo ? ?icoi?iiy.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

?iaioa iieaco? niaith ?acoeueoao oai?aoe/ieo ? i?eeeaaeieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, aeeiiaieo aaoi?ii c 1974 ii 1999 ?. a ?inoeooo? /i?ii?
iaoaeo?a?? ?i. C.?. Iae?aniaa, a oaeiae ia i?aei?e?inoaao Oe?a?ie ?
?in??.

A anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue, iaoeiaa iiaecia ? aeinoia??i?noue
aeeiiaieo a ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaiue, noi?ioeueiaai? oe?e? ? caaea/?
?iaioe.

?icae?e 1. ?IC?IAEA IAOEIAEO INIIA ?IOI?IAOECAOe?? OAI?AOE*II?

? I?EEEAAeII? IAOAEO?A?? IA INIIA? NO*ANIEO EIII’THOA?-

IEO OAOIIEIA?E.

A ?icae?e? aeeiiaiee aiae?c no/anieo a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo
?ioi?iaoe?eieo nenoai, i???ioiaaieo ia iaoaeo?a?th ? aeeeaaeaii noai
ieoaiiy a aaeoc?.

Iaaiai?aia nenoaiia no?aoaa?y e?ea?aeaoe?? a?aenoaaaiiy ?ioi?iaoecaoe??
a?o/eciyii? iaoaeo?a?? ye oiiaa caaacia/aiiy ?? no/aniiai
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ??aiy, ae?iaeaia ia ananithcieo ia?aaeao ii
noai?aiith i?aeaaeocaaiai aaieo aeaieo “Iaoaeo?a?y”, ? cai?iiiiiaai?
iai?yiee, ye? iiaeooue ?icaeaaoeny a iao?e aaeoc?, caaacia/o? ?e
ia?eoaoia ia?oia?noai c ca?oa?aeieie ?ioi?iaoe?eieie neoaeaaie. A
eiii’thoa??caoe?? iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a oaia??oi?e /an
aeii?i??othoue aeaa iniiaieo iai?yiee. Ia?oa ca’ycaii c ae?iaieoeoaii
i?iaeoeo?a ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?io?eth a aeaeyae? aaie?a ? aac aeaieo
??ciioeiii? i?aaeiaoii? i???ioaoe??. A?eueo aeooaeueiei, ia iao iiaeyae,
iinoa? ae?oaee iai?yiie, ca’ycaiee c noai?aiiyi oiiaeo iiaeaeae,
i?ecia/aiee aeey iieno ? i?iaiicoaaiiy iiaaae?iee o?ceei-o?i?/ieo
nenoai, iaoaeo?a?eieo aa?aaao?a ? oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a c
aaoi?eciaaiei i?ia?aiiei caaacia/aiiyi [9], noai?aieo
i?ioan?iiaeaie-aeine?aeieeaie. ?ic?iaee ia?oiai iai?yieo /ano?oa anueiai
o?ao?othoue ye ?ioi?iaoe?ei?-iiooeia? nenoaie (?IN), ae?oa? /ano?oa
iaceaathoue aenia?oieie nenoaiaie (AN). I?ioeann ?ioaa?aoe?? ?ic?iaie
oeeo iai?yie?a, ia’?aeiaieo ?aeeiith ?aeaieia??th ?o noai?aiiy a
ii?aeiaii? c iao?aaeeoe?eieie caniaaie aiae?co ? ia?iaee ??ciioeiieo
aeaieo, caaacia/o? noai?aiiy aeaiaio?a ?ioaa???iaaii? aace ciaiue (AC)
[10-12].

Naia c oaeeo iaoiaeieia?/ieo iiceoe?e iaie a ?inoeooo? /i?ii? iaoaeo?a??
aoee ?icai?ioo? ?iaioe ii noai?aiith ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue iaoaeo?a?eieo nenoai ? i?ioean?a, i?io?eath/eo a
?acoeueoao? ?o aca?iiae??, ii noai? neeaae-no?oeoo?a-aeanoeaino?.

A e?oa?aoo?? ia?ii aaeeeo e?euee?noue oai?aoe/ieo ?ia?o, i?enay/aieo
caaaeueiei ieoaiiyi eia?/iiai ? ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy, oai??yi
?ioaeaeooaeueieo nenoai ? iaoiae?a eeaneo?eaoe??, aiae?co ethaenueeeo
iiieeie a aca?iiae?? c eiii’thoa?ieie nenoaiaie. Ia ciaiooth/e
cia/eiino? ? ia?aaaae oeeo ?ia?o o?aaa a?aei?oeoe, ui a ia??iaee/i?e
ia/ao? ? iaoeiaeo ca??ieeao, a oei a?eueo i???ioiaaieo ia /i?io
iaoaeo?a?th, iaeaea a?aenooi? i?eeeaaee iienaiiy ?aaeueiiai aeina?aeo
noai?aiiy ae?th/eo ia/enethaaeueieo nenoai c aenieei ??aiai
iiaeaethaaiiy i?aaeiaoii? iaeano?, ?ioa?aeoeaii? ?ioaeaeooaeueii?
aca?iiae?? c Ei?enooaa/ai. Iaia iaoiaee/ieo ?ic?iaie ii i?iaeooaaii?
oaeeo nenoai, oi?iae?caoe?? iaaooiai i?aaeiaoiiai iaoaiaoe/iiai ?
ni?aai/iiai iaoa??aeo, ia ynii, ye aeei?enoaoe iaoeiaee iioaioe?ae
aaaeo/eo aeine?aeaeoaa/?a ? aenia?o?a, ye c?iaeoe eiai aeinooiiei
iai?aeaioiaeaiiio Ei?enooaa/o, yeee ae??oo? i?aeoe/i? caaea/?, ye
noa?ooaaoe c oaea inai?ieo ?oaaae?a ? iinoaaeoe iia? i?iaeaie.

A?aoiaoth/e aeua neacaia, iao? ?iaioe ii noai?aiith nenoaie
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao neeaaeo ia
o?ceei-o?i?/i? ? oaoiieia?/i? aeanoeaino? iaoaeo?a?eieo nenoai aoee
na?oiiaai? a /ioe?e iai?yiee:

1) Noai?aiiy oaeoia?ao?/ieo aac aenia?eiaioaeueieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo
aeaieo i?i aeanoeaino? iaoaeaaeo ? oeaeiaeo (a ia?oo /a?ao — oeaeiaeo)
?icieaa?a ? ?acoeueoaoe ?o aca?iiae??;

2) Noai?aiiy oiiaeo oai?aoe/ieo ? aii??e/ieo iiaeaeae, ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny a e?oa?aoo?? aeey iieno aieeao neeaaeo ia no?oeoo?o ?
aeanoeaino? oeeo ?icieaa?a;

3) ?ic?iaea i?ea?iaeueieo iai?aaii??e/ieo iiaeaeae no?oeoo?e
aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo ?icieaa?a ia aac? e?euee?nieo e??oa???a, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoue i?aeaoiiio aca?iiae?th a ieo;

4) Noai?aiiy ?ioa?aeoeaieo ae?aeiaiaeo cania?a eiiieaeniiai aiae?co
oaoiieia?/ii? ? o?ceei-o?i?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??, yea ?aae?co? aca?iica’ycai?
iaoiaee ioe?iee aeinoia??iino? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ?
?iaioicaeaoi?noue iiaeaeae ??ciiai ??aiy.

I?eeeaaeia IC Aaca iiaeaeae

ANIAe ?ICIEAA IIAeAEUe

I?eeeaaeia Iiaeae?

noaoenoeea Iiaeaethaaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo

Aaaaoii??iee o?ceei — i?ioean?a

c??aiyeueiee o?i?/ieo Eaoaeia

aiae?c i?ioean?a iiaeaeae

Iioei?caoe?y ? nenoai i?aei?e?inoa

i?ioean?a ? nenoai aaeoc?

“Nenoaiia IC”

NOAAe

Eioa?oaene

Iaieiiee

Ooee?oe

Ia?iaea o?aicaeoe?e

. . . . . .

Aace ooiaeaiaioaeueieo Aace

o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeaieo oaoiieia?/ieo aeaieo

Aeanoeaino? aeaiaio?a

Oeaeia? ?icieaae Ne?iaeia

Iaoaeaa? ?icieaae Oaoiieia?y

Oeae-Iaoae-Aac I?iaeoeoe ieaaee

. . . . . . . . . . .
.

??oaiiy cacia/aieo caaea/ ?aae?co? i?iaeaiii-i???ioiaaiee eiiieaen
“Iaoae”, no?oeoo?ia noaia ?ioieia?/ii? iiaeae? yei? iieacaia ia iae.1.

A ?iaio? noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? aeiiae aei nenoaiioecaoe??,
iaoiaeeeai ioe?iee aeinoia??iino? ? ocaaaeueiaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeaieo, ye? aiinyoueny a aace ia?aeiii? ?ioi?iaoe??. Iaa?oioiaai?
i?eioeeie ianii?oecaoe?? aeaieo aac iiia?aaei?o “caeaaeoaaiue” ?
ia?iaie. Iieacaia iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee ia iniia? aace iiaeaeae
oi?iae?ciaaieo cania?a aenia?oece aeey aeaea/? Ei?enooaa/o
?aeiiaiaeiaaieo aeaieo.

I?eioeei?aeueia cia/aiiy ia? ?ic?iaea o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ?
oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo e?eoa???a, ye? aeicaieythoue “cai?iooe” ?ioi?iaoe?th
i?i

Iae.1. No?oeoo?ia noaia ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aiae?oe/ii? nenoaie “Iaoaee”.

neeaae aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo nenoai, cieceoe ia?aiao?e/i?noue iienoaaieo
iiaeaeae ? i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoiae?a ocaaaeueiaiiy
aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?ioi?iaoe??.

Ia?niaeoeaieie a ca’yceo c aeua aeneiaeaiei ? ?icaeioo? iaie iaoiaee
o?ceei-o?i?/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy, nooue yeeo aeeeaaeaii a ?icae?e? 2 ?
neeaaea?oueny o aaiae? a ca’ycie i?ae neeaaeii ? aeanoeainoyie ?icieaa?a
i?ii?aeii? eaiee — eiiieaeno ?ioaa?aeueieo ? ia?oe?aeueieo ia?aiao??a
i?aeaoiiii? aca?iiae??, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue o?i?/iee ? no?oeoo?iee noai
oeeo ?a/i?ei. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ca’yceo “neeaae” — “aeanoea?noue” — i?e
oeueiio ?ic/eaiy?oueny ia aea? /anoeie. Ia?oa — caiaeeoueny aei aeai?o
aeey aeine?aeaeoaaieo ?icieaa?a o?ceei-o?i?/ii? iiaeae?, aaeaeaaoii
a?aeaeaath/i? iniaeeaino? ?o aoaeiae ? niaoeeo?eo aeanoeainoae. Ae?oaa —
ca’ycaia c onoaiiaeaiiyi ei?aeyoe?e aeanoeainoae c iiaeaeueieie
ia?aiao?aie ? aeei?enoaiiy no/anieo iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae aeey ?ic?iaee
ia aac? oeeo ei?aeyoe?e noaoenoe/ieo iiaeaeae aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy
aeanoeainoae aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo ?icieaa?a ii ?acoeueoaoai aea/aiiy
a?aeiinii i?inoeo.

A aeae? ia?oi/a?aiaeo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo nenoai ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai iai?yieo
aoee aea?ai? ?ioi?iaoe?eii-iiooeia? nenoaie ii aeanoeainoyi oeaeiaeo
?icieaa?a ? oeaeiooai?thth/eo noi?oae, a oaeiae aeanoeainoae
cae?ci?oaeieo iaoa??ae?a.

Aaca ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeaieo i?i aeanoeaino? oeaeiaeo
?anieaa?a i???ioiaaia ia caaeiaieaiiy ?ioi?ia?eieo iio?aa oai?aoe/ii? ?
i?eeeaaeii? iaoaeo?a??. Ianii?o aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo neeaaea?oueny
?c o?ueio aeie?a, ye? iiai?noth oa?aeoa?ecothoue oiiae ? ?acoeueoaoe
aenia?eiaioa (oaenoiaee iien ? /eneia? oa?aeoa?enoeee).

Aeey caa?aaeaiiy eia?/ii? oe?einiino? ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo
iieacaiiai a aeae? noaoae, ni?aai/ieo aeaeaiue ? iaiioae?eiaaieo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, caaacia/ai? nenoaii? caniae aaiaeo ?
i?aai?caoe?? aeaieo, ye? ai?uothoue ??ciioeii? ii no?oeoo??
oaeoia?ao?/i? /anoeie ca?acii a iaeio aaco (iai?eeeaae, a aaco “Oeae”
aaiaeeoueny ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i ae?oa? aeanoeaino? — aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue,
ieaae?noue ? o.ae.).

A aeaiee /an a aaco “Oeae” aaaaeaii a?eueo ye 500 aeieoiaio?a, ye?
i?noyoue a?aeiiino? i?i aeanoeaino? a?eueo ye 8000 neeaae?a. Ii
o?i?/iiio neeaaeo ? i?ecia/aiith iieacai? oeaee i?aeoe/ii an?o nenoai,
ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny a /i?i?e iaoaeo?a??, o?aoiaai? aoaeiii?
?acoeueoaoe iniiaieo oe?e a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a.

Eieaeueia aeieoiaioaeueii-oaeoia?ao?/ia aaca aeaieo «Oeaeiooai?thth/?
noi?o? aeey ?iceeaee noae?» a aeaiee /an aeeth/a? a?eueo ye 300
iioae?eiaaieo aeaea?ae ?ioi?iaoe?? (ioae?eaoe??, aeiaoiaee, i?iniaeoe),
ye? ai?uothoue a?aeiiino? i?i neeaae, aeanoeaino? i?ecia/aiiy OIN ?
aacia?a?aii iiiiaiththoueny.

Noai?aia aaca iiaea aooe ?aeiiaiaeiaaia aeey aeei?enoaiiy i?e ?ic?iaoe?
iiaeo aoaeoeaieo ? aeieia?/ii aacia/ieo oeaeiooai?thth/eo noi?oae, a
oaeiae aeey aeai?o OIN ? ioe?iee ?o aeanoeainoae i?e oeooiaeo oiiaao,
ye? ci?iththoueny i?e ?iceeaoe? noae? ??ciiai neeaaeo a caaioiaee
ethaiai ni?oaiaioo.

A inoaii?e /an a iaea?eueo aeineiiaeeo ANO oaoiieia?/ieie i?ioeanaie ana
/ano?oa noaee aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeaoa?i?iiaai? iiaeae?. Aeei?enoaiiy
aeaoa?i?iiaaieo iiaeaeae ??cei i?aeaeuo? iaae?ei?noue, no?ee?noue,
oaeaeeiae?ei?noue ANO, iio?aao? i?i?iaeueii? “i?aeaea?aeoth/i?”
?ioi?iaoe??. E??i oiai, oae? iiaeae? caeaoi? ae??ooaaoe caaea/?,
ca’ycai? c noai?aiiyi iiaeo oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a ?, iae?iaoeue, aiie
iiaeooue a?aoe aaaeeeao ?ieue a ?icaeoeo oai???, nenoaiaoecaoe?? ciaiue
a o?e /e ae?oa?e iaeano?.

Iaea?eueo caaaeueiith iniiaith aeey iiaoaeiae aeaoa?i?iiaaieo iiaeaeae
ieaaee a oaia??oi?e /an iinoa? oa?iiaeeiai?ea, yea aeiaaa? iaeaaeii?
caaacia/aiino? ooiaeaiaioaeueieie o?ceei-o?i?/ieie aeaieie ?
eiinoaioaie.

Aaca «Oeae-Iaoae-Aac» i?noeoue aeaiaioiee iien neeaaeo eiioaeooth/eo
oac. Aeioe?euei?noue aeaiaioiiai iieno neeaaeo (cie?aia oeaeo)
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ?yaeii ianoaaei: a) an? aeaee aiae?co (o?i?/iee,
niaeo?aeueiee ? o.ae.) aeathoue aeaiaioiee neeaae oac, yeee iio?i
ia?a?aoiao?oueny ia niieo/aiiy aeeeth/ii aeey c?o/iino? ? a neeo cae/ee
ei?enooaa/?a; a) ia’?eoeai? aeai? i?i iayai?noue niieoe a ?icieaaao i?e
oaiia?aoo?ao iaoaeo?a?eieo i?ioean?a a?aenooi?, an? ia?aaeaa/ai?
no?oeoo?i? ooai?aiiy yaeythoueny iiaeaeueieie i?eiouaiiyie; a) a ?yae?
aeiaaee?a aeei?enoaiiy aeaiaioiiai neeaaeo oac aeicaiey? iienoaaoe aeai?
aenia?eiaioo c aaeeeith aaeaeaaoi?noth a ii??aiyii? c iieaeoey?iei
i?aeoiaeii.

Iaeiie/aiee oiiae aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo o?eueee ii aeii?oeiaeo
aeaiaioao i?noeoue a?eueo ye 40 i?ea?iaeueieo ioae?eaoe?e ? iieno?
a?eueo ye 2000 aenia?eiaio?a. Oe? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ni?aoe?eio cae?ai?noue oeae?a ii a?aeiioaiith aei
aeii?oie. Ia iniia? aeaieo i?i ?iciiae?e aeii?oeiaiai aeaiaioo i?ae
oacaie c o?aooaaiiy ieenethaaeueii-a?aeiiaiiai iioaioe?aeo nenoaie, yea
?icaeyaea?oueny, iiaea aooe ?ic?aoiaaia noeueo?aeia, oinoaoia ?ie?noue
oeaeo, ?ic/eii?noue a oeaeia? aoaeaoeth, aiaeith, acioo ? o.ae.

Aaca “Oeooa” noai?aia ia iniia? iaeiie/aieo a ?*I aeanieo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ? e?oa?aoo?ieo ioae?eaoe?e ?ioeo aaoi??a.

Nenoaiaoeciaai? a?aeiiino? i?i o?i?/i? neeaaee ? aeanoeaino? a?eueo 750
??cieo cae?ci?oaeieo iaoa??ae?a (ieaoeo?a, ?oae, aaeiia?ao?a). A o?i
/ene? aeai? i?i aeanoeaino? a ii/aoeiaiio noai? (oaa?ae?noue,
ii?eno?noue, oaea?ia i?oei?noue, noe?a?i?noue, a?aioeiiao??y, ii??
noeniaiith) ? aeanoeainoyo, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue i?ioean a?aeiiaeaiiy
(a?aeiiaeai?noue, nooi?iue iaoae?caoe??, ?ici’yeoaiiy, i?oei?ni? ?
oaieio?ce/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee oa ?io?).

Noai?aia aaca aeaieo iinoa? iniiaith aeey ne?aeoth/eo ?ic?iaie iiaeaeae
aeey ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/ i?iaiicoaaiiy aeanoeainoae cae?ci?oaeieo
iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? ?o o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ? iaea?aeaiiy iaoa??ae?a c
caaeaieie iioeiaeueieie aeanoeainoyie.

*a?ac oa, ui ia?a?iaea “?ioi?iaoe?eii? ne?iaeie” c
aeieoiaioaeueii-oaeoia?ao?/ieo AAe a i?iaeaiii-i???ioiaaio ?ioi?iaoe?eio
i?iaeoeoe?th iio?aao? ?noioii? aaeaioaoe?? o?aaeeoe?eieo NOAAe, iaie
aoea ?ic?iaeaia aeania oaoiieia?y i?aai?caoe?? ? aaaeaiiy
neeaaeii-no?oeoo?iaaieo aac aeaieo ? i?ia?aiii ?aae?ciaaia a iaeao?
INPIPE [14,15]. A aeaiee /an nenoaia i?aoeth? ia aeine?aeiiio iie?aii? a
a?aeae?e? o?ceei-o?i?/ieo i?iaeai ?*I IAIO, a a?aeae?e? a?aeiiaeaiiy
cae?ca a ?IAO ?i. Aaeeiaa ? a eieaeuei?e ia/enethaaeuei?e ia?aae? IAI
eiia?iaoo ?i.Aeca?aeeinueeiai.

