#1. 621.791.927.5.

#2. eaiaeeaeao iaoe.

#3. oaoi?/i?.

#4. 05.03.06.

#5. Caa?thaaiiy e nii??aeiai? oaoiieia??.

#6.1. aeaeo?e/ia a?ic?y, a?iica, ii?ioeia? aeaeo?iaee,
aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue, oaoiieia?y.

#6.2. yeaeo?e/aneay y?icey, a?iica, ii?ioeiaua yeaeo?iaeu,
yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoue, oaoiieiaey.

#6.3. electrical erosion, bronze, powder electrodes,
elecrtoconductivity, technology.

#7. ?ic?iaea aeaeo?iaeiiai iaoa??aeo ? oaoiieia?? iaoai?ciaaiiai
iaieaaeaiiy aeaeo?ia?ic?eiino?eeiai nieaao.

#8. I?eacianueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao.

#9. Ia??oiieue, 1999.

#10. Ae?no?aoia Aaea??e Ieeieaeiae/.

#11. 1964.

#12. *ieia?/a.

#13. Eaoaae?a “Iaoaeo?a?y ? oaoiieia?y caa?thaaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa”
I?eacianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, annenoaio.

#14.1. Ae?no?aoia A.I. ?ic?iaea aeaeo?iaeiiai iaoa??aeo ? oaoiieia??
iaieaaeaiiy aeaeo?ia?ic?eiino?eeiai nieaao. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe c
niaoe?aeueiino? 05.03.06 – caa?thaaiiy ? nii??aeiai? oaoiieia??. –
I?eacianueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, Ia??oiieue, 1999 ?.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiith ?ic?iaee aeiiiiiieaaiaaiiai
aeaeo?iaeiiai iaoa??aeo ? oaoiieia?? iaoai?ciaaiiai iaieaaeaiiy
aeaeo?ia?ic?eiino?eeiai nieaao. A ?iaio? ?ic?iaeai? onoaiiaea ?
iaoiaeeea aei?iaoaaiue ia aeaeo?ia?ic?eiee ciin. Aeine?aeaeaii aieea
neeaaeo ? no?oeoo?e i?aeiiai nieaao ia aeaeo?ia?ic?eio no?ee?noue,
aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue ? iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino?. ?ic?iaeaiee neeaae
ii?ioeiaiai aeaeo?iaea, caaacia/oth/ee iaieaaeaiiy o?iii-cae?cii? a?iice
ci?oeiaii? neaia-oacith. I?iaaaeai? ii??aiyeuei? aei?iaoaaiiy
iaieaaethaaeueiiai iaoa??aeo c eiiiiceoe?eieie iaoa??aeaie, ye? o
nai?io neeaae? iathoue aei 15 % (ca ianyaii) ea?a?aeii? oace oaeeo
nenoai: i?aeue-ea?a?ae o?iio, i?aeue-ea?a?ae iie?aaeaio, i?aeue-ea?a?ae
aieueo?aio. I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ?aaeeio iaieaaethaaiiy ia
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ? nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/i? oiiae aeicaieeee iioei?coaaoe
?o. ?ic?iaeaiee aeaeo?iaeiee iaoa??ae ? oaoiieia?y iaoai?ciaaiiai
iaieaaeaiiy ciaeoee canoinoaaiiy a oiiaao iaoaeo?a?eieo ?
iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoa Oe?a?ie.

