EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?iai? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

Oaeaea ssi?ia Noai?neaa?aia

OAeE 330.83

?IC?IAEA ?AAAIII NEOOeUeEEI I?IAEAI AEIIII?*II? OAI???

08.01.04 – aeiiii?/ia ?noi??y oa ?noi??y aeiiii?/ii? aeoiee

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo
iaoe

EE?A – 1999 Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? oai?aoe/ii? oa i?eeeaaeii? aeiiii?ee
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

I?EIEAIEI TH??e Aaneeueiae/,

Aeaaeai?y ioi?oeeiaeueiiai oi?aae?iiy (i. Ee?a), caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
aeiiii?ee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

AIAe?IA Aieiaeeie? A?eai?iae/,

Oe?a?inueea Aeaaeai?y aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e aeiiii?ee oa o?iain?a

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

OAOA?AIEI Iaoae?y Ieaen??aia

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e iie?oe/ii? aeiiii??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e ?noi???
aeiiii?/ii? aeoiee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 24 /a?aiy 1999 ?ieo i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae26.001.13 Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: i. Ee?a, aoe. Aaneeuee?anueea, 90-a, aoae.
704.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: i. Ee?a, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58, e?i. 10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “24” o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

Eaiiaiei I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. I?aeoe/i? i?iaeaie, ye? iinoaee ia?aae no/aniith
aeiiii?/iith iaoeith, noeioeththoue ?icaeoie a Oe?a?i? ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
oa i?eeeaaeieo aeine?aeaeaiue. I?e oeueiio aieiaiei, ii?yae c?
caa?iaiiyi aei ?acoeueoao?a, io?eiaieo na?oiaith iaoeith, noaei
iiaa?iaiiy aei iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? niaaeueie ? inieneaiiy ?o
i?enoiniaii aei iaoi? ae?eniino?.

sse a?aeiii, a ia?o? aeanyoee?ooy OO no. a?o/eciyia aeiiii?/ia iaoea
c?iaeea na?eiciee aianie o ?icaeoie na?oiai? iaoeiai? aeoiee. Aoei
io?eiaii i?iia?nuee? ?acoeueoaoe, ui aecia/aee iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie
oe?eeo iai?yie?a. Aea, iaaeaeue, ie??i a?aeiii? i?aoe?
I.Ae.Eiiae?aoue?aa, yeee noaa ooiaeaoi?ii aeiiii?/ii? oai??? aeiaaeo
oaeeue, ui iaaoea ao?oeeaiai ?icaeoeo ia Caoiae? e io?eiaea aeineoue
oe?iea ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ca ?aaeyinueeeo /an?a, aoee oaeoe/ii caaoo?
aeiiii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaeaoieo ieneeoae?a ii/aoeo noie?ooy
(I.A.No?oaa, N.E.O?aiea, N.I.Aoeaaeiaa), ye? caa?aaeeny a e?/aieo
aecaiiey?ao, a oaeiae iacaneoaeaii caaoo? ? ?ic?iaee
aeiiii?no?a-i?ioan?iiae?a (?.?.Neooeueeiai, A.E.Aeieo???aa,
I.I.Oaiioi?eiaa, A.N.Aieoeinueeiai, I.Ae.A?e?iiae/a oa ?ioeo), ui
acaaae? i?eaaei aei iani?iiiaeiino? na?eiciiai aea/aiiy aeiiii?/ii?
oai??? o aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao, aea aeeeaaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii? iaoee
(iie?oe/ii? aeiiii??) oaeoe/ii aoei caaaeaii aei oooae?thaaiiy
“Eai?oaeo” E.Ia?ena. I?ae ae??th ?aeaieia?caoe?? iaoee ?icaeoie
a?o/eciyieo iaoeiaeo oe?e a aeiiii?oe? aoei i?aeoe/ii c?oeiiaaii, a
iaoii?noue iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aoai?eeeny a noioanoe/iee i?ioean
i?aeaioiaee ca?o?a.

I?iaeaia aea/aiiy iiaaae?iee niiaeeaa/?a iinoaea ?acii c? neanoaaiiyi
iaioth/eo a e?a?i? aei iaaeaaiueiai /ano eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaieo
iaoiae?a, ye? ii?aeioaaeeny c aeei?enoaiiyi nenoaie oe?iiooai?aiiy,
anoaiiaeaiiy ??aiy ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oe?i ??ciiiai?oieo oiaa??a, ui
noaei i?e/eiith no?eeiai o?ii?/iiai aeao?oeeoo. Ia?ao?ae aei ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei iaoiiaea iaiao?aei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueii?
iiaaae?iee niiaeeaa/a, iaiaaeaiiai nai?ie ?ano?naie. I?e ??cieo
oeoia/aiiyo (i?eioeei “aai?cio” o eeanee?a iie?oe/ii? aeiiii??,
“aaaeii?cio” o i?aaenoaaiee?a ia?aeeiae?cio) i?eioeei iioei?caoe??
ei?eniino? – aeinyaiaiiy iaeneiaeueiiai aoaeoo c iaeiaioeie aeo?aoaie –
ye i?eioeei, ui i?eoaiaiiee nai?e i?e?iae? “aeiiii?/ii? ethaeeie”,
caeeoa?oueny o na?oia?e aeiiii?/i?e iaooe? iniiaiei a?aei?aaiei
iiiaioii, ui aecia/a? anth ainiiaea?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue ethaenoaa,
caaaeyee ia?aoai?aiith iio?aa o ieaoini?iiiaeiee iiieo.

I?aoe? oe?a?inueeeo aeiiii?no?a e?ioey O?O – ii/aoeo OO no., ui
ae??ciyeeny aaaaoiieaiia?noth ci?noo, nai?i nioe?aeueiei oa
o?einionueeei eiioaenoii, iaoiaeieia??th, i?aaenoaaeythoue oe?ii?noue ?
aeey no/anieo iaoeiaoe?a, ye? caeiathoueny ooiaeaiaioaeueieie ?
i?eeeaaeieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie i?iaeai aeiiii?ee.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeaii? ?iaioe iaoiiaeaia:

– a?aenooi?noth nenoaiaoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue niaaeueie oe?a?inueeiai
aeiiii?noa ?aaaia Neooeueeiai a ?one? aaiethoe?? na?oiai? aeiiii?/ii?
iaoee;

– iaaeinoaoiueith ?ic?iaeai?noth i?iaeaiaoeee ?aoe?iiaeueii? iiaaae?iee
niiaeeaa/?a c o?aooaaiiyi ?aeae ?.Neooeueeiai o a?o/eciyi?e e?oa?aoo??,
a ?acii c oeei ? a?aenooi?noth ?aeeii? eiioeaioe?? oa oai?aoe/ieo
?ic?iaie c iinoaaeaii? i?iaeaie;

– aeayeith iaeiiaie?noth iiaeaiiy eiai niaaeueie a Oe?a?i? ia?aaaaeii a
?aeo?n? ?noi??? aeiiii?/ieo a/aiue, iaaia oieeiaiiy i?e?iaeiiii?/iiai
i?aeoiaeo, a ioaea e iiaeeeainoae aena?oeaiiy aeayeeo ieoaiue no/anii?
aeiiii?/ii? oai???.

Nooi?iue ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. ?noioia cia/aiiy ?ie? oa i?noey aeiiii?/ieo
i?aoeue oe?a?inueeiai a/aiiai ?aaaia Neooeueeiai coiiaeee iino?eio oaaao
aeine?aeiee?a aei ?o oaiaoeee. Ia?o? oae? ni?iae oai?aoe/iiai inieneaiiy
i?iaeai, i?aeiyoeo a/aiei a noaoo? “Neeaaeaiiy aeiaaeeiaeo i?e/ei, ye
aeaea?aei oeeee?/ieo eieeaaiue” (1927 ?.) aoee c?iaeai? ua
I.Eiiae?aoue?aei a ?icae?e? “Noioanoe/iee aiae?c /aniaiai ?yaeo ?
aecia/aiiy oi?ie o?aiaeo” o /an eiai ia?aaoaaiiy a iie?o?cieyoi?? o
Nocaeae?. Aea noaooy “Aei oai??? caaeainiaaiiai athaeaeaoo niiaeeaa/a”
(1915 ?.), yea naia e caii/aoeoaaea ye?nii iiaee aoai o ?icaeoeo oai???
iiieoo, oae ? caeeoeeany iica oaaaith iaoeiaoe?a aae iiee i?iaeaie, ui
aoee a i?e i?aeiyo?, ia “ia?aa?aee?ea” o i?aoe? “Aa?o?noue ? eai?oae”
(1938 ?.) a?aeiiee cao?aeiee a/aiee Aeae.O?en, yeee ? c?iaea aaaiiee
aianie o aeine?aeaeaiiy oai??? niiaeeaa/a, i?aee?aneeaoe, ui aeeeaaeaia
iei oai??y “iaeaaeeoue, ii noo?, Neooeueeiio” (Aeae.O?en).

A eieeoiueiio N?N? ia o?eueee ?i’y Neooeueeiai, aea e eiei ieoaiue,
yeiai a?i oi?eaany, aoei a?aeiia o?eueee aeineoue iacia/i?e e?eueeino?
iaoeiaoe?a, a aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai ?aoe?iiaeueii? iiaaae?iee acaaae?
i?aeoe/ii ia i?iaiaeeeeny. Nai???aeiei aeeeth/aiiyi iiaeia aaaaeaoe ?iee
oae caaii? “a?aeeeae”, eiee noaooth “Aei oai??? caaeainiaaiiai
athaeaeaoo niiaeeaa/a” aoei ia?aeeaaeaii ia ?in?enueeo ? iaae?oeiaaii (a
ca??oe? “Yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneea iaoiaeu” (1963 ?.)) ?acii ?c
“Eiiaioa?yie…” A.Eiithna oa A.Aieeiinueeiai, aea ?aea? Neooeueeiai aoee
eeoa a?aeia?aaeai? a a?eueo eiiiaeoi?e iao?e/i?e oi?i?. Caiaeii a na?o
aeeoea ? niaoe?ae?ciaaia ca??ea “Noaoenoe/ia aea/aiiy iiieoo e
i?iiiceoe??” (1966 ?.), aea oai?aoe/i? ieoaiiy oe?i oa niiaeeaaiiy,
?icaeioo? Neooeueeei, aoei iiaeaii c iiceoe?e o?oaeiai? oai??? aa?oino?.

