OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IIE?OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Aiiaea?ue Na?a?e Aieiaeeie?iae/

OAeE – 539.3

?IC?IAEA IAOIAe?A ?IC?AOOIEO OA AeINE?AeAEAIIss
IAI?OAEAII-AeAOI?IIAAIIAI NOAIO AEAIAIO?A OOAIIIAI? INIANOEE AeEss
OIEIAeIIAI OA IIEOAA?ss*IAI AEAeAAETHAAIIss

05.02.09 – aeeiai?ea oa i?oei?noue iaoei

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? “Ii?? iaoa??ae?a” Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Eaa?inueeee Aieiaeeie? ?aaiiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e “Ii?? iaoa??ae?a”

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ii?a/eianeee Ieaa Einoyioeiiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith “Oai?aoe/ia iaoai?ea”

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ionoei?eia Aieiaeeie? ?ee?/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao aoae?aieoeoaa oa
a?o?oaeoo?e,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e “Aoae?aaeueia iaoai?ea”

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa : ?inoeooo i?iaeai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy IAI Oe?a?ie, i.
Oa?e?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “31” aa?aciy 1999 ?ieo ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.050.10 a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
iie?oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? (310002, i.Oa?e?a-2, aoe.O?oica,21)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 23 ” ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

Ai?oiaee A.A.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. ?icaeoie ? oaeineiiaethaaiiy no/aniiai
ia?iaiiai iaeaaeiaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?aaaaeii c aeei?enoaiiyi
aaca?aeo?aeieo oaoiieia?e. Oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane, caniiaai? ia
aeei?enoaii? aeanoeainoae ieanoe/iino? iaoa??ae?a, a?ae??ciythoueny
aenieith i?iaeoeoeai?noth oa aeiiii?/i?noth, ui coiiaeei ?oi? oe?iea
canoinoaaiiy. Iaeieie c iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieo iaeia?aeo?aeieo i?ioean?a
ia?iaee iaoae?a oeneii ? oieiaeia ? iieoaa?y/a aeaeaaethaaiiy, ui
aeicaieythoue iaea?aeoaaoe oi/i? caaio?aee c i?i?iaeueieie i?eioneaie ia
iaoai?/io ia?iaeo, a a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao ? i?aeoe/ii aioia? aeaoae?.
I?ioa, ia oeyoo oe?ieiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oeeo i?ioean?a aeieeathoue
i?iaeaie, iia’ycai? c i?iaaaeaiiyi aiae?co i?oeiino? i?e i?iaeooaaii?
aeaiaio?a onoaoeoaaiiy.

Noai?aiiy iiaeo eiino?oeoe?e iao?eoeue, ui ? iaeiei c iaea?eueo
iaaaioaaeaieo aeaiaio?a ooaiia, iio?aao? iiia?aaeiueiai ? aeinoaoiuei
oi/iiai ?ic?aooieo oa?ii-i?oaeiuei-ieanoe/ii? oi?iici?ie c o?aooaaiiyi
eiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? ie?aieo aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?? aeey aecia/aiiy
caeiio ?iciiae?eo aeaoi?iaoe?e ? iai?oaeaiue a ?ino?oiaio?, iniaeeai ia
eiioaeoi?e iiaa?oi?. Oea ? iniiaith aeey aaeaeaaoiiai oyaeaiiy
i?ioean?a, ye? i?io?eathoue a ?ino?oiaio?, ui aeicaiey? noai?thaaoe
i?aoeacaeaoi? eiino?oeoe?? c i?i?iaeueiith ianith. Neeaaei?noue
aaiiao??? aeaiaio?a ui aiae?cothoueny, iaiaeii??aei?noue no?oeoo?e,
?icia?o?noue oaiia?aoo?ieo oa neeiaeo aieea?a, noaaeyoue ??oaiiy aeaii?
caaea/? o ?aiee neeaaeii? i?iaeaie. Iaoaiaoe/iee aiae?c oaeeo caaea/
aeineoue aaaeeee, iaa?oue i?e aaaaoueio i?eiouaiiyo, ? ia aeicaiey?
iaea?aeaoe ?ica’ycaiiy ??oaiiy a aiae?oe/iiio aeae?, i?eioooth/e
oaoiieia?a aaeaoeny aei aenia?eiaioo. I?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue o ae?iaie/eo oiiaao aeoaea aaaeea, ? a ia?aaaaei?e
a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a, i?e i?iaeooaaii? iiaeo eiino?oeoe?e iao?eoeue,
aeei?enoiaothoue i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? o aeaeyae? oaaeeoeue ?
iiiia?ai, i?aeoaa?aeaeaieo aaaaoi??/iei aeina?aeii eiino?othaaiiy.

O ca’yceo c oeei aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue o ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeee,
i???ioiaaieo ia i?iaaaeaiiy aiae?co i?oeiino? aeaiaio?a ooaiiiaiai
onoaoeoaaiiy. Ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaieo iaoiaeee iaiao?aeii noai?eoe
aeai?eoie ? i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy, ui aeicaiey? oi?ioaaoe ?ic?aooieia?
noaie aeaiaio?a ooaiiiai? inianoee, ye? a?aoiaothoue onth niaoeeo?eo
i?iaeoiaaii? eiino?oeoe??, i?iaiaeeoe aaeaeaaoiee aiae?c i?oeiino? o
oa?ii-i?oaeiuei-ieanoe/i?e iinoaiiaoe? c o?aooaaiiyi eiioaeoii?
aca?iiae?? ie?aieo aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe??, a oaeiae iiaeaaaoe io?eiai?
?acoeueoaoe a c?o/iiio aeey aiae?co aeaeyae?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. ?iaioa aeeiioaaeany o iaaeao
aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai? i?ia?aie “?ic?iaea cania?a /enaeueiiai aiae?co
i?oeiino?, no?eeino? oa eieeaaiue aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e eini?/ieo
ieaooi?i a oiiaao ?ioaineaieo oa?iineeiaeo iaaaioaaeaiue”, ? Ae.?.
01940012949.

IAOITH AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE ? ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee, aeai?eoi?a ?
noai?aiiy i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy aeey aiae?co
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio (IAeN) aeaiaio?a ooaiiiai? inianoee aeey
oieiaeiiai aeaeaaethaaiiy (OA) ? iieoaa?y/iai aeaeaaethaaiiy (IAA) o
oa?ii-i?oaeiuei-ieanoe/i?e iinoaiiaoe?, c o?aooaaiiyi eiioaeoii?
aca?iiae??. C aeei?enoaiiyi noai?aiiai i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy i?iaanoe
aiae?c IAeN eiino?oeoe?e iao?eoeue aeey OA ? IAA ? oi?ioethaaiiy
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ia aea?? ?aoe?iiaeueieo aaiiao?e/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo
ia?aiao??a: aaee/ei iaoya?a, eoo?a eiioniino?, a oaeiae aei?noeino?
aaiaeaaea.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? o ianooiieo oai?aoe/ieo oa i?aeoe/ieo
?acoeueoaoao:

— ?ic?iaeaii eiiieaen iaoiaeee ? aeai?eoi?a aeey iiaoaeiae ?ic?aooieiaeo
noai aeaiaio?a aaaaoioa?iaeo aaiaeaaeiaaiieo iao?eoeue aeey OA ? IAA, a
oaeiae aeey i?iaaaeaiiy a ?ioa?aeoeaiiio ?aaeei? aiae?co io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooieo;

— ia aac? iaoiaeo ne?i/aieo aeaiaio?a noai?aii ?ic?aooieiaee iiaeoeue,
ui aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe ?ic?aooiie oa?ii-i?oaeiuei-ieanoe/ii? caaea/? a
aeaii??i?e iinoaiiaoe? c o?aooaaiiyi eiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? ??ciiiai?oieo
aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe??, ia iaeeaaeoth/e iaiaaeaiiy ia /enei aeaiaio?a,
ui eiioaeoothoue. Iaei??th c iniaeeainoae ?ic?aooieiaiai iiaeoey ?
iiaeeea?noue i?iaaaeaiiy ?ic?aooie?a iai?oaeaiiai noaia i?e ni?eueiiio
?icaeyae? iao?eoe? ? caaio?aee, ui aeaoi?io?oueny. I?e oeueiio
iaaaioaaeaiiy i?eeeaaeathoueny aei caaio?aee, ? a?aoiao?oueny eiioaeoia
aca?iiae?y i?ae caaio?aeith ? iao?eoeath, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny ii ?aaeuei?e
eiio?ao?aoe?? ?iai/i? anoaaee(aac ?? ni?iuaiiy).