#14.2. Aeeno?aoia A.I. ?ac?aaioea yeaeo?iaeiiai iaoa?eaea e oaoiieiae
iaoaiece?iaaiiie iaieaaee yeaeo?iy?iceiiiinoieeiai nieaaa. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.03.06 – naa?ea e ?iaenoaaiiua oaoiieiaee. –
I?eacianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao Ieienoa?noaa
ia?aciaaiey Oe?aeiu, Ia?eoiieue, 1999 a.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?ino ?ac?aaioee yeiiiiiieaae?iaaiiiai
yeaeo?iaeiiai iaoa?eaea e oaoiieiaee iaoaiece?iaaiiie iaieaaee
yeaeo?iy?iceiiiinoieeiai nieaaa. Iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
yeaeo?e/aneeo aeoaiauo ia/ae naea?aeeaaaony ieceie aeieaiaa/iinoueth
ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia ia/ae. A iaeaieaa oyaeaeuo oneiaeyo ?aaioatho
eiioaeoiua uaee yeaeo?iaeiaea?aeaoaey aeoaiaie noaeaieaaeeueiie ia/e,
i?e/ai iaee/ea yeaeo?iy?iceiiiiai eciina ia eo iiaa?oiinoe yaeyaony
iaeiie ec aeaaiuo i?e/ei auoiaea eo ec no?iy. Yooaeoeaiui n?aaenoaii
iiauoaiey noieeinoe yaeyaony iaieaaea yeaeo?iy?iceiiiinoieeiai nieaaa ia
iiaa?oiinoue iaaeiuo eiioaeoiuo uae i?e iiiiue ii?ioeiauo eaio. Ia
iniiaa aiaeeca nouanoaothueo iaoiaeee eniuoaiee ia yeaeo?iy?iceiiiue
eciin e ?aaeueiuo oneiaee ?aaiou eiioaeoiuo uae yeaeo?iaeiaea?aeaoaeae
?ac?aaioaia eiino?oeoeey eniuoaoaeueiie onoaiiaee iicaieythuay
i?iecaiaeeoue eniuoaiey ia?acoeia a aeeceeo e ?aaeueiui oneiaeyo. I?e
enneaaeiaaiee aeeyiey ia?aiao?ia ?aaeeia eniuoaiee ia yeaeo?iy?iceiiiue
eciin onoaiiaeaii, /oi aaee/eia eciina a iaeaieueoae noaiaie caaeneo io
aaee/eiu neeu oiea e /anoiou ei?ioeeo caiueaiee, i?e/ai caaeneiinoue a
iaieo neo/ayo eiaao yeniiiaioeeaeueiue oa?aeoa?. A ?aaioa enneaaeiaaii
aeeyiea ninoaaa e no?oeoo?u iaaeiiai nieaaa ia yeaeo?iy?iceiiioth
noieeinoue, yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoue e iaoaie/aneea naienoaa. ?ac?aaioai
ninoaa ii?ioeiaiai yeaeo?iaea niaea?aeauee eiiieaenii-eaae?iaaiioth
eeaaoo?o IA-E101 a ea/anoaa eaae?othuaai eiiiiiaioa, eioi?ue iicaieyao
iieo/eoue iaieaaeaiiue iaoaee a aeaea o?iii-aeaeaciie a?iicu
niaea?aeauae neaia-oaco (eioa?iaoaeeeae CrFe), iaania/eaathuee iieo/aiea
iaieaaeaiiiai neiy n yeaeo?iy?iceiiiie noieeinoueth a 1,7 ?aca
i?aauoathuae noieeinoue iaaee e yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoueth ia o?iaia 79%
ioiineoaeueii iaaee. Enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea aaaaeaiey a oeooo ii?ioeiaie
eaiou i?aiai?a ia oi?iiaeaiea e?aiieeainnoaiiaeoaeueiiai i?ioeanna ia
noaaeee eaiee. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aaaaeaiea a oeooo ii?ioeiaie eaiou 3-4%
i?aii?a (i?e eiyooeoeeaioa caiieiaiey ?aaiii 30%) iicaieyao nieceoue
niaea?aeaiea e?aiiey, /oi i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoe
iaieaaeaiiiai iaoaeea. N oeaeueth ii?aaeaeaiey o?iaiy naienoa
?ac?aaioaiiiai yeiiiiiieaae?iaaiiiai iaieaai/iiai iaoa?eaea i?iaaaeaiu
n?aaieoaeueiua eniuoaiey n eiiiiceoeeiiiuie iaoa?eaeaie niaea?aeaueie
aei 15% (ii iauaio) ea?aeaeiie oacu neaaeothueo nenoai: iaaeue-ea?aeae
o?iia, iaaeue-ea?aeae iieeaaeaia, iaaeue-ea?aeae aieueo?aia. I?e
?ac?aaioea eiiiiceoeeiiiuo iaieaai/iuo iaoa?eaeia ioeaieaaeenue