Eeoa c ii/aoeii ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue a e?a?iao eieeoiueiai Nithco
caoe?eaaeeeny i?iaeaiaoeeith oai??? iiaaae?iee niiaeeaa/a, ? cie?aia
iaoeiaith niaaeueiith ?aaaia Neooeueeiai. Iaai? aeinyaiaiiy a aeaiiio
iai?yieo iiaeia i?ine?aeeoaaoe a ?in??, aea na?aae a/aieo, ui caeiaeeny
aea/aiiyi aeiiii?/iiai aei?iaeo Neooeueeiai, aa?oi aeae?eeoe I.Oooiaa,
I.O?aeaee?ia, I.Oaaei?aiea (a aniaeo? aeiiii?/ii? aeoiee), E.Eiceiao,
?.Aioiaa, N.Aaeueia??ia, N.?aiaoue?aa, A.Ii?aoiiaa oa ?ioeo (a
i?e?iaeiiii?/iiio aniaeo?).

Iii?ae no/anieo a?o/eciyieo aeine?aeiee?a a ia?oo /a?ao iaiao?aeii
a?aecia/eoe E.Ai?e?io, N.Ceoiea, A.Ei?o?eyia, ye? ai?eooe caeiathoueny
aea/aiiyi aeiiii?/ii? niaaeueie Neooeueeiai. Ia?aoo? a 1998 ?ioe? a na?o
aeeoea o?anoiiao?y ?ia?o oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo (“Oe?a?inueea aeiiii?/ia
aeoiea: o?anoiiao?y”, iaoe. ?aae. N.Ceoiei), aea, ?acii ?c ?ioeie
iai’yoeaie a?o/eciyii? aeiiii?/ii? aeoiee, aoee iioae?eiaai? i?aoe?
?aaaia Neooeueeiai, ye? oa?eoee o nea?aieoeth na?oiai? aeiiii?/ii?
iaoee.

Iaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy aca?iiae?? i?ae aeiiii?/iith aeoieith Oe?a?ie
ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy ? na?oiaith iaoeith iinyoue iiee ui ?ic??ciaiee ?
iaoai?noe/iee oa?aeoa?. ?ic?iaee, ui aaaeooueny a oeueiio iai?yieo ?
a?eueoa ia?eniaeie ai?ae ooiaeaiaioaeueieie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ui i?iaiaeeeeny ca?aeii ieaio aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, aeeiiai? o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c oaiaoeeith iaoeiai? ?iaioe oa iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai, ye?
?ic?iaeai? eieaeoeaii eaoaae?e oai?aoe/ii? oa i?eeeaaeii? aeiiii?ee
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, aea aeeiioaaeany ?iaioa.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? o
aea/aii? aeiiii?/iiai aei?iaeo ?.Neooeueeiai a eiai aaiethoe?eiiio
?icaeoeo, o neioac? i?e?iaeiiii?/iiai i?aeoiaeo ? ia?iaie aeine?aeiee?a
c ?noi??? aeiiii?/ii? aeoiee, o aeyaeaii? cia/aiiy niaaeueie oeueiai
a?aeiiiai a/aiiai aeey no/anii? iaoee oa aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.

Iinoaaeaia iaoa aecia/eea oae? caaaeaiiy:

i?ine?aeeoaaoe aaiacen oi?ioaaiiy oai??? iiaaae?iee niiaeeaa/?a ?
aeyaeoe aianie oe?a?inueeiai aeiiii?noa ? noaoenoeea a ?? noaiiaeaiiy;

?ice?eoe i?ioean aeine?aeaeaiiy oai??? iiaaae?iee niiaeeaa/?a,
iia’ycaiee c ?i’yi ?aaaia Neooeueeiai, a aeiiii?/ieo ?ic?iaeao,
ii/eiath/e c aeoiaeo a na?o i?aoe? a/aiiai “Aei oai??? caaeainiaaiiai
athaeaeaoo niiaeeaa/a” ? ioe?ieoe ?aaeueio oai?aoe/io ? i?aeoe/io
cia/ei?noue niaaeueie oe?a?inueeiai a/aiiai;

aecia/eoe iniiai? iai?yiee a ?ic?iaoe? oai??? iiaaae?iee niiaeeaa/?a a
cao?aei?e no/ani?e aeiiii?/i?e iaooe? ? a aeiiii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo
a?o/eciyieo a/aieo ?aaeyinueeiai ? i?ney ?aaeyinueeiai ia??iae?a oa
aeyaeoe niaoeeo?eo a?aooaaiiy niaaeueie ?aaaia Neooeueeiai a oeeo
aeiiii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo;

ocaaaeueithth/e a?o/eciyiee aeina?ae, a?aoiaoth/e ca?oa?aeio i?aeoeeo ?
noaoenoe/i? iaoiaee, iieacaoe caaaeueio eiioeaioe?th iaoiae?a
i?e?iaeiiii?/iiai aiae?co, ?ic?iaeaieo ?.Neooeueeei;

ia??oiooaaoe ?ieue ? cia/aiiy aeiiii?/ieo ?ia?o ?.Neooeueeiai o
oi?ioaaii? iaoeiaiai i?aeoiaeo aei aiae?co i?iaeai oai??? iiieoo,
?aoe?iiaeueii? iiaaae?iee niiaeeaa/?a, a oaeiae i?e ae??oaii? i?iaeai
aeiiii?/ii? oeeee?/iino?.

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noaea iaoeiaa niaaeueia
oe?a?inueeiai aeiiii?noa ?aaaia Neooeueeiai ( aieiaia oaaaa i?eae?eaia
oaeei i?aoeyi a/aiiai, ye: “Aei oai??? caaeainiaaiiai athaeaeaoo
niiaeeaa/a”, “Aothae aei i?iaeaie aoaeoaaiiy oi?iaeueii-i?aenaieia?/ieo
canaae aeiiii?ee”, “Neeaaeaiiy aeiaaeeiaeo i?e/ei, ye aeaea?aei
oeeee?/ieo i?ioean?a”) oa niaoe?ae?ciaaia aeiiii?/ia e?oa?aoo?a
50-o-90-o ?ie?a, a oiio /ene? e oe?a?inueea, yea oi?eaeany i?iaeaiaoeee
iiieoo, yeee oi?io?oueny ia iniia? ??oaiue, ui i?eeiathoue ?iaeea?aee,
iieeaaeath/enue ia nai? iio?aae e iaiaaeaiee athaeaeao, a, ioaea, e
oai??y ?aoe?iiaeueii? iiaaae?iee niiaeeaa/?a, iniiaith yei? ?
iaenei?caoe?y ei?eniino? niiaeea/iai eioeeo. E??i oiai – i?aoe?,
iiiia?ao?? ? noaoo? i?ia?aeieo oe?a?inueeeo oa ca?oa?aeieo aeiiii?no?a
O?O – ii/aoeo OO no., a oaeiae ie?ai? ?iaioe aeiiii?no?a oe?a?inueei?
ae?anii?e (?.Ei?iiaoeueeiai).

Oai?aoe/iith oa iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy noaei aea/aiiy ? oai?/a ia?ainieneaiiy aeinyaiaiue
a?o/eciyii? oa ca?oa?aeii? aeiiii?/ii? aeoiee c i?iaeai iiaaae?iee
niiaeeaa/?a. I?e ae??oaii? iinoaaeaieo i?iaeai, ?acii ?c iaoiaeaie
aiae?co ? neioaco, oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaeeny aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/i? oa
aeiiii?ei-noaoenoe/i? iaoiaee. Iaoiaeieia?y oa iaoiaeeea aeena?oaoe??
aaco?oueny ia ?noi?eei-aaiethoe?eiiio ? neioaoe/iiio inieneaii?
iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo oai??? iiieoo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

A aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa c?iaeaia ni?iaa aeaoe eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeiiii?/ieo ?ic?iaie oe?a?inueeiai aeiiii?noa ?aaaia Neooeueeiai,
cie?aia eiai aianie a oai??th iiieoo, aeyaeoe ?noi?e/iee aaiacen ?
?aaeueio cia/ei?noue aeaii? oai??? oa iiaeeeaino? ?? canoinoaaiiy a
Oe?a?i? a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a a ?ic?iaeo i?iaeaie iieyaa? o ianooiiiio:

iieacaii, ui aaiacen oai??? iiieoo aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaiee c
?icaeoeii ia?aeeiae?nonueei? eiioeaioe?? (ii/eiath/e c e?ioey O?O no.),
aaiethoe??th oai??? ei?eniino? oa ni?iaaie ?? ia’?eoea?caoe??;

aeyaeaii, ui oai??y ?aoe?iiaeueii? iiaaae?iee niiaeeaa/?a nai?ie
ei?aiyie aoiaeeoue a i?aeeiae?nonueeo eiioeaioe?th, a ?ic?iaeo yei?,
nie?ath/enue ia ?aea? A.Ia?aoi, cia/iee aianie c?iaea oe?a?inueeee
aeiiii?no ? noaoenoee ?.Neooeueeee;

aecia/aii, ui aeniiaee ?aaaia Neooeueeiai uiaei iiaea?eiiai aieeao ci?ie
oe?ie, oaiaeaioe?e o ni?aa?aeiioaii? aoaeoo aeioiaeo oa aoaeoo
cai?uaiiy, ia??oiooaaiiy iaiao?aeiino? ia’?eoea?caoe?? eaoaai???
ei?eniino?, aeniiaee i?i iaiao?aei?noue a?aooaaiiy athaeaeaoo ?iaeea?aea
i?e oi?ioaaii? niiaeea/iai eioeeo – i?aeianee eiai ?ic?iaee aei
na?oiaiai ??aiy, caii/aoeoaaaoe iiaa a?aeaaeoaeaiiy aeiiiiao?eee;

iieacaii iai?yiee ?icaeoeo ? aaiethoe?th ?aeae Neooeueeiai a cao?aei?e
aeiiii?/i?e iaooe?, a oaeiae a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? ?aaeyinueeeo /an?a;

ia i?eeeaae? ?icaeoeo io?oe?eii? ?aaeyinueei? oai??? ? i?aeoeee, ?o
?aeaieia?/ii? iniiae (o?oaeiai? oai??? aa?oino?) iieacaii, ui
aeiaiaoecaoe?y iii?noe/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei ae??oaiiy oai?aoe/ieo i?iaeai
aac a?aooaaiiy aeaniiai ? na?oiaiai aeina?aeo, c?aooith aaaea aei ao?ao
a nai?e oai???, ye oea a?aeaoeiny c aeine?aeaeaiiyie a aaeoc?
?aoe?iiaeueii? iiaaae?iee niiaeeaa/?a;

?ice?eo? a?aei?iiino? a i?aeoiaeao Aeae.O?ena ? ?.Neooeueeiai a
o?aeooaaii? ?aaeueiiai aeioiaeo, a oaeiae iieacai? ia?aaaae i?aeoiaeo
inoaiiueiai, yeee aaco?oueny ia aii??e/ieo aeaieo ? aea? ciiao ia/eneeoe
niiaeea/ee iaa?? i?e canoinoaaii? noaoenoe/ieo ?iaeaen?a, ui e i?eaaei
aei iiaeeeaino? i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy ?aeae oe?a?inueeiai a/aiiai.