— i?iaaaeaii aaaaoiia?aiao?e/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aaiiao?e/ieo ?
o?ce/ieo iniaeeainoae ia IAeN aaaaoioa?iaeo aaiaeaaeiaaieo iao?eoeue
aeey OA ? IAA. Noi?ioeueiaaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ia aea?? ?ici??o iaoyao,
eooa eiioniino?, a oaeiae aei?noeino? aaiaeaaea aeey iao?eoeue, ui
iathoue, ye ?ic??cio, oae ? nooe?eueio ?iai/o anoaaeo.

A??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a. I?iaiaeeeiny ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a
?ica’ycaiiy oanoiaeo i?eeeaae?a, ye? iathoue aiae?oe/ia ?ica’ycee, aai
/enaeueii ae??oai? ?ioeie aaoi?aie, a oaeiae ii??aiyiiy c ?acoeueoaoaie
aenia?eiaioo, i?iaaaeaiiai iaoiaeii oioii?oaeiino?. Iia??oi?noue
?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooieo, yea ia ia?aaeuo? i?eionoeieo cia/aiue,
na?ae/eoue i?i iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy noai?aiiai ?ic?aooieiaiai
iiaeoey aeey i?aeoe/ieo ?ic?aooie?a.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui iieiaeaiiy, ye? neeaaeathoue
nooue aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoee io?eiai? oa ae??oai? iei naiino?eii:

— ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo e aiae?co ieineiai e inaneiao?e/iiai
iai?oaeaii aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio aeaiaio?a ooaiiiaiai onoaoeoaaiiy a
oa?ii-i?oaeiuei-ieanoe/i?e iinoaiiaoe? c o?aooaaiiyi eiioaeoii?
aca?iiae?? ??ciiiai?oieo aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe??;

— ii ?ic?iaeaiei iaoiaeeeai noai?ai? aeai?eoie oa i?ia?aiia
caaacia/aiiy, yea iieeaaeaii a iniiao eiiieaeno Nocs_FEM, ca aeiiiiiaith
yeiai, ae??oai? oanoia? i?eeeaaee;

— ?ic?iaeai? ?ic?aooieia? noaie iniiaieo aeaiaio?a inianoee ooaiiiaiai
iaeaaeiaiiy (ioainii, iao?eoey), aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iai?oaeaii
aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio, noi?ioeueiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ia aea??
?aoe?iiaeueieo aaiiao?e/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a: aaee/ei iaoya?a,
eoo?a eiioniino?, a oaeiae aei?noeino? aaiaeaaea.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe neeaaea?oueny a ?ic?iaoe? aoaeoeaieo
iaoiaeee ? noai?aii? ia ?o iniia? i?ia?aiiiai eiiieaeno Nocs_FEM, yeee
i?aoeth? a ?ioa?aeoeaiiio ?aaeei?, aeicaiey? oi?ioaaoe ?ic?aooieia?
noaie ??ciiiai?oieo eiino?oeoe?e, aeine?aeaeoaaoe eiioaeoio aca?iiae?th
aeaiaio?a ooaiiiai? inianoee a aeaii??i?e, oa?ii-i?oaeiuei-ieanoe/i?e
iinoaiiaoe?, ? i?iaiaeeoe aeaoaeueiee aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.
Aeey ?yaeo ni?iaeoiaaieo eiino?oeoe?e iao?eoeue noi?ioeueiaai?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ia aea?? ?aoe?iiaeueieo aaiiao?e/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo
ia?aiao??a: aaee/ei iaoya?a, eooa eiioniino? ? aei?noeino? aaiaeaaea.
?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio e
aiae?co eiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? aeaiaio?a ooaiiiaiai onoaoeoaaiiy
canoiniaoaaeeny ia AeI “Caaiae ?i.Iaeeoaaa” (i.Oa?e?a) i?e i?iaeooaaii?
iiai? eiino?oeoe?? aeaioa?iai? aaiaeaaeiaaii? iao?eoe?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ? iieiaeaiiy a?aeaeo? a ?iaio?
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo
“?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia??: iaoea, oaoi?ea, oaoiieia?y, ina?oa, caei?ia’y
(MicroCad-System)”, (Oa?e?a-Ieoeieueoe, 1993-1998 ?.?.), ia iaoeiaeo
nai?ia?ao eaoaae?e “Ii?? iaoa??ae?a” OAeIO.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aena?oeaiee o 6
ioae?eaoe?yo, c ieo: 4 o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo, 2 o iaoa??aeao i?aeia?iaeieo
eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ? aeiaeaoea.
?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 123 noi??ieao, i?noeoue 42 ?enoiea, 7 oaaeeoeue. A
aeiaeaoeo iaaaaeaii aeieoiaioe i?i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, ?? iaoeiaa iiaecia ?
i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ? iniiai? caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiue, ca’ycie ?c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie ? ieaiaie.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e?, ia iniia? iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, iieacaii noai
i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aoeacaeaoiino? aeaiaio?a ooaiiiai? inianoee
aeey oieiaeiiai oa iieoaa?y/iai aeaeaaethaaiiy. ?icaeyiooi iniiai?
iaoiaeeee, canoiniaoaai? i?e ?ic?aooieao IAeN aaiaeaaeiaaieo iao?eoeue,
iaea?eueoa iaaaioaaeaiiai aeaiaioa ooaiiiai? inianoee. A?aei?/aii, ui
iniiaiei iaaeie?eii a?aeiieo iaoiaeee ? ni?iuaiiy caeiio iaaaioaaeaiiy
iao?eoe? oa ?ic?aooieiaeo noai, ui iieyaa? a iaoooaaii? eiioaeoiith
aca?iiae??th i?ae aeaiaioaie eiino?oeoe??. Oiio oe? ?ic?aooieia? noaie
ia iiaeooue iiaiith i??ith iienaoe ?aaeueio eiino?oeoe?th aaiaeaaeiaaii?
iao?eoe?, yea ia? neeaaeio aaiiao?e/io eiio?ao?aoe?th ?iai/i? anoaaee.

Ae?oaa /anoeia e?oa?aoo?iiai iaeyaeo i?enay/aia aiae?co iaoiaeee,
i???ioiaaieo ia ??oaiiy eiioaeoii? caaea/? a oa?ii-i?oaeiuei-ieanoe/i?e
iinoaiiaoe?.

Oaeei /eiii, aeey noai?aiiy i?aoeacaeaoieo iao?eoeue iaiao?aeii, ua ia
aoai? i?iaeooaaiiy, i?iaiaeeoe aeaoaeueiee aiae?c IAeN aaiaeaaeiaaieo
iao?eoeue, c iaoith oi?ioaaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
oa?aeoa?enoee i?oeiino?, ui iio?aao? noai?aiiy niaoe?aeueiiai
i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy.

I?iaaaeaiee iaeyae aeicaieea noi?ioethaaoe iniiaio iaoo ? caaea/?
aeaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e ii/eia?oueny c iinoaiiaee caaea/?
oa?ii-i?oaeiuei-ieanoe/ii? eiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? o aeaiaei??i?e
iinoaiiaoe?. A?eueo?noue ?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e aeaiaio?a ooaiiiai?
inianoee oae?, ui iiaeooue aooe aeinoaoiuei oi/ii iienai? ?ic?aooieiaeie
noaiaie inaneiao?e/ii? aai ieinei? e?aeiai? caaea/? oai??? i?oaeiino?.
Oea aeicaiey? cieceoe aei??i?noue caaea/? ? oei naiei ?noioii ni?inoeoe
aiae?c eiioaeoieo yaeu.