Aeeeaaeaia a ?iaio? iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa noai?aiiy Oiiaeo iiaeaeae
iniiao?oueny ia aaaaoi??/iiio aeina?ae? aaoi?a ii iiaeaethaaiith
iaoaeo?a?eieo i?ioean?a ? nenoai i?e aeeiiaii? aaeocaaeo IAe?, a oaeiae
iaoa??aeao Ananithcieo ia?aae ii noai?aiith aaeocaaiai oiiaeo iiaeaeae,
eaoaeia yeeo ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith aaieo aeaieo “Iaoaeo?a?y”.

Ia ?eieo no/anieo i?ia?aiieo cania?a ?nio? aaeeeee aea?? iaeao?a ia?iaee
aeaieo. Iaeiae, neooaoe?y yea neeaeany, ca’ycaia c iaiao?aei?noth
“ano?ithaaoe” ia?iaethth/? i?ia?aie a ea?oth/? eiiieaene ANOOI, iio?aao?
?ic?iaee naii?aaoethth/eo aio/eeo cania?a ia?iaee ? aiae?co aeaieo,
iiaoaeiaaieo ii iiaeoeueiiio i?eioeeio, ye? aeicaieythoue i?aeeeth/aiiy
? aaeaioaoe?th aei neeaaeieo ae?iaie/eo oiia. Oey caaea/a ae??oaia iaie
i?e ?ic?iaoe? aaoiiaoeciaaii? nenoaie ia?iaee aeaieo “ANIAe”, yea
iieaco? niaith ae?oaeaethaio na?a?nio nenoaio. Oeyoii aaaaoiieaiiaiai
i?i?oe?thaaiiy ? oe?iei? a?coae?caoe?? aeaieo, i?ea?iaeueieie i?eeiiaie
aaiiao?e/ii? ?ioa?i?eoaoe?? ? ni?ooaaiiy ii caaeaiei “ii?iaiaei”
cia/aiiyi aaaaoii??ieo aeaieo iino?eii aeooae?coth/eo cania?a ANIAe
yaey?oueny aeey aeine?aeiee?a ?*I IAIO ? ?yaeo i?aei?e?inoa aaeoc?
aoaeoeaiei ?ino?oiaioii aeey iiaiiianooaaiiai aiae?co “?icieoeo” ?
“caooieaieo” aeaieo ? aeyaeaiiy i?eoiaaieo caeiiii??iinoae.

ANIAe ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith eiiieaeno “Iaoae”. Niaoe?aeuei? ?ioa?oaene
caaacia/othoue iai?i ?ioi?iaoe??th i?ae i?aenenoaiaie “ANIAe” —
“?icieaa”, ye? ?aae?ciaothoue ae??oaiiy caaea/ ii iiaeaethaaiith
?icieaa?a ye ie?aieo i?aenenoai “Oeae”, “Iaoae”, “Oeooa”, a iio?i
“cai?oathoue” ?o a nenoaio ?ioaa?aeueieo e?eoa???a, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue
no?oeoo?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?aenenoai, c iaoith iiaoaeiae eiie?aoieo
oaoiieia?/ieo iiaeaeae, /ei, a cia/i?e i???, ae??oa?oueny i?iaeaia
“cai?oee” o?ceei-o?i?/ii? ? oaoiieia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ? cieaeaiiy
?ici??iino? i?inoi?o ia?aiao??a aeine?aeaeoaaeueieo i?ioean?a.

Iae.2. I?iaeoe?y aeaieo ??cieo aaoi??a i?i iiaa?oiaaee iaoya ia oaeoi?
c iaea?eueoith iaa?oceith ( I — cae?cinae?eaoi? oeaee, II —
noaeaieaaeeuei? ? aeiiaii? oeaee, III — neioaoe/i? oeaee c
iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieie aeiaaaeaie ).

wmetafile8? ??U1?? ????????? ???????yyy????????????
???

????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????u????????????-?????ue??yyy??????-????
yyy??????????????????????????u?????????????-????
ue??yyy??????-????’yy??? ???????

????-????-???????????? yyy????-????-????’yy???
???????

????-????-???????????? yyy????uoy??????I?iaeaia
aaaaoii??iino? i?e aiae?c? o?ceei-o?i?/ii? (aaaaoieiiiiiaioi?noue
nenoai) ? oaoiieia?/ii? (aaaaoiia?aiao?e/i?noue i?ioean?a) ?ioi?iaoe??
?i?oe?th? i?aeeeth/aiiy i?ia?ai aaaaoii??iiai c??aithaaeueiiai aiae?co —
oaeoi?iiai aiae?co ? oaeniiii??. Ia?oee aeyaey? aca?iica’ycai?
ia?aiao?e, ?o aca?iiee aieea ? ia’?aeio? a ie?aiee ?ioaa?aeueiee oaeoi?.
Oaeniiii?y — aa?aao? aeai? ii ?o noiaeino? (ieaaee c iaeeiaeiaith
oaoiieia??th, ne?iaeiieie oiiaaie, aeaeaie /aaoio ? o.ae.). Ia iniia?
oaeoi?iiai aiae?co iiaeia aeyaeoe ia?aiao?e, ye? iieacothoue aieea ia
?icaeyaeoaaiee a?aeeeee ? yeee aecia/a? ia aeaiiio aoai?, oaoiieia?/iee
?aca?a aeey oi?aae?iiy c o?aooaaiiyi eiie?aoieo ne?iaeiieo ?
oaoiieia?/ieo oiia.

A ?iaio? ia iniia? iaoiae?a aaaaoii??iiai c??aithaaeueiiai aiae?co
cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea oi?iae?ciaaii? aenia?oece aeaieo. Iai?eeeaae,
?icoa?oaaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ii iiaa?oiaaiio iaoyc? ( ) i?e
“cai?oaii?” ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i neeaae oeae?a ia iniia? oaeoi?iiai aiae?co
ia iae.2 iiyniy?oueny iniaeeainoyie o?i?/iiai neeaaeo eiaeii? c a?oi
(??ci? nenoaie, aieea iiaa?oiaaeo aeiaaaie).

A nenoai? ANIAe cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoiae aaaaoie?eoa??aeueii? iioei?caoe??,
a a?aeiia?aeiino? c yeei eiaeiee c e?eoa???a ?icaeyaea?oueny ye iiaa?oiy
— a?aeaoe a a?ia?i?inoi?? ia?aiao??a iioei?caoe??. Noia?iiceoe?y oaeeo
iiaa?oiiue a aea?aieo eii?aeeiaoieo ia?aoai?a aea? iiaeeea?noue
ii??aiyoe eieaeuei? iioeioie an?o iiaa?oiiue iaeii/anii ? ?aoe?iiaeueii
aea?aoe ia?aiao?e, ye? caaeiaieueiythoue cacia/aiei aeiiaai. Caaea/a
iioei?caoe?? caiaeeoueny, oaeei /eiii, aei iiaoaeiae iaoaiaoe/ieo
iiaeaeae aeey oi/eiaeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo ooieoe?e-a?aeeeee?a c
iine?aeiaiith aaiiao?e/iith ?ioa?i?eoaoe??th a aeae? o?ueioi??ieo
ea?oia?ai ia AII. A yeino? ooieoe?e-a?aeeeee?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae iaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaothoueny i?iaeoeoeai?noue ia/?, aeo?aoe eieno,
neeaae ? o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? /aaoio ? oeaeo ? ?i.

Aea?? eii?aeeiao aeey iiaoaeiae ia’?iieo ea?oia?ai ia? i?eioeeiiaa
cia/aiiy. In? iiaeii? aooe iacaeaaeieie ? iaoe /?oeee o?ce/iee ci?no.
Oae, a aeiaaeeo aeai?o iioeiaeueiiai oeaeiaiai ?aaeeio aeey caaacia/aiiy
caaeaii? yeino? /aaoio, aeioe?eueii aea?aoe ca in? oaeo eiiiiceoe?th
eiiiiiaio?a o?i?/iiai neeaaeo (CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, MgO ? o.ae.), yea
aeicaiey? a?aoiaoaaoe eiiia?aoeaiee oa?aeoa? aieeao an?o neeaaeiaeo ia
caeiiii??iino? ci?i aeanoeainoae ?icieaao — a’yceino?, ieaaeino? ? o.i.

CaO/SiO2
CaO/SiO2

wmetafile8? ??u???¬???????

???????? ???????
u?N???????u?N???????????&??Begin Layer????Layer
1????&??Layer
Visibility??????ue??KKK?????-?????u????KKK???-?????$[?·?*
?u?®?Ao?A??A??Awmetafile8? ??????l???????

???????? ???????
y?]???????y?]???????????&??Begin Layer????Layer
1????&??Layer
Visibility??????ue??nnm?????-?????u????nnm???-?th???$?-?
?-?a?Jss?J??J??J??J??J??J??J??I±?I°?I°?H??H®?H?G¬?G«?F?
?F??E§?E¦?D¤?CF?C!?B ?B??A

(a) Al2O3/MgO
(a) Al2O3/MgO

Iae.3. Ea?oia?aie ai?noo n??ee a /aaoi? (a) ? aeo?aoe eieno (a) aeey
oiia AeI-8 IE “Aei?i?ianueeee”

?ic?iaeaia no/ania iaoiaeeea i?ieoea i?iieneiaa aei?iaoaaiiy i?e aeai??
no?eeiai oeaeiaiai ?aaeeio, yeee caaacia/o? aeieaaeo caaeaii? yeino?
/aaoio i?e caaeaieo iaiaaeaiiyo ia aeo?aoe eieno ? i?iaeoeoeai?noue aeey
oiia eiia?iao?a IEIE, CNIE, IOIE, ?i.?ee?/a, eiia?iaoo
?i.Aeca?aeeinueeiai. Oae, aeey oiia AeI-8 eiia?iaoo ?i.Aeca?aeeinueeiai,
a ?acoeueoao? aiae?co ea?oia?ai (aeea. o?aaiaio ia iae.3) aoa c?iaeaiee
aeniiaie i?i ia?ao?ae ia a?eueo no?eeee oeaeiaee ?aaeei, yeee
aecia/a?oueny a?aeiioaiiyi: CaO/SiO2=1.15-1.17; Al2O3/MgO=1.2-1.25, ui
caaacia/eei a?eueo aenie? ? noaa?euei? iieacieee ?iaioe ia/? (S0.027%,
Si1.1%, aeo?aoa eieno 585 ea/o i?e i?iaeoeoeaiino? 1871 o/aeiao.

?icae?e 2. AEAI? E?EOA???A OA ?IC?IAEA IIAeAEAE AeEss I?IAII-

COAAIIss OICEEI-OIII*IEO I OAOIIEIAI*IEO AEANOE-

AINOAE IAOAEO?A?EIEO ?ACIEAA?A.

Iaoaeo?aieii ?icieaae noi?iaiaeaeothoue oni iniiaii ia?aae?ee
ae?iaieoeoaa iaoaeo i ?o aeanoeainoi aecia/athoue yeinoue eiioeaai?
iaoaeii?iaeoeoei?. Naia oiio o oeie ?iaioi iniaieaa oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny
iiaeaethaaiith iaoaeo?aieieo ?icieaaia oa i?iaiicoaaiith ?o
aeanoeainoae.

Inioth/i oai?i? aoaeiae iaoaeo?aieieo ?icieaaia, iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo ?o
aeanoeainoae oa ?acoeueoaoia aca?iiaei? aiae?iciythoueny aaeeeith
?iciiiaiioiinoth. Iacaaaeath/e ia aaeeeo eieueeinoue aeineiaeaeaiue o
oeueiio iai?yieo, i?iaeaia ua ia aei oiai aea/aia, uia caaaeueii
oiceei-oiii/ii iieiaeaiiy oai?i? ??aeeiiiai noaio aoei iiaeeeai
canoinoaaoe aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy eiioeaaeo ?acoeueoaoia oaoiieiai/ieo
i?ioeania.

A iniiai iiaeoiaeo, c iiceoeie yeiai o aeena?oaoei? ?icaeyaea?oueny
cacia/aia i?iaeaia, eaaeeoue oai?iy oiceei-oiii/iiai iiaeaethaaiey
?icieaaia, ?ic?iaeaia A.A.I?eoiaeueei. ?? aiaei?aaiei iieiaeaiiyi ?
oyaeaiiy i?i ciiiiinoue ca?yaeiaiai noaio aoiiia eiaeiiai c eiiiiiaioia
ye oeaeiaiai, oae i iaoaeaaiai ?icieaaia o caeaaeiinoi aiae ?o
eiie?aoiiai e?enoaeioiii/iiai ioi/aiiy. I?e oeueiio iaoaeo?aieii
?icieaae ?icaeyaeathoueny ye oiii/ii ?aeeii nenoaie, ciiia neeaaeo yeeo
aieeaa? ia eiiieaen ?o oiceei-oiii/ieo aeanoeainoae oa ?aaeoeieio
caeiaiinoue e?icue noiooith ciiio ia?aiao?ia ?o no?oeoo?e i
oa?aeoa?enoee i?aeaoiiii? aca?iiaei?. Iiaeaeue ia?ii? i?aeaoiiii?
aca?iiaei? o ?icieaaao aeieeaaeii iienaia o ioaeieaoeiyo A.A.I?eoiaeueei
i ?icaeiaia o iaoeo noiicieo i?aoeyo [3,5, 6,12,17,21].

Aaoi?ii aeena?oaoei? ?ic?iaeaia i ai?iaaaeaeaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo oa
aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo e?eoa?i?a oeeo iiaeaeae, ui ?icaeioei iiaeeeainoi
aeei?enoaiiy oei?? iaoiaeieiai? o ?icieo aaeocyo oai?i? iaoaeeo?aieieo
i?ioeania.

Iniiaieie ia?oeiaeueieie ia?aiao?aie iiaeaei caeiciaoaeaoeaaeo ?icieaaia
c’yaeythoueny (oaae.1) aoaeoeaii ca?yaee eiiiiiaioia (Zi), ui
aecia/athoueny aeey eiaeii? ia?e ?aaaaioia (Zii-j), a oaeiae
na?aaeiueinoaoenoe/ii cia/aiiy (Zin?.), ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue ca?yaeiaee
noai eiaeiiai c eiiiiiaioia o ?icieaai.

Oaaeeoey 1. Neeaae iaoaeaaeo ?icieaaia iniiaieo iaoaeo?aieieo
ia?aae?eia.

Oii?/iee neeaae iaoaeo, %?ioaa?aeueii ia?aiao?e i na?aaeii ca?yaee
?i?NSiMnSPFedZYZCZSiZMnZSZPZFe14.560.790.210.0190.05094.222.341.41-2.745
-1.0890.3190.166-0.4440.28124.562.200.200.0240.05692.782.331.44-2.732-1.
0730.3370.180-0.4280.29834.850.640.220.0100.04894.222.321.41-2.717-1.057
0.3520.195-0.4130.31344.850.650.220.0090.04794.212.321.41-2.717-1.0570.3
520.195-0.4130.31350.09-0.070.0210.00999.712.811.15-3.459—0.54-0.59-1.2
36-0.54160.20-0.190.0250.00899.492.791.16-3.431—0.51-0.56-1.206-0.50971
.452.4090.60.0300.3105.112.681.50-3.199-1.585-0.18-0.27-0.913-0.19381.30
2.3090.30.0300.3005.672.701.50-3.226-1.616-0.21-0.30-0.942-0.224I?eiioea
: Oi/ee 1-2 — /aaoie AeI “Ooea*a?iao”; 3,4 — /aaoie AeI *a?IE; 5,6 —
eiiaa?oa?ia noaeue caaiaeo ii.Iao?ianueeiai; 7,8 — oa??inieaae.

?ioaa?aeueieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aeaeo?iiii? no?oeoo?e ?icieaao ye
oiii/ii ?aeeii? nenoaie yaey?oueny ?? oiii/iee aea?aaeaio (ZY), yeee
ocaaaeueith? aeaii i?i ca?yaee eiiiiiaioia c o?aooaaiiyi iiaeeeainoae
ooai?aiiy ca’yceia ?iciiai oeio, a oaeiae no?oeoo?iee ia?aiao? (d),
oa?aeoa?ecoth/ee na?aaeiueinoaoenoe/io aiaenoaiue iiae aoiiaie o
eaaceoiii/iiio i?eaeeaeaiii.

Aaciaa iiaeaeue no?oeoo?e oeaeiaeo ?icieaaia aoea ?ic?iaeaia caiaeii c
iiaeaeyie oii?yaeeiaaiieo no?oeoo? e?enoaei/ieo i iieaeoey?ieo
niieo/aiue.

Iniiaieie ia?aiao?aie iiaeaei i?e i?eaaaeaiii ?icieaao aei aeaeo EA, aea
— iieaciee noaoeiiao?i?, ui aecia/a?oueny aiaeiioaiiyi eieueeinoi
eaoiiiia E (Fe, Cr, Al, Si, Mn ….) aei /enea aiiiiia A (I, S, P….)
o 100 a. ?icieaao yaeythoueny: cia/aiiy na?aaeiueicaaaeaieo ca?yaeia i
?aaeionia eaoiiiia o iiaenenoaii E, aiiiiia o iiaenenoaii A, a oaeiae o
iai?yieo c’ayceo E-A i A-E, yei ?ic?aoiaothoueny caiaeii c oi?ioeaie:

Zk(k-A) = wmetafile8? ??k???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
  ???&??yyyy?????Ay!y`A ???&?
?MathType??????u?th??????ooo iiaeaene e i a iieacothoue ia ca’ycie
eaoiiia E c aiiiiii A, m — eieueeInoue eaoiiiia, n — eieueeinoue
aiiiiia, Mki, Mai — aiaeiiaiaeii ?o aoiiii aeiei.

Iioaa?aeueieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ?icieaaia c’yaeythony: iieaciee
noaoiiiao?i? ?, ia?aiao? ?e, oa?aeoa?ecoth/ee aca?iiaeith o ca’yceo
eaoiii-aiiii, ui ?ic?aoiao?oueny ye ?en?=wmetafile8?
??k??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
???????   ???&??yyyy?????Ay!y`A ???&?
?MathType??????u?th??????na?aaeiueinoaoenoe/ia iiae’yaea?ia
aiaenoaiue d (oaae.2) i iieaciee iiaeea?aeoaeueiinoi eaoiiiii?
iiae?aoioee ?icieaao tg?=tg?iMi (tg?i — oaaoeueiaaiee aeey eiaeiiai
aeaiaioo oaaeeoei Iaiaeae??aa).

Oaaeeoey 2. Neeaae oeaeia, aiaeiiaiaeieo aei neeaaeo iaoaeo o oaae.1.

Ceeaae oeaeo, %Iiaeaeueii
ia?aiao?e?CaOMgOSiO2Al2O3MnOFeOSde141.0910.1741.556.230.150.301.002.891-
2.6040.707241.879.7140.686.440.140.270.812.897-2.5960.707349.284.5213.51
0.992.5020.990.133.161-2.7500.858451.264.6316.630.592.6616.740.143.082-2
.5960.838545.795.9619.561.235.1714.270.113.134-2.8290.815625.102.8027.90
2.2041.670.200.103.506-4.2280.76973.6048.9131.970.159.555.150.663.500-3.
9140.79282.6846.2132.590.3489.797.780.593.500-3.9790.785Aeei?enoaiiy
oeeo ia?aiao?ia, ye cacia/a? aiaeic, aeyaeeinue aeoaea aoaeoeaiei
caniaii “cai?oee” iioi?iaoei? i?i neeaae aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo ieneaeieo
?icieaaia i?e aea/aiii caeiiiii?iinoi oi?ioaaiiy ?o aeanoeainoae. Ia
ia?oiio aoaii oeeo aeineiaeaeaiue (o ?aieao eaiaeeaeaonueei?
aeena?oaoei? aaoi?a) aoee iaea?aeaii ?iaiyiiy aeey ?ic?aooieo a’yceinoi
() i?e ?icieo oaiia?aoo?ao, iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao (), aeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoi
(), aonoeie (d), ieaaeinoi (O) oeaeia aeiiaiiiai ia?aae?eo. Iiaeaeueoi
aeineiaeaeaiiy aeena?oaioa aeicaieeee ?icaeiooe oa caaeeaeoe oeae
iai?yiie aeineiaeaeaiue.

Iaoiaeieiaiy oiceei-oiii/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy oeaeiaeo i iaoaeaaeo
?icieaaia i?ia?aiii ?aaeiciaaia aaoi?ii o iiaenenoaiao “Oeae” i “Iaoae”.