Iaoeiaa oa i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a
oiio, ui c?iaeai? a ?iaio? oai?aoe/i? oa i?aeoe/i? aeniiaee
aeicaieythoue neeanoe aeineoue oe?e?nio ea?oeio aaiethoe?? oai???
iiieoo, aecia/eoe i?noea aei?iaeo ?.Neooeueeiai, i?ine?aeeoaaoe
oi?ioaaiiy aeueoa?iaoeaieo, cie?aia ?aaeyinueeiai, i?aeoiae?a aei
?ic?iaee oai??? iiaaae?iee niiaeeaa/?a, iiaeeaeoe no/aniee
?noi?eei-aeiiii?/iee aiae?c i?iaeai iioei?caoe?? ei?eniino? niiaeea/iai
eioeeo i?e iaaiiio ??ai? aeioiaeo.

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e /eoaii?
eo?n?a “Iniiae aeiiii?/ii? oai???” oa “I?e?iaeiiii?ea” a Ee?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Aeaaeai?? ioi?oeeiaeueiiai
oi?aae?iiy oa Aeaaeai?? i?aoe? ? nioe?aeueieo a?aeiinei.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ?
i?aenoiee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeeny ia o?aoueiio
i?aeia?iaeiiio eii??an? Anioe?aoe?? oe?a?inueeeo aeiiii?no?a (IOAA)
“No?oeoo?i? ci?ie oa ?iaanoeoe?ei? i?iaeaie oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee”
(o?aaaiue 1996?., i. Oa?e?a), ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaai? aeiiii?/i? ?ioa?ane: ?noi??y,
iaoiaeieia?y ? oai??y aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoai?ci ?aae?caoe??” (10-11
aeiaoiy 1996?., i. Ee?a), Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e nooaeaionuee?e
eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?/ieo nenoai oa noaiiaeaiiy
?eieiaiai ainiiaea?noaa a Oe?a?i?” (a?oaeaiue 1996?., i. Ee?a), a oaeiae
iaiaeii?aciai iaaiai?thaaeeny ia iaoiaeieia?/ieo nai?ia?ao ani??aio?a
aeiiii?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo (eenoiiaae 1996?., ea?oaiue 1997?.) oa
oaiaoe/ieo can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e oai?aoe/ii? oa i?eeeaaeii? aeiiii?ee
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii o 5
iaoeiaeo ?iaioao caaaeueiei ianyaii 3,1 ae?oeiaaieo a?eooa.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c?
anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae c 147
iaeiaioaaiue, aeeeaaeaia ia 163 noi??ieao, i?noeoue 13 ?enoie?a.

Caaaeueiee caaeoi ? eia?ea aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/eee a?aeiia?aeio
no?oeoo?o ? ci?no ?iaioe, ui a?aeiia?aea? oe?eueia?e ni?yiiaaiino? oa
aecia/aiei caaaeaiiyi. No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe:

Anooi

?icae?e 1. ?.Neooeueeee: noa?a oa iniiai? iai?yiee iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue

1. 1. Oiiae oi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo iiaeyae?a oa iaoeiaa niaaeueia

1.2. Aiae?c ?.Neooeueeei noioanoe/ieo (aeiaaeeiaeo) i?ioean?a ye iiaa
a?aeaaeoaeaiiy aeiiiiao?eee

?icae?e 2. Oi?ioaaiiy iaoeiaeo canaae aeine?aeaeaiiy oai??? iiieoo oa
?aoe?iiaeueii? iiaaae?iee niiaeeaa/a

2.1. Oai??y ei?eniino? oa ?? oi?iae?caoe?y ?aaaiii Neooeueeei

2.2. ?ic?iaea oai??? iiaaae?iee niiaeeaa/a

2.3. Aeiiiiao?e/ia a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?aeae ?.Neooeueeiai

?icae?e 3. Aieea ?aeae ?aaaia Neooeueeiai ia ?icaeoie na?oiai?
aeiiii?/ii? iaoee

Aeniiaee

Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae

INIIAIEE CI?NO

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe i?aaenoaaeai? iniiai? iai?yiee
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a?aeiiiai oe?a?inueeiai aeiiii?noa, noaoenoeea,
anana?oiuei aeciaiiai i?aaenoaaieea Ee?anueei? iie?oaeiiii?/ii? oeiee
?aaaia Neooeueeiai (1880-1948), oiiae, ca yeeo a?aeaoaaeiny eiai
noaiiaeaiiy, a oaeiae ?aea? ? iiaeyaee, ui aieeioee ia oi?ioaaiiy
a/aiiai.

Io?eiaaoe aeiooaia nooae?thaaiiy a I?ia//ei? (1902-1905??.), ?aaai
Neooeueeee cae?i/ea th?eaee/iee oaeoeueoao Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo 17
a?oaeiy 1910 ?ieo. Aei oeueiai /ano aecia/eany e iniiaiee iai?yiie
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue iaeaooiueiai a/aiiai, ia yeiai iaaaeyea
a?aaeaiiy ni?aaeee ?aea? noa’?eoeaii? oeiee, aieea yei? (a oiio /ene? ??
iaoaiaoe/iiai iai?yieo) ??cei iineeeany a e?ioe? O?O no. A
nooaeaionuee?e ?iaio? “Oai??y a?aie/ii? ei?eniino?” (iioae?eiaaia
/anoeiai), ui aoea oaeinoi?ia a 1910 ?. oi?aa?neoaonueei? cieioi?
iaaeae?, a?i ie?aneea eiei aeanieo iaoeiaeo ?ioa?an?a, i?aaenoaaeaoe
iaoaiaoe/io ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th oai??? a?aie/ii? ei?eniino?. Oaia ?iaioe ia
aoea aeiaaeeiaith: aiia oe?eeii a?aeiia?aeaea iaoeia?e iai?aaeaiino?
aoco.

Naia o Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? oiai /ano, ii??aiyii c ?ioeie o/aiaeie
caeeaaeaie ?in?enueei? ?iia???, ia?aeeiae?nonueea ?aeay caeiaoea
iaea?eueo yne?aaiai iaiiaiaiiy, i?i ui na?ae/aoue ? ?iaioe oaeeo
a?aeiieo aeiiii?no?a ye: Ieeiee Aoiaa, Ieeiee C?aa?a, Aeieo?a I?oia,
Ieaenaiae?a A?e?iiae/a oa ?ioeo,- ye? ca ??cieo /an?a aeeeaaeaee a
oi?aa?neoao?. Ia?aeeiae?nonueea i???ioaoe?y iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie
aeeeaaea/?a ? aeioneiee?a oeueiai aoco caeeaea ? iniiaiee iai?yiie
oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaeii?iaiii? oeiee, aieiaia iniaeea?noue yei?
iieyaaea o oe?ieiio aeei?enoaii? aeiiii?ei-noaoenoe/ieo iaoiae?a.

Aea iai?aaeai?noue iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue Neooeueeiai uiaei iiaeeeaino?
canoinoaaiiy iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoiae?a a aeiiii?/i?e iaooe?, yea oe?eeii
a?aeiia?aeaea iai?aaeaiino? iaoeiai? ?iaioe aoco, ia noaea a iaaiae?:
?c-ca ?aiooaoe?? ?aaiethoe?eii-iano?i?iiai nooaeaioa ?aaaia Neooeueeiai
i?e oi?aa?neoao? ia caeeoeee.

Aei oeueiai /ano, a naia aei 1911-1912 ?ie?a, iaeaaeeoue na?ae/aiiy i?i
ia?oa ciaeiinoai Neooeueeiai c oai?aoe/iith noaoenoeeith, iiooiaoii aei
yeiai noaea iaae?oeiaaia oiae? eieaa A.A.Eaiioiae/a “Aeaiaioa?iee
iin?aiee aei canoinoaaiiy iaoiae?a Gauss’a e Pearson’a i?e ioe?ioe?
iiieeie o noaoenoeoe? oa a?ieia??” (Ee?a, 1911 ?.). Aaea /a?ac ??e
iiaa/eea na?o e eieaa naiiai ?.Neooeueeiai (“Oai??y ei?aeyoe?? e
aeaiaioe a/aiiy i?i e?ea? ?iciiae?eo”), yea oi?eaeany naia oeeo ieoaiue.
A iaio ai?ae /a?ac aeaa ?iee a “AEo?iae? Ei?ie?anueeiai noaoenoe/iiai
noni?euenoaa” (Eiiaeii) c’yaeeany noaooy Neooeueeiai i?i nooi?iue
a?aeiia?aeiino? e?i?? ?aa?an?? aii??e/iei aeaiei, ui i?noeea e?eoeeo
a?aeiia?aeieo iiaoaeia aiae?enueeeo noaoenoee?a.