Iaoiaeii ??oaiiy iinoaaeaii? e?aeiai? caaea/? aeae?a?oueny iaoiae
ne?i/aieo aeaiaio?a a ia?ai?uaiiyo. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aeicaiey?
iaea?aeoaaoe iaaeeaeaia ??oaiiy aeey eiino?oeoe?e neeaaeii? aaiiao?e/ii?
eiio?ao?aoe?? c eoni/iith iaeii??aei?noth no?oeoo?e, i?e ??ciiiai?oieo
a?aie/ieo oiiaao ? oiiaao iaaaioaaeaiiy. O iniiao iaoiaeo iieeaaeaia
aa??aoe?eia iinoaiiaea, ui caiaeeoueny aei ciaoiaeaeaiiy i?i?ioio
ooieoe?iiaea iiaii? aia?a?? Eaa?aiaea aeey nenoaie aca?iiae?th/eo o?e.

Y=I-Ai-Ai (1)

aea I — iioaioe?eia aia?a?y aeaoi?iaoe?? i?oaeii? nenoaie; Ai- ?iaioa
ia’?iieo nee; Ai- ?iaioa iiaa?oiaaeo nee.

sse iniiaiee aeei?enoiao?oueny ?ciia?aiao?e/iee einieooiee /ioe?ueio
aoceiaee ne?i/aiee aeaiaio ?c a?e?i?eiith ai?ieneiaoe??th ia?ai?uaiue
ona?aaeei? aeaiaioa. Aeei?enoaiiy oaeiai oeio aeaiaioa i?ecaiaeeoue aei
?aaoey?ieo oiiieia?/ieo n?oie, ye? ia iio?aaothoue noai?aiiy iao?eoe?
?iaeaen?a, ui cia/ii nei?i/o? ianya ao?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i aaiiao??th
ia’?eoa.

?icienoth/e ooieoe?iiae iiaii? aia?a?? (1) o aeaeyae? noie ?ioaa?ae?a ii
ne?i/aiei aeaiaioai ? i?iaiaey/e aa??thaaiiy, i?ney i?aenoaiiaee
cia/aiue ia?ai?uaiue ii an?o iaa?aeiieo ia?aiao?ao, iaea?aeo?ii nenoaio
??aiyiue:

[Kij]{ui}={Qj}, i,j=1. .n. (2)

aea [Kij] — iao?eoey aei?noeino? nenoaie, {ui},{Qj} — aaeoi?e noiaioe?
aoceiaeo ia?ai?uaiue ? i?aaeo /anoei, n — /enei ne?i/aieo aeaiaio?a
nenoaie.

??oaiiy nenoaie e?i?eieo ??aiyiue cae?enith?oueny aei/iei iaoiaeii
Oieaoeeiai, ui aeicaiey? ?icaeyaeaoe nenoaie aaeeeeo ?ici???a. O
?acoeueoao? ??oaiiy nenoaie e?i?eieo ??aiyiue aecia/athoueny aoceia?
ia?ai?uaiiy. Aeey aecia/aiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e aeei?enoiaoaaeeny caeaaeiino?
Eio?, a aeey aecia/aiiy iai?oaeaiue — caeii Aoea.

I?e ??oaii? oaiia?aoo?ii? caaea/?, e??i aaiiao?e/ieo ? o?ce/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee eiino?oeoe??, caaea?oueny ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i oaiia?aoo?o
aoceiaeo oi/ie ?icaeaee, ui a?aoiao?oueny i?e iiaoaeia? iao?eoe?
aei?noeino?.

Iinoaaeaia oa?ii-i?oaeiuei-ieanoe/ia eiioaeoia caaea/a ? iae?i?eiith.
Aeey ??oaiiy aeaii? iae?i?eii? caaea/? canoiniao?oueny iaoiae
iine?aeiaiiai ?icaeyaeo ?yaeo e?i?eieo caaea/. Aeai?eoi ??oaiiy caaea/?
aeicaiey? a?aooaaoe an? oeie iae?i?eiino? a ?aieao ?aeeiiai
?oa?aoe?eiiai i?ioeano.

Iae?i?ei?noue ia?oiai oeio iia’ycaia c iae?i?eiei iiaiaeaeaiiyi
iaoa??ae?a, i?e ieanoe/iiio aeaoi?ioaaii?. Ia eiaei?e ?oa?aoe??, a
aeaiaioao, aea aeyaeai? ieanoe/i? aeaoi?iaoe??, i?oaei? aeanoeaino?
iaoa??ae?a ia?a?aoiaothoueny ii oai??? iaeeo i?oaeiueiieanoe/ieo
aeaoi?iaoe?e ca?aeii aei iaoiaeo ia?ai?iieo ia?aiao??a i?oaeiino? :

(3)

Iae?i?ei?noue ae?oaiai oeio iaoiiaeaia o?aooaaiiyi eiioaeoii?
aca?iiae??. A?aie/i? oiiae a iaeanoyo ?iia??iiai eiioaeoo caaeathoueny o
aeaeyae? ia??aiinoae:

— ia?ai?uaiiy oi/ie ? ii/aoeiaee caci? (iaoya) o iai?yieo ii?iae?.

Iae?i?ei?noue c’yaey?oueny oaeiae c? ci?iith cii eiioaeoo, aca?iiei
i?ineecaiiyi aeaiaio?a, ui eiioaeoothoue, ? iayai?noth oa?oy i?ae ieie.
E?i?a??caoe?y eiioaeoii? caaea/? cae?enith?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith
niaoe?aeueieo i?ioa?e?a eiioaeoieo aeaiaio?a, iaae?eaieo iniaeeaeie
aeanoeainoyie, ui aeicaieythoue caiaeeoe ciai?oith iae?i?ei?noue caaea/?
aei aioo??oiuei? iae?i?eiino? eiioaeoiiai i?ioa?eo. Ia eiaei?e ?oa?aoe??
ciie eiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? ?aoothoueny iino?eieie, a aeaiaioe, ui
ciaoiaeyoueny a aeaieo ciiao, iiaeii? caaeiaieueiyoe oiiaai (4) — oiia?
cae?eooy caci?o aac aca?iii?iieeiaiiy o?e. Oiiae o?eeoe?iiii? aca?iiae??
aeaiaio?a, ui eiioaeoothoue, oi?ioeththoueny o oi?i? caeiio Eoeiia:

— eiao?oe??io nooiai oa?oy.

Eiioaeoi? aeaiaioe ia’?aeiothoue aca?iiae?th/? i?aeiaeano? a ?aeeio
nenoaio ? aeeiiothoue ooieoe?? ?a?no?aoe?? ae?eyiie eiioaeoo ? a?ae?eao,
a oaeiae iiaeaeththoue ??ciiiai?oi? oiiae ?iaioe c’?aeiaiiy (c/aieaiiy,
i?ineecaiiy, nooa oa?oy ? o.i.). Eiioaeoiee i?ioa?ie yaey? niaith
noeoii?noue ia?aeiieo /ioe?eeooiee?a aeia?eueiiai aeaeyaeo, noi?iie yeeo
? neeaaeiaeie ?aaoey?ii? oiiieia?/ii? n?oee a iaaeao on??? eiino?oeoe??,
ui cia/ii ni?iuo? iiaoaeiao iao?eoe? aei?noeino? eiino?oeoe?? ? ia
iio?aao? iiaoaeiae iao?eoe? ?iaeaen?a. Noi?iie /ioe?eeooiee?a ia?aeiii?
aeene?aoecaoe?? eiioaeoieo e?ioeaaeo aeaiaio?a, ye ? i?inoeo e?ioeaaeo
aeaiaio?a, iiaeooue aooe a?ae??ceaie i?yieo aai aeoaaie e?e. Iiaoi?ia
aeene?aoecaoe?y ia aeaiaioe i?iaiaeeoueny aaoiiaoe/ii ca aeiiiiiaith
?ioi?iaoe??th i?i /enei ?icaeaee noi??i ia?aeiieo aeaiaio?a ? nooiaiy
ia??aiii??iino? oe??? ?icaeaee. I?e iiaoi?i?e aeene?aoecaoe?? aeoae
eiea caaeathoueny eaiaieie.

Ia eiaei?e ?oa?aoe?? aeaoi?iaoe?? a oeaio?? eiioaeoieo aeaiaio?a
ia?a?aoiaothoueny ca oi?ioeith (6), i?eaiaey/e, oaeei /eiii,
aeaoi?iaoe?th aei ?aaeueii? oiaueie i?ioa?eo:

. (6)

aea ( — i?i?iaeueia oiaueia i?ioa?eo; ( — iioi/ia oiaueia i?ioa?eo; O —
oaiia?aoo?a iaa??aaiiy; ( — eiao?oe??io oaiia?aoo?iiai ?icoe?aiiy; fo? —
eiao?oe??io oa?oy.