?iciinoue oiii/ieo iioaioeiaeia eiaeiiai eiiiiiaioo o oeaeo oa iaoaei
yaey?oueny ?ooieiith neeith i?ioeano, ui aecia/a? iiaiioo ia?aoiaeo
?a/iaeie c iaeii?? oace a ae?oao, a oaeiae cia/ii aieeaa? ia oaeaeeinoue
i?ioeania. O ca’yceo c oeei ciaoiaeaeaiith oiii/ieo iioaioeiaeia i
ii?aeiaieo c iei aeoeaiinoae (ai) eiiiiiaioia o oai?i? iaoaeeo?aieieo
i?ioeannia iaaea?oueny iniaeeaa oaaaa.

Aeey aieueooco? i?io?eath/eo ia iaaei «iaoae-oeae» ?aaeoeie eiinoaioe
?iaiiaaae aoei caeiaooi aenia?eiaioaeueiei oeyoii, i ae?ac aeey ?o
?ic?aooieo caeaaeeoue aiae aeai?o aaoi?aie iiaeaeueieo oyaeaiue i?i
iaoaiici aca?iiaei? no?oeoo?iaeo /anoei o ?icieaaao. I?e aiaeiinii
iaaaeeeie eieueeinoi aeiiioie o ?icieaaao caeica (aei 6-10%), aei /enea
yeeo aiaeiineoueny aieueoinoue ia?ie noaeae i /aaoiia, i?eeiyoi, ui
aeoeaiinoue caeica o iaoaeo?aieiiio ?icieaai ?iaiy?oueny iaeeieoei
a[Fe]=1, a aeey iioeo eiiiiiaioia o i?aeoeoei iaoaeo?ai? iaeaieueoa
iioe?aiiy caeiaoee ?ic?aooiee aeoeaiinoae /a?ac ia?aiao?e aca?iiaei?
(ia?aiao?e Aaaia?a). Aeey oeaeia iaeaieueo /anoioa canoiniaothoue
iiaeaeue ?aaoey?ieo iiiieo ?ic/eiia (?I?) A.A.Eiaeao?iaa, iiaeaeue
oeaeo, ye oace c eieeaeoeaieie aeaeo?iiaie A.A.Iiiiia?aiei (EA), a
oaeiae iie?ia?io iiaeaeue.

Ii ii?i iaeiieaiiy o aaci “Oeae-Iaoae-Aac” aeaieo i?i oa?iiaeeiaii/ii
aeanoeainoi oeaeiaeo i iaoaeaaeo ?icieaaia aoei aeeiiaii aiaeic
inioth/eo noaaeaiue aei i?iaiicoaaiiy aeoeaiinoae eiiiiiaioia o oeaeiaeo
?icieaaao. Ia i?eeeaae? c?iaeaiiai A.E.Iiaieiaei ic ni?aaaoi?aie
?ic?aooieo aeoeaiinoi ieneaeo ia?aaioeth o aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo
aethiinieieaoieo nenoaiao MnO-CaO-SiO2; MnO-SiO2-Al2O3;
MnO-CaO-SiO2-Al2O3; MnO-CaO-SiO2-FeO-MgO i?iaaaeaii ii?iaiyeueiee
aiaeic oeeo iiaeaeae c ?ic?iaeaiith iaie, c oi/ee iiaeyaeo ia oi/iinoue
iienoaaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo cia/aiue, aeoeaiinoi MnO.

Iiae /an aiaeico aia?oa aoea cacia/aia iaiaoiaeiinoue o?aooaaiiy, ii?yae
c iioaa?aeueieie ia?aiao?aie a i , i?e ?ioaiii caaea/ oaeiai ?iaith
ia?oeiaeueieo ia?aiao?ia aca?iiaei? — o aeaiiio aeiaaeeo ca?yaeo
ia?aaioeth ZMn.

Aeei?enoaiiy ii?aeiaiiy iioaa?aeueieo i ia?oeiaeueieo oiceei-oiii/ieo
e?eoa?i?a aeicaieeei ia’?aeiaoe oni neeaaee cacia/aieo aeua nenoai o
?aeeio aeai?eo oa iaea?aeaoe iiaeaeue aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy aeoeaiinoi MnO
o oanoeeiiiiiaioiie nenoaii MnO-CaO-SiO2-FeO-MgO-Al2O3:

aMnO=-2,17 — 0,107a + 3,174 + 0,182Z(Mn) R=0.99
(3)

aea R — eiaoioei?io ei?aeyoei?.

Iaaaaeaii o ?iaioi ?acoeueoaoe naiae/aoue i?i oa, ui i?e ia aeoaea
aaeeeie eieueeinoi SiO2 i Al2O3 (SiO2 30, Al2O3 10) oni /ioe?e iiaeaei
caaeiaieueii iienothoue aenia?eiaioaeueii aeaii ii anueiio aea/aiiio
iioa?aaei neeaaeia. I?e ia?aoiae? aei nenoai c aenieith eieueeinoth SiO2
i Al2O3 ?ic?aooiie aeoeaiinoi ca iaoiaeii ?I? ? EE aea? cia/ii
aiaeoeeaiiy aiae aeineiaeo.

Aiaeiai/ii ?acoeueoaoe iaea?aeai? i?e ii?iaiyeueiiio aiae?co ?ic?aooie?a
aeoeaiinoi FeO: aFeO=-0,133 — 0,421?e — 0,384? + 0,217ZFe R=0,95
(4)

Oaeei /eiii, aieiaia ia?aaaaa cai?oaiiy oiii/iiai neeaaeo oeaeiaiai
?icieaao a aeaeyaei iiaeaeueieo ia?aiao?ia (?e, ?, Zn?E),
aiaeca?eaethth/eo eiai no?oeoo?o, aecia/a?oueny a oiio, ui ?o
canoinoaaiiy aeicaiey? o?aooaaoe i?e ioeiioei aeoeaiino? eiiiiiaioia ?o
oiii/iee (ca?yaeiaee) noai i aeanoeainoi na?aaeiaeua o aeaeyaei (aiE) =
f (?e,?,Z Eoe).

Caiaeii c i?iaaaeaieie aeine?aeaie, ia?aiao?e ?e, ? i ZY (Iae.4)
aeinoaoiuei aeia?a o?aoiaothoue aeoeaiinoue eiiiiiaioia o ?icieaaao aeey
?iaiicaaaeaieo aai iaeo?aeueieo oiia.

wmetafile8? ??¶??????????? ???????yyy????????????
e?%???

????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????u????????????-?????ue??yyy??????-????
yyy???????????????????i?&???????u?????????????-????
ue??yyy??????-????’yy??? ???????

????-????-???????????? yyy????-????-????’yy???
???????

????-????-???????????? yyy????-????-????’yy???

????-????-????????????
yyy????e?%??????-????-????’yy???

????-????-????????????
yyy????e?%??????-????-????’yy???

????-????-????????????
yyy????e?%??????ue??yyy??????-?????????u????????????-
??????????????????$?’? ?th? ?th?C?’?C?’?
????u????????????-?????????? ?’????yyy????
?th????C?th????C?’????
?’????u?????????????-??????????
?’????C?’????uoy??????Iae.4. Caeaaeiinoue eiaoioei?ioia aeoeaiinoi
aoaeaoeth N () i ni?ee S (o), YSiO2 () aiae iioaa?aeueieo e?eoa?i?a
/aaoio oa oeaeo.

Ii ii?i aiaeoeeaiue aca?iiaeith/eo nenoai aiae ??aiiaaae caieueoo?oueny
?ieue ca?yaeo aeaiaioa Z? i ia?aiao?a ia?aca?yaeee (?Z?=Z?iao — Z?oe),
yeee oa?aeoa?eco? ciiio aeaeo?iiiiai noaio eiiiiiaioa i?e ia?aoiaei c
iaeii? oace a iioo.

Oae, i?e aeineiaeaeaiii iaeiie/aieo o aacao ?ao?iniaeoeaieo ae?iaie/eo
aeaieo ii iieacieeai aeieaaee oinoi?enoiai i iaeioinoi?enoiai /aaoiia 25
iaoaeo?aieieo ae?iaieoeoa naioo aoei cacia/aii aieea ca?yaeiaiai noaio
ia oiii/io aeoeaiinoue aeeooiaeoth/iai aeaiaioo. Aeey oeueiai iaee?aua
iia?oaaoe aaee/eiith “ia?aca?yaeee”?ZA (Iae.5).

wmetafile8? ??u??????????? ???????yyy????????????
O?????

????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????u????????????-?????ue??yyy??????-????
yyy???????????????????Oe????????u?????????????-???
?ue??yyy??????-????’yy??? ???????

????-????-???????????? yyy????-????-????’yy???
???????

????-????-???????????? yyy????uoy??????
a) a)

Iae.5. Aieea ca?yaeiaiai noaio ni?ee a /aaoii (a) i e?aiiacaio a oeaoe?
(a) ia ?o aeoeaiinoue aeey ?icieo aeaeia /aaoiia (- oinoi?enoee /aaoi
(aaeiia?ao), — ia?a?iaiee /aaoi (ieaoeo?), — oinoi?enoee /aaoi (ciioaia
oeooa), — ia?a?iaiee /aaoi (ciioaia oeooa), — ia?a?iaiee /aaoi
(aaeiia?ao)).

Oaeei /eiii, caaaeueiee aieea iioaa?aeueieo (ZY,?e,?) i ia?oeiaeueieo
(?Zi) ia?aiao?ia no?oeoo?e caaacia/o? aenieo oi/iinoue (R>0.9)
i?iaiicieo iiaeaeae oeio:

aSiO2 = 1.743 — 0.333e — 2.484 — 0.213Zy — 0.26 Zsi (5)

lgaSi = 0. 11Zy + 1.67e — 15.92 + 3.67ZSi + 11.39 (6)

lgfS = 0.53Zy + 0.35e — 4.76 + 0.82ZS + 2.98
(7)

I?iaaaeaii ?ic?aooieiai-aiaeioe/ii aeineiaee iieacaee, ui aca?iiaeiy o
nenoaii “Iaoae-Oeae” aaaea aei ciiie i aeoeaiinoi eiiiiiaioia oeaeo i
iaoaeo. Oeae ?acoeueoao ? eiai/iei, yeui o?aeooaaoe aca?iiaeith
?icieaaia ye eiiia?aoeaiee iiiiiaiiiiee i?ioean.

Iaeiie/aii o aacao aeaii noai?eee ?ai?acaioaoeaia iioi?iaoeieia
na?aaeiaeua aeey aeai?o oiceei-oiii/ieo e?eoa?i?a aeey oiai, uia
ioeiieoe ?aoiioth/i aeanoeainoi oeaeia ii ia?aiao?ai oiceei-oiii/ii?
iiaeaei no?oeoo?e oeaeiaeo ?icieaaia, a oaeiae aeicaieeee c?iaeoe
ii?iaiyeueiee aiaeic ?icieo iaoiaeee aecia/aiiy ?aoiioth/i? caeiaiinoi
oeaeia ii ?iciei aiaeiioaiiyi iiae eiioeaio?aoeiyie iniiaieo i eeneeo
ieneaeia o oeaoe?.

Oaeiae i?iaiaeiciaaii ?icii iiaeoiaee aei ?ic?aooieo n??eiiiaeeiath/i?
caeiaiinoi oeaeia c iiceoeie oa?iiaeeiaiiee, aeeth/ath/e aeei?enoaiiy
iioe/ii? iniiaiinoi ? (iae.6).

Oei aeineiaee naiae/aoue i?i oa, ui ooieoei?th iieacieea “iniiaiinoi”
c’yaey?oueny ii?aeiaiiy aaee/ei ?e i ? .

O ?acoeueoaoi aiaeico eioa?aoo?ieo aeaieo ii ni?eiiiaeeiath/ie
caeiaiinoi oeaeia (CS) ie iieacaee, ui aiia aecia/a?oueny niieoeith
iioaa?aeueieo e?eoa?i?a ?e i ?, a oaeiae, ye iieacaa iioaeoi?iee aiaeic
caniaaie ANIAe, na?aaeiueinoaoenoe/iei ca?yaeii ai?iiia o c’ayceo
aiiii-eaoiii (iae.7)

lg CS = 0.187?e + 12.455 ? — 0.214Z(a-e) — 7.783
R=0.98 (8)

wmetafile8? ??†?? ????????? ???????yyy????????????
a?U????

????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????u?????yyy????-?????ue??yyy??????-????
yyy???????????????????ae?Ue????????u?????????????-??
??ue??yyy??????-????’yy??? ???????

????-????-???????????? yyy????-????-????’yy???
???????

????-????-???????????? yyy????-????-????’yy???

????-????-????????????
yyy????a?U???????-????-????’yy???

????-????-????????????
yyy????a?U???????-????-????’yy???

????-????-????????????
yyy????a?U???????ue??yyy??????-?????????u????????????-
??????????????????$?1??A??A?1/2?1?1/2?1?????u????????
????-???????????1????yyy?????A????1/2?A????1/2?1?
????1????u?????????????-???????????1????1/2?1????uoy?
?????Iae.6.Aiaeiioaiiy iiae iioe/iith Iae.7.Ca’ycie iiae
aenia?eiaioaeueieie

iniiaiinoth i ia?aiao?ii . i ?ic?aoiaaieie ii oi?ioei (8)

cia/aiiyie NS

Aeua cacia/aio i?iaiicio iiaeaeue aoei ia?aai?aii ia ianeai
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo A.I.AEiieaeiia aeey nenoaie
CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CaF2. Oi/iinoue ai?ieneiaoe?? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo
aeey oeeo oeaeia i?iaiicii? caeaaeiinoi (8) oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
eiaoioei?ioii ei??aeyoei? R=0.96. Oe?iea ioiieaiiy eiioeaio?aoeie ?icieo
eiiiiiaioia oeaeiaeo ?icieaaia oa aeiaiaciio ?o ciiie aeicaiey?
?aeiiaiaeoaaoe caeiaooo caeaaeiinoue (8) aeey ioeiiee ni?eiiiaeeiath/i?
caeiaiinoi i?iieneiaeo oeaeia onio iaoaeo?aieieo ia?aae?eia.

Uia iaa?oiooaaoe aeai? oiceei-oiii/ieo e?eoa?i?a aeey ioeiiee
?aoeioth/i? caeiaiinoi oeaeia o yeinoi iethno?aoei? ii aiaeia?/iie noaii
aeineiaeaeaii neeaaee neioaoe/ieo oeaeia, ui canoiniaothoueny o e?aoaaie
iaoaeo?ai?. Ineieueee ia?aaaae i iaaeieiee eiaeii? c aeei?enoaieo
eiiiiceoeie caeaaeaoue aiae eiie?aoieo oiia ?o canoinoaaiiy i aiae iaoe,
iinoaaeaii? aeineiaeieeaie, oai?aoe/ia ocaaaeueiaiiy iaeiie/aieo ciaiue
aiaenooi?.

wmetafile8? ??Ia iae.8 aiaeia?aaeaia oaeniiiiiy aeaieo o eii?aeeiaoao
?e i ?. Oaea a?aoi/ia iioa?i?aoaoeiy cia/ii oi?iuo? i?ioeaaeo?o
ii?iaithaaeueieo ioeiiie ?ao?ioth/i? caeaoiinoi ?icieo oeaeia i
aeicaiey? aeeooa?aioeithaaoe ?o ii i?ecia/aiith i iioaioeieiei
iiaeeeainoyi.

Iae.8. Niiaaiaeiioaiiy iiae a i aeey neioaoe/ieo oeaeia.I?ecia/aiiy
oeaeia:

I,III — aeeaiea i /anoeiaa aeanoeueoo?aoeiy iaoaeo; II —
aeanoeueoo?aoeiy ? /anoeiaa aeaoinoi?aoe?y; IV -ia?aieaai? oa caa?thth/?
oeaee.

Aiaeic e?oa?aoo?ii? iioi?iaoei? oeaco? ia oa, ui neeaaee oeaeia, ui
ciaoiaeyoueny o ciiao I, III /ano?oa canoiniaothoueny aeey aeeaiei? oa
/anoeiai? aeanoeueoo?aoe?? iaoaeo, a cii? II- aeey aeanoeueoo?aoe?? oa
/anoeiai? aeaoinoi?aoe?? iaoaeo, a cii? IV- ia?aieaai? oa caa?thth/?
oeaee.

C?icoiiei, oeae iiaeie aeoaea oiiaiee, oiio ui aii ia o?aoiao? ciiio
neeaaeo oeaeo i?e aca?iiaei? c iaoaeii o eiaoi. Oei ia iaio,
i?e?iooth/enue ia oaeniiiiith iae.8, iiaeeeai o ia?oiio i?eaeeaeaiii
ioeiieoe ei?eniinoue i iai?yiie aieeao ei?aeoe?iaie oii?/iiai neeaaeo
eiaoaaeo oeaeia i?e cai?/iie ia?iaoei noaei.

Aeei?enoaii e?eoa?i? ?e i ZY oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?icieaae, ye aiiiaaiii
nenoaie. Oea i?eiouaiiy iaaiei /eiii iaeaaeico? noai ?o no?oeoo?e. Iiooe
oeyoia aeiaeaoeiaiai o?aooaaiiy aieeao iie?iiaiaeii?iaeiinoi ia
aeanoeainoi ?icieaaia aeicaieea onoaiiaeoe, ui oaeee nenoaiiee iaeie
iiaeeeai caaacia/eoe, ?ic?aooaaaoe iaaeii?ii cia/aiiy ia?aiao?ia ZY i d.
Aiaeiiaiaeii cia/aiiy ZY i d aecia/athoueny ye ?icieoey iiae ZY i d,
?ic?aoiaaieie aeey ?icieaao ye aeey oiii/ii iaeii? nenoaie, a oaeiae
ZYni i dni aeey noiioi aiaeiiaiaeieo eiiiiiaioia.

Aaaaeaiiy oeeo e?eoa?i?a noaei aeoaea ei?eniei aeey oai?aoe/iiai
ocaaaeueiaiiy, a ia?oo /a?ao, aeaieo i?i oa?iiaeeiaii/ii aeanoeainoi
?icieaaia. Iai?eeeaae, aeey oaieio ciiooaaiiy i?e ?icieo oaiia?aoo?ao
103 ?icieaaia nenoai Ni-Si, Fe-Si, Fe-Ni, Cu-Ni, Cu-Fe (oaae.3),
aeineiaeaeaieo o ?iaioao Aa?oiaia A.A. i Naia?eia A.I., caaaeueiei
c’yaey?oueny ?iaiyiiy:

H = -103,7 + 4,89ZY + 23,4d — 9,0ZY + 59,3d + 0,023T R=0.94
(9)

Ocaaaeueiaiiy oaeiai ?iaeo ?aiioa ia aoei iiaeeeaei.

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea o?aooaaiiy iioaioeiaeueii? iie?iiaiaeii?iaeiinoi
no?oeoo?e ieneaeieo ?icieaaia aaco?oueny ia eieueeiniiio aecia/aiii
nooiaii aiaeoeeaiiy oiii/iiai aeaiaaeaioo (?e) i no?oeoo?iiai ia?aiao?o
(d) ?aaeueieo ?icieaaia aiae ?ic?aoiaaieo aeey iaoai?/ieo noiioae
ii/aoeiaeo eiiiiiaioia, caienaieo ye kiai:

????e = a [( kmi ) (A tj )] — e ki ai ni, (10)

i=1,…,m

aea ki ai — niieoee oeio FeO, CaO, SiO2 i o.ae.;[(kmi) (A
tj)]-oi?iaeiciaaiee caien eaoiiiii? i aiiiiii? iiae?ao?oie. Ia?aiao? ?d
ae?aoiao?oueny aiaeiai/ii.

Ia i?eeeaaei i?iaiicoaaiiy aioaeueii? ciioaiiy ?I aeia?a aea/aieo
aeaooeiiiiiaioieo nenoai CoO-MgO, CoO-MnO, NiO-MgO i NiO-MnO aeey
ia’?aeiaiiai ianeao aeaieo (n=68) caeiaooi ?iaiyiiy (R=0,97):

?I=-515,71+2,9?ao+158,55do+6484,4??ao+17397,1?do (11)

Iaeie ia?aiao?ia iie?iiaiaeii?iaeiinoi ??ao i ?do cia/ii iiaeuo?
oi/iinoue iienaiiy oeacaii? oa?aeoa?enoeee aiae R=0,63 i?e ?I=f(?eo, do)
aei R=0,97 caiaeii c oi?ioeith (11).