A?aaeaiiy, ui ni?aaeea eieaa A.A.Eaiioiae/a, iicia/eeiny ? ia
iiaeaeueoeo ?ic?iaeao ?.?.Neooeueeiai a iai?yieo aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e?iaee
aeiiii?/ii? oeeee?/iino?. Neooeueeiai, yeiai a 1926 ?ioe? cai?inea aei
ni?ai?aoe? aeaeaoiee ?in?enueeee aeiiii?no, o/aiue
I.Ooaai-Aa?aiianueeiai, I.Eiiae?aoue?a, caoe?eaaeea i?iaeaia iiooeo
aeaea?aea aeieeiaiiy oeeee?a a aeiiii?oe?. A noaoo? “Neeaaeaiiy
aeiaaeeiaeo i?e/ei, ye aeaea?aei oeeee?/ieo i?ioean?a” (iioae?eiaaia o
1927 ?ioe?) i?e/eio eieeaaiue aeiiii?/ii? eii’thieoo?e ia?oee ii/aa
ooeaoe ia a oaeoi?ao, ui aieeaathoue ia ae?eiao aeoeai?noue, a a
aeiaaeeiaeo i?ioeanao, iaeiie/aiiy yeeo, ia eiai aeoieo, ? aeeeeea?
ci?io oac oeeeeo. Oe?eaai, ui aeei?enoiaoth/e noaoenoe/iee iaoa??ae,
c?a?aiee /anoeiai naia Ooaai-Aa?aiianueeei, Neooeueeee ocaaaeueiea
oai??th aeiiii?/ieo eii’thieoo? ? noai?ea a/aiiy i?i oeeee?/i?
eieeaaiiy, ui aeeeeeai? ae??th noioanoe/ieo i?e/ei.

Canoinoaaaoe iaoiae iiaeaeae, ui iieyaa? a ooo/iiio a?aeoai?aii? ?yae?a,
noiaeeo c ?aaeueieie niinoa?aaeaiiyie, a noaoo? “Neeaaeaiiy aeiaaeeiaeo
i?e/ei…” a/aiee io?eiaa oaee? aeayeei iaaiei niiniaii neeaaeaiiy
aeiaaeeiaeo eieeaaiue, iacaeaaeieo iaei? a?ae iaeieo. Aea/aiiy
noaoe?iia?ii ca’ycieo ?yae?a aeiaaeeiaeo aaee/ei i?eaaei Neooeueeiai aei
?icoi?iiy, ui i?ae i?ioeanaie nooo?ai aeiaaeeiaeie, a yeeo ca’ycee i?ae
/eaiaie ciaioothoueny ?c c?inoaiiyi a?aenoai? a /an?, ?nio? aeecueea
nii??aeiai?noue ? eiia??i?noue aacia?a?aiiai ia?aoiaeo a?ae i?ioean?a
iaeiiai ?iaeo aei i?ioean?a ?ioiai ?iaeo. A i?aeoe/ii oea i?eaaei aei
oiai, ui aeoaea aaaaoi i?ioean?a, a yeeo aoei i?eeiyoi ?icaeyaeaoe
iayai?noue ia??iaee/ieo eiiiiiaio, iiaeooue aooe iiyniai? ye
“oeeee?/i?”, aea ii noo? nai?e aeiaaeeia?.

A?aee?eooy, c?iaeaia iei a 1927 ?ioe?, iieyaa? a oiio, ui a?i iia’ycaa
oaeeueiiiae?ai? eieeaaiiy aeiiii?/ii? eii’thieoo?e c aeiaaeeiaeie
eieeaaiiyie e iieacaa, ye ia?o? iiaeooue aooe ii?iaeaeai? ae?oaeie. Naia
oey noaooy caii/aoeoaaea iiaee iai?yiie aeiiiiao?e/eo aeine?aeaeaiue.
Cie?aia, Neooeueeee aaaaea?oueny iaeiei ?c oai?oe?a no/anii? oai???
aeiaaeeiaeo ooieoe?e.

Ianooiiei e?ieii ?aaaia Neooeueeiai a iai?yieo aea/aiiy aeiiii?/ii?
aeoiee (ca na?ae/aiiyie no/aniee?a caoiieaiiy iie?oe/iith aeiiii??th
a/aiee ?icii/aa ?c aea/aiiy i?aoeue Ae.??ea?aei ? “Eai?oaeo” E.Ia?ena)
noaa ia?en, i?i/eoaiee 14 eenoiiaaea 1913 ?ieo ia can?aeaii? ao?oea
aeiiii?no?a i?e Ee?anueeiio eiia?oe?eiiio ?inoeooo? c iaaiaee 250-??//y
c aeiy iiyae ia?oiai aeiiii?/iiai o?aeoaoo A?eueyia Iaoo? (1912 ?.).

Oa Neooeueeee caeeoeany i?eoeeueieeii oaeiai o?aeooaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo
eaoaai??e, c yeei aenooieee E.Iaiaa?, O.Aeaeaaiin, E.Aaeue?an. Naia
ieoaiiy uiaei iiaeeeaino? ni?anoaaeaiiy ei?eniinoae ??ciiiai?oieo aeaa
noiniaii aei iaaiiai niiaeea/iai athaeaeaoo, nie?ath/enue ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aeeiae?no?a, cie?aia A.Ia?aoi, ?.Neooeueeee ?icaeyaea?
a nai?io aeine?aeaeaii? i?i ??aiiaaao a niiaeeaaii? (noaooy “Aei oai???
caaeainiaaiiai athaeaeaoo niiaeeaa/a” (1915?.)). A oe?e noaoo?
i?aeeiae?nonueeee i?aeo?ae aeicaieea Neooeueeiio noi?ioethaaoe
ei?eni?noue o aeaeyae? /enoi aii??e/iiai iiiyooy, iia’ycaaoe oeth
ooieoe?th c ?ooii oe?i ? a?ioiaeo aeioiae?a.

Aea eiei i?iaeai ?aoe?iiaeueii? ae?yeueiino?, ye? ?ai?oa ca ana aeieeee
e io?eiaee na?aeiia a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iaaeao iie?oe/ii? aeiiii??, aoei
cia/ii oe?oa, ai?ae iaeanoue aeiiii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui e i?eaaei
aei aeae?eaiiy iniaeeai? iaoee i?i ?aoe?iiaeueio ae?yeuei?noue. *a?ac
aeayeee /an oey iaoea io?eiaea iacao i?aenaieia??. A nai oa?i?i
“i?aenaieia?y”, yeee aia?oa aeei?enoaa o?aioeocueeee nioe?ieia Ani?ian o
1890 ?. a noaoo? i?i iniiae oaoiieia??, a aeiiii?/io iaoeo aa?a
oe?a?inueeee iaoaiaoee oa aeiiii?no ?.?.Neooeueeee.

Ioiae, nai???aeiei i?iaeiaaeaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaiaoeee
?aoe?iiaeueii? iiaaae?iee niiaeeaa/?a iiaeia aaaaeaoe aeiiia?aeue
“Aothae aei i?iaeaie iiaoaeiae oi?iaeueii-i?aenaieia?/ieo canaae
aeiiii?ee”. Oe??th noaooath aaoi? ?iaeoue ni?iao ci???iooaaoe /eoa/a a
?aea? oi?iaeueii? aeiiii?ee, yea “ia??oioiao? aeiiii?eo, anoaiiaethth/e
oa ?icaeaath/e aca?ieie i?ae aieiaieie iaoa??aeueieie oi?iaie, ye?
a?ae?a?athoue eiinoeoooeaio ?ieue uiaei iaoa??aeueiiai ci?noo noo?
ainiiaea?nueeeo ooai?aiue” (?.Neooeueeee).

A oe?e i?aoe? aea?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?aenaieia?/ieo iiiyoue e
iiiyoue aeiiii?/ii? iaoee. A?aeia?aaea?oueny, yeei /eiii i?aenaieia?y,
yeo iiaeia oaeiae iacaaoe “eia?eith ?aoe?iiaeueii? ae?yeueiino?”,
anoaiiaeth? iaai? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy e i?ae i?aenaieia?/ieie eaoaai??yie,
oiaoi i?ae i?aenaieia?/ieie i?eioeeiaie iiaaae?iee, ui oa?aeoa?i? aeey
aoaeue-yei? iaeano? ?aoe?iiaeueii? ae?yeueiino? ethaeae. Neooeueeee
?iaeoue ni?iao ie?aneeoe ci?no oi?iaeueii? i?aenaieia??, yea yaey?
niaith aeao?i?oeaio aaaaoiia?aci?noue, a ioaea, i?eaeaoia aei oiai, uia
c iaaiith oi/i?noth, a?aeaeoe a?aeiia?aei? ?ene aii??e/ii? ae?eniino?.

Nueiaiaei? a na?oia?e aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? aeacaia ?iaioa aaaaea?oueny
ooiaeaiaioii no/anii? i?aenaieia??, yea ii?aeio? a ?aeeio nenoaio ana,
ui iaeiie/aii ethaenoaii a iaeano? i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe?. I?e oeueiio aiia
neioaco? o?eueee oa, ui ia? caaaeueiee oa?aeoa? ? eiai iiaeia
canoinoaaoe aei aoaeue-yei? ae?yeueiino?. Neioacoth/e ??ciiiai?oi? aeai?
i?ae eooii ci?o iaaii? oe?eueiai? caaea/?, i?aenaieia?y aea? a?eueo
/?oeo i???ioaoe?th aeey oeo iaoe, iaoa??aee yeeo aiia aeei?enoiao?.
Iniaeeai a?ae/ooii ?? cia/aiiy aeey oai??? oi?aae?iiy a iaoiaeieia?/iiio
ieai?. Aoaeo/e, ye ? oai??y oi?aae?iiy, iaoeith neioacoth/ith e
i?aaiaoe/iith, i?aenaieia?y yaey? niaith oeiiao iiaeaeue i?aai?caoe?eii?
iaoee: c iaoeeii aei aei?aoethaaiiy i?aeoe/ieo ii?aae c anei?eyoe??th
aeaieo i?ae eooii ci?o aeaii? iaeano? ae?yeueiino? oiui.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe i?ine?aeeiaaii aaiethoe?th
?icaeoeo oai??? a?aie/ii? ei?eniino?, ?? aieea ia i?iaeaiaoeeo
aeiiii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue Neooeueeiai ? i?noea ?ia?o inoaiiueiai a
oai??? iiieoo.