Caaeath/e ?ici?? ( ia ??aiee iioi/i?e oiauei? i?ioa?eo (, iiaeia
iiaeaethaaoe ??ciiiai?oi? oiiae ii?aeiaiiy iiaa?oiiue, ui
eiioaeoothoue,(caci?, iaoya). sseui i?ney ia?a?aooieo ciae ii?iaeueii?
aeaoi?iaoe?? ia ca?aa?oueny c iai?yieii iaaaioaaeaiiy, oi aeaiaio
aeaiaeeoueny c eiioaeoo. Cae?i/aiiy ?oa?aoe?eiiai i?ioeano ??oaiiy
caaea/? a?aeaoaa?oueny, yeui ia /a?aia?e ?oa?aoe?? aeaiaioe ia
aeaiaeyoueny c ?ic?aooieo, a oaeiae, yeui aoaea aeeiiaia oiiaa:

; (7)

aea (-cacaeaeaa?aeue caaeaia iaea aaee/eia.

Oiiaa (7) icia/a?, ui noia ?ioaineaiino? aeaoi?iaoe?? ia non?aei?o
?oa?aoe?yo ia iiaeiia a?ae??ciyoeny ia aeinoaoiuei iaeo, cacaeaeaa?aeue
aecia/aio aaee/eio. Oaeee i?aeo?ae caaacia/o? aeinoaoiuei oaeaeeo
ca?aei?noue iaio i?ioean?a ? cae/aeii iio?aao? aeeiiaiiy ia a?eueo
i’youeio ?oa?aoe?e.

Ia iniia? iienaiiai aeai?eoio aoa noai?aiee i?ia?aiiee eiiieaen
COCS_FEM, ui aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio e aiae?c i?oeiino? ??ciiiai?oieo eean?a
eiino?oeoe?e o ieine?e aai inaneiao?e/i?e iinoaiiaoe?. Eiiieaen COCS_FEM
iaienaiee ia iia? i?ia?aioaaiiy Borland Pascal 7.0, ? i?ecia/aiee aeey
?iaioe, ye o na?aaeiaeu? MS-DOS, oae ? Windows. Eiiieaen oiiaii iiaeia
?icaeoe ia o?e /anoeie: i?ai?ioeani?, ?ic?aooieiaee iiaeoeue,
iinoi?ioeani?. I?ai?ioeani? — yaey? niaith iaa?? eiiaiae, ui
aeicaieythoue a ?ioa?aeoeaiiio ?aaeei? noai?thaaoe ?ioi?iaoe?ei? iiaeae?
?ic?aooieiaeo noai eiino?oeoe?e. ?ic?aooieiaee iiaeoeue —
ia/enethaaeueiee aeie, i?ecia/aiee aeey ia?iaee iayaii? ?ioi?iaoe?eii?
iiaeae? c iaoith iaea?aeaiiy aeaieo i?i iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai
eiino?oeoe?e. Iinoi?ioeani?, oaeiae, ye ? i?ai?ioeani?, yaey? niaith
iaa?? eiiaiae, aea aaea aeey iiaeaiiy io?eiaieo ??oaiue o oaaee/iiio aai
a?ao?/iiio aeaeyae?. An? o?e /anoeie i?aoeththoue a ?aeei?e a?ao?/i?e
iaieiioe?, ui aeicaiey? ia aoaeue-yeiio aoai? iiaeaoe ?ioi?iaoe?th a
c?o/ii? aeey aiae?co oi?i?. ?ioa?oaen i?ia?aie aeicaiey? aeei?enoiaoaaoe
iaa?? na?a?nieo ooieoe?e, na?aae yeeo eiioaenoia aeiiiiiaa, ca?eueoaiiy
oe?eaaey/i? iaeano?, iiaoaeiaa a?ao?/iiai ia’?eoa a iaiao?aeiiio ?aeo?n?
(aeeiao??y, ?ciiao??y, a oaeiae o i?iaeoe?yo ia eii?aeeiaoi? ieiueie),
ci?ia iae?o?e aeei?enoiaoaaieo eieuei??a, caa??aaiiy iaeaaiaeaeaiue
aeey eiaeii? iiaeae? e ?io?.

?ic?iaea iiaiai i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy iio?aao? i?iaaaeaiiy oanoiaeo
?ic?aooie?a c iaoith i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy a??ia?aeiino? iaea?aeoaaieo
?acoeueoao?a. sse ia?oee oanoiaee i?eeeaae ae??ooaaeanue caaea/a i?i
aca?iiae?th aei?noeiai e?eueoeaaiai ooaiia c i?oaeiei i?ai?inoi?ii,
aiae?oe/ia ??oaiiy yei? aoei io?eiaii A.I.Aae?iei[(]. O yeino? ?ioeo
oanoiaeo i?eeeaae?a aoea ?icaeyiooa caaea/a i?i ciaoiaeaeaiiy
eiao?oe??ioa eiioeaio?aoe?? iai?oaeaiiy i?e ?icoyao, noeneo ? caei? a
nioc? c iaae??caie ? aee?oaeeaie (?en.1) ? a ioainiiao, iinaaeaeaieo ?c
iaoyaii, i?e ?icoyao ? noeneo. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieo ii??aithaaeeny c
?acoeueoaoaie aenia?eiaioo, ui cae?enithaaany iaoiaeii oioii?oaeiino? ia
c?aceao c iioe/ii aeoeaiiai iaoa??aeo AAe-15. Aeey o?eniaaiiai cia/aiiy
aee?oaeee ? a?aeiioaiiy H/h aoee i?iaaaeai? ?ic?aooiee, ui aeicaieythoue
i?iaiae?coaaoe aieea ?ici??o ne?i/aiiai aeaiaioa a cii? eiioeaio?aoe??
ia iioeaeo ia/eneaiiy. Ia ?en.2 i?eaaaeaia caeaaei?noue cia/aiiy
eiao?oe??ioa eiioeaio?aoe?? ? /ano ?aooaaiiy a?ae ?ici??o aeaiaioa a
cii? eiioeaio?aoe??. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieythoue noi?ioaaoe
iiaeaeue ?c ?aoe?iiaeueiith ?icaeaeith, i?e ye?e aeiionoeia iio?aea
ia/eneaiue aeinyaa? ca ?aooiie iacia/iiai ca?eueoaiiy /ano ae??ooaaiiy.
Iioeaea, io?eiaia i?e ??oaii? oanoiaeo i?eeeaae?a, ia ia?aaeuo? 5-7%, ui
aiai?eoue i?i iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy noai?aiiai i?ia?aiiiai
caaacia/aiiy i?e i?aeoe/ieo ?ic?aooieao.

?en.2

Ocaaaeueithth/e aeuaneacaia, iiaeia a?aecia/eoe, ui ?ic?iaeaia
iaoiaeeea oa noai?aiee i?ia?aiiee eiiieaen COCS_FEM, ui aeicaiey?
cae?enithaaoe aiae?c iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio aeaiaio?a ooaiiiai?
inianoee a oa?ii-i?oaeiuei-ieanoe/i?e iinoaiiaoe? c o?aooaaiiyi
eiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? neeaaeiaeo aeaiaio?a. I?iaaaeai? oanoia?
i?eeeaaee iieacaee iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy aeaiiai eiiieaeno i?e
i?aeoe/ieo ?ic?aooieao aaaaoioa?iaeo aaiaeaaeiaaieo iao?eoeue.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aiee ??oaiith i?eeeaaeieo caaea/, ii ioe?ioe? IAeN
aaaaoioa?iaeo aaiaeaaeiaaieo iao?eoeue i?e oieiaeiiio ? iieoaa?y/iio
aeaeaaethaaii?.

O ia?o?e /anoei? ?icae?eo c?iaeaia iinoaiiaea caaea/?, ?icaeyiooi
ocaaaeueiai? eiino?oeoe?? iao?eoeue, iienaii a?aie/i? oiiae.