Oaaeeoey 3. Neeaae, iiaeaeueii ia?aiao?e aeaeo?iiii? no?oeoo?e
iaoaeaaeo ?icieaaia.

?icieaaIiaeaeueii ia?aiao?eZY ,a d, 10-1 iiZY ,a d, 10-1 ii14,0 Cu +
86,0 Ni1.12812.8730.2130.00250,0 Cu + 50,0 Ni1.33002.8910.443-0.00487,0
Cu + 13,0 Fe1.10902.8910.224-0.02513,0 Cu + 87,0
Fe1.32202.8330.224-0.00816,7 Fe + 83,3 Ni1.24702.8450.287-0.01170,0 Fe +
30,0 Ni1.50502.8290.433-0.00890,0 Fe + 10,0 Si1.33302.6960.201-0.05760,0
Fe + 40,0 Si1.65702.4850.536-0.045Iicey ocaaaeueiaiiy aeaieo i?i
oa?iiaeeiai?/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee aeiiaiieo oeaeia ca aeaieie
A.A.Aineiaieiieiaa aeey nenoai Al2O3-SiO2-CaO i SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO-MnO-S
aoei iaea?aeaia ?iaiyiiy:

?????? ?I = 309,55 — 12,95 ?ao — 81,33 do
R=0,52 (12)

?I =328,34+12,26 ?ao-36,96do+20,31??eo-164,68?do R=0,85 (13)

O i?ioeani aeooaeicaoei? aac aeaieo aoee ooi/iaii iaea?aeai? aaoi?ii o
eaiaeeaeaonueeie aeena?oaoei? iiaeaei aeey a’yceinoi, ieaaeinoi,
iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao, aonoeie oeaeiaeo ?icieaaia aeiiaiiiai oa
noaeaieaaeeueiiai ae?iaieoeoa.

Aoea anoaiiaeaia aeioeieueiinoue iiaeeaiaeoaeueiiai ?icaeyaeaiiy ie?aieo
a?oi oeaeiaeo ?icieaaia, oa?aeoa?ieo aeey ?icieo ne?iaeiieo oiia ?iaioe
iiaei?e?inoa.

Iai?eeeaae, i?iaiaeiciaaii aenia?eiaioaeueii aeaii i?i a’yceinoue i?e
?icieo oaiia?aoo?ao i ieaaeinoi neioaoe/ieo oa i?iieneiaeo
oeoaiio?eiath/eo oeaeia ca aeaieie I.E.AEeei c niiai?aoeiaieeaie:

1500 = 4,037 — 4,765 + 0,186a + 0,0004(15 — TiO2)2 Ian, R=0,86 (14)

Tie = -3971 + 5791,6 — 398,6a + 1,266(15 — OiO2)2 oC, R=0,82
(15)

Aeai?eoie c oeeie ?iaiyiiyie aeiaeaii o i?ia?aio ?ic?aooieo neeaaeo oa
aeanoeainoae oeoaiio?eioth/eo oeaeia aeey aeiiaiieo ia/ae
Ieaeiuei-Oaa?euenueeiai iaoeiiaiiaoo.

Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeeainoth aeiiaiieo oeaeia CNIE yaey?oueny i?aeaeuaia
eieueeinoue o ieo ieneaeia aethiiiith (aei 20%) oa iaaiith (aei 25%).
Iayaiinoue o oeaeao “niaaeeiaeo” oaa?aeioacieo iaaiaciaeueieo ii?aeiaiue
iaoneiaeth? aaoa?iaaiiinoue ?icieaaia, o ca’yceo c /ei i?aeaeuo?oueny ?o
a’yceinoue i ieaaeinoue oa iiai?oo?oueny oeaeiaee ?aaeei aeiiaiii?
ieaaee.

Aiaeic aca?iica’yceo aeanoeainoae oeeo oeaeia c iiaeaeueieie ia?aiao?aie
aeicaieea caeiaooe i?iaiicii iiaeaei o aeaei:

Oe? = -52,2 + 38,3 + 9331,5 tg, R=0,95
(16)

Ii?iaiyiiy ?ic?aoiaaieo ca oei?th oi?ioeith cia/aiue Oe??
iaaiaciaeueii-aeeiicaienoeo oeaeia c aenia?eiaioaeueieie Oe?? ca aeaieie
i?aoeue A.I. Ai?aa/iaa c niiai?aoeiaieeaie naiae/eoue i?i aeinoaoith
aeey i?aeoe/ieo oeieae oi/iinoue i?iaiicoaaiiy

Oi.e? = -718,7 + 5277,5 — 11497,8 tg R=0,85
(17)

Ti = -73,8 + 1846,2 + 874,3 tg R=0,91.
(18)

1350 = -20,07-0,91a +136,88 tg R=0,74
(19)

Iaea?aeaii iiaeaei caeeaaeaii a iniiao aeai?eoia aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy
neeaaeo i aeanoeainoae iiia?aaeiio oa eiioeaaeo oeaeia ca neeaaeii
iiaea/? aeey oeooiaeo oiia aeiiaiieo ia/ae CNIE.

Aiaeic aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo i?i aeanoeainoi oeaeia, iaeiie/aieo o
aaci «Oeaeiooai?thth/i coiioi», aeicaieea caeiaooe i?iaiicii iiaeaei
aeey ?ic?aooieo c aeinoaoiueith aeey i?aeoe/ii? iaoe oi/iinoth eiiieaeno
aeanoeainoae, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue oaoiieiai/io i?eaiaeiinoue
oeaeiooai?thth/eo noiioae.

Oaiia?aoo?a ?aci’ya/aiiy, iN:

O? = 2123 — 19,4?e + 61,1? — 252,7d — 2243,4 tg?
(20)

Oaiia?aoo?a ?icieaaeaiiy, iN:

Oi = 2146 — 19,5?e + 51,6? — 171,0d — 3698,6 tg?
??????????????????????????????(21)

Oaiia?aoo?a ?icoa/aiiy, iN:

O? = 2184 — 26,6?e + 7,2? — 201,4d — 300,4 tg?
(22)

A’yceinoue i?e ?icieo oaiia?aoo?ao, Ian:

Lg?1200 = 9,745-1,622?e+2,82?-5,594d+9,004 tg?
(23)

Lg?1300 = 8,5-1,513?e+2,512??5,185d+10,12 tg?
??????????????????????????????????????????????????(24)

Lg?1400 = 7,429-1,425?e+2,493?-4,833d+9,763 tg? (25)

Lg?1500 = 6,414-1,275?e+2,361?-4,34d+7,948 tg? (26)

Iiaa?oiaaee iaoya i?e 1500iN, ii/i:

?1500 = 172 + 362,16? — 9,2?e (27)

Niieueii c Iinoeoooii aoiiii? aia?ai? ii. Eo?/aoiaa iaie aoei i?iaaaeaii
ii?iaoaaiiy canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy
ieaaeinoi aaoa?iaaiieo ieneaeieo nenoai, neeaaeath/eo iniiao aaoiiia c
iaoith i?iaiicoaaiiy ieaaeinoi aaoiiiiai “eiaeooa” aoiiieo ?aaeoi?ia o
?aci aeieeiaiiy aaa?ieieo neooaoeie.

Iaie, caaaeath/e ia iieeaaeaia caaaeaiiy, aoei i?iaiaeiciaaii iaeiie/aii
aeaii i?i ieaaeinoue ieneaeieo nenoai SiO2 — CaO — Al2O3; SiO2 — CaO —
MgO; SiO2 — CaO — MgO — Al2O3; SiO2 — CaO — MgO — Al2O3 — Fe2O3 — R2O —
TiO2 a oe?ieiio aeeaiaciii neeaaeia.

Aeey aaoiiia oa ?o eiiiiiaioia c aenieith eieueeinoth iiiiieneaeia
eaeueoeith i iaaiith iaea?aeaia ?iaiyiiy:

Onie = 1059 + ao?(0,3329+37,6757tg), oC R=0,81 (28)

Teee = 1224 + ao?(-5,4529+76,2321tg), oC R= 0,82 (29)

aeey aaoiiia oa ?o eiiiiiaioia c aenieith eieueeinoth e?aiiacaio:

Onie=2877-120,617a-569,98d-8268,125tg+1170,172, R=0,86
(30)

Teee = 1450 — 215,632a — 435,982d — 14518,625tg+3744,605, R=0,86
(31)

aeey onio aaoiiia oaiia?aoo?a aeaoi?iaoei? iiae iaaaioaaeaiiyi (Tae)

Tae = 923 + 21,1a — 1,046d +1107,668tg+160,288, oC R=0,92 (32)

Iiaeaei aoee i?iaecaiaiiaaii oa iiaeoaa?aeeee naith aaeaeaaoiinoue ia
aia?oa aenia?eiaioaeueii aea/aieo a I*I aaoiiao, aeei?enoaieo i?e
aoaeiaieoeoai oaoo ?aaeoi?ia Caii??cueei? AAN.

Io?eiaii ?acoeueoaoe iiaeoaa?aeeee oniioiinoue canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeeee
oiceei-oiii/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy aeey aiaeico aeanoeainoae aaoa?iaaiieo
ieneaeieo nenoai oa iiioeithaaee iiaeaeueoo ?ic?iaeo iiaeaeae
i?iaiicoaaiiy aeanoeainoae caeici?oaeieo iaoa??aeia.

?icae?e 3. IAOIAeEEA IOe?IEE ??AIIAAAEIINO? NENOAIE “IAOAE —

OEAE” A A?AeIIAETHAAIEO, IAEO?AEUeIEO ? IEENETH-

AAEUeIEO OIIAAO.

No/ania oai??y iaoaeo?a?eieo i?ioean?a aaco?oueny, a iniiaiiio, ia
?icaeyaeaii? i?ioean?a aca?iiae?? ye ?acoeueoaoo aeayeeo, i?aeoe/ii
iacaeaaeieo ?aaeoe?e i?ae aeii?oeith oa aeei?enoaiei ?aaaaioii, i?e
oeueiio cae/aeii iinooeth?oueny ca?yae aoii?a aeii?oee oa ?aaaaioo a
?icieaa? ? neeaae niieoe, ye? ooai?ththoueny.

Aeey iieno ?acoeueoao?a aca?iiae?? ca?ac aeei?enoiaothoueny ??ci?
e?eoa??? (aia?a?y ca’yceo, eiao?oe??ioe aeoeaiino? oa ia?aiao?e
aca?iiae?? eiiiiiaio?a ?icieaa?a, iniiai?noue).

I?e aiae?c? oaeoe/ieo aeaieo i?i iiaaae?ieo eiiiiiaio?a a nenoai?
“iaoae-oeae” ca aeiiiiiaith oaeeo e?eoa???a iinoathoue aeaa ieoaiiy:

1) ye ioe?ieoe aeinoia??i?noue aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a ? aea?aoe
iaea?eueo a??ia?aei? c aeoaea i?ioe??/ieo aeaieo ??cieo aaoi??a;

2) ye aeei?enoaoe ?ioi?iaoe?th, yea iaea?aeaia ia a?ia?ieo oa
iiiiaoiiieo nenoaiao aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy aeanoeainoae aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo.

?icaeyiai? o?ceei-o?i?/i? e?eoa???, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue no?oeoo?o
?icieaa?a, ? oeie ?iaa??aioaie, eio?? caaacia/othoue ia?ao?ae a?ae
i?inoeo nenoai aei aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo, a ?o aeei?enoaiiy i?e aiae?c? ?o
aca?iiae?? aeicaiey? iia?/ii a?aoiaoaaoe o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino?
oeaeiaeo ?icieaa?a.

Nii/aoeo o?aaa aeiionoeoe, ui i?e ioe?ioe? ?aaeoe?eii? caeaoiino? oeaeo
?e oa?aeoa?eco? caeaoi?noue oeaeo i?eoyaoaaoe aeii?oee, a ? —
caeaoi?noue ?o a?aeoeeaiiy c iiaa?oi? o aioo??oi? oa?e. *ei a?eueoa ?,
oei aaae/a oea a?aeoeeaiiy, oiio ui i?aeaeuo?oueny nooi?iue caiiaiaiiy
i?aeaoce?a ai?iiiiai ea?eano eao?iiaie ? i?ioean aeeooc??
oiia?eueith?oueny.

A oa?i?iao oeeo e?eoa???a iaoaeo?a?ei? ?icieaae iienoththoueny ye
o?i?/ii ?aeei? nenoaie, a ia noi?o aeayeeo eiiiiiaio?a /e ?o niieoe. sse
ne?aenoai, i?eeia?oueny, ui ie?ai? eiiiiiaioe (a ia?oo /a?ao n??ea,
oinoi?, e?aii?e, ia?aaiaoeue) aca?iiae?thoue ia c CaO, MgO /e FeO, a c
on?i ?icieaaii. Oei naiei eiie?aoeco?oueny aenoiooee ?.N.Eoe?eiaei oacen
i?i eiiia?aoeaiee ?iiiiai?iiee oa?aeoa? i?ae aca?iiae?th/eie ?icieaaaie.

Aeey eiie?aoecaoe?? oeeo oyaeaiue a ?iaio? ?icaeyiai? oaeoe/i? aeai? i?i
neeaae ?aaaoth/eo ?icieaa?a i?e aeieaaoe? noae? a ??cieo aa?aaaoao.
E?iaoeea ci?ie ia?aiao??a ZY ? a o oiae? eiiaa?oa?iiai i?ioeanno
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? oeae oacen. Ocaiaeaeaiiy ci?ie o?i?/ieo aea?aaeaio?a
neeaaeo iaoaeo ? oeaeo a?aeia?aaeothoue ??aiyiiy oeio:

ZY=2,01-0,17?a-1,65 ? — 300-o eiiaa?oa? R=0.95
(33)

ZY=2,2-0,07?a-1,49?? — 130-o eiiaa?oa? R=0.96
(34)

Aiaeia?/i? caeaaeiino? iaea?aeai? aeey neeaaeo iaoaeo ? oeaeo a
a?aeiiaethaaeueieo oiiaao. Oae, aeey neeaaeo i?iaeoeo?a aeiiaiieo ieaaie
AeI-5 *a?IE (i?iae a?aeae?aee a oiae? aeioneo), oiiae a?aeiia?aeiino?
neeaaeo /aaoio ? oeaeo aecia/athoueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi:

ZY=0,37-0,179?a+0,826? R
=0.8 (35)

Iniiai? oa?iiaeeiai?/i? ia?aiao?e, ye? aecia/athoue aoaeoeai?noue
i?ioean?a aca?iiae?? i?ae ni?a?nioth/eie oacaie, ? eiao?oe??ioe
?iciiae?eo (Ly). Aii???/i? oi?ioee aeey ?o ?ic?aooie?a /ano?oa anueiai
aacothoueny ia oyaeaiiyo iieaeoey?ii? oai??? ? aoee io?eiai? oeyoii
ia?iaee aeine?aeieo aeaieo a eii?aeeiaoao “Ly — neeaae oeaeo”.
Oaeineiiaeaiiy ? ooi/iaiiy oeeo caeaaeiinoae ?aea ii oeyoo ca?eueoaiiy
/enea ia?aiao??a ? oneeaaeiaiiy oi?ie oeeo ??aiyiue.

C iiceoe?e oyaeaiue i?i eiiia?aoeiee oa?aeoa? ?iiiiai?iieo i?ioean?a a
nenoai? “iaoae-oeae” ca?aeii aei oiia aeiiaiii? ieaaee a oe?e ?iaio?
i?iaiae?ciaaii oaeoe/i? aeai? i?i neeaae /aaoio ? oeaeo i?e aeieaaoe?
/aaoio ia aeiiaiieo ia/ao na?oo ? iieacieeai ?iaioe aeiiaiieo ia/ae
NIAe. A ?acoeueoao? aiae?co caniaaie ANIAe iaea?aeaii ??aiyiiy:

lgLS = 7.907Zy+0.042?e+17.42?-0.51?Zs-21.16 R=0.93
(36)

lgLSi =-1.39Zy-0.97?e+9.34?-2.17?Zsi-2.51 R=0.82
(37)

lgLMn =-5.57Zy+0.59?e-11.798?+1.45?Zmn+17.6 R=0.74
(38)

Aac o?aooaaiiy ia?aiao?o ia?aca?yaeee (LgLye=f(?e,?,Zy)) oi/i?noue
??aiyiue R=0.75, R=0.8, R=0.7 a?aeiia?aeii.

Iniaenoa cia/aiiy i?e aiae?c? i?aeoaciiai ?iciiae?eo aeaiaio?a a nenoai?
“iaoae-oeae” ia? i?iaeaia ioe?iee ??aiiaaae.

C ieoaiiy i?i nooi?iue iaaeeaeaiiy nenoaie “iaoae-oeae” aei ??aiiaaae
i?e aeieaaoe? /aaoio a e?oa?aoo?? ? ??ci? oi/ee ci?o ? aeathoueny
a?aeiia?aei? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeey i?iaiico ??aiiaaaeiiai eiao?oe??ioo
?iciiae?eo n??ee.

A ?iaio? iienaii ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co ??aiiaaaeieo aeaieo c aace
?ao?iniaeoeaieo aeaieo “Oeae-Iaoae-Aac”. Aeine?aeaeaii aieea ia?aiao?o
ia?aca?yaeee e?aii?th ? n??ee ia eiao?oe??ioe ?o ?iciiae?eo. ?ic?aooiee
c?iaeaii ii oi?ioeai, ye? a?aoiaothoue aeanoeaino? na?aaeiaeua (39) ?
i?noeaaiai ioi/oaaiiy aeaiaioa ??y (40) : lg(Ly)=f(ZY, ?e, ?)
(39)

lg(Ly)=f(ZY, ?e, ?, ?Zye)
(40)

A oaaeeoe? 4 ? o?aaiaio ?c aeaieo ?.N.Eoe?eiaa, aeey eio?eo oiiaaie
iieoo caaacia/aii ?iciiae?e n??ee, aeecueeee aei ??aiiaaaeiiai, a
ii/aoeiaee ai?no n??ee a /aaoi? aeua i?ae ??aiiaaaeiee ca ?aaeoe??th
SiO2+2C=[Si]+2CO.

sse iieacaee ?acoeueoaoe ia?iaee aeaieo aeacaii? aeai?ee, oi/i?noue
aecia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioo ?iciiae?eo n??ee ii oi?ioe? (39) aeinoaoiuei
aeniea (R=0.96) ? i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ith?oueny i?e a?aooaaii? ia?aiao?o
ia?aca?yaeee ?ZS. Oi/i?noue aea ?ic?aooieo eiao?oe??ioo ?iciiae?eo Si
(ia??aiiaaaei? oiiae) cia/ii i?aeaeuo?oueny ye?ac i?e a?aooaaii?
ia?aiao?o ia?aca?yaeee. Oeae oaeo aeicaiey? i?eionoeoe, ui ia?aiao? ?zy
iiaea aooe ?iaeeeaoi?ii a?aeoeeaiiy nenoaie a?ae ??aiiaaae: eiee eiai
aeiaeaoeiaee ao?ae a i?iaiicio iiaeaeue aeey ?ic?aooieo eiao?oe??io?a
?iciiae?eo aeaiaioo o nenoai? “Iaoae-Oeae” cia/ii i?aeaeuo? oi/i?noue
iiaeae?, i?ioean ? ia??aiiaaaeiei ii aeaiiio aeaiaioo ? iaaiaee.

Oaaeeoey.4.

Neeaae iao.

%(aaa.)Neeaae oeaeo

%(aaa.)Iiaeaeuei?
ia?aiao?eSiSSiO2SZY??e???ZSi?ZSLSiO2LS0.80.014036.400.841.1702.3440.712.
1421.87745601.210.008233.641.131.1872.8180.7212.1451.869281411.10.02036.
001.331.4212.3110.7111.2922.76933673.080.013834.001.331.4302.2730.7231.3
832.67111951.440.013535.201.321.4122.3170.7181.3272.73024940.770.003328.
900.981.4142.0120.7391.3542.68238327Oaeei /eiii aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy
??aiiaaaeiiai ei?o?oe??ioo ?iciiae?eo n??ee LIS iaea?aeaii ??aiyiiy:

lgLOS =9.033Zy+18.53-0.096e-24.272 R=0.93
(41)

wmetafile8? ??”*??????????? ???????yyy????????????
I?????