Nai???aeiei i???ioe?ii a aeine?aeaeaiiyo ?.Neooeueeiai noaea eiioeaioe?y
A.Ia?aoi,yea ?acii ?c ?ic?iaeaie O.Aaeaeoi?oa ? aia?eeainueeiai
aeiiii?noa ?.O?oa?a caii/aoeoaaea aeueoa?iaoeaio e?euee?ni?e ii?yaeeiao
oai??th ei?eniino?, ui ia aeiioneaea ia o?eueee iiaeeeaino? ?
iaiao?aeiino? aei??thaaiiy ei?eniino? aeaa aeey iiyniaiiy iiaaae?iee
niiaeeaa/?a, aea e acaaae? aoaeue-yei? caaaeee i?i ei?eni?noue.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeaoaeueii aiae?co?oueny aaiethoe?y oai??? ei?eniino?,
?icaeyaeathoueny iniiai? iieiaeaiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo oe?e
ia?aeeiae?cio. Oaeee i?aeo?ae iaoiiaeaii oei, ui i?ioean ni?eeiyooy
?aeae ia?aeeiae?cio a Oe?a?i?, ye ? a na?o? a oe?eiio, noi?iaiaeaeoaaany
aeeaieei ia?ainieneaiiyi oai?aoe/ieo canaae ia o?eueee eeane/ii? oeiee,
aea e naii? ia?aeeiae?nonueei? eiioeaioe??, cie?aia uiaei iiaeeeaino?
iiooeo iaeeieoe? ei?eniino?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaeiiai c iaea?aeii?oeo i?aaenoaaiee?a aiae?enueei? oeiee
N.Aeaeaaiina iiaeia aaaaeaoe ii noo? ia?oith ni?iaith iiaoaeiae oai???
ianiai? iiaaae?iee niiaeeaa/?a, noai?aii? i?ci?oa Neooeueeei. Ia?oee, ia
a?aei?io a?ae i?aaenoaaiee?a aano??enueei? oeiee, aiae?coth/e oai??th
iai?io, oaea ia aano?aao?oueny a?ae caeaaeiino? noa’?eoeaieo ioe?iie
a?ae oe?i ia ?io? oiaa?e, a iaaiaee, iieeaaea?, ui ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?
niiaeeaaiiy (ioaea, e a?aie/ia ei?eni?noue) caeaaeeoue a?ae ieo. Oe?ia
?icaeyaea?oueny ye iaeei ?c oaeoi??a, ui aieeaa? ia aaee/eio iiieoo e
i?iiiceoe??. ?? aieea iaoaiaoe/ii aeia?a ?aaai Neooeueeee, yeee, oaeiae,
a?aeeeioaoe a?iioaco uiaei iiaeeeaino? aei??o ei?eniino?, a a?aeii?e
noaoo? “Aei caaeainiaaiiai athaeaeaoo niiaeeaa/a” ana ae ioa?aeoa?ecoaaa
aaaeii?noe/io eiioeaioe?th Aeaeaaiina (?acii ?c eiioeaioe??th
aano??enueei? oeiee) ye “aeineoue ni??io” (?.Neooeueeee).

Oiaoi, a aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? iniiaia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny
i?aoe? “Aei oai??? caaeainiaaiiai athaeaeaoo niiaeeaa/a”, ui noaea
ia?oith oaeith ?iaioith, yea neioacoaaea e ?icaeioea /eneaii? ?aea?,
aenoioo? a oiae? aaiethoe?? i?e?iaeiiii?/iiai aiae?co. Aiia i?aai?/ii
i?iaeiaaeeea nooaeaionuee? ?icaeoie a/aiiai, aeeeaaeai? a iaa?noa?nuee?e
aeena?oaoe?? (“Oai??y a?aie/ii? ei?eniino?”), aea “aeoiaey/e c aiae?co
aeaiaioa?ieo yaeu aeooiaiiai aeeooy ? i?ioean?a iioeaaoe??”
(?.Neooeueeee), a/aiee i?aaioa ii?aeiaoe ineoieia?/iee iai?yiie c
iaoaiaoe/iei.

Iioae?eiaaia o 1915 ?. a ?oae?enueeiio aeo?iae? “Giornalle clegli
economisti revista di statistica” noaooy i?aeoe/ii ia aoea iii?/aia. A
1963 ?ioe? ?? aoei ia?aeeaaeaii c ?oae?enueei? a?aeiiei noaoenoeeii
I.N.*aoaa?eeiaei oa iioae?eiaaii ?in?enueeith iiaith a aeiiii?/iiio
ca??ieeo “Yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneea iaoiaeu” (oe?a?inueeee ia?aeeaae
cae?eniaii o?eueee o 1998 ?.), ui a naith /a?ao a?aee?eei iia?
iiaeeeaino? aeey iciaeiieaiiy a?o/eciyieo iaoeiaeo e?e c i?iia?nueeei
aeine?aeaeaiiyi ?aaaia Neooeueeiai. Aea ia a?aei?io a?ae ?aaeoe??
caei?aeiiieo aeiiii?/ieo aeaeaiue, ioae?eaoe?y i?aoe? Neooeueeiai
caeeoeany iica oaaaith a?o/eciyieo iaoeiaoe?a, ui iiynith?oueny, a ia?oo
/a?ao, ?cieueiaai?noth ?aaeyinueei? aeiiii?/ii? iaoee oa ??
ca?aeaieia?ciaai?noth.

A oai??? athaeaeaoo niiaeeaa/a Neooeueeiai, aaaeeeaa i?noea caeia?
aiae?c a?aie/ii? ei?eniino? eiaeiiai aeaaa o ca’yceo c ooieoe??th
e?eueeino? eeoa oeueiai aeaiiai aeaaa. Naia oeae aeiaaeie caeiaa
iniaeeaa i?noea a ?noi??? aeiiii?/ii? iaoee, caeeaaoe iniiae oai???
a?aie/ii? ei?eniino?. An? iiia?aaei? aeine?aeieee aeaii? i?iaeaie
aeoiaeeee ?c caeiio iane/aiino? iio?aa (caeiio Ainnaia), aea oae ? ia
ciiaee iaaeaoe nai?i ?acoeueoaoai caaaeueiiai cia/aiiy. Oe?eeii
i?e?iaeii, ui aaaaoi aaoi??a ae?aaeaee na?e noii?a uiaei eiai caaaeueii?
cia/ouino?. Noaaea i?ae noii?a i?aeoe/io ae??caeaoi?noue caeiio Ainnaia
e ?.Neooeueeee, a?aecia/ath/e iaeaea iiaio a?aenooi?noue ia??oioiaaii?
oai??? iane/aiino? aeaa, cie?aia noiniaii iaea?aei?oeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy.

Iinoaaeaoe ieoaiiy i?i niiaeea/o aa?o?noue noeoiiino? aeaa, ye?
aoiaeyoue aei athaeaeaoo niiaeeaa/a, Neooeueeee ooea? iiaeeea?noue
ca?eueiaiiy ooieoe?? ei?eniino? a?ae /enoi noa’?eoeaiiai o?aeooaaiiy, ia
caaaeath/e ia oa, ui a?i ia a?aeeeaea? oe?eeii o?aaeeoe?eieo oyaeaiue
i?i noa’?eoeaio i?e?iaeo ei?eniino? aeaa. Caaaeyee aeine?aeaeaiiyi
inoaiiueiai a na?oia?e e?oa?aoo?? caoaa?aeeany iiaeyae ia ei?eni?noue ye
ia aaee/eio, ui c?inoa? ii i??? c?inoaiiy ia?aaaae a niiaeeaa/?a aeaiiai
iaai?o aeaa. Neooeueeee ia iaaiai?th? ieoaiiy i?i iioiaeaeaiiy ooieoe??
ei?eniino?, a aeoiaeeoue c ia?, a?aooaaaoe iieiaeaiiy ?ic?iaie
Aeaeaaiina i?i iaia?a?ai?noue ? aeeoa?aioe?eiaai?noue ooieoe??
ei?eniino?. Oe?a?inueeee a/aiee aeoiaeeoue o?eueee c iiaeeeaino?
e?euee?niiai aiae?co a?aeaeaiiy ia?aaaa, ?o ii?yaeeiaiai c?noaaeaiiy.
Caaaeyee ?icaeoeo oai??? Neooeueeei noa’?eoeaia ioe?iea aeanieo aaaeaiue
(“introspection”) ia?anoaea a?ae?a?aaaoe nooo?ao ?ieue a eiioeaioe??
ei?eniino?

Neooeueeei aoei i?aaenoaaeaia a?eueo aeeaiea ia??oiooaaiiy oai???
iiaaae?iee niiaeeaa/?a, iiaeeea?noue iaoaiaoe/ii? oi?iae?caoe?? ooieoe??
ei?eniino? ia iniia? ?? ia?oeo ? ae?oaeo iio?aeieo (i?e aeyaeaii? oiia
no?eeino? athaeaeaoo). A a?aeiiaa a?ae aeiiouaiiy A.Ia?oaeea i?i
iaci?ii?noue “a?aie/ii? ei?eniino? a?ioae” acaaae? aeicaieeea a/aiiio
i?ae?eoe aei ?iciaaeoaaiiy aoaeoo aeioiaeo e aoaeoo cai?uaiiy. Naia
oaeee a?aeie?aieaiee oai?aoe/iee aiae?c oeeo aoaeo?a ? aeicaieea
iaiaaeeoe aieea ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee iiieo eieeaaiue a?aeiinieo oe?i
a?ae aieeao, ui iia’ycaiee c? ci?iaie ?aaeueiiai aeioiaeo. Aeei?enoaiiy
iaoiaeo ?aaaia Neooeueeiai, ui aaco?oueny ia oaeoao iiaaae?iee
niiaeeaa/a ia ?eieo, ye? iiaeia niinoa??aaoe e ca?a?no?oaaoe, aeaei
ciiao ia o?eueee aeae?eeoe iacaai? i?ioeane, aea e ia/eneeoe ?o ca
aeiiiiiaith ?iaeaeniiai iaoiaeo noaoenoe/iiai aiae?co.