Ae?oaa /anoeia ?icae?eo i?enay/aia aiae?co iaaaioaaeaiue, ui ae?thoue ia
?ino?oiaio c aieo caaio?aee i?e ?? aeaoi?ioaaii?. Aeey aeinoia??iiai
aecia/aiiy iaaaioaaeaiue aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea, i?e ye?e
iaeii/anii aecia/athoue IAeN, ye o caaio?aoe?, ui ieanoe/ii
aeaoi?io?oueny, oae ? a ?ino?oiaio?. Oey iaoiaeeea aeicaieeea a?aooaaoe
?aaeueio eiioaeoio aca?iiae?th i?ae caaioiaeith ? iao?eoeath, c
o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae eiio?ao?aoe?? aioo??oiuei? iiaa?oi? ?iai/i?
anoaaee.

?en.4

Aeey eiino?oeoe??, cia?aaeaii? ia ?en.3, aoee i?iaaaeai? ?ic?aooiee i?e
??ciiiai?oieo iiaeaeyo caaio?aee, ui aeaoi?io?oueny. Ia?oee ?ic?aooiie
i?iaaaeaiee aeey iiaeae?, ui iieno? ?aeaaeueii-i?oaeith iiaaae?ieo
iaoa??aeo. Ae?oaee ?ic?aooiie — ae?y caaio?aee ia iao?eoeth cai?iyeanue
ii?iaeueiei oeneii, ?iciiae?eaiei ii on?e aeiaaeei? ?iai/i? anoaaee. O
o?aoueiio ?ic?aooieo iiaeaethaaeany i?oaeiuei-ieanoe/ia iiaaae?iea
caaio?aee. Ia ?en.4 i?eaaaeai? caeiie ci?ie ?aae?aeueiiai iai?oaeaiiy
ocaeiaae aioo??oiuei? iiaa?oi? ?iai/i? anoaaee, oiio ui naia ii aaee/ei?
iai?oaeaiiy (r ? aecia/athoueny iaea?eueo iaaacia/i?, c iiceoe??
i?oeiino?, ciie aioo??oiuei? iiaa?oi? ?iai/i? anoaaee. Aiae?c
?acoeueoao?a iieaco?, ui i?aeoe/ii ii on?e aeiaaeei? iao?eoe? cia/aiiy
?aae?aeueiiai iai?oaeaiiy, io?eiai? a o?aoueiio ?ic?aooieo,
ia?aaeuothoue cia/aiiy, io?eiai? a ia?oiio. Oea aiai?eoue i?i oa, ui
i?oaeia caaio?aea ia iiaea iiaiith i??ith iienaoe i?ioean aeaoi?ioaaiiy
i?e aeaeaaethaaii?. Ae?oaee ?ic?aooiie aeaiiino?o? eeoa iicaiaaeiee
?aaeei aieeao. Aiaeia?/i? ?ic?aooiee aoee i?iaaaeai? aeey iao?eoeue, ui
iathoue ??ciiiai?oi? eiio?ao?aoe?? aioo??oiuei? iiaa?oi? ?iai/eo onoaaie
(?en.5, ?en.6).

?en.6

Ia iniia? aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooie?a, i?iaaaeaieo aeey
??ciiiai?oieo eiio?ao?aoe?e ?iai/eo anoaaie iao?eoeue, aeieacaia
i?aaii??i?noue aeei?enoaiiy a iiaeaeueoeo ?ic?aooieao
i?oaeiuei-ieanoe/ii? iiaeae? caaio?aee, ui aeaoi?io?oueny. I?eeiyoa
iiaeaeue caaio?aee, o oaeiio aeaeyae? ia niioai?th? e?eoa??aeueio
ioe?ieo i?oeiino? iao?eoe?, ? a iiaeaeueoeo ?ic?aooieao iniiaio oaaao
iiaeia cina?aaeeoe ia aiae?c? aieeao eiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? ie?aieo
aeaiaio?a neeaaeiaeo aaiaeaaeiaaieo iao?eoeue, ia iiaithth/enue, ui
aeieeath/? aaeee? ieanoe/i? aeaoi?iaoe?? a caaio?aoe? cia/ii ci?iyoue
?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieo.

O o?ao?e /anoei? ?icae?eo aaoi?ii cae?enith?oueny aiae?c aieeao aaee/eie
iaoyao ? aei?noeino? aaiaeaaea ia IAeN aioo??oiuei? iiaa?oi? neeaaeiaeo
aaiaeaaeiaaieo iao?eoeue aeey oieiaeiiai aeaeaaethaaiiy. Ia ?en.7
cia?aaeaia ?ic?aooieiaa iiaeaeue iao?eoe?, ui ia? nooe?eueio ?iai/o
anoaaeo, o?aaeeoe?eii canoiniaoaaio aeey aeaioiaeaiiy noa?aeiueiaeo
aeaoaeae ?c eii?/ieie aeaiaioaie, ui iathoue iaeei aai aeae?eueea
ia?aoiae?a. ?ic?aooieiaa noaia neeaaea?oueny c caaio?aee 1, aei yei?
i?eeeaaeathoueny neee aeaoi?ioaaiiy ?aeao, ?iai/i? anoaaee 2, aaiaeaaeo
3 ? iaieie 4, aei yei? i?eeeaaeathoueny neee caoyaeee
“iao?eoeaaea?aeaoaey” ?cao. I?ae ?iai/ith anoaaeith ? aaiaeaaeai
oaiaeeoueny i?ioa?ie eiioaeoieo aeaiaio?a ia?oiai oeio(NEY 1-ai oeio),
ui aeicaieythoue i?iiiaeaethaaoe eiioaeoio aca?iiae?th ?c oa?oyi ca
caeiiii Eoeiia. I?ae ?iai/ith anoaaeith ? aaiaeaaeai oaiaeeoueny
i?ioa?ie eiioaeoieo aeaiaio?a ae?oaiai oeio (NEY 2-ai oeio), ui
aeicaiey? a?aooaaoe ii/aoeiaee iaoya, ui noai?th?oueny i?e cai?aniaoe?.
I?ae iaieiith ? aaiaeaaeai, oaiaeeoueny i?ioa?ie eiioaeoieo aeaiaio?a
o?aoueiai oeio (NEY 3-ai oeio), ui aeicaiey? i?iiiaeaethaaoe eiioaeoio
aca?iiae?th i?ae aeaiia iiaa?oiyie, ui aeieea? i?ae ae??th nee
caoyaoaaiiy, ui ae?thoue ia iaieio c aieo “iao?eoeaaea?aeaoaey”.

?en.8

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooieo na?ae/eoue, ui i?e ca?eueoai? ?ici??o
iaoyao a?aeaoaa?oueny ciaioaiiy ?aae?aeueieo iai?oaeaiue ia iiaa?oi?
?iai/i? anoaaee. Aeaiee aoaeo niinoa??aa?oueny a ciiao ia?aoei?a, ye?
iathoue ??ce? ia?aoiaee, ui i?aaenoaaeythoue niaith eiioeaio?aoi?e
iai?oaeaiiy (?en.8). Ia aeaaeeeo oeee?iae?e/ieo ae?eyieao anoaaee, aea
?aae?aeuei? iai?oaeaiiy, aeeeeeai? aeaoi?iaoe??th caaio?aee, iacia/i? ii
aaee/ei?, a?aeaoaa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy ?ici??o ?aae?aeueiiai iai?oaeaiiy
c? c?inoaiiyi aaee/eie iaoyao. I?ioa, iaea?eueo iaaacia/ieie ? ciie
ia?aiaaeo ia?aoeio, oiio aieiaia caaea/a iieyaa? a cieaeaii?
?aae?aeueieo iai?oaeaiue aaciina?aaeiuei a oeeo ciiao, ai naia
?aae?aeuei? iai?oaeaiiy ? iniiaiith neeaaeiaith ?ioaineaiino?
iai?oaeaiiy (i, ca yeei ? oi?io?oueny e?eoa??e i?oeiino?.

?en.10

Ia ?en.9 i?eaaaeaia caeaaei?noue ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiiy a?ae
aaee/eie iaoyao a iaea?eueo iaaacia/iiio ia?aoei? anoaaee (ciia A,
?en.2) i?e ??ciiiai?oi?e aei?noeino? aaiaeaaea.