????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????u?????yyy????-?????ue??yyy??????-????
yyy???????????????????I????????u?????????????-????
ue??yyy??????-????’yy??? ???????

????-????-???????????? yyy????-????-????’yy???
???????

????-????-???????????? yyy????uoy??????1/4??????Small
Fonts??????-????uoy??????1/4???I???Times New Roman
Cyr??????-????uey??????Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c oaeoe/ieo aeaieo i?i
?iciiae?e n??ee i?ae /aaoiii ? oeaeii ia ianea? ca?oieo oaoiieia?/ieo
aeaieo i?i ?iaioo aeiiaiieo ia/ae NIAe c i?iaiicieie cia/aiiyie LIS
iieacaa, ui a oiiaao on?o caaiae?a ?iciiae?e ii n??oe? ieae/a
??aiiaaaeiiai (nooi?iue aeinyaiaiiy ??aiiaaae =1/n?LsO/LsO=0.85 ) ? eiai
a?aeoeeaiiy ca?eueoo?oueny i?iii?oe?iiaeueii ci?iaiith Ls.

Iae.9.Ii??aiyiiy oaeoe/iiai ? ??aiiaaaeiiai

?iciiae?eo oinoi?o a nenoai? “iaoaee-oeae”

(eiiaa?oi?ia ae?iaieoeoai).

-?iaee?anueeee caaiae.; -Caaiae a Ae?eo?ia (NOA).

-Iaoeiia?iao “E?eai??aeonaeue”;-Iaoeiia?iao AeIE.

-??aiiaaaeia e?eaa ?iciiae?eo oinoi?o

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aiae?co i?eaaaeaiiai ianeao aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo
ooi/iaia anoaiiaeaia a ?iaioao I?eoiaeueei A.A. ? Oa?iei I.?.
caeaaei?noue ??aiiaaaeiiai ?iciiae?eo oinoi?o a?ae o?i?/iiai aea?aaeaioo
neeaaeo oeaeo (a) o aeaeyae? ??aiyiiy:

lg LP= exp((e + 2,75)/3) + 3,9 (42)

A?aeiia?aeia aeno?aiaeueia caeaaei?noue aeicaiey? ioe?ieoe nooi?iue
a?aeoeeaiiy oaeoe/iiai cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioo ?iciiae?eo oinoi?o a?ae
eiai iiaeeeaiai ??aiiaaaeiiai. Ia iae.9 oaeee ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c
c?iaeaii aeey i?iieneiaeo eiiaa?oi?ieo ieaaie eiia?iaoo
“E?eai??aenoaeue”, ?iae??anueeiai IC ? caaiaeo a i. Ae?eo?ia (NOA).

C?iaeai? a ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui aeei?enoaiiy ia?aiao??a
i?aeaoiiii? aca?iiae?? i?e o?aeoiaoe? o?i?/iiai ca’yceo ye iai?aaeaiiai,
aeicaiey? c ?aeeieo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo iiceoe?e ?ioa?i?aoe?oaaoe
?acoeueoaoe ?iiiiai?iieo i?ioean?a i?ae ?aaaoth/eie oacaie. I?ioean
ia?aoiaeo ?ii?a n??ee, oinoi?o, ia?aaioeth oa e?aii?th /a?ac iaaeo
iaoae-oeae a cia/i?e i??? aecia/a?oueny aeoeai?noth a?aeiia?aeieo
aeaiaio?a a ?icieaaao, caeaaeii a?ae ?o ca?yaeiaiai noaio e caaaeueiiai
neeaaeo aca?iiae?th/eo oac, a oaeiae e?eoa??y “ia?aca?yaeee” ?ZY=ZYiao —
ZYoe.

sse aoei iaie iieacaii eiai aieea oei a?eueoa, /ei a?eueoa a?aeoeeaia
nenoaia a?ae ??aiiaaae.

?icae?e 4. IAOIAeEEA I?IAIICOAAIIss IAOAEO?A?EIEO AEANOEAINOAE

CAE?CI?OAeIEO IAOA??AE?A.

Iie?ioaiiy oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a ?iaioe aeiiaiieo ia/ae ?
iaei??th c aaaeeea?oeo caaea/ /i?ii? iaoaeo?a??. Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy o
i?aeoeoe? aeiiaiiiai ae?iaieoeoaa iaaea?oueny nai?/aniino? ?
a??ia?aeiino? ?ioi?iaoe?? ia o?eueee i?i neeaae, aea ? aeanoeaino?
oeooiaeo iaoa??ae?a.

Iniiaieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie cae?ci?oaeieo iaoa??ae?a, ui aecia/athoue ?o
iiaaae?ieo o aeiiaii?e ia/?, ? ieaae?noue, i?oei?noue o ii/aoeiaiio
noai? oa i?e a?aeiiaii-oaieia?e ia?iaoe? ? a?aeiiai?noue.

A?aeii? iaoiaee i?iaiicoaaiiy cacia/aieo aeanoeainoae aacothoueny ia
aeei?enoaii? ie?aieo eiiiiiaio?a neeaaeo CaO, SiO2, MgO, Al2O3, Fecaa,
aai ?o ni?aa?aeiioaiue oa niieo/aiue (CaO/SiO2, (CaO+MgO)/SiO2,
Al2O3/MgO, noie oeaeiooai?thth/eo ? o.?.). Cae/aeii iiae?ai? ??aiyiiy
caaacia/othoue oi/i?noue ?ic?aoiaaieo aaee/ei o?eueee a oiiaao
eiie?aoii? aea??ee neeaae?a, ui aeei?enoai? aeey ?o aeaiaeo.

C iaoith ?ic?iaee iaoiaeeee ocaaaeueiaiiy aeine?aeieo aeaieo o oi?i?,
i?eaeaoi?e aeey ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/ i?iaiicoaaiiy, aeeiiaia ?ic?iaea
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo e?eoa???a aeey eiiieaeniiai iae?eo aieeao an?o
eiiiiiaio?a neeaaeo ia oi?ioaaiiy aeanoeainoae cae?ci?oaeieo iaoa??ae?a
? i?iaaaeaii c ?o aeiiiiiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy eiiieaeno iaoaeo?a?eieo
aeanoeainoae aaeiia?ao?a ? ieaoeo?a a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? eieeaaiiy ?o
o?i?/iiai neeaaeo.

A?aoiaoth/e aeina?ae iiaeaethaaiiy no?oeoo?e oeaeiaeo ?icieaa?a ?
aaoii?a, a oaeiae o?aaeeoe?eiee i?aeo?ae oaoiieia?a aei ioe?iee
ieeneaiino? cae?ci?oaeieo iaoa??ae?a, ca aacia? iiaeaeuei?
oa?aeoa?enoeee ?o neeaaeo cai?iiiiiaai? ia?aiao?e: ? — iieaciee
noao?iiao??? oa ?e, yeee aeeiio? ooieoe?th o?i?/iiai aea?aaeaioo neeaaeo
ieenii? nenoaie.

Aeey aeai?o iiaeae?, yea iaea?eueo iiaii a?aeia?aaeo? ca’ycie neeaaeo ?
aeanoeainoae cae?ci?oaeieo iaoa??ae?a aeine?aeaeaii 3 aa??aioe
“cai?oee”;

? e ?e — aeey neeaaeo oeaeiai? ca’ycee aac Fe2O3 ;

?’ e ?e’ — aeey neeaaeo oeaeiai? ca’ycee aac Fe2O3 oa FeO;

?» e ?e» — aeey iiaiiai o?i?/iiai neeaaeo cae?ci?oaeii? ne?iaeie.

Ia i?eeeaae? oaeeo iaoaeo?a?eieo aeanoeainoae ye i?oei?noue ia noe?aiiy
(X0,5,%) oa a?aeiiai?noue i?e 800iN (R800,%) caniaaie ANIAe aecia/ai?
cia/ei? oaeoi?i? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia aieiaiee oaeoi?:

Ci?iia
O-0,5R800‘’e”‘e’eFe2O3FeOIaaaioaaeaiiy0,830,8430,1750,0610,2230,6170,501
0,6380,4130,432Iaaaaeai? aeai? na?ae/aoue, ui a yeino? ?ioaa?aeueii?
“cai?oee” iaea?eueo aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe e?eoa??? ? e ?e oeaeiai?
ca’ycee cae?ci?oaeieo iaoa??ae?a aac Fe2O3, aeae?eeaoe neeaae Fe2O3 a
yeino? naiino?eiiai iiaeaeueiiai ia?aiao?o, aai ?’ oa ?e’ oeaeiai?
ca’ycee aac Fe2O3 oa FeO, aeae?eeaoe a yeino? naiino?eieo ia?aiao??a
Fe2O3 oa FeO. Ia?aaaaa e?eoa???a, ye? cai?iiiiiaaii, i?aeoaa?aeaeaia
a?eueo aenieeie eiao?oe??ioaie ei?aeyoe?? (R=0.91) i?e i?iaiicoaaii?
iaoaeo?a?eieo aeanoeainoae (iai?eeeaae, R800), ii??aiyii c iiaiei
o?i?/iei neeaaeii (R=0.75) ? niieo/aiiyi o?aaeeoe?eieo e?eoa???a:
iniiai?noth, Fecaa, noiith oeaeiooai?thth/eo (R=0.62).

Aeey iae?eo aieeao ca?yaeiaiai noaio eao?ii?a oa ai?ii?a ?ic?iaeaii ?
?aae?ciaaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo na?aaeiueinoaoenoe/ieo ca?yae?a,
aeeth/aieo a iiaeaeue o aeiiiaiaiiy aei ? e ?e:

Zk-a — ca?yae eao?ii?a o ca’yceo eao?ii-ai?ii; Zk-k — ca?yae eao?ii?a a
ca’yceo eao?ii-eao?ii.

wmetafile8? ??(?? ????????? ???????yyy????????????
A???

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yyy???????????????????B???????u?????????????-????
ue??yyy??????-????’yy??? ???????

????-????-???????????? yyy????-????-????’yy???
???????

????-????-???????????? yyy????uoy??????Iae.10.Caeaaei?noue
i?oeiino? cae?ci?oaeieo

iaoa??ae?a a?ae o?i?/iiai aea?aaeaioo ?o

iiaiiai neeaaeo ( — ieaoeo?, i — aaeiia?aoe)

A oe?eiio iiaeae? aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy aeanoeainoae cae?ci?oaeieo
iaoa??ae?a iathoue aeaeyae: aeanoea?noue=f(?e;?;Zk-a;Zk-k;Fe2O3).
Nooo?aa ??cieoey iaoaeo?a?eieo aeanoeainoae aaeiia?ao?a oa ieaoeo?a
aecia/eei i?iaeaio iaiaeii??aeiino? i?e ?o noi?niiio iiaeaethaaii?. A
?acoeueoao? oaeniiii?/iiai aiae?co ii/aoeiaa aea??ea aeaieo ii aeayeei
aeanoeainoyi ?icae?eeeanue ia aea? ?cieueiaai? i?aeiiiaeeie — aaeiia?aoe
oa ieaoeo? (iai?eeeaae, iae.10). Ca oeeo ianoaaei i?iaiici? iiaeae? aeey
i?oeiinoieo aeanoeainoae ? ieaaeino? caeiaooi ie?aii aeey eiaeiiai aeaeo
aeiiaiii? ne?iaeie.

Aei oiai ae oai?aoe/ia ocaaaeueiaiiy an?o aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, ye?
ciaoiaeyoueny a aac?, oneeaaeiaii a ca’yceo c aeei?enoaiiyi
aeine?aeieeaie ??cieo iaoiaeee ? ia?aeaioe/i?noth oiia i?iaaaeaiiy
aenia?eiaio?a.

Aeiiaaie aei yeino? cae?ci?oaeii? ne?iaeie i?eeiyo? iieacieee i?oeiino?
oa a?aeiiaiino? i?e a?aeiiaeaii? o oaiia?aoo?iiio ?ioa?aae? 20-800iN, ui
a?aeiia?aea? aa?oiueiio nooiaith oaieiiai?io o aeiiaii?e ia/? (AINO
19575-84), aacii?iieeiaiiy oa a?aeiiaiino? i?e 1050iN ia iaae?
iai?yiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy (AINO 21707-76) : I?oei?noue ii aeoiaeo
eiiaeeoe?eii? o?aeoe?? >5 ii — X+5,%;

Noe?ai?noue ii aeoiaeo eeano 0-0,5 ii — X-0,5,%;

Nooi?iue a?aeiiaeaiiy i?e 800iN — R800,%;

Nooi?iue iaoae?caoe?? i?e 800iN — ?800,%;

Onaaeea oa?o i?e 1050iN —
?H,%;

Ia?aiaae oeneo aaciaiai iioieo i?e 1050iN — ?P,Ia;

Nooi?iue a?aeiiaeaiiy i?e 1050iN — R1050,%;

Nooi?iue iaoae?caoe?? i?e 1050iN — ?1050,%.

Aeei?enoai? ?acoeueoaoe aecia/aiiy aeuaiacaaieo aeanoeainoae, a oaeiae
oaiia?aoo? ii/aoeo ?ici’yeoaiiy (Oi?) oa ieaaeaiiy (Oi) aaeiia?ao?a oa
ieaoeo?a i?aeoe/ii an?o ieiieiaaeueieo oaa?ee e?a?i NIAe, caeiaoo? ia
onoaiiaeao ?*I. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aeae?eyeanue o?aeoe?y 10-25 ii, ui
aeeeth/eei aieea a?aioeiiao???. Oaoiieia?th ae?iaieoeoaa cae?ci?oaeieo
iaoa??ae?a ia a?aoiaaii.

Oe?ieee ae?aiacii neeaaeo eiiiiiaio?a ? aeanoeainoae aecia/a?
cia/ei?noue aeai?ee aeey ?ic?iaee i?iaiicieo iiaeaeae (oaae.5,6).

Oaaeeoey 5. Ae?aiacii neeaaeo eiiiiiaio?a.

Iaoa??aeIaniaa aeiey,
%SiO2CaOMgOAl2O3MnOFeOFe2O3Aaeiia?ao4-136-200,5-51-5,50-2,56-3635-77Ieao
eo?3-110,6-9,90-2,51-5,9-0,5-8,575-91Oaaeeoey 6. Ae?aiacii ci?iaiiy
aeanoeainoae.

Iaoa??aeO+5, %O-0,5,%R800, %800, %H, %P,
IaR1050,%1050,%Aaeiia?ao18-892,5-2713-474-378-446-6943-9126-88Ieaoeo?36-
991,0-3627-755-6414-6020-196035-9517-94I?iaiici? iiaeae? X+5 oa X-0,5 o
aeeyae? ??aiyiue iiiaeeiii? ?aa?an?? “aeanoea?noue”=f(?e, ?, Z(k-a),
Z(k-k), Fe2O3) ?ic?iaeyeenue aeey eiaeiiai aeaeo aeiiaiii? ne?iaeie:

Aaeiia?aoe

X+5=-917,8-88,22?e-188,97?+1036,28Z(k-a)-869,44Z(k-k)-1,29Fe2O3
R=0.86; (43)

X-0,5=218,4+22,69?e+63,25?-226,34Z(k-a)+187,91Z(k-k)+0,16Fe2O3
R=0.70; (44)

Ieaoeo?

X+5=-2699,6-302,95?e-794,3?+2683,69Z(k-a)-2200Z(k-k)+1,46Fe2O3
R=0.94; (45)

X-0,5=1191,6+124,15?e+414,69?-1191,14Z(k-a)+986,38Z(k-k)- 0,68Fe2O3
R=0.82; (46)

O aeiaaeeo iaiao?aeiino? i?iaiicoaaiiy aeanoeainoae iaoaeo?a?eii?
ne?iaeie aeey noi?o? aaeiia?ao + ieaoeo? i?iiiiothoueny oae? iiaeae?:

R800=159,1+1,02Fe2O3+6,9?e+75,1?-211,9Zk-a+199,7Zk-k R=0.92 (47)
?800=290,5+0,88Fe2O3-11,7?e+27,5?-311,1Zk-a+316Zk-k
R=0.88 (48)

R1050=108,5+0,56Fe2O3+57,6?e+177,31?-148,4Zk-a+72,1Zk-k R=0.79
(49)

?1050=-462+0,82Fe2O3+47,16?e+219,12?+305,94Zk-a-345,18Zk-k R=0.85
(50)

?H=624-0,20Fe2O3-8,7?e-171,4?-404Zk-a+397,4Zk-k R=0.8 (51)

?P=1852+0,64Fe2O3+202,3?e-82,1?-1455,9Zk-a+1143,2Zk-k R=0.72
(52)

?ic?iaeai? iiaeae? caaacia/othoue caaeia?eueio oi/i?noue i?iaiicoaaiiy
aeanoeainoae aeey i?aeoe/ieo oe?eae. ?aca?aii i?aeaeuaiiy ?o oi/iino? ?
iae?e oaoiieia?/ieo oaeoi??a.

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea i?ia?aiii ?aae?ciaaia ia IAII aeey ioe?iee
aeanoeainoae cae?ci?oaeieo iaoa??ae?a i?e ci?i? neeaaeo oa
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ii/aoeiaeo oeooiaeo eiiiiiaio?a a oiiaao ae?iaieoeoaa
aaeiia?aoo aai ieaoeo?a.

Aiia aeei?enoaia, iai?eeeaae, aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao o?i?/iiai
neeaaeo ia iaoaeo?a?ei? aeanoeaino? aaeiia?aoo AeIE, ye? aeeth/athoue
ii/aoeiao aenia?eiaioaeueio ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i neeaae, oieiaeio i?oei?noue
ia oaea? ? noe?aiiy oa ?ic?aooieiao ?ioi?iaoe?th iieaciee?a yeino?
ca?aeii c AINO 9575-84 oa 217-7-76. I?e oeueiio ci?anoaaeaiiy
caeaaeiinoae ci?iaiiy aeanoeainoae aaeiia?aoo a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? Fecaa
aeicaiey? ae??ooaaoe ieoaiiy iio?i?caoe?? eiai yeino?. Oae, ia?eeeaae,
ni?eueiee aiae?c caeaaeiinoae i?oeiino? (O+5) oa a?aeiiaiino? (R1050),
iaaaaeaiee ia iae.11, aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui iaeii/anii
aeinyaiooe iaeneiaeueieo cia/aiue oeeo aeanoeainoae ia iiaeia. C oi/ee
ci?o aeinyaiaiiy caaeia?eueii? i?oeiino? O+5 > 60% ? a?aeiiaeaiino?
aaeiia?aoo R1050 >70%, aeiionoeiee neeaae Fecaa. neeaaea? 52-53%.

wmetafile8? ??K???????????&?

?yyyy????Word?Microsoft Word??? ???????
v‹???u??????????????????D???-?????????uiy??????Iayai?noue
iiaeaeae oeooe, oeaeiaeo oa cae?ciaoaeaoeaaeo ?icieaa?a aeicaiey?
cae?enieoe iiaeaethaaiiy a?aeiiaii? ieaaee ca noaiith «Oeooa»+
«Oaoiieia?y» = «I?iaeoeoe ieaaee». Oei naiei noai?ththoueny iaai?
ia?aaeoiiae aeey onoiaiiy oneeaaeiaiue, iia’ycaieo c iaiao?aei?noth
iae?eo ia ??cieo aoaiao oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue a ne?iaei? oa ?o aieeao ia
?iciiae?e aeaiaio?a i?ae ?icieaaaie.

Iae.11.Iioei?caoe?y aaeiia?aoo ii i?oeiino? ? a?aeiiaethaaeueiino? ( i
— O+5,%, — R1050,% )

A oe?e i?aoe? ia a?aei?io a?ae o?aaeeoe?eieo i?aeoiae?a c iiceoe?e
aaeainieo iaoiae?a eiao?oe??ioe ?iciiae?eo aeaiaio?a caaeathoueny ia
eiinoaioaie, a ?icaeyaeathoueny ye aaee/eie ci?ii?, ye? caeaaeaoue a?ae
eiie?aoieo oeooiaeo oa oaoiieia?/ieo oiia. ?ica’ycaiiy iicia/aii?
caaea/? cae?eniaii ia iniia? “cai?oie” ia?aiao??a iicia/aieo i?aenenoai
oa iieacieea aaaaonoaa oeooe — %Fe?O3.