Iaaeaeue, aoaeoe aeioiaeo e cai?uaiiy, a?aee?eo? ?aaaiii Neooeueeei,
/ano?oa anioe?ththoueny ?c ?iaiai Aeae.O?ena, yeee a 1934 ?.
ia?aa?aee?ea “oa?eoi??th”, inai?io ia?oei ua 1915 ?. Oae ye iaoaiaoe/ii
ia/eneeaoe oaeo iiaea?eio ae?th ci?ie oe?ie, ia?oee ia aeaa ??
aeiiii?/io ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th, ia a?aei?io a?ae inoaiiueiai, yeee ca
aeiiiiiaith e?eaeo aaeaeoaeino? i?iaeaiiino?oaaa aeua iacaai? aoaeoe.

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aea?oueny aeaoaeueiee aiae?c a?aei?iiinoae a
i?aeoiaeao O?ena oa Neooeueeiai aei ?iciaaeoaaiiy aoaeo?a aeioiaeo oa
cai?uaiiy, ui ianaiia?aae iia’ycaii ?c o?aeooaaiiyi ieie iaci?iiiai
?aaeueiiai aeioiaeo.

sseui Aeae.O?en caoaaaeo?, ui ??ci? ??ai? a?ioiaiai aeioiaeo, ye?
caaacia/othoue iaeei ? oie aea ??aaiue caaeiaieaiiy, oiaoi aeicaieythoue
aeinyaoe iaei??? e?eai? aaeaeoaeino?, i?aaenoaaeythoue iaeiaeiaee
??aaiue ?aaeueiiai aeioiaeo, oi ca?aeii Neooeueeiio, eeoa oie ??aaiue
a?ioiaiai aeioiaeo, yeiai aeinoaoiuei aeey i?eaeaaiiy iaei??? ? oi?
naii? eiia?iaoe?? oiaa??a, caaacia/o? ? iaci?iiee ??aaiue ?aaeueiiai
aeioiaeo, ui a naith /a?ao e aea? iiaeeea?noue aeaoe e?euee?nia
ae??oaiiy caaea/? ia iniia? noaoenoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a. Oiaoi, yeui
i?aeo?ae O?ena a a?eueo?e i??? a?aeiia?aea? iniiaiei iieiaeaiiyi
ii?yaeeiai? oai??? ei?eniino?, oi i?aeo?ae Neooeueeiai ia? o? ia?aaaae,
ui eiai canoinoaaiiy aaco?oueny ia ?aaeueieo aeaieo, ui c?aooith ?
aieeioei ia iiaeaeueoa aeine?aeaeaiiy oeueiai ieoaiiy oaea a
aeiiiiao?e/iiio ?ic??c?.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe i?aaenoaaeaii aieea ?aeae
?aaaia Neooeueeiai ia iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie oai??? iiaaae?iee
niiaeeaa/?a, ia yeiio iicia/eeany a?aeie?aieai?noue iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie ca
/an?a ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco.

Iiaeia neacaoe, ui oai??y Neooeueeiai ?icaeaaeany a aeaio iai?yieao:

ye ie?aia a?aeaaeoaeaiiy aeiiiiao?eee ia Caoiae? (oiaoi o? ?ic?iaee, ia
yeeo c ?aooith coieieeeny no/ani? aeine?aeieee, e ?acoeueoaoe yeeo noaee
iaa?ae’?iiith /anoeiith aeiiii?/ii? iaoee nueiaiaeaiiy);

ye aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaaae?iee “nioe?ae?noe/ieo niiaeeaa/?a” o
?aaeyinueeiio Nithc? oa ?ioeo e?a?iao nioe?ae?noe/iiai oaai?o uiaei
i?iii?oe?eiino? ci?i oe?i ?o aa?oinoyi (o?oaeiaa oai??y aa?oino?).

Naiai aiiaath o ?aaeyinuee?e aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? iaoeia? ?ic?iaee a
iai?yieo aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaaae?iee niiaeeaa/a aeinyaee a na?aaeei? 60-o
?ie?a, a ?iee oae caaii? “a?aeeeae” – eiee aoei iioae?eiaaii oe?eo ieceo
niaoe?ae?ciaaieo ca??ie, cie?aia, iaeia c ieo (1963 ?.) i?noeea
?in?enueeee ia?aeeaae a?aeiii? i?aoe? ?aaaia Neooeueeiai “Aei oai???
caaeainiaaiiai athaeaeaoo niiaeeaa/a”.

A?o/eciyi? iaoeiaoe?, ui aaee oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?i oa
niiaeeaaiiy, caeaa?eueoiai i?aee?anethaaee, ui iaei?ino?o? i?eiouaiiy
i?i iiaaae?ieo niiaeeaa/a i?e ci?iao oe?i aeathoue iiaeeea?noue
aeiaanoe, ui o?eueee i?e i?iii?oe?eiino? oe?i ?o aa?oinoyi oaeoe/ia
noeoii?noue oiaa??a, yea niiaeeaathoueny, ia? iaeiaioo aa?o?noue.
Aeaaeai?e A.N.Iai/eiia, iai?eeeaae, a?aei?/aa aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue ?.?.Neooeueeiai aeey “aiae?co oe?eueiai? ooieoe??
niiaeeaaiiy i?e nioe?ae?ci?”. A oeueiio iai?yieo i?aoethaaa ? a?aeiiee
ca ?aaeyinueeeo /an?a aeiiii?no N.A.No?oi?e?i, yeee i?aei?iaa aeoaea
noiae? ieoaiiy uiaei iiaeeeaino? aei??thaaiiy niiaeea/i? oe?iiino?
i?iaeoeo?a i?aoe?. Aoee, cae/aeii, e ioae?eaoe?? aeaui ?ioiai ci?noo
(A.I.Ieoaeaanueeiai, ss?iie?a Aaeoa?a oa ?i.), aea a a?eueoino? c ieo
?iaeeany ni?iaa i?eoyaiaiiy oai??? iiaaae?iee niiaeeaa/?a a iaae?
o?oaeiai? oai??? aa?oino? c aeei?enoaiiyi noai E.Ia?ena.

Ioiae, aieiaia oaaaa a aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? i?eae?ey?oueny
?icaeoeo oai??? Neooeueeiai a cao?aei?e aeiiii?/i?e iaooe?.

Aeei?enoaiiy aia?aoo e?eaeo aaeaeoaeino? Aeeaia, O?ena, ui iaeaaeiei
/eiii ioi?iea i?aeeiae?nonueeo oai??th oe?i ? aeaa ciiao iienaoe i?ioean
oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaiai iiieoo ia ??ciiiai?oi? oiaa?e i?e caaeai?e
no?oeoo?? oe?i, c ?aooith c?oeioeiny c iani?iiiaei?noth iiaeieaiiy
iaaii? iaiaaeaiino?, yea oaeoe/ii aoea caeeaaeaia oiiaaie ?o iiaoaeiae.
Oe? aeiaeaoeia? oiiae, ye? aaiaeeeeny aeey c?o/iino? ia/eneaiiy, ia
o?eueee cia/ii caoceee eiei yaeu, ui aeania iiynithaaea
ia?aeeiae?nonueea oai??y, aea e aeeeeeaee ?icaeoie iiaeo oai??e a ?one?
i?aeeiae?nonueei? eiioeaioe?? iiieoo.

A aeena?oaoe?? aea?oueny aeaoaeueiee aiae?c iia?oi?o oai??e, ?o iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy ? aeo?aei? oiiae, ?ieue oa i?noea, yea ?i a?aeaiaeeoueny a
no/ani?e oai??? i?aeeiae?cio.

Oaeaeea ?iciianthaeaeaiiy a ia?oa i?neyai?iia aeanyoe??//y io?eiaea oae
caaia oai??y aeyaeaieo ia?aaaa, iaeiei c aieiaieo aeinyaiaiue yei? noaei
aeio?eiaiiy cia/ii iaioi? e?eueeino? ai??i?ieo i?eiouaiue, ai?ae a
eiioeaioe?? e?eaeo aaeaeoaeino?. Eiioeaioe?y aeyaeaiiy ia?aaaa
aacoaaeany ia ex post anoaiiaeaieo caeiiii??iinoyo iiaaae?iee niiaeeaa/a
ia ?eieo, ui i?aeaeathoueny aaciina?aaeiueiio niinoa?aaeaiith ?
ia?aa??oe?. Iai?eeeaae, I. Naioaeuenii i?eionea?, ui aeiiii?/ia oai??y
caaacia/o? i?inoi aiae?oe/ia a?aeia?aaeaiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiue, ye?
?aaoey?ii niinoa??aathoueny, i?e/iio oe? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iiaeii?
i?aeaeaaaoeny aa?eo?eaoe?? ia aac? aii??e/iiai iaoa??aeo. C oi?iaeueii?
oi/ee ci?o, nenoaia aeyaeaieo ia?aaaa i?eiee ia iiaea iiieeeoeny, oiio
ui aiia caaacia/o? o?eueee oii?yaeeoaaiiy oaea a?aeiieo iiae?e.

E??i oiai ?? i?ea?/ieee c?iaeee ni?iao a?aeoai?eoe iiiyooy aaeaeoaeino?
ia iia?e iniia?: yeui niiaeeaa/ ia aeyaey? i?yei? ia?aaaae o a?aeiioaii?
iaai??a q1 oa q2, eiai a?aeiioaiiy aei ieo oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ye
aaeaeoaea (O.Oaoooaea?). Oey oai??y aeaui e?aua, ai?ae “ea?oe
aaeaeoaeino?”, aoea i?eaeaoia ? aei aiae?co aeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a.
Cie?aia, naia ?iaeaenia oi?ia ae?aco aeicaieyea aac oneeaaeiaiue
“?ioaa?oaaoe” a iiaeaeue iiaee oiaa?. Iaeiae, aiia ia aeacoaaea iaia?aae
/e oa?eaea oeae oiaa? o aea?aiee iieoioeai iaa?? /e i?. A oae?
aeeiai?/i? i?ioeane, ye iai?eeeaae, “aeiaae?iiy” noa?iai oiaa?o /e
aaaaeaiiy iiaiai, acaaae? ?iaeee iaiiaeeeaei canoinoaaiiy e?eoa??th
iai?ioe??/iino? niiaeea/iai aeai?o, oiio ui aoaeue-yea ci?ia oiaa?iiai
ani?oeiaioo /e ?aaeueieo aeioiae?a iaci?iii oyaia ca niaith e
ia?aaoaeiao on??? nenoaie ia?aaaa.