A?aecia/eii, ui aaaaeaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai iaoyao i?ae aaiaeaaeai ?
?iai/ith anoaaeith, aeicaieythoue cieceoe aaee/eio ?ioaineaiino?
iai?oaeaiiy ia aioo??oi?e iiaa?oi? inoaiiuei? aei 20%. I?e oeueiio ca
?aoe?iiaeueia i?eionea?oueny cia/aiiy iaoyao, ui ?aaeueii iiaeia
?aae?coaaoe a eiino?oeoe??, ? i?e yeiio iai?oaeaiiy ia iiaa?oi? anoaaee
aoaeooue i?i?iaeuei?.

I?e cieaeaii? iiaeoey i?oaeiino? iaoa??aeo aaiaeaaea aei 0.8Aanoaaee
a?aeaoaa?oueny iii?oia ciaioaiiy iai?oaeaiue ia ?iai/?e iiaa?oi?
anoaaee, iniaenoi iii?oia i?e cia/aii? iaoyao a ?ioa?aae? (=0.9-1.0 ii.
C ianooiiei ca?eueoaiiyi iaoyao ?ioaineai?noue iai?oaeaiiy a cii?
eiioeaio?aoi?a i?aeoe/ii caeeoathoueny iaci?iieie, a o aa?oi?e
oeee?iae?e/i?e cii? ?iai/i? anoaaee a?aeaoaa?oueny ?oi? c?inoaiiy. I?e
caaaeuei?e oaiaeaioe?? cieaeaiiy ?aae?aeueiiai iai?oaeaiiy i?e ciaioaii?
aei?noeino? anoaaee, aieea aaee/eie iaoyao ye?nii caa??aa?oueny o
aecia/aieo iaaeao.

Aiae?coth/e caeii ?iciiae?eo ?aae?aeueieo iai?oaeaiue ocaeiaae
aioo??oiuei? iiaa?oi? ?iai/i? anoaaee iao?eoe?, iiaeia a?aecia/eoe, ui
aieea iaoyao ii ??ciiio aeyaey?oueny ii aeiaaeei? ?iai/i? iiaa?oi?. Oea
caeaaeeoue a?ae aaee/eie aei?noeino? anoaaee, ui o naith /a?ao yaii
caeaaeeoue a?ae oiaueie no?iee anoaaee. O ca’yceo c ??ciiiai?oiei eooii
eiioniino? aaiaeaaea ? aioo??oiuei? iiaa?oi? ?iai/i? anoaaee
a?aeaoaa?oueny ciaioaiiy oiaueie no?iee anoaaee o aa?oi?e cii? iao?eoe?,
ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy aei?noeino? anoaaee ? a?aeiia?aeii
ca?eueoaiiy aieea?a iaoyao. O ieaei?e aea /anoei? iao?eoe?,
a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ioeeaaeia yaeua: oiaueia no?iee ca?eueoo?oueny ?
a?aeiia?aeii ca?eueoo?oueny aei?noe?noue anoaaee, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ciaioaiiy aieeao iaoyao.

I?iaaaeai? ?ic?aooiee na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui i?e ca?eueoaii? aaee/eie
iaoyao a?aeaoaa?oueny ciaioaiiy ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiiy o iaaacia/ieo
ciiao aioo??oiuei? iiaa?oi? ?iai/i? anoaaee. Aieea iaoyao ?noioii
caeaaeeoue a?ae aaee/eie aei?noeino? anoaaee, ui yaii caeaaeeoue a?ae
oiaueie no?iee anoaaee. Oaeei /eiii, aaoi?ii aeia?a, ui aaaeaii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe eiino?oeoe?? iao?eoeue, o yeeo ? iaeiaeiaee iai?yiie
eiioniino? aaiaeaaea ? aioo??oiuei? iiaa?oi? ?iai/i? anoaaee. Oey
i?iiiceoe?y aeicaieeoue ae??aiyoe oiaueio no?iee anoaaee, ? a?aeiia?aeii
aei?noe?noue ii aeiaaeei? iao?eoe?. Oaeiae aeey noai?aiiy ? caaacia/aiiy
iaea?eueo ni?eyoeeaeo aenieoaoaoe?eieo oiia aaiaeaaeoaaiiy iaiao?aeii
c?iaeoe ?iai/o anoaaeo ?ic??ciith, ui aeicaieeoue ci?ieoe
aaciina?aaeiuei aaee/eio iaoyao ii aenio? iao?eoe?.

Ia ?en.11 i?eaaaeaia ne?i/aii-aeaiaioia iiaeaeue iao?eoe?, ui ia?
?ic??cio ?iai/o anoaaeo. O i?eaaaeai?e iiaeae? i?enooi? i?ioa?ee
eiioaeoieo aeaiaio?a i?aoethth/?, ye o aa?oeeaeueiiio iai?yieo(NEY 1-ai
oeio), oae ? aeaiaioe, i?aoethth/? a ai?eciioaeueiiio iai?yieo(NEY 2-ai
oeio). Ia ?en.12 i?eaaaeaia ea?oeia ?iciiae?eo ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiiy
a iao?eoe?, io?eiaia ca aeiiiiiaith i?ia?aiiiai eiiieaeno COCS_FEM. Ia
?en.10 i?eaaaeaii caeii ?iciiae?eo ?aae?aeueieo iai?oaeaiue a iaea?eueo
iaaacia/iiio ia?aoei? A-A i?e ??ciiiai?oieo cia/aiiyo iaoyao.

Iae.12

Iaeii/anii c? cieaeaiiyi ?aae?aeueieo iai?oaeaiue o ciiao
eiioeaio?aoe??, aaiaeaaeoaaiiy oaeiae aeicaiey? noai?eoe ni?eyoeea?
oiiae ?iaioe aeaoaeae, aeaioiaeaieo ?c oaa?aeinieaaiiai iaoa??aeo AE-15
(aeaiaioe ?iai/i? anoaaee). Aeaiee iaoa??ae ia? iaaeo i?oeiino? i?e
noeneo a 2 ?ace aeuo, /ei i?e ?icoyao, ? oiio i?e eiino?othaaii?
iao?eoeue, iaiao?aeii noai?thaaoe oiiae anaa?/iiai noeneo aeey anoaaee.
I?inoa cai?ia noaeaai? ?iai/i? anoaaee ia anoaaeo, aeaioiaeaio c
aenieii?oeiiai iaoa??aeo, ?iaeoue iao?eoeth a?eueo aei?iaith ? ia
i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy ?? i?aoeacaeaoiino? a aniaeo? i?oeiino?.

?nio? ua iaeei iaoiae ciaioaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy ia iao?eoeth, ui iieyaa? a
iiia?aaeiueiio iaa??aaii? caaio?aee, ui aeaoi?io?oueny. I?e iieoaa?y/iio
aeaeaaethaaii? noaeaao caaio?aeo, ye i?aaeei, iaa??aathoue aei
oaiia?aoo?e 250 — 300(N, ui c iaeiiai aieo i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy
?ioaineaiino? neeiaiai aieeao ia iao?eoeth, o ii??aiyii? c iaoiaeii
oieiaeiiai aeaeaaethaaiiy, a c ?ioiai aieo — aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue
o?aooaaiiy ae?? oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ia?a?iciiae?eo
iai?oaeaiiy o iaaacia/ieo ciiao ?iai/i? anoaaee.

?en.14

Ia ?en.13 i?eaaaeaia ne?i/aii-aeaiaioia iiaeaeue aaaaoioa?iai?
aaiaeaaeiaaii? iao?eoe?, canoiniaoaaii? i?e IAA. Ii ?ic?aooieia?e noai?
cae?enithaaee ?ic?aooiee, o yeeo e??i iaoai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy,
a?aoiaoaaeany oaiia?aoo?a iaa??aaiiy aioo??oiuei? iiaa?oi? ?iai/i?
anoaaee Oiaa?=300(N, ? oaiia?aoo?a ioieiaeaeaiiy Oioe=20(N ia ciai?oi?e
ae?eyioe? iaieie. Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooieo iieaco?, ui oaiia?aoo?a
iaa??aaiiy ia aea? cia/iiai aieeao ia cia/aiiy ?ioaineaiino?
iai?oaeaiiy. O oiae? ?ic?aooie?a oaeiae cae?enithaaany aiae?c aieeao
eooa eiioniino? aaiaeaaea ia IAeN aioo??oiuei? iiaa?oi? ?iai/i? anoaaee.