I?e i?aeaioiaoe? aeai?ee aeey onoiaiiy aoaeoo “caooieaiino?” aeaieo i?i
?iaioo aeiiaiieo ia/ae cae?enith?oueny c i’yoeaeiaiaei ina?aaeiaiiyi. Ia
iniia? ia?iaee aeaieo i?ia?aiieie caniaaie i?eeeaaeii? noaoenoeee ca
ia??iae n?/aiue-/a?aaiue 1998?. io?eiai? ianooii? i?iaiici? iiaeae? aeey
eiao?oe??io?a ?iciiae?eo aeaiaio?a:

LS=-1937+5,6%Fe2O3+255e-3968+3285?d+1803?ei+Fo1 R=0.77 (53)

LSi= 498-4,2%Fe2O3+41,3e+186+1389?d-337?ei+Fo2 R=0.67
(54)

LMn=16-0,1%Fe2O3-2,4e-30-20,4?d-10,5?ei+Fo3 ,
R=0.71 (55)

aea

Fo1=-0,464RIA-0,042RAeoo-0,05Te.a.+88,7?oae.i.+23,52Seie
(56)

Fo2=-0,234RIA+0,019RAeoo-14,54Pe.a.-7,65?oae.i.-19,31Seie
(57)

Fo3=-0,001RIA+0,001RAeoo+0,001Te.a.-0,443?oae.i.-0,052Seie
(58)

Ooo: Fo1 , Fo2, Fo3 — oaeoi?e -”cai?oee” oaoiieia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??; RIA
— aeo?aoe i?e?iaeiiai aaco, (i3/o); OAeoo — aeo?aoe aeoooy, (i3/iei);
?ea — oene eieioieeiaiai aaca, (aoi); Oe — oaiia?aoo?a eieioieeiaiai
aaco, (aoe); ?oae.i. — ?oaeia iaaaioaaeaiiy, (o/o); Seie — n??ea a
eien?.

I?ia?aia ae??oo? ianooii? caaea/?: — ?ic?aooiie e?eueeino? ? neeaaeo
i?iaeoeo?a ieaaee ii neeaaeo iiaea/? ia iniia? iaoa??aeueiiai aaeaino
ieaaee; — ?ic?aooiie ?ioaa?aeueieo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo e?eoa???a, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoue no?oeoo?o e?ioeaaiai oeaeo; — i?iaiicoaaiiy
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae e?ioeaaiai oeaeo (a’yce?noue, ieaae?noue,
iiaa?oiaaee iaoya, aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue, i?oei?noue).

I?ia?aia ooieoe?iio? a i?aenenoai? “Iioei?caoe?y» ? ia?aaeaia a iino?eio
aenieoaoaoe?th a neeaae? A?Io “Aeiiaiuee” AeIE ?i.Aeca?aeeinueeiai,
eiia?iaoo ?i. ?ee?/a, CNIE.

?icae?e 5. OOAI?AIIss IAOIAeIEIA?*IEO ? OAOIIEIA?*IEO INIIA

IANE??CIIAI AIAE?CO AE?IAIEOeOAA ? ssEINO? I?IAeOEOe??

IAOAEO?A?EIIAI EIIA?IAOO.

“Nooe?eueia eiii’thoa??caoe?y” iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo neoaea ia iniia?
no/anieo ?ii?iaoe?ieo oaoiieia?e ? iniiaiith ia?aaeoiiaith aeey
iane??ciiai aiae?co ae?iaieoeoaa iaoaeii?iaeoeoe?? ? no?aoaa?/iei
eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiiyi, yeee a cia/i?e i??? aecia/a? oni?o i?aei?e?inoaa a
ai?iouea? ca “aeaeeaaiiy”.

Aieiaiith caaea/ath eiii’thoa??caoe?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo neoaea eiia?iaoo
? caaacia/aiiy niaoe?ae?no?a iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ? ?iaeaia?ieo neoaea
caaiaeoi?aae?iiy iia?aoeaiith ?ioi?iaoe??th ? no/anieie
?ino?oiaioaeueieie caniaaie aeey iiaeeaeaiiai aiae?co
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a ? iioei?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy ae?iaieoeoaii
ca ?aooiie i?eoyaiaiiy no/anieo aeinyaiaiue aeaaeai?/ii? ? aaeocaai?
iaoee a?aeiia?aeieo oaoi?/ieo cania?a oa i?aai?caoe?? ?iaioe oaoiieiaa c
?ii?iaoe?eii-aiae?oe/iith nenoaiith o ?aaeei? oaiaeaia aca?iii?
aeiiiaithaaiino?.

Iaee?auith oi?iith i?aai?caoe?? oaeiai na?aaeiaeua ? A?Ie. E?eoa???i
aoaeoeaiino? A?Ia ? eiai ?ioaeaeooaeuei? iiaeeeaino?, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ??aiai caaea/, ye? ae??oothoueny — ioe?ieith
iaae?eiino? aeaieo ? ?o eia?ei-aiae?oe/iith ia?iaeith aeey iioei?caoe??,
iaea?aeaiiyi aeaaeoeoeaieo aeniiae?a aeey ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai neioaco.

?iaioa iaae noai?aiiyi eiie?aoiiai A?Io ii/eia?oueny c aea/aiiy
?ioi?iaoe?eieo iioie?a. ?ioi?iaoe?th no?oeoo?o?ii ca ??aiai (
oaoiieia?/iee, oi?aae?inueeee, nenoaiiee), ca i?ecia/aiiyi (aaeiia?ao,
/aaoi, noaeue, i?ieao). Iii/anii ?ic?iaey?oueny iiaoaiia i?ia?aia ?ia?o,
a iniiao yei? iieeaaeaia no?aoaa?y ooai?aiiy ?ioaa???iaaii?
?icaaeoaeaeaii? eiii’thoa?ii? ia?aae?, yea i?noeoue aace aeaieo
ooiaeaiaioaeueii?, oaoiieia?/ii? oa ii?iaoeaii-aeia?aeeiai?
iai?aaeaiino?, a ia/enethaaeueiee eiiieaen aeey anaa?/ii? iaoaiaoe/ii?
ia?iaee aeaieo ? i?iaeaiii-i???ioiaai? eiiieaene c
?ioaeaeooaeueii-eia?/ieie aeaiaioaie aeey aiae?co, i?iaiicoaaiiy ?
iioei?caoe?? oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a. Iniaeeaa oaaaa iaaea?oueny
i?ioeaaeo?ai noeniaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? o aeaeyae? ca?oieo oi?i a?ao?e?a,
ea?oia?ai, ye? ia?aaeathoueny ii eaiaeai ia?aae? aeey aiae?co Aa?oiueiai
??aiy Oi?aae?iiy.

I?e noai?aii? ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai Na?aaeiaeua aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
oaoiieia?th ?iciiae?eaieo aac aeaieo.

Eiioeaiooaeueia noaia eiii’thoa??caoe?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo neoaea
iaoaeo?a?eiiai eiia?iaoo iieacaia ia iae.12.

?ic?iaeaia eiioeaioe?y eiii’thoa??caoe?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo neoaea
iaoaeo?a?eiiai eiia?iaoo, yea ioiieth? iane??ciee aiae?c ae?iaieoeoaa
iaoaeii?iaeoeoe??, i?ieoea aeina?aeii-i?iieneiaa ae?iaoaaiiy a oiiaao
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai iaoaeo?a?eiiai eiia?iaoo [23] ? aaaaeaia a
aenieoaoaoe?th.

Ii oiaeo oe??? ?iaioe niaoe?ae?noe eiia?iaoo i?eoyaoaaeenue ye
eiinoeueoaioe ? aenia?oe, iaieiae?aaee iniiaaie eiii’thoa?ii?
a?aiioiino?, i?eeiaee o/anoue a aeai?eoi?caoe?? ?ic?iaie ii ia?aae?eai.
?acii c niaoe?ae?noaie caaaeueiicaaiaenueei? ANO c?iaeaii aiae?c
?ii?iaoe?eieo iioie?a, i?i?iaeaii ieoaiiy noai?aiiy no?oeoo?e aac,
?ic?iaeaii ?ioa?oaene ?o noeeiaee. Oae, iai?eeeaae, i?e ?ic?iaoe? A?I?a
ii ia?aae?eai aoei ioiieaii 22 aaaeo/eo niaoe?ae?noe eiia?iaoo, a oiio
/ene? ia/aeueieee aaeiaeiiaiiiai ? noaeaieaaeeueiiai a?aeae?e?a,
a?aeae?eo ?iceeaee, noaiaea?oecaoe?? ? ii?ioaaiiy.

Iaea?eueo iiaio i?i?iaeo ? ii?iaaoe?th i?ieoee ?ic?iaee a?aeiinii aei
aaeiia?aoe?eiiai, aeiiaiiiai, noaeaieaaeeueiiai i?ioean?a, a oaeiae
aacia?a?eaii? ?iceeaee. A aeaiee /an i?i?iaey?oueny ieoaiiy noai?aiiy
A?Ia caeeth/iiai ia?aae?eo “I?ieao/ee”.

Nenoaia aiae?co ae?iaieoeoaa /aaoio ?aae?ciaaia a A?Iao “Aaeiia?ao/ee” ?
“Aeiiaiuee”.

A?I “Aaeiia?ao/ee”, ye ? on? ?io? A?Ie ? a?aee?eoith aenia?oiith
nenoaiith, yea i?noeoue oi?iae?ciaaiee aeina?ae oaoiieia?a, ii?aeiaiee c
?ic?iaeaieie iaie [34] iaoiaeaie ia?iaee aeaieo oa ?iaeaia?ieo
?ic?aooie?a. Nenoaia ia? ?ioi?iaoe?eiee, i?iaeaiiee, i?eeeaaeiee oa
nenoaiiee aeiee. ?ioi?iaoe?eiee aeie ai?uo? o?eniaai? a ANOOI oa
niaoe?aeueii iiiiaiai? a ?o/iiio ?aaeei? iieacieee i?i ?iaioo ia?aae?eo,
niaoe?aeueiee ?ioa?oaen, caaacia/o? noeeiaeo aac aeaieo c Iaeaoii
noaoenoeee caniaaie aaaaoie?eoa??aeueii? iioei?caoe??, i?iaeaiieie
i?ia?aiaie.

Noai?aii i?ia?aii? caniae i?aai?caoe??, iaeiie/aiiy, aiae?co oa
a?ao?/ii? ?ioa?i?eoaoe?? no/anii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i oeooiaeo, aeieaaeo
aaeiia?aoo, ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co ?ic?aooieiaiai neeaaeo aaeiia?aoo c
oaeoe/iei, caniae a?ao?/iiai na?a?no ? aaia?aoe?? ca?oieo oi?i.

I?aenenoaia ?iaeaia?ieo ?ic?aooie?a caaacia/o? ??oaiiy i?eeeaaeieo
caaea/:

— iia?aoeaiee aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe aaeioaa?eee ca aeayeee aeacaiee
ia??iae ? oi?ioaaiiy ca?oieo oi?i aeey i?eeiyooy ??oaiue ia Aa?oiueiio
??ai? Oi?aae?iiy;

— ?ic?aooiie o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ? aeanoeainoae aaeiia?aoo ii aeo?aoai ?c
neeaaeo iaoa??ae?a c ??ciei ia??iaeii aeene?aoiino?: a?eaaaea, ci?ia,
aeiaa ? o.ae.;

— i?iaiicoaaiiy ia iniia? ia?aiao??a no?oeoo?e oeaeiai? ca’ycee ? ai?noo
Fe2O3 (%) iaoaeo?a?eieo aeanoeainoae aaeiia?aoo, ia?ae?/aieo a ?icae.4.
Ia iae.13 ye i?eeeaae cia?aaeaii ooieoe?iiaeueio noaio i?aai?caoe??
iaeiie/aiiy oa aiae?co aeiaiaeo aeaieo i?i ?iaioo aeiiaiieo ia/ae o
neeaae? A?Ia“Aeiiaiuee”.

I?iaeaiiee aeie aeicaiey? ae??ooaaoe eiiieaene caaea/:

— iaoa??aeueiee oa oaieiaee aaeain (c aeene?aoi?noth ci?ia — aeiaa —
aoaeue-yeee aeacaiee ia??iae);

— ?ic?aooiie oeooe;

— i?iaiic neeaaeo ? aeanoeainoae i?iaeoeo?a ieaaee ii neeaaeo iiaea/?;

— aiae?c iieaciee?a ieaaee ca aoaeue-yeee aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae (aei
6 ii??aithaaeueieo ia??iae?a);

— ?ic?aooiie nooiaith a?aeoeeaiiy nenoaie “iaoae-oeae” a?ae ??aiiaaae;

— i?eaaaeaiiy iieaciee?a ?iaioe ia/ae aei ii??aith?ieo oiia ? ae?.

Aiaeia?/io no?oeoo?o iathoue aeieeaaeii iienai? a ?iaio? A?Ie ?ioeo
ia?aae?e?a.

Aiae?c iieaciee?a ieaaee i?iaiaeyoue aacoth/enue ia ?iaeaia?ieo
?ic?aooieao aeiiaiii? oeooe c iaoith iiaeeaeaiiai aiae?co a?aeiiaii?
?iaioe ai?ia. Ianaiia?aae, ia/eneth?oueny nooi?iue i?yiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy,
?iaeaen iai?yiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy, oai?aoe/ia oaiia?aoo?a ai??iiy,
e?iaoe/ia aia?a?y aeoooy, nooi?iue aeei?enoaiiy aiaeith ? NI. Oe?
ia?aiao?e iio?i aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey aiae?co aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe
ia/?, aeey oaoiieia?/ieo ? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueeeo oe?eae.
?ioi?iaoe?eii-iiooeiaa nenoaia caaacia/o? aea??eo ? na?aaeiueicaaaeaiiy
aeaieo ?o AAe ca aoaeue-yeee aeine?aeaeaiee ia??iae. ? iiaeeea?noue
aiae?co aeae?eueeio ia??iae?a iaeii/anii.

?aae?ciaaiee iioaeoi?iee aiae?c ae?iaieoeoaa ia/? oa aeo?ao eieno.
Caniaaie ANIAe ooi/iththoueny /anoee aieeao aiae?ciaaieo oaeoi??a
(“?ano?n?a”) ia aea/a?iee ia?aiao?. Anueiai ia?aaeaa/aii aiae?c a?eueo
ye 40 ??cieo a?aaeaoe?e iniiaieo oaeoi??a c ae?acii ?o o a?aenioeao
ca?eueoaiiy aai ciaioaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa ia/? oa aeo?ao eieno. Aeo?aeia
oi?ia ia? aeeiai?/io no?oeoo?o ? aaia?o?oueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae
aeacaieo Aeei?enooaa/ai oaeoi??a.

AeIIAIIEE OeAO

Oe O E
—————————

ANOI

N A ? A A ? Oe C E — Aace aeaieo
NA?AA?

————————————————
CAAAEUeIICAAIAe-

Iieacieee Oaeoe/i? Ieaiia? oao-
NUeEI? IA?AAE?

aeaieo oao.-aeiiii. i?ei- aeiiii.

o?i.aiae?co ia?aiao?e iieacieee
Aace

oaoiieia?/ieo

Oa?aeoa?en- I?inoi? Iieacieee
aeaieo

oeee ia/ae yeino? eieno

?ano?ne

A ? I Ae I I A I U E E A

Oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaa?oth/eo

aac c ??ceei ia??iaeii
Aaca iiaeaeae

ina?aaeiaiiy

Iioaeoi?iee aiae?c Aiae?c iieaciee?a
Aaaaoie?eoa??aeueia

i?e/ei caeoe?a eieno ieaaee ca ethaee
iioei?caoe?y

? ae?iaieoeoaa ia??iae

I?eaaaeaiiy iieaciee?a Iaoa??aeueii- I?iaiicoaaiiy
Ia?aa??i/iee

AeI aei ii??aiyeueieo oaieiaee
aeanoeainoae ?ic?aooiie

oiia aaeain
oeaeo oeooe

Iae.13 Ooieoe?iiaeueia noaia i?aai?caoe?? iaeiie/aiiy ? aiae?co aeiaiaeo
aeaieo i?i ?iaioo aeiiaiieo ia/ae.

Aiae?c oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a o noaeaieaaeeueieo aa?aaaoao ?aae?ciaaii
a A?Iao “Noaeaieaaeeueuee” oa “?iceeauee” a iiai?e a?aeiia?aeiino? c
noia?iith oaoiieia??th ooai?aiiy A?I?a ia ??ai? aenia?oieo nenoai.

I?aenenoaia “Noaeaieaaeeueuee” nie?a?oueny ia ?ioi?iaoe?eio aaco aeaieo,
yeo caniiaaii ia oaeoe/ii ae?th/iio ianii?o? aeaieo AOE ? oeaoiaiio
ANOOI. I?aenenoaia caaacia/aia na?a?nieie caniaaie aea??ee oa ceeooy aac
ca ??ci? ia??iaee, iioaeoi?iei aiae?cii oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a
ieaaee, a oaeiae iiaeaeyie, ye? caaacia/othoue ??oaiiy ne?aeoth/eo
caaea/:

— ?ic?aooiie aeo?ao eiao?oe??io?a ? inoaoi/iiai ai?noo ia?aaioeth, n??ee
oa oinoi?o a noae? i?e ci?i? neeaaeo oa aeo?ao /aaoio ??aeeiai ?
oaa?aeiai, iaoaeia?oooo, oa?inieaa?a /e ?o a?aeoiae?a, aaiia, aaiiyea,
cae?ci?oaeieo iaoa??ae?a, eenith oa iio??aieo e?ioeaaeo ia?aiao??a —
oaiia?aoo?e noae?, iniiaiino? oeaeo, ai?noo aoaeaoeth i?ney coieiee
i?iaeoaee;

— aea?? iioeiaeueiiai (c oiai, ui ia?ii) iaai?o nieaa?a i?e eaaoaaii?
noae? a eiiaa?oa??;

— aea?? caniao aeinyaiaiiy caaeaiiai a aioia?e noae? ai?noo aoaeaoeth —
c iaaoaeaoethaaiiyi ? aac iaaoaeaoethaaiiy iaoaeo a eiao?;

— aea?? caniao aeinyaiaiiy caaeaii? oaiia?aoo?e iaoaeo i?e aeao?oeeo?
iaoaeia?oooo c ??cieie caniaaie ioieiaeaeaiiy;

— aea?? caniao aeinyaiaiiy caaeaii? oaiia?aoo?e iaoaeo i?e aeao?oeeo?
/aaoio;

— aea?? iioeiaeueiiai iaai?o nieaa?a aeey ?iceeneaiiy ? eaaoaaiiy noae?a
a eiao?;

— aea?? caniao aeinyaiaiiy caaeaiiai ai?noo n??ee oa oinoi?o a noae?;

— i?iaiicoaaiiy o ci?iieo oeooiaeo oa oaiia?aoo?ieo ?aaeei?a a?aeoeeaiue
oiaeo i?ioeano a?ae iioeiaeueiiai.

I?aenenoaia “?iceeauee” nie?a?oueny ia iaoeiiee ianii?o ia?aae?eo
?iceeaee ? ?ioi?iaoe?th, yea i?eoiaeeoue ia na?aa? IAI c oeaoiai? ANOOI.
Ia ?iai/?e noaioe?? o a?aeae?e? ?iceeaee noai?aii ?ioaa?iaaio aaco
aeaieo ? caaacia/aii na?a?ni? caniae iia?aoeaiiai i?iniio?o,
ei?aeoe?iaee, iiooeo, ia?iaee iieaciee?a ia?aae?eo, yeee i?noeoue 98
iie?a aae?anii-oaoiieia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ? 54 iiey, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue
?aaeeie aiaeii-iia?o?yiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy. ?ic?iaeaii i?aenenoaio
?iaeaia?ieo ?ic?aooie?a aiae?co iieaciee?a ieaaee ca ethaee ia??iae oa
i?ia?aii? caniae oi?ioaaiiy Iane??ciiai Ianii?oo Ieaaee.

On? A?Ie caaacia/aii aacith aeaieo ii?iaoeaii-oaoi?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ia
i?iaeoeoe?th eiia?iaoo “Ainoe”.