AENIIAEE

1.Oe?iea eiei i?iaeai, ui ?o oi?eaany a nai?o aeiiii?/ieo ?ic?iaeao
aeaeaoiee oe?a?inueeee iaoaiaoee, noaoenoee ? aeiiii?no ?.?.Neooeueeee,
aieeioei ia oi?ioaaiiy naiino?eieo iai?yie?a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue,
cie?aia a aeai?e ?iaio? aieiaio oaaao i?eae?eaii aecia/aiith oiai i?noey
a iaoaiaoe/i?e oai??? iiieoo, yea caeia? aei?iaie Neooeueeiai c oai???
iiaaae?iee niiaeeaa/?a.

2.Iiaa?iooe aeiiii?/io iaoeo aei i?iaeai niiaeeaaiiy ? iiieoo aaeaeiny
(ia caaaeath/e ia aeayeo ni??i?noue ?o oai?aoe/ieo iiaoaeia)
ia?aeeiae?noai, iaaeaaoe iiooiaoo ianooiiei /eneaiiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi
?eieo ? oe?iiooai?aiiy. I?iaeaie ??aeeino?, iaiaaeaiino? ?ano?n?a,
ineoieia?/ieo iioea?a ainiiaea?/i? iiaaae?iee noa’?eo?a e aaaaoi ?ioiai
o?nii oa?eoee a eiei oai?aoe/ieo oa i?eeeaaeieo aeine?aeaeaiue a
aeiiii?oe?. A?aeooiaoioaoenue a?ae i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaeo iaoiae?a
aiae?co ? noa’?eoeaiiai oeoia/aiiy ei?eniino?, ia?aeeiae?ci (cie?aia
eicainueei? oeiee) i?eeoia a nai?io ?icaeoeo aei aea/aiiy
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ca’yce?a, aei ophilimite – ei?eniino? Ia?aoi, – ui
aaco?oueny ia aii??e/ieo niinoa?aaeaiiyo ? caeaaeeoue a?ae on?o oiia, ca
yeeo a?aeaoaa?oueny niiaeeaaiiy. A?aoo?-?aoo, ia oai??y ei?eniino?, a
nei??oa ia?aeeiae?ci ye oaeee i?eaeaa iaoaiaoeoe? (ca aeiiiiiaith yei?
?.Neooeueeee ?ioa?i?aooaaa nai? ?aea?) aeaeaoio ?ieue a aeiiii?/i?e
iaooe? i?ney 1870 ?ieo.

3.Iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo a?o aiae?co aieeao oiaa?ieo oe?i ia ?eieiaee
iiieo noaea iioae?eiaaia a 1915 ?ioe? i?aoey “Aei oai??? caaeainiaaiiai
athaeaeaoo niiaeeaa/a”, aea ia caia?a/oth/e oe?eeii noa’?eoeaiiai
o?aeooaaiiy oe?iiino?, ?aaai Neooeueeee aeia?a, ui aiii iiaea io?eiaoe
ia’?eoeaia oeoia/aiiy oeyoii aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a ooieoe?? ei?eniino?
/a?ac eiao?oe??ioe aeanoe/iino? iiieoo ii oe?iai ? aeioiaeo.

4.Eiioeaioe?y A?eueo?aaei Ia?aoi ia o?eueee caoe?eaaeea ?.Neooeueeiai
nai?th i?ea?iaeuei?noth, aea e noaea nai???aeiith iniiaith eiai ?aea?
uiaei ia’?eoea?caoe?? ei?eniino?. A e?ea? aaeaeoaeino?, ye? oe?iei
aeei?enoiaoaaa o nai?o aeine?aeaeaiiyo ia?oee, e aei nueiaiaei?
caeeoathoueny iaeiei ?c iae?iciianthaeaeai?oeo oaoi?/ieo ?ino?oiaioa??a
i?e?iaeiiii?ee. Ioaea, aieiaiei iiaiaaaaeaiiyi oae caaieo
“ia’?eoea?no?a” noaa ia?ao?ae aei i?aeeiae?nonueei? aa?n?? oai???
a?aie/ii? ei?eniino? ?c canoinoaaiiyi e?eaeo aaeaeoaeino?.

5.Acyaoe ca iniiao i?ea?iaeueio ?aeath Neooeueeiai, a oaeiae a?aeeeioaoe
iaea?eueo noieanoe/i? iiaoaeiae oai??? a?aie/ii? ei?eniino?, noaei
iiaeeeaei aei?aoethaaiiy iaaieo i?aeoe/ii ei?enieo i?eeeaaeieo iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiai?ee e no?oeoo?e niiaeea/iai iiieoo. A oai?aoe/ia
aea/aiiy aca?iica’yce?a i?ae eiao?oe??ioaie aeanoe/iino?: ia?ao?anii?
aeanoe/iino? iiieoo ii oe?iai, c iaeiiai aieo, a c ?ioiai, aeanoe/iino?
iiieoo ii aeioiaeo, – aeaei ciiao ia?aeoe aei aeei?enoaiiy eiie?aoieo
iiaeaeae iiieoo ii ie?aiei oiaa?ai ? aa?aaaoieo iiaeaeae. Oe?iea
?iciianthaeaeaiiy oaeiae io?eiaa ? aiae?c oaeoi??a, ui aecia/athoue
ei?ioeino?ieiao ? aeiaaino?ieiao ?aaeoe?th iiieoo ia ci?ie oe?i ?
i?iaiicoaaiiy iine?aeoth/iai ?icaeoeo ?eieo.

6. Ca aeiiiiiaith noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo: neeaaeo niiaeea/iai eioeeo a
aaciaiio ? ca?oiiio ia??iaeao, oa aa?oino? iaai?o aeaa o a?aeiia?aeiiio
ia??iae? – aoei ao?eaii a?iioaoe/i? aoaeoe aeioiaeo e cai?uaiiy
Neooeueeiai a ?aaeuei? ?ic?aooiee iaai??a niiaeea/eo aeaa.

7. I?aeo?ae ?aaaia Neooeueeiai aei aiae?co iiaaae?iee niiaeeaa/a, ui ia
ia?aaeaa/aa ciaiiy niiaeea/eo ia?aaaa, a aacoaaany ia ca?a?no?iaaieo
oaeoao niiaeea/i? iiaaae?iee ia ?eieo, iaaeaa iiooiao iiaeaeueoiio
aea/aiith oeueiai ieoaiiy oaea a aeiiiiao?e/iiio ?ic??c?. Aeyaeeiny, ui
e?ea?, iiaoaeiaai? a?aeiia?aeii aii??e/ieo aeaieo, iaaaaeothoue e?ea?
ei?eniino? c?iaeai? ua Ainnaiii, a oeaio?aeuei? a?ia?iiaa?oi?
aaeaeoaeino? ae?oaiai ii?yaeeo, ui aoei iiaoaeiaaii ia iniia? ?iaeaeno
oe?i O?oa?a-Aioe?, acaaae? i?eaeaoi? aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy niiaeeaaiiy ye o
oiio aeiaaeeo, eiee oiaa?e cai?iththoue iaei? iaeieo a niiaeeaaii?, oae
? a aeiaaeeo iacaeaaeieo i?ae niaith a?oi oiaa??a. Iaeiae ?ic?aooiee c
oeeie a?ia?iiaa?oiyie iio?aaothoue aeaio ia??iae?a /ano c ??cieie
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyie i?ae oe?iaie, aea c iaeiaeiaeie iio?aaaie niiaeeaa/?a.

I?ci?oa a?eueo oi/i? ?ic?aooiee aoee i?iaaaeai? ca athaeaeaoieie aeaieie
i?e oeo aea i?eiouaiiyo oa ciai?oi?e ioe?ioe? aeanoe/iinoae a?ae
aeioiaeo e oi/a a aeaio i?yieo aeanoe/iinoae a?ae oe?i E.THoainaiii ?
A.Aioiaenaiii.

Ianooiiee aaaeeeaee e?ie aoei c?iaeaii a i?aoeyo A.Aa?oaia (“Ooieoe?y
niiaeea/iai iiieoo i?e oiia? aaeaeeoeaiino? ia?aaaa”) ? O.Oaeea
(“?ioi?iaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy oai??? iiieoo”). A.Aa?oai ?ic?iaea
iaoiaee iaeii/anii? ioe?iee ia?aiao?o cai?uaiiy, aeanoe/iinoae a?ae
aeioiaeo, i?yieo oa ia?ao?anieo aeanoe/iinoae a?ae oe?i ye ca aeaieie
/aniaeo ?yae?a, oae ? ca aeaieie athaeaeaoieo aea??eiaeo ianoaaeaiue.

Aea a i?aoeyo A.Aa?oaia e O.Aaeea i?e ioe?ioe? ia?aiao?a cai?uaiiy oa
aeanoe/iinoae a?ae oe?i noaaeeany caaea/a aeaoaeueiiai aiae?co
niiaeea/iai iiieoo, ui iio?aaoaaei aaea ineaaeaiiy ia?aaeiineeee iiaii?
aaeeoeaiino? ooieoe?? niiaeea/iai aoaeoo, yea i?eoaiaiia aeine?aeaeaiiyi
?.Neooeueeiai.

8.Aeniiaee ?.Neooeueeiai caeeoeeeny oae naii aeooaeueieie ye aeey
eiioeaioe?? Aeae.O?ena, ao?eaii? ca aeiiiiiaith e?eaeo aaeaeoaeino?, oae
? aeey oai??? a?aeaeaiiy ia?aaaa, i?iiaaaiaeenoe yei? (O.Oaoooaea?,
I.Naioaeuenii), ia?o ca ana, aeei?enoaaoe o?eueee iaai? oi/ee ia?aaaae,
a?aeiiaeeeny a?ae ieaaiino? ? aacia?a?aiino? oeeo e?eaeo. Iaeaaaeeea?oei
noaei oa, ui ia caaaeath/e ia /eneaii? iia?oi? oai??? i?aeeiae?nonueeee
i?aeo?ae ? nueiaiaei? caeeoa?oueny iniiaith i?e?iaeiiii?/iiai aiae?co
iiaaae?iee niiaeeaa/?a.