Ia ?en.14 i?eaaaeaia caeaaei?noue ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiiy, o iaea?eueo
iaaaioaaeai?e oi/oe? aioo??oiuei? iiaa?oi? iao?eoe?, a?ae eooa
eiioniino? ?iai/i? anoaaee. Aiae?coth/e io?eiai? ??oaiiy, iiaeia
a?aecia/eoe, ui iaee?aueie, c iiceoe?? i?oeiino? iao?eoe? ?
oaoiieia?/ii? oi/ee ci?o, ? ae?aiacii cia/aiiy eooa, ??aiee a?ae 1.0(
aei 2.0(.

I?iaaaeai? ?ic?aooiee iieacaee iiaio i?aoeacaeaoi?noue aeua caaaeoaaieo
iao?eoeue, oa aeicaieeee noi?ioethaaoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aeai?o
aaiiao?e/ieo ? o?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a eiino?oeoe?e, ye? i?eaiaeyoue aei
ciaioaiiy iaoa??aei?iiino? aac ao?aoe i?aoeacaeaoiino?.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe

1. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo e aiae?co iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai
noaio aeaiaio?a ooaiiiai? inianoee aeey oieiaeiiai ? iieoaa?y/iai
aeaeaaethaaiiy, yea aeicaieeea ?noioii i?aeaeueoe oi/i?noue ?ic?aooie?a.

2. Ia iniia? iaoiaeo ne?i/aieo aeaiaio?a noai?aiee i?ia?aiiee eiiieaen
COCS_FEM aeey ?ic?aooieo o aeaiaei??i?e iinoaiiaoe? ia?aiao??a IAeN
aeaiaio?a ooaiiiai? inianoee, noeeueieo oa?iineeiaiio iaaaioaaeaiith, c
o?aooaaiiyi i?oaeiuei-ieanoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o aeaoi?ioaaiiy ? eiioaeoii?
aca?iiae??. Aiae?c oanoiaeo i?eeeaae?a iieacaa iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy
noai?aiiai i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy aeey i?aeoe/ieo ?ic?aooie?a.

3. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy iaaaioaaeaiue, ui ae?thoue ia
?ino?oiaio i?e oieiaeiiio aeaeaaethaaii?, caniiaaia ia ni?eueiiio
?icaeyae? iao?eoe? ? caaio?aee, i?e aeaoi?ioaaii? inoaiiuei?.
Cai?iiiiiaaiee i?aeo?ae aeicaiey? ?icaeyaeaoe ?aaeuei? aaiiao?e/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee eiino?oeoe?e (aac aeiaeaoeiaeo ni?iuaiue) ? a?aooaaoe
eiioaeoio aca?iiae?th i?ae ?iai/ith anoaaeith iao?eoe? ? caaio?aeith, ui
aeaoi?io?oueny. Aecia/ai? eiioaeoi? oenee i?ae ?iai/ith anoaaeith
iao?eoe? ? caaio?aeith aeae? aeei?enoiaothoueny ye a?aie/i? oiiae i?e
aaciina?aaeiueiio ?ic?aooieo iao?eoeue.

4. I?iaaaeaii aiae?c aieeao aaee/eie iaoyao ? aei?noeino? aaiaeaaea aeey
neeaaeiai?, aaaaoioa?iai? iao?eoe?, c nooe?eueiith ?iai/ith anoaaeith,
canoiniaoaaii? aeey oieiaeiiai aeaeaaethaaiiy. Aeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ia
aea?? iioeiaeueii? aaee/eie iaoyao. I?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio aaaaoioa?iai? iao?eoe?, ui ia? neeaaeiao
?iai/o anoaaeo, ui iaa?oiooaaei iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy
oaa?aeinieaaiiai iaoa??aeo (AE15,AE20) aeey aeaioiaeaiiy aeniei
iaaaioaaeaieo aeaiaio?a ?iai/i? anoaaee.

5. Iaa?oioiaaii i?aoeacaeaoi?noue aaaaoioa?iai? iao?eoe?, canoiniaoaaii?
aeey iieoaa?y/iai aeaeaaethaaiiy. I?iaaaeaii aiae?c aieeao eooa
eiioniino? aaiaeaaea ia ?ioaineai?noue iai?oaeaiiy oi/ie aioo??oiuei?
iiaa?oi? iao?eoe?, ?acoeueoaoe yeiai ? aeicaieeee noi?ioethaaoe
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ia aea?? iioeiaeueieo eoo?a eiioniino? c iiceoe??
i?oeiino? ?iai/i? anoaaee.

6. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio e
aiae?co eiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? aeaiaio?a ooaiiiaiai onoaoeoaaiiy
canoiniaoaaeeny ia AeI “Caaiae ?i.Iaeeoaaa” i?e i?iaeooaaii? iiai?
eiino?oeoe?? aeaioa?iai? aaiaeaaeiaaii? iao?eoe?.

Ioaeeeaoe?? ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1. Aiiaea?ue N.A. Enneaaeiaaiea iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey
iao?eoe i?e oieiaeiii auaeaaeeaaiee. Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Iieeoaoie/aneiai Oieaa?neoaoa. ? 27. — Oa?ueeia: OAIO,
1998,-N. 183-188.

2. Aiiaea?ue N.A. Enneaaeiaaiea aeeyiey eiino?oeoeaiuo iniaaiiinoae ia
eiyooeoeeaio eiioeaio?aoeee iai?yaeaiee a iieina n aue?oaeeie. Aeeiaieea
e i?i/iinoue iaoei. ? 56. Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia OAIO. — Oa?ueeia:
OAIO, 1998,-N. 55-59.

3. Aiiaea?ue N.A., Coaaoue N.N., Eaaeineee Ae.A. Enneaaeiaaiea
eiioeaio?aoeee iai?yaeaiee a ioainiiao n eeeiiaeaeiie iinaaei/iie
/anoueth. Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Iieeoaoie/aneiai
Oieaa?neoaoa. ? 27.- Oa?ueeia: OAIO, 1998,-N. 188-193.

4. Aiiaea?ue N.A., Coaaoue N.N., Eaaeineee A.E. Eiioaeoiia
acaeiiaeaenoaea oi?oaeo oae n o/aoii ieanoe/aneeo aeaoi?iaoeee.
Eioi?iaoeey oaoiieiaee: iaoea, oaoieea, oaoiieiaey, ia?aciaaiea,
caei?iauea. Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia OAIO., Aui.6, Oa?ueeia: OAIO, 1998,
-N. 36-38;

5. Aiiaea?ue N.A. Aiaeec iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey
yeaiaioia ieineiai coa/aoiai aa?eaoi?a n o/aoii eiioaeoiiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey. Eioi?iaoeey oaoiieiaee: iaoea, oaoieea, oaoiieiaey,
ia?aciaaiea, caei?iauea (MicroCad-97), Oa?ueeia: OAIO, 1997, -N. 55-57.

6. Aiiaea?ue N.A., Coaaoue N.N., Eaaeineee A.E. Aaoiiaoecaoeey ?an/aoia
ia i?i/iinoue. Eioi?iaoeey oaoiieiaee: iaoea, oaoieea, oaoiieiaey,
ia?aciaaiea, caei?iauea (MicroCad-93), Oa?ueeia: OAIO, 1993,-N. 36-38.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a neeaaea?oueny a ianooiiiio:

O ?iaioao [1,3-6] aaoi? ?ic?iaey? aeai?eoi ??oaiiy caaea/?, cae?enith?
eiai i?ia?aiio ?aae?caoe?th, iaea?aeo? /enaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe ? aa?a
o/anoue o ?oiueiio ocaaaeueiaii?. O ?iaioao [3,5,6] aaoi? aa?a o/anoue o
?ic?iaoe? ?ic?aooieiaeo noai iniiaieo aeaiaio?a inianoee ooaiiiaiai
onoaoeoaaiiy, iaea?aeo? /enaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe, ii??aith? ?o c
aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie ? aa?a o/anoue o ?oiueiio ocaaaeueiaii?.

Aiioaoe?y

Aiiaea?ue N.A. ?ic?iaea iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo ? aeine?aeaeaiiy
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio aeaiaio?a ooaiiiai? inianoee aeey
oieiaeiiai ? iieoaa?y/iai aeaeaaethaaiiy. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy o/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.02.09 — aeeiai?ea ? i?oei?noue iaoei. — Oa?e?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1999.