Aoai i?iieneiaiai ii?iaoaaiiy ?ic?iaie ia o?eueee i?aeoaa?aeea
aoaeoeai?noue oaoiieia?? eiiieaenii? eiii’thoa??caoe?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
neoaea eiia?iaoo ia aac? eieaeueii? eiii’thoa?ii? ia?aae?, aea ? noaa
iiai?ioiei iiiaioii o ?aae?caoe?? ae?iaeaii? ia a?aei?aaiiio aoai?
eiioeaioe??, oiio ui ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae? noaei iaa?ae’?iiith
/anoeiith i?ioeano ae?iaieoeoaa ni?a?ia?oiee?a IAI.

Oaeei /eiii, ooai?aii oaoiieia?/i? iniiae aeey iane??ciiai aiae?co
ae?iaieoeoaa iaoaeii?iaeoeoe?? oa aeai?o ?aoe?iiaeueieo oaoiieia?/ieo
noai ae?iaieoeoaa iaoaeii?iaeoeoe?? ca i?eioeeiii “Ne?iaeia+Oaoiieia?y =
Ae?iaieoeoai + sse?noue”, ye ia ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio , oae ? ia iiaeaeueiiio
??aiyo.

Iayai?noue oiiaeo iiaeaeae ii ia?aae?eai ? ?aeeia iaoiaeieia?y ?o
noai?aiiy ia iiaeoeueiiio i?eioeei? (eiaeiee aa??aio oaoiieia??
iieacaiee a?aeiia?aeiei iiaeoeai) aeicaiey? caaacia/eoe ?o ia?iuoaaiiy
o i?ioean? ?icaeoeo aeai?eoi?a ? cae?enieoe aaia?aoe?th iiaeaeae
iaoaeo?a?eieo i?ioean?a a ?aeeio iane??cio iiaeaeue c iaoith
i?aai?caoe?? iioeiaeueii? noaie ae?iaieoeoaa iaoaeo caaeaiii? yeino?.

O aeaeyae? ?ethno?aoe?? iaoiaeieia?? ?ica’yceo oe??? caaea/? ia iniia?
?ic?iaeaieo a ?*I ca o/anoth aaoi?a iiaeaeae ii ia?aae?eai [25] a ?iaio?
iienaii ?acoeueoaoe ia/enethaaeueiiai aenia?eiaioo ia i?eeeaae?
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co oeyo?a aeinyaiaiiy iecueeeo eiioeaio?aoe?e
n??ee a noae? ii e?eoa??th noia?ieo aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeo?ao (NAA) o
eiiieaen? aeiiaiiee oeao (AeOe) — onoaiiaea aeiaiaeee /aaoio (OAe*) —
eiiaa?oa?iee oeao (EOe) — i?eno??e aeiaiaeee noae? (IAeN).

Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe a?ao?/ii i?i?ethno?iaaii o ?iaio? ? caaaeaii aei
oaaeeoe?7.

Oaaeeoey 7. Ni?anoaaeaiiy NAA o eiiieaen? AeOe-OAe*-EOe-IAeN i?e ??cieo
caniaao iaea?aeaiiy iecueeiai ai?noo n??ee o aioia?e noae?.

A?aeiioaiiy NAAIoieiaeaeai-iy ieaaee?io? ia?aiao?eAaee/eia a?aeiioai-iy
NAAA?aeiioaiiy NAA i?e aeeo/aii? n??ee a eiiaa?oa?? aei NAA i?e
iicai?/i?e aeanoeueoo?aoe?? /aaoioIaoaeia?oo-oii

?oaeith-

-1.076

1.126A?aeiioaiiy NAA i?e iicai?/iiio aeaeaeaii? n??ee c? noae? aei NAA
i?e iicai?/i?e aeanoeueoo?aoe?? /aaoioIaoaeia?oo-oii

?oaeithEenea oooa?iaea noaea?iceeaiiai eiaoo

Iniiaia oooa?iaea

Eenea oooa?iaea noaea?iceeaiiai eiaoo

Iniiaiay oooa?iaea1.045

1.03

1.075

1.05A?aeiioaiiy NAA i?e ca?eueoaii? nooiaith aeanoeueoo?aoe?? a
aeiiaii?e ia/? (Sii/=0.06%) a niieo/aii? c iicai?/iith
aeanoeueoo?aoe??th /aaoio ? noae? aei NAA i?e iicai?/i?e
aeanoeueoo?aoe?? /aaoio ? noae?Iaoaeia?oo-oii

?oaeithI?e aeinyaiaii? a aeiiaii?e ia/? 0.04% S

I?e aeinyaiaii? a aeiiaii?e ia/? 0.02% S

I?e aeinyaiaii? a aeiiaii?e ia/? 0.04% S

I?e aeinyaiaii? a aeiiaii?e ia/? 0.02% S1.017

1.03

1.038

1.05A ?acoeueoao? aoei anoaiiaeaii ne?aeoth/a:

— c i?aeaeuaiiyi nooiaith aeanoeueoo?aoe?? /aaoio NAA, ye i?aaeei,
cieaeothoueny, aeiyoie neeaaeathoue aeiaaeee c iacaaeia?eueiei
nea/oaaiiyi oeaeo — aaea i?e ai?noo n??ee i?ney OAe* iaio 0.02% aaaa
n??ee o oeaoe? ia?aaeuo? aaao n??ee o /aaoi?, i?e iiaeaeueoiio cieaeaii?
n??ee aeo?aoe ia aeanoeueoo?aoe?th i?aeaeuothoueny, aea ai?no n??ee o
noae? iii?oii ia cieaeo?oueny, ui iio?aao? i?aeaeueoe e?euee?noue
aeiaeoaie aeey ?? aeaaaeaiiy;

— naiee aeiiii?/iee ?aaaaio aeey aeanoeueoo?aoe?? /aaoio — iaai?e; naiee
aei?iaee — ea?a?ae eaeueoe?th (aaiii caeia? i?ii?aeia iieiaeaiiy);

— noa?aiia a?aeaaaeaiiy oeaeo i?ney OAe* ciaioo? NAA, iacaaaeath/e ia
aeiaeaoeia? aeo?aoe /aaoio i?e oeueiio;

— ca?eueoaiiy nooiaith aeanoeueoo?aoe?? /aaoio i?eaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy
NAA o eiiieaen? AeOe-OAe*-EOe-IAeN, iaa?oue i?e iayaiino?
aeanoeueoo?aoe?? noae?;

— ai?ioueaa c n??eith o i?ioean? aeiiaiii? ieaaee noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
ca?eueoaiiyi noia?ieo aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeo?ao o eiiieaen?
AeOe-OAe*-EOe-IAeN;

— iaea?eueo aeiiii?/iei oeyoii ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie ? aeanoeueoo?aoe?y
/aaoio, iio?i ?aea iicai?/ia aeanoeueoo?aoe?y noae? ? ca?eueoaiiy
nooiaith aeanoeueoo?aoe?? o aeiiaii?e ia/?. Iaea?eueo aei?iai eiooo?
ca?eueoaiiy nooiaith aeanoeueoo?aoe?? o eiiaa?oa??.

Aeeeaaeai? ooo ?acoeueoaoe iaea?aeai? a eiie?aoieo oiiaao
Aei?i?ianueeiai iaoaeo?a?eiiai eiia?iaoo ? oiio ia ? aacoiiaieie ?
inoaoi/ieie. A ?ioeo oiiaao (iai?eeeaae, i?e iayaiino? iecueein??eiaiai
eieno ) ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue ci?ieoeny. Aaaeeeai oa, ui ia?ii
?ino?oiaioa??e, yeee aeicaiey? aea?aoe iioeiaeueiee aa??aio ae?iaieoeoaa
a eiie?aoieo ne?iaeiieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo oiiaao.

INIIAI? AENIIAEE.

1. ?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoie ?ic?aooieo ?ioaa?aeueieo oa ia?oe?aeueieo
ia?aiao??a “cai?oee” o?i?/iiai neeaaeo oeaeiaeo oa iaoaeaaeo ?ic/ei?a ia
iniia? oai??? iai?aaeaiiai o?i?/iiai ca’yceo. Iieacaii, ia?aeeaae
?ioi?iaoe?? i?i neeaae aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo nenoai ia iiao iiaeaeueieo
ia?aiao??a aeicaiey? “oi?o?eoaaoe” iaa?? o?ceei-o?i?/ieo e?eoa???a oa
caaacia/eoe i?i?iaeueiei ?o iaaeeeoie i?e iiaeaethaaii? oa?iiae?iai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae iaoaeaaeo oa oeaeiaeo ?icieaa?a oa ?acoeueoao?a aca?iiae??
a nenoai? “Iaoae-Oeae”.

2. ?ic?iaeaii iia? o?ceei-o?i?/i? e?eoa??? ??e, ?Zy oa ?d, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoue nooi?iue a?aeoeeaiiy ia?aiao??a no?oeoo?e ieneaeieo ?
iaoaeaaeo ?icieaa?a ye o?i?/ii ?aeeieo nenoai a?ae iaoai?/ii? noi?o? ?o
eiiiiiaio?a. ?acoeueoaoaie aiae?co i?aaenoaaieoeueeiai iaoa??aeo i?i
oa?iiae?iai?/i? aeanoeaino? a?ia?ieo oa aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo ?icieaa?a
iieacaii, ui aeei?enoaiiy eiiieaeno oeeo e?eoa???a aeicaiey? a?aoiaoaaoe
aieea i?e?iiaiaeii??aeiino? aoaeiae ?icieaa?a ia ?o aeanoeaino?.

3. Ia iniia? c?a?aieo a aacao ?ao?iniaeoeaieo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeaieo
?ic?iaeaii iiaeae? aeey ioe?iee ?ao?ioth/i? cae?aiino? oeaeiaeo
?icieaa?a a oiiaao ieenethaaeueii? oa a?aeiiaii? ieaaie. C?iaeaii
ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c noeueo?aeii? ?ieino? oeae?a aeiiaiiiai oa
noaeaieaaeeueiiai i?ioean?a, iicai?/ii? ia?iaee /aaoio oa noae?.

4. ?ic?iaeaii eiioeaiooaeuei? aeiiae aei aac aeaieo, iaoiaeieia?y
nenoaiaoecaoe?? ? i?eioeeie ianii?oecaoe?? aeaieo. Iaaiai?aii i?iaeaie
oa i?eioeeie i?aai?caoe?? aac aeaieo i?i aeanoeaino? oeaeiaeo ?icieaa?a
? oeaeiooai?thth/eo noi?oae, oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo aeaieo nenoai
“Oeae-Iaoae-Aac” ? aeanoeainoae cae?ci?oaeieo iaoa??ae?a. I?iaeaiii
iaoiaeieia?/i? ieoaiiy ooai?aiiy oiiaeo iiaeaeae iaoaeo?a?eieo nenoai ?
i?ioean?a ?o aca?iiae?? ia iae?i- ? i?e?i??aiyo, ye? caaacia/othoue
oaiaeai aca?iii? aeiiiaiaiino? c ?ioi?iaoe?eiei na?aaeiaeuai.

5. C iaoith ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy aeine?aeiee?a-iaoaeo?a?a
aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie i?i o?ceei-o?i?/i? ? oaoiieia?/i?
aeanoeaino? iaoaeo?a?eieo nenoai ooai?aii aace
aeieoiaioaeueii-oaeoia?ao?/ieo aeaieo i?i aeanoeaino? oeaeiaeo ?icieaa?a
“Oeae”, oeaeiooai?thth/eo noi?oae “OON”, oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo aeaieo
“Oeae-Iaoae-Aac”, o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ? iaoaeo?a?eieo aeanoeainoae
cae?ci?oaeieo iaoa??ae?a “Oeooa”.

6. C iiceoe?e oai??? o?ceei-o?i?/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy aeeiiaii aiae?c
c?a?aieo a aacao ?ao?iniaeoeaieo aeaieo i?i o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino?
oeaeiaeo ?icieaa?a ? ooi/iaii i?iaiici? iiaeae? aeey a’yceino?,
ieaaeino?, aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino?, iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao, aonoeie o
ae?aiacii? o?i?/iiai neeaaeo aeiiaiiiai oa noaeaieaaeeueiiai
ae?iaieoeoa. ?ic?iaeaii iiaeae? aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy aeacaieo aeanoeainoae
oeaeiaeo noi?oae aeey aacia?a?aii? ?iceeaee noae?, a oaeiae ieaaeino?
aaoii?a. ?ic?aooiie aeacaieo aeanoeainoae ?aae?ciaaii o i?ia?aiiiio
eiiieaen? “Ieneae” ? aeeth/aii a neeaae oaoiieia?/ieo A?I?a AeIE,
eiia?iaoo ?i.?ee?/a, CNIE.

7. Anoaiiaeaii aaaeeeao ?ieue ia?aca?yaeee i?e ia?aoiae? ?ii?a n??ee,
oinoi?o, ia?aaioeth oa e?aii?th e??cue iaaeo iaoae-oeae. ?icaeiooee
oacen, yeee noi?ioethaaa ?.N.Eoe?eia, ca?aeii yeiio oa?iiaeeiai?/iee
aiae?c ??aiiaaa o nenoai? iaoae-oeae iiaeiai aacoaaoeny ia aiae?c?
nenoaie, ye oaei?, a ia ie?aieo o?i?/ieo ?aaeoe?yo i?ae eiiiiiaioaie
aea?aieie ia na?e iiaeyae. Iieacaii, ui niieo/aiiy ?ioaa?aeueieo
iiaeaeueieo ia?aiao??a ?e ? ? (aeey oeaeo) ? Zy oa d (aeey iaoaeaaeo
?icieaa?a) oa?aeoa?ecothoue o?i?/io ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue aoaeue-yeiai
eiie?aoiiai neeaaeo iaoaeo?a?eiiai ?icieaao. ?o aeei?enoaiiy aeicaiey?
a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae ?icaeyaeaiiy eiiia?aoeaieo ?iiiiai?iieo i?ioean?a ye
noie ie?aieo ?aaeoe?e.

8. C iiceoe?e eiioeaioe?? eiiia?aoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o ?iiiiai?iieo
i?ioean?a ?icaeyaeaii iiaaae?ieo oinoi?o, n??ee, e?aii?th, ia?aaioeth o
nenoai? iaoae-oeae. Iaea?aeaii oi/i? ?aa?an?ei? ??aiyiiy, ye? iienothoue
o iiaeaeueieo oa?i?iao ?iciiae?e oeeo aeaiaio?a, ?o eiioeaio?aoe?? oa
aeoeaiino? o ??cieo oiiaao aca?iiae?? ?icieaa?a. Ooai?aii aaco
?ao?iniaeoeaieo aeaieo i?i ??aiiaaaeiee ?iciiae?e n??ee ? oinoi?o i?ae
iaoaeii ? oeaeii. Iaea?aeaii i?iaiici? iiaeae? aeey ??aiiaaaeieo
eiao?oe??io?a ?iciiaeeo n??ee ? oinoi?o a oiiaao a?aeiiaii? ?
ieenethaaeueii? ieaaee.

9. Ia iniia? ?ao?iniaeoeaieo aeaieo aace “Oeooa” aea/aii eiiieaen
aeanoeainoae aaeiia?aoo ? ieaoeo?a i?aeoe/ii an?o ieiieoaaeueieo oaa?ee
e?a?i NIAe o oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? eiioeaio?aoe?e eiiiiiaio?a neeaaeo ?
aeanoeainoae.

I?iaiae?ciaaii c aeei?enoaiiyi oaeoi?iiai aiae?co ?oci? aa??aioe
“cai?oee” o?i?/iiai neeaaeo cae?ci?oaeieo iaoa??ae?a /a?ac ?ioaa?aeuei?
o?ceei-o?i?/i? e?eoa???, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue neeaae oeaeiai? ca’ycee.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueo aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey “cai?oee”
oeaeiao ca’yceo e??i Fe2O3, aeae?eyth/e eiioeaio?aoe?th Fe2O3 ye
naiino?eiee ia?aiao?.

10. ?ic?iaeaii iiaeae? aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy iniiaieo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ?
oaoiieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae aaeiia?ao?a oa ieaoeo?a. Noiniaii aei
oeooiaeo oiia AeIE ?aae?ciaaii iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee aieeao o?i?/iiai
neeaaeo ia iaoaeo?a?ei? aeanoeaino? aaeiia?aoo oa aea?? eiai
iioeiaeueiiai neeaaeo i?e Fecaa a iaaeao 49-54%.

11. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeieia?y i?iaiicoaaiiy eiao?oe??io?a ?iciiae?eo
aeaiaio?a o nenoai? “Iaoae-Oeae” ye ooieoe?e eiie?aoieo oeooiaeo oa
oaoiieia?/ieo oiia. Iiaeae? aeeth/aii a neeaae A?Io “Aeiiaiuee”, yeee
ooieoe?iio? a na?aaeiaeu? eieaeueii? ia/enethaaeueii? ia?aae? AeIE c
iaoith aeai?o iioeiaeueiiai neeaaeo iiaea/?, yea caaacia/o? caaeaiee
oeaeiaee ?aaeei.

12. ?ic?iaeaii aaciaa i?eeeaaeia ? nenoaiia i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy aeey
aiae?co o?ceei-o?i?/ii? oa oaoiieia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??, yea i?noeoue
caniae ?iaioe c aaaaoii??ieie aeaieie oa ?ino?oiaioaeuei? caniae
“cai?oee” o?ceei-o?i?/ii? oa oaoiieia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??, i?ea?iaeuei?
caniae aaaaoie?eoa??aeueii? iioei?caoe?? oaoiiea?/ieo i?ioean?a.

?ic?iaeaii oa aei?iaoaaii a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao iaoiaeieia?/i? oa
oaoiieia?/i? iniiae ooai?aiiy nenoaie iane??ciiai aiae?co ae?iaieoeoaa ?
yeino? iaoaeii?iaeoeoe?? oeyoii ooai?aiiy A?I?a ii ia?aae?eai.
Aeeeaaeaii aeina?ae “iane??cii?” eiii’thoa??caoe?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
neoaea AeIE.

13. ?aae?ciaaia iaoiaeieia?y ??oaiiy caaea/ iioei?caoe?? iane??cieo
oaoiieia?e ia i?eeeaae? oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee ??cieo aa??aio?a
aeinyaiaiiy iecueeeo eiioeaio?aoe?e n??ee a noae? o aeaeyae? iane??cii?
iiaeae? ae?iaieoeoaa ??aeeiai iaoaeo o eiiieaen? Aeiiaiia i?/ —
Onoaiiaea aeiaiaeee /aaoio — Eiiaa?oa?iee oeao — Onoaiiaea aeiaiaeee
noae?.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe?? A?AeIA?AAEAII A NE?AeOTH*EO IOAE?EAOe?ssO

1. Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I. Eioi?iaoeeiiii-iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea
oeaeiauo e aeaeacioaea?iaeenouo ?anieaaia // Iaoaeeo?ae/aneay e
ai?ii?oaeiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. — 1998. — N4. — N.7-10.

2. Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I. Iiaeaee?iaaiea iaaeoaciiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey yeaiaioia
a nenoaia «iaoaee-oeae» i?e auieaaea /oaoia // Iaoaeeo?ae/aneay e
ai?ii?oaeiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. — 1999. — N1. — N.8-11.

3. I?eoiaeueei Y.A., Oaioioueei A.O., Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I.
Oeceei-oeie/aneea e?eoa?ee aeey ioeaiee naienoa ieneaeiuo ?anieaaia a
iaoaeeo?aee // Aii?inu oai?ee e i?aeoeee i?iecaiaenoaa /oaoia. — I.:
Iaoaeeo?aey — 1986. — N.25-28.

4. Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I., Oaioioueei A.O., Aa?eaiaea I.E., Eeoa/aa TH.I.
Iiaeaee?iaaiea ia YAI naienoa ieneaeiuo nenoai //Eca.AOCia.*apiay
iaoaeeo?aey.-1991a.-?12.N.41-45.

5. I?eoiaeueei Y.A., Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I. Oeceei-oeie/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea
i?ioeannia iaaeaoiiiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey a iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo ?anieaaao //
Aanoiee I?eacianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai oaoie/aneiai
oieaa?neoaoa:Na.iao/.o?.- Aui.7. — Ia?eoiieue.- 1999. — N.72-82.

6. Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I., I?eoiaeueei Y.A. Nenoaia «iaoaee-oeae» eae iauaeo
iiaeaee?iaaiey // Ooiaeaiaioaeueiua e i?eeeaaeiua i?iaeaiu /a?iie
iaoaeeo?aee. — Eeaa. — Iaoeiaa Aeoiea. — 1998. — N.98-104.

7. Ai?aa/aa A.I., ssieianeee A.N., EaioaaA.E., Ia?ueynia I.O.,
Oaioioueei A.O., Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I. I?iaiice?iaaiea naienoa
iaaiaceaeueii-aeeiicaienouo aeiiaiiuo oeaeia // Eca.aocia. *a?iay
iaoaeeo?aey. — 1988. — N12. — N.15-18.

8. Oaioioueei A.O., Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I., Aieiaei E.A., Aa?aoooaeeiia ?.,
Aaeaeaaa A.ss. Naienoaa oeaeia aeey iai?a?uaiie ?aceeaee
ei?iceiiiinoieeeo noaeae // Iaoaeeo?ae/aneay e ai?ii?oaeiay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue. — 1994. — ?4. — N.15-17.

9. AEiieaeei A.E., Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I. Aaoi?eciaaiiue eiiiuethoa?iue
i?iaeoeo a ioa/anoaaiiie iaoaeeo?aee // Ecaanoey ?AI. Iaoaeeo?aey.
Iaoaeeu. — 1996. — ?1. — N.29-45.

10. AEiieaeei A.E., Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I. I?iaeaia eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
iaania/aiey oai?aoe/aneie e i?eeeaaeiie iaoaeeo?aee //Ecaanoey AINN?.
Iaoaeeu.- 1991.- ?3. — N.218-223.

11. Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I., A?iaeneee N.N., AEiieaeei A.E. Io aac aeaiiuo e
aacai ciaiee a iaoaeeo?aee — oaoiieiae/aneee o?iaaiue //
Eca.AI.Iaoaeeu.- 1998. — ?6.- N.27-43.

12. I?eoiaeueei Y.A., Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I. Iaoiaeieiaey nicaeaiey aacu
ciaiee i naienoaao noaeae e nieaaia // Iaoaeiciaanoai oa ia?iaea
iaoaeia. — Eeaa. — 1996. — N3. — N.50-55.

13. Eeoaeiia E.O., Aeui/aiei A.I., Noa?ia ?.A., Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I.
Ioeaiea aeeyiey FeO e Fe2O3 ia ieeneeoaeueioth niiniaiinoue
eiiaa?oa?iuo oeaeia ii oiaeo i?iaeoaee // Iaoaeeo?ae/aneay e
ai?ii?oaeiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. -1998. — ? 2. — N.25-27.

14. Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I., Oaioioueei A.O., Eeoa/aa TH.I. Iioeiecaoeey
iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo oaoiieiaee e eiioeaioeey nicaeaiey
eioi?iaoeeiiii-eioaeeaeooaeueiuo nenoai: Na.i.o. // Ooiaeaiaioaeueiua e
i?eeeaaeiua i?iaeaiu /a?iie iaoaeeo?aee. — Eeaa.- Iaoeiaa Aeoiea. —
1995. — N.242-249.

15. Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I., A?eayiaoe ?.A. Nenoaiiia, i?eeeaaeiia e
i?iaeaiiia i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea aaiea aeaiiuo «Iaoaeeo?aey» //
Ecaanoey AINN?. Iaoaeeu. — 1991. — ?4. — N.217-220.

16. AEiieaeei A.E., I?eoiaeueei Y.A., Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I., Oaioioueei
A.O., Eeoa/aa TH.I. I ianii?oecaoeee yenia?eiaioaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia aeey
aaiea aeaiiuo «Iaoaeeo?aey» // Eca.AOCia. *a?iay iaoaeeo?aey. -1988. —
N8. — N.136-139.

17. I?eoiaeueei Y.A.,Oaioioueei A.O.,Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I.Aaca aeaiiuo e
iiaeaee aeey i?iaiice?iaaiey ieaaeinoe aeaeaci?oaeiuo iaoa?eaeia //
Noaeue.- 1998.- N9.- N.7-9.

18. Oaioioueei A.O., Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I., Aeaaaeueoeaa TH.A., Aieiaei E.A.
I?iaiice?iaaiea ieaaeinoe aaoiiia // Iai?aaie/aneea iaoa?eaeu.- 1994. —
?2. — O.30. — N.269-271.

19. I?eoiaeueei Y.A., Oaioioueei A.O., Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I., Aae?aea I.I.
Iioeiecaoeey oeooiauo e oaoiieiae/aneeo oneiaee aeiiaiiie ieaaee ia
iniiaa oeceei-oeie/aneiai e iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey //
Niaa?oainoaiaaiea oaoiieiaee aeiiaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. -I.:Iaoaeeo?aey.
— 1988a. — N.52-56.

20. Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I., Oaioioueei A.O. Iioeiecaoeey ninoaaa aeiiaiiie
oeoou n eniieueciaaieai oeceei-oeie/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey n oeaeueth
yeiiiiee eiena // Yeiiiiey eiena a aeiiaiiuo ia/ao. -I.: Iaoaeeo?aey. —
1986.- N.66-70.

21. I?eoiaeueei Y.A., Oaioioueei A.O., Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I., A?aaaieei
I.A., Oaiaoianeee Y.A., Caaei N.E. ?ieue oeie/aneiai ninoaaa
aeaeaci?oaeiuo iaoa?eaeia a oi?ie?iaaiee eo iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo naienoa. //
Iaci?iay eioi?iaoeey. Na?ey. Iiaeaioiaea nu?ueaauo iaoa?eaeia e
iaoaeeo?ae/aneiio ia?aaeaeo e i?iecaiaenoai /oaoia. — Aui.5. — 42n.- I.:
Ei-o *a?iaoeioi?iaoeey. -1987.- N.1-25.

22. Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I. Nenoaia aiaeeca e auai?a ?aoeeiiaeueiuo ?aaeeiia
?aaiou iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo aa?aaaoia ia YAI // *a?iay iaoaeeo?aey.
Iaoea-Oaoiieiaey-I?iecaiaenoai. I*I NNN?. -I.:Iaoaeeo?aey. — 1989. —
N.384-390.

23. A?iaeneee N.N., Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I., Ianaao A.A. Iiuo
eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo neoaea Aeiai?ianeiai iaoeiiaeiaoa
// Iaoaeeo?ae/aneay e ai?ii?oaeiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. — 1998.- ?2. —
N.125-128.

24. Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I., Oaioioueei A.O., Aaeueeiaa A.E. Eioi?iaoeeiiiia,
aeai?eoie/aneia e i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea aeey ?aoaiey caaea/
iioeiecaoeee aeiiaiiie oeoou // Iaoaeeo?a. — Iineaa, — 1999. — ?6. —
N.42-43.

25. Noa?ia ?.A., Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I.,Oa?aooeao A.N., Aeaaeeia I.A.,Iaoooii
A.A. Neaiciay iiaeaeue i?iecaiaenoaa aeeaeeiai iaoaeea, aeeth/athuay
oaoiieiaeth aeiiaiiie e eiiaa?oa?iie ieaaie, aiaia/iie ia?aaioee /oaoia
e noaee // Iaoaee e eeouea Oe?aeiu. — Eeaa. — 1995.- ?1. -N.14-17.

26. I?eoiaeueei Y.A., Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I. Aacu oeceei-oeie/aneeo e
oaoiieiae/aneeo aeaiiuo aeey nicaeaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee a
iaoaeeo?aee. // Iaoaeeo?ae/aneay e ai?ii?oaeiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. -1999.
— ?3. — N.17-21.

27. Aecaooeia ?.N., Aiioei A.A., Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I. e ae?. I?iaeaiu e
iieeoeea yia?ainiaaaeaiey ia Caiaaeii-Neae?neii iaoaeeo?ae/aneii
eiiaeiaoa // Noaeue.-1997.- ?8. — N.70-78.

28. Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I., Aa?iao E.E. Oeceei-oeie/aneea e?eoa?ee aeey
iiaeaee?iaaiey eiiiiaiaiiuo i?ioeannia a nenoaia iaoaee-oeae
i?eiaieoaeueii e ia?aaiiaaniui oneiaeyi ieeneeoaeueiie e
ainnoaiiaeoaeueiie ieaaie // O?.i-o-eiioa?aioeee «Oai?ey e oaoiieiaey
i?iecaiaenoaa /oaoia e noaee». — Eeiaoee.- 1995. — N.18-23.

29. Aeaaeeia I.A., Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I., Ianoa?ia A.N. Iniaaiiinoe
oi?ie?iaaiey aeeaeeeo oac e eo oeceei-oeie/aneay eioa?i?aoaoeey //
O?.Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee «Oai?ey e oaoiieiaey
aaeiaeiiaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa iina. 100 eaoeth ni aeiy ?iaeaeaiey
A.Ae.Aioeeaa». — 1996.- N.83-87.

30. I?eoiaeueei Y.A., Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I. Aacu oai?aoe/aneeo e
oaoiieiae/aneeo aeaiiuo aeey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee a iaoaeeo?aee //
*a?iay iaoaeeo?aey ?innee e NIA a OOI aaea. Na.o?oaeia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
eiioa?aioeee. — Iaoaeeo?aey. — 1994. — N.178-180.

31. Oaioioueei A.O., Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I., Eeoa/aa TH.I., Aieiaei E.A. Aaca
aeaiiuo «Oeaeiia?acothuea niane aeey ?aceeaee noaee. // Na.o?.
i-o-eiioa?aioeee «Oai?ey e oaoiieiaey i?iecaiaenoaa /oaoia e noaee». —
Eeiaoee. — 1995. — N.287-290.

32. Oaioioueei A.O., Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I., Aieiaei E.A., Aa?eaiaea I.E.
Aaca aeaiiuo e iiaeaee aeey i?iaiice?iaaiey naienoa oeaeiia?acothueo
nianae // O?.IX IIOE «Oai?ey e i?aeoeea eenei?iaeii-eiiaa?oa?iuo
i?ioeannia. — Aeiai?iiao?iane.- 1998. — N.69-71.

33. Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I. Eino?oiaioaeueiua n?aaenoaa aeey auai?a aaciauo
?aaeeiia ?aaiou iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo aa?aaaoia e yenia?oiie ioeaiee iiauo
oaoiieiae/aneeo ?aoaiee // O?.I-e IIOE «I?ia?anneaiua i?ioeannu e
iai?oaeiaaiea iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa”. — *a?aiiaaoe. — 1998. —
N.166-169.

34. Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I., Oaioioueei A.O., Oeuiaae A.E., ?oaeaiei TH.?.,
Aea?ea/ I.A. Eiiiuethoa?iay nenoaia aiaeeca iieacaoaeae
aaeiia?aoeeiiiiai ia?aaeaea a n?aaea eieaeueiie au/eneeoaeueiie naoe
AeIE // O?. V iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai eiia?anna aeiiaiueeia “I?iecaiaenoai
/oaoia ia ?oaaaea noieaoee”. — Aeiai?iiao?iane. -1999. — N.130- 133.

35. Noa?ia ?.A., Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I., Aeaaeeia I.A. e ae?.
Oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneay ioeaiea ?acee/iuo aa?eaioia aeinoeaeaiey ieceeo
eiioeaio?aoeee na?u a noaee // O?oaeu IV-ai eiia?ana
noaeaieaaeeueueeia.- Iineaa. — 7-10 ieoya?y 1996. — N .417-420.

AIIOAOeI?

Oiaiaeoeeay Ae.I. ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeieiaee aiaeeca e iioeiecaoeee
i?ioeannia i?iecaiaenoaa /oaoia e noaee ia iniiaa iiaeaee?iaaiey
naienoa e acaeiiaeaenoaey iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo ?anieaaia. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.16.02 — Iaoaeeo?aey /a?iuo iaoaeeia — Iaoeeiiaeueiay
iaoaeeo?ae/aneay aeaaeaiey Oe?aeiu. Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iai?aaeaia ia ?aoaiea caaea/ aiaeeca e iioeiecaoeee
oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia auieaaee e iaania/aiey ea/anoaa /oaoia e
noaee. ?ac?aaioaia eiioeaioeey nicaeaiey nenoaiu eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
iaania/aiey iaoaeeo?aee ooiaeaiaioaeueiuie oeceei-oeie/aneeie aeaiiuie i
naienoaao iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo ?anieaaia e ?acoeueoaoao eo acaeiiaeaenoaey,
a oaeaea oaoiieiae/aneeie aeaiiuie i ?aaioa iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo aa?aaaoia.
I?i?aaioaiu iaoiaeieiae/aneea aii?inu nicaeaiey oiiaea iiaeaeae
iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo nenoai e i?ioeannia eo acaeiiaeaenoaey ia iae?i- e
iee?io?iaiyo. Iainiiaai auai? oeceei-oeie/aneeo e?eoa?eaa «naa?oee»
eioi?iaoeee i oeie/aneii ninoaaa iiiaieiiiiiaioiuo aeaeaci?oaeiuo
iaoa?eaeia, oeaeiauo e iaoaeee/aneeo ?anieaaia e ?ac?aaioaiu iiaeaee
aeey i?iaiice?iaaiey naienoa aeaeaci?oaeiiai nu?uey e iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo
oeaeia ?acee/iiai iacia/aiey. Ia iniiaa iaeiieaiiuo a aacao
?ao?iniaeoeaiuo ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo ?ac?aaioaiu iiaeaee aeey
ioeaiee ?aoeie?othuae niiniaiinoe oeaeiauo ?anieaaia a oneiaeyo
ieeneeoaeueiie e ainnoaiiaeoaeueiie ieaaie. Auiieiai niiinoaaeoaeueiue
aiaeec noeueoeaeiie aieinoe oeaeia aeiiaiiiai e noaeaieaaeeueiiai
i?ioeannia, aiaia/iie ia?aaioee /oaoia e noaee.

Ia iniiaa aiaeeca ia?aiao?ia iaaeaoiiiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey a ?anieaaao
?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea ioeaiee aeeyiey naienoa n?aaeu e eieaeueiiai
ie?oaeaiey eiiiiiaioia iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo ?anieaaia ia eo ?ani?aaeaeaiea a
nenoaia «iaoaee-oeae». Nicaeaia aaca ?ao?iniaeoeaiuo aeaiiuo i
?aaiiaaniii ?ani?aaeaeaiee na?u e oinoi?a iaaeaeo iaoaeeii e oeaeii e
iieo/aiu iiaeaee aeey i?iaiice?iaaiey eo ?aaiiaaniuo eiyooeoeeaioia
?ani?aaeaeaiey a oneiaeyo ainnoaiiaeoaeueiie e ieeneeoaeueiie ieaaie.

I?i?aaioaiu e ii?iaiaaiu a i?iiuoeaiiuo oneiaeyo iaoiaeieiae/aneea e
oaoiieiae/aneea iniiau nicaeaiey nenoaiu neaiciiai aiaeeca i?iecaiaenoaa
e ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai eiiaeiaoa ia iniiaa A?Iia ii
ia?aaeaeai. Inouanoaeaii eo i?iiuoeaiiia aiaae?aiea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeaeaci?oaeiua iaoa?eaeu, /oaoi, oeae, noaeue,
oaoiieiae/aneea naienoaa, ?ani?aaeaeaiea yeaiaioia, oeceei-oeie/aneia
iiaeaee?iaaiea, aacu aeaiiuo, eioi?iaoeeiiii-aiaeeoe/aneea nenoaiu.

Oiaiaeoeueea Ae.I. ?ic?iaea iaoiaeieiai? aiaeico oa iioeiicaoei?
i?ioeania ae?iaieoeoaa /aaoio i noaei ia iniiai iiaeaethaaiiy
aeanoeainoae oa aca?iiaei? iaoaeo?aieieo ?icieaaia. ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaith aeieoi?a oaoii/ieo iaoe ii
niaoeiaeueiinoi 05.16.02 — Iaoaeo?aiy /i?ieo iaoaeia — Iaoeiiiaeueia
iaoaeo?aieia aeaaeaiiy Oe?a?ie. Aeiii?iiao?ianuee, 1999.

Aeena?oaoeiy iai?aaeaia ia ae?ioaiiy caaea/ aiaeico i iioeiicaoei?
oaoiieiai/ieo i?ioeania aeieaaee e caaacia/aiiy yeinoi /aaoio i noaei.
Noai?aia nenoaia iioi?iaoeieiiai caaacia/aiiy iaoaeo?ai?
ooiaeaiaioaeueieie oiceei-oiii/ieie aeaieie i?i aeanoeainoi
iaoaeo?aieieo ?icieaaia i ?acoeueoaoia ?o aca?iiaei?, a oaeiae
oaoiieiai/ieie aeaieie i?i ?iaioo iaoaeo?aieieo aa?aaaoia. Iaa?oioiaaiee
aeai? oiceei-oiii/ieo e?eoa?i?a «cai?oee» iioi?iaoei? i?i oiii/iee
neeaae aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo caeici?oaeieo iaoa?iaeia, oeaeiaeo i iaoaeaaeo
?icieaaia i ?ic?iaeaii iiaeaei aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy aeanoeainoae
caeici?oaeii? ne?iaeie i iaoaeo?aieieo oeaeia ?iciiiaiioiiai
i?ecia/aiiy. Ia iniiai aiaeico ia?aiao?ia iiaeaoiiii? aca?iiaei? a
?icieaaao ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ioeiiee aieeao aeanoeainoae na?aaeiaeua i
eieaeueiiai ioi/aiiy eiiiiiaioia iaoaeo?aieieo ?icieaaia ia ?o ?iciiaeie
a nenoaii «iaoae-oeae». Noai?aia aaca ?ao?iniaeoeaieo aeaieo i?i
?iaiiaaaeiee ?iciiaeie ni?ee i oinoi?o iiae iaoaeii i oeaeii i
iaea?aeaii iiaeaei aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy ?o ?iaiiaaaeieo eiaoioei?ioia
?iciiaeieo a oiiaao aiaeiiaethaaeueii? i ieenethaaeueii? ieaaie.

Ii?aoeueiaaii i aei?iaoaaii a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao iaoiaeieiai/ii i
oaoiieiai/ii iniiae noai?aiiy nenoaie iane?iciiai aiaeico ae?iaieoeoaa i
yeinoi i?iaeoeoei? iaoaeo?aieiiai eiiaiiaoo ia iniiai A?Iia ii
ia?aaeieai. Caeieniaii ?o i?iieneiaa cai?iaaaeaeaiiy.

Eeth/iai neiaa: caeici?oaeii iaoa?aee, /aaoi, oeae, noaeue, oaoiieia/ii
aeanoeainoi, ?iciiaeie aeaiaioia, oiceei-oiii/ia iiaeaethaaiiy, aace
aeaieo, iioi?iaoeieii-aiaeioe/ii nenoaie.

Togibitskaya D.N. Elaboration the methodology of analysis and
optimization of pig iron and steel making processes basing on the
modelling properties and interaction of metal solution. — Manuscript.

Doctoral dissertation in speciallity 05.16.02 — Metallurgy of ferrous
metals — National Metallurgical Academy of Ukraine. Dnepropetrovsk,
1999.

Dissertation was directed for solution the problems of analyse and
optimization technological processes of pig iron and steel smelting and
guaranteeing their quality. It was created the system of metallurgy
information securing by fundamental physical-chemical data about the
properties of metallurgical melts and results of their interaction and
also with technological data about the function of metallurgical units.
It was based the choice of physical-chemical criteria for “coagulation”
information about chemical composition of multicomponent ferrous
materials, slag and metallurgical melts. It was warked out the models
for prognostication properties of ferrous row materials and
metallurgical slags of different application. It was developed the
methodology for estimation the influence of the environment properties
and local surrounded of metalurgical melts components to their
allocation into the “metal-slag” system based on the analys of
interatomic interaction parametres in melts. It was created the base of
retrospactive data about equlibrium distribution of sulphur and
phosphorus among the metal and slag and obtained the models for
prognostication their equlibrium distribution coeffcients in conditions
of reducing and oxidizing fusions.

It was studed and industrial tasted methdollogical and technological
foundations for creation the system of on-line analisys manufacture and
production quality based on automated working places for every
convertion. Thay were industrially realized.

Key words: ferrous materals, pig iron, slag, steel, technological
properties, elements disribution, physcal-chemical modelling, data
bases, informatiion-analitic systems.

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ie.Noa?iaeoaiaa, 1a

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