INIIAI? IOAE?EAOe?? II OAI? AeENA?OAOe??

1. Oaeaea ss.N. I?i aianie ?. Neooeueeiai o na?oiao aeiiiiao?e/io
iaoeo //?noi??y ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa oa aeiiii?/ii? aeoiee Oe?a?ie.
Aeione 29.–E., 1997.–N. 128-136.

2. Oaeaea ss.N. Aeiiii?/ia niaaeueia ?.Neooeueeiai o na?oe?
aaiethoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo i?iaeaie iiieoo //A?niee Aeaaeai?? i?aoe? ?
nioe?aeueieo a?aeiinei Oaaea?aoe?? i?ioni?eie Oe?a?ie. ? 1.–1998.–N.
146-150.

3. Oaeaea ss.N. I?aenaieia?y: iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo
//A?niee Aeaaeai?? i?aoe? ? nioe?aeueieo a?aeiinei Oaaea?aoe??
i?ioni?eie Oe?a?ie. ?2.–1999.–N. 96-98.

4. Oaeaea ss.N. ?.Neooeueeee: noa?a oa iniiai? iai?yiee iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue (?noi?eei-a?ia?ao?/iee ia?en).–E.:OIA “Eo?n”, 1999.–23 n.

5. Oaeaea ss.N. ?ic?iaea ?aaaiii Neooeueeei e?euee?nieo iaoiae?a a
aeiiii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo // I?iaeaie o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?/ieo
nenoai oa noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaiai ainiiaea?noaa a Oe?a?i?. Oace aenooi?a
ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e nooaeaionuee?e eiioa?aioe?? 28-29 eenoiiaaea
1996.–E.: ?CII, 1996.–N. 114-116.

AIIOAOe?ss

Oaeaea ss.N. ?ic?iaea ?aaaiii Neooeueeei i?iaeai aeiiii?/ii? oai???. –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.01.04 – aeiiii?/ia ?noi??y oa ?noi??y aeiiii?/ii?
aeoiee. – Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?eio ?iaioo i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith i?noey aeiiii?/ii?
niaaeueie ?.Neooeueeiai a no/ani?e oai??? iiieoo. Aieiaia oaaaa
i?eae?eaia ii?aeiaiith ?noi?e/iiai oa i?e?iaeiiii?/iiai i?aeoiae?a aei
aea/aiiy oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?iaie oe?a?inueeiai a/aiiai. I?ine?aeeiaaii
aaiethoe?th oai??? iiieoo. Aeacaii ia a?aei?iiino? a i?aeoiaeao
Aeae.O?ena oa ?.Neooeueeiai aei ?iciaaeoaaiiy aoaeo?a aeioiaeo oa
cai?uaiiy, ui i?eaaee aei iiaeeeaino? aeiiiiao?e/iiai ao?eaiiy ?ic?iaie
inoaiiueiai. Aecia/aii iniiai? iai?yiee ?icaeoeo ?aeae oe?a?inueeiai
a/aiiai o a?o/eciyi?e oa cao?aei?e aeiiii?/i?e iaooe?.

Eeth/iai neiaa: a?aie/ia ei?eni?noue, e?ea? aaeaeoaeino?,
i?e?iaeiiii?/iee i?aeo?ae, aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/i? iaoiaee, aoaeoe
aeioiaeo oa cai?uaiiy, i?aeeiae?nonueea oai??y.

AIIIOAOeEss

Oaeaea ss.N. ?ac?aaioea Aaaaieai Neooeeei i?iaeai yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee.
– ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.01.04 – yeiiiie/aneay enoi?ey e enoi?ey
yeiiiie/aneie iunee. – Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth ianoa yeiiiie/aneiai
ianeaaeey A.Neooeeiai a nia?aiaiiie oai?ee ni?ina. I?aaenoaaeaiu
iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee oe?aeineiai yeiiiienoa,
noaoenoeea, anaie?ii i?eciaiiiai i?aaenoaaeoaey Eeaaneie
iieeoyeiiiie/aneie oeieu Aaaaiey Neooeeiai (1880-1948), oneiaey a eaeeo
i?ienoiaeeei aai noaiiaeaiea, a oaeaea eaeae e acaeyaeu, eioi?ua
iiaeeyee ia oi?ie?iaaiea o/aiiai.

Oaea a nooaeai/aneie ?aaioa “Oai?ey i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe” ii i/a?oee
e?oa iao/iuo eioa?ania, i?aaenoaaea iaoaiaoe/aneoth eioa?i?aoaoeeth
oai?ee i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe. Oaeei ia?acii, a aeenna?oaoeee
aeaoaeueii aiaeece?oaony yaiethoeey oai?ee iieaciinoe, ?anniao?eaathony
iniiaiua iieiaeaiey i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?acee/iuo oeie ia?aeeiaeecia. Oaeie
iiaeoiae e ?anniio?aieth aeaiiie i?iaeaiu iaoneiaeaii oai, /oi i?ioeann
aini?eyoey eaeae ia?aeeiaeecia ia Oe?aeia, eae e a ie?a a oeaeii,
nii?iaiaeaeaeny aeoaieei ia?ainiuneaieai oai?aoe/aneeo iniia ia oieueei
eeanne/aneie oeieu, ii e naiie ia?aeeiaeenoneie eiioeaioeee. Iniiaiia
aieiaiea a aeenna?oaoeee oaeaeyaony niaaeeiaieth enoi?e/aneiai e
iee?iyeiiiie/aneiai iiaeoiaeia e eco/aieth oai?aoe/aneeo ?ac?aaioie
A.Neooeeiai.

Noaouey A.Neooeeiai “E oai?ee naaeaine?iaaiiiai athaeaeaoa iio?aaeoaey”
noaea ia?aie oaeie ?aaioie, eioi?ay neioace?iaaea e ?acaeea
iiiai/eneaiiua eaeae, aicieeoea a oiaea yaiethoeee iee?iyeiiiie/aneiai
aiaeeca. Iia i?aaie/ii i?iaeieaeeea nooaeai/aneea ?aciuoeaiey o/aiiai,
aaea enoiaey ec “ aiaeeca yeaiaioa?iuo yaeaiee aeooiaiie aeecie e
i?ioeannia iioeaaoeee”, ii naeaeae iiiuoeo niaaeeiaiey ineoieiae/aneiai
e iaoaiaoe/aneiai iai?aaeaiee. Neooeeee i?aaenoaaee aieaa aeoaieia
iainiiaaiea oai?ee iiaaaeaiey iio?aaeoaeae, aiciiaeiinoue iaoaiaoe/aneie
oi?iaeecaoeee ooieoeee iieaciinoe ia iniiaa aa ia?aie e aoi?ie
i?iecaiaeiuo. A aai ioeac io aeiiouaiey A.Ia?oaeea i iaeciaiiinoe
“i?aaeaeueiie iieaciinoe aeaiaa” aiiaua iicaieee o/aiiio iiaeieoe e
?aca?aie/aieth yooaeoia aeioiaea e caiauaiey.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiii enneaaeiaaiee i?aaenoaaeai aiaeec ioee/ee a
iiaeoiaeao Oeena e Neooeeiai e ?aciaaeaaaieth yooaeoa aeioiaea e yooaeoa
caiauaiey, /oi, i?aaeaea anaai, naycaii n o?aeoiaeie ieie iaeciaiiiai
?aaeueiiai aeioiaea. Niaeanii Neooeeiio, oieueei oio o?iaaiue
aeaiaaeiiai aeioiaea, eioi?iai aeinoaoi/ii aeey i?eia?aoaiey iaeiie e
oie aea eiiaeiaoeee oiaa?ia, iaania/eaaao e iaeciaiiue o?iaaiue
?aaeueiiai aeioiaea, /oi, a naith i/a?aaeue, e aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
eiee/anoaaiiiai ?aoaiey caaea/e ia iniiaaiee noaoenoe/aneeo iaoa?eaeia.
I?aeiouanoai iiaeoiaea A.Neooeeiai caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aai
i?eiaiaiea aace?oaony ia ?aaeueiuo aeaiiuo, eniieueciaaiea eioi?uo
iiaeeyei ia aiciiaeiinoue aeaeueiaeoaai enneaaeiaaiey yoiai aii?ina
oaea a yeiiiiao?e/aneii ?ac?aca.

Ii?aaeaeaii iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey eaeae oe?aeineiai o/?iiai a
ioa/anoaaiiie e caiaaeiie iaoea. I?aaenoaaeai aiaeec iiaaeoeo oai?ee, eo
iniiaiua iieiaeaiey e enoiaeiua i?aaeiinnueee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?aaeaeueiay iieaciinoue, e?eaua aac?acee/ey,
iee?iyeiiiie/aneee iiaeoiae, yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneea iaoiaeu, yooaeou
aeioiaea e caiauaiey, i?aeeiaeenoneay oai?ey.

ANNOTATION

Talala Y.S. Elaboration by Eugeny Slutsky of problems of Economic
Theory. — Manuscript.

Dissertation for a scientific degree of the candidate of economic
sciences on speciality 08.01.04 – economics history and history of
economic thought. Kyiv Taras Shevchenko university, Kyiv, 1999.

Dissertation work is dedicated to research of the place of economic
heritage of E.Slutsky in the modern theory of demand. The main attention
is paid to joining of historical and microeconomic approaches for
studding of theoretic elaborations of Ukrainian scientist. The theory of
demand evolution is being traced. The differences of approaches of
J.Hiks and E.Slutsky regarding division of effects of income and
substitution are being indicated, that enabled to introduce the
possibility of econometric embodiment of elaborations of the last one.
The main directions of development of Ukrainian scientist’s ideas in
national and western economic science are being indicated.

Key words: marginal utility, indifference curves, microeconomic
approach, economical-mathematical methods, income effects and
substitution, ordinalistic theory.

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