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aiae?co iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai
noaio neeaaeiaeo aaiaeaaeiaaieo iao?eoeue aeey oieiaeiiai ? iieoaa?y/iai
aeaeaaethaaiiy. Ia i?aenoaa? iaoiaeo ne?i/aieo aeaiaio?a noai?aiee ?
iooanoiaai i?ia?aiiee eiiieaen aeey ?ica’ycaiiy oa?ii-i?oaeii-ieanoe/ii?
eiioaeoii? caaea/? a aeaiaei??i?e iinoaiiaoe?. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aeey
aeinoia??iiai caaaeaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue, i?e ye?e iaeii/anii aecia/athoue
IAeN, ye o caaio?aoe?, ui ieanoe/ii aeaoi?io?oueny, oae ? a ?ino?oiaio?
c o?aooaaiiyi ?oiueiai aca?iiiai aieeao iaeei ia iaeiiai. Aeaia
iaoiaeeea aeicaieeea a?aooaaoe ?aaeueio eiioaeoio aca?iiae?th i?ae
caaio?aeith ? iao?eoeath, c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae eiio?ao?aoe??
aioo??oiuei? iiaa?oi? ?iai/i? anoaaee, aac ?? ni?iuaiiy. I?iaaaeaii ?yae
?ic?aooie?a ??ciiiai?oieo oei?a aaaaoioa?iaeo aaiaeaaeiaaieo iao?eoeue
aeey oieiaeiiai ? iieoaa?y/iai aeaeaaethaaiiy, ? aeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii
aeai?o iioeiaeueieo iaoai?/ieo (aaee/eia iaoyao oa eoo eiioniino?
aaiaeaaea) oa o?ce/ieo (aei?noeinoue aaiaeaaea) ia?aiao??a eiino?oeoe??,
c iaoith ciaioaiiy ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiiy ia ?iai/?e iiaa?oi? ?iai/i?
anoaaee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaoiae ne?i/aieo aeaiaio?a, i?oei?noue, aei?noe?noue,
iaoya, ooaiiiaa inianoea, ioainii, neeaaeiaa aaiaeaaeiaaia iao?eoey,
?iai/a anoaaea.

Aiiioaoeey

Aiiaea?ue N.A. ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeia ?an/aoa e enneaaeiaaiey
iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey yeaiaioia ooaiiiaie inianoee
aeey oieiaeiiai e iieoai?y/aai auaeaaeeaaiey. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.02.09 – aeeiaieea e i?i/iinoue iaoei. —
Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue iieeoaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa iinayuaia aii?inai enneaaeiaaiey iai?yaeaiiiai
e aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey iniiaiuo yeaiaioia ooaiiiaie inianoee i?e
oieiaeiii e iieoai?y/ai auaeaaeeaaiee, n oeaeueth oi?ie?iaaiey
?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii oaaee/aieth noaoe/aneie i?i/iinoe auoa oeacaiiuo
yeaiaioia. A ?aaioa iienaia iinoaiiaea e?aaaie eiioaeoiie,
oa?ii-oi?oai-ieanoe/aneie caaea/e a aeaoia?iie iinoaiiaea. Iaoiae
?aoaiey iniiaai ia iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiii /eneaiiii iaoiaea — iaoiaea
eiia/iuo yeaiaioia. Aaaeaiea eiia/iuo yeaiaioia, iaaeaeaiiuo
niaoeeaeueiuie naienoaaie, iicaieeei a iaeiii eoa?aoeeiiiii i?ioeanna
o/anoue iaeeiaeiinoue, naycaiioth n iaeeiaeiui iiaaaeaieai iaoa?eaea
(i?e ?aoaiee caaea/e ieanoe/aneiai aeaoi?ie?iaaiey) e iaeeiaeiinoue,
naycaiioth n o/aoii eiioaeoiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey (a?aie/iua oneiaey a
iaeanoyo i?aaeiieaaaaiiai eiioaeoa caaeathony a aeaea ia?aaainoa). Ia
aaca ?ac?aaioaiiuo iaoiaeee nicaeaiu aeai?eoiu e i?ia?aiiiue eiiieaen
Nocs_FEM, iicaieythuee oi?ie?iaaoue ?an/aoiua noaiu yeaiaioia ooaiiiaie
inianoee, o/eouaathuea anth niaoeeoeeo i?iaeoe?oaiie eiino?oeoeee,
i?iaiaeeoue aaeaeaaoiue i?i/iinoiie aiaeec a oa?ii-oi?oai-ieanoe/aeie
iinoaiiaea n o/aoii eiioaeoiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey ?acee/iuo yeaiaioia
eiino?oeoeee, a oaeaea i?aaenoaaeyoue iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou a oaeiaiii
aeey aiaeeca aeaea.

N iiiiuueth eiiieaena Nocs_FEM i?iaaaeaii ?aoaiea oanoiauo i?eia?ia,
eioi?ua eiatho, eae aiaeeoe/aneia ?aoaiea, oae e ?aoaiu ae?oaeie
aaoi?aie. Oaeaea i?iaaaeaii n?aaiaiea ?acoeueoaoia ?an/aoa n
?acoeueoaoaie, iieo/aiiuie n iiiiuueth yenia?eiaioa, i?iaaaeaiiiai
iaoiaeii oioioi?oainoe ia ia?acoeao ec iioe/anee aeoeaiiai iaoa?eaea.
Iia?aoiinoue au/eneaiey ia i?aauneea 7%, /oi aiai?eo i aiciiaeiinoe
i?eiaiaiey nicaeaiiiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey aeey aeaeueiaeoeo
?an/aoia.

?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea ii?aaeaeaiey iaa?ocie, aeaenoaothueo ia iao?eoeo
ni noi?iiu caaioiaee, caeeth/athuayny a iaeiia?aiaiiii ii?aaeaeaiee
iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey a iao?eoea e ieanoe/anee
aeaoi?ie?oaiie caaioiaea. Oaeie iiaeoiae iicaieee /anoue eiioaeoiia
acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo caaioiaeie e eino?oiaioii, n o/aoii iniaaiiinoae
eiioeao?aoeee aioo?aiiae iiaa?oiinoe ?aai/ae anoaaee (aac aa oi?iuaiey).

I?iaaaeaiu enneaaeiaaiey iai?yaeaiii aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey
?acee/iuo oeiia iiiaineieiuo aaiaeaaee?iaaiiuo iao?eoe, i?eiaiyaiuo i?e
oieiaeiii e iieoai?y/ai auaeaaeeaaiee. Aeaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii auai?o
iioeiaeueiuo, n oi/ee c?aiey i?i/iinoe oi/ae aioo?aiiae iiaa?oiinoe
?aai/ae anoaaee, iaoaie/aneeo (aaee/eia iaoyaa e oaie eiioniinoe
aaiaeaaea) e oece/aneeo (aeanoeinoue aaiaeaaea) ia?aiao?ia eiino?oeoeee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaoiae eiia/iuo yeaiaioia, i?i/iinoue, aeanoeinoue,
iaoya, ooaiiiaay inianoea, ioainii, ninoaaiay aaiaeaaee?iaaiiay
iao?eoea, ?aai/ay anoaaea.

Summary

Bondar S.V. Stamp equipment elements for the cold and semi hot
extrusion strain-stress state calculation and investigation methods
elaboration. – Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidates degree by specialty 05.02.09 – dynamics and
strength of machine. – The Kharkov State Polytechnical Univercity,
Kharkov, 1999.

Method for the composed sleeve die for the cold and semi hot extrusion
strain-stress state analyses are developed. Program package for the 2-D
contact thermo-elasto-plastic problems solution is created by using
finite elements method. Problem of the die loading definition is
studied. Calculations and optimal design of the several die types is
done.

Key words: Finite elements method, strength, stiffness, interference,
stamp equipment, composed sleeve die.

I?aei. aei ae?oeo 12.01.99. Oi?iao 60*90/16. Iai?? ae?oe.

Oi. ae?oe. a?e. 0.83. Oe?aae 100. Cai 025

III “Nia?o”

Iaae?oeiaaii ia ?ecia?ao? III “Nia?o”.

310024, i.Oa?e?a, Iooe?inueea 79/1

PAGE 20

( — Aaeei E.A. Eiioaeoiua caaea/e oai?ee oi?oainoe. AEOOE, I., 1953.

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