naa?i/ii-oaoiieiae/aneea naienoaa, yeaeo?iy?iceiiiay noieeinoue,
yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoue. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi yeaeo?iy?iceiiiay noieeinoue e
yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoue ?anoao a ?yaeo: Cu-Cr3C2, Cu-Mo2C e Cu-WC.
?ac?aaioaiiue ninoaa ii?ioeiaie eaiou, n eniieueciaaieai iaoaie/aneie
niane o?iia e oaea?iaea, iaania/eaaao aieaa noaaeeueiua
naa?i/ii-oaoiieiae/aneea naienoaa e ?aaiiia?iia ?ani?aaeaeaiea ea?aeaea
o?iia Cr3C2 a iaoaeea oaa, ii n?aaiaieth n ninoaaii niaea?aeauei ea?aeae
o?iia Cr3C2. I?iaaaeaia ioeaiea naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneeo oneiaee i?e
iaieaaea. Onoaiiaeaia caaeneiinoue aaeiauo auaeaeaiee iuee e aacia io
?aaeeiia iaieaaee. Ii?aaeaeythuae a?aaeiinoueth i?e iaieaaea yaeythony
auaeaeaiey ooi?eaeia. Ii?aaeaeaiu ia?aiao?u iioeiaeueiiai ?aaeeia
iaieaaee, iaania/eaathuaai aunieoth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue, ieieiaeueioth
aeieth o/anoey iniiaiiai iaoaeea a iaieaaeaiiii, ieieiaeueiua auaeaeaiey
iuee e aacia, ia iniiaaiee eioi?iai ?ac?aaioaia e ii?iaiaaia oaoiieiaey
iaieaaee eiioaeoiuo uae yeaeo?iaeiaea?aeaoaeae aeoaiauo noaeaieaaeeueiuo
ia/ae. Eniieueciaaiea iaieaai/iiai iaoa?eaea e oaoiieiaee iaieaaee
iicaieeei oeo/oeoue ea/anoai iaieaaeaiiiai iaoaeea, iiauneoue
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue, oeo/oeoue oneiaey o?oaea ii n?aaiaieth n ?aiaa
i?eiaiyaoaeny ?o/iie aeoaiaie iaieaaeie. ?ac?aaioaia ii?ioeiaay eaioa
IE-II-1 e oaoiieiaey iaieaaee eiioaeoiuo iiaa?oiinoae
yeaeo?iaeiaea?aeaoaeae, eioi?ay iicaieeea oaaee/eoue noieeinoue
iaieaaeaiiiai iaoaeea a oneiaeyo yeaeo?iy?iceiiiiai eciina a 1,5-2,0
?aca. ?ac?aaioaiiue yeaeo?iaeiue iaoa?eae e oaoiieiaey iaoaiece?iaaiiie
iaieaaee iaoee i?eiaiaiea a oneiaeyo iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo e
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee Oe?aeiu.

#14.3. Alistratov V. N. Development of electrode material and design for
mechanized surfacing of electroerosion-resistant alloy. — Manuscript.

The thesis for academic degree of Candidate of Technical Sciens in
speciality 05.03.06. – Welding and related techniques. – Pryazovskyi
State Technical University. – Ministry of Education of Ukraine,
Mariupol, 1999

The dissertation deals with the problem of developing
economically-alloyed electrode material and process design for
mechanized surfacing of electroerosian-resistant alloy. In the course of
this work the facility and the methodology for electroerosian-resistant
tests have been elaborated and are proposed. The effect of the
composition and the structure of copper alloy on electroerosian
resistance, electroconductivity and mechanical properties have been
investigated. The composition of powder electrode providing for
surfacing the chrome-iron bronze reinforced by sigma phase was
developed. Parallel testing of surfacing material and composite
materials containing to 15 % (in volume) of carbide phase of the
following systems: copper-carbide of chrome, copper-carbide of
molybdenum, copper-carbide of tungsten were conducted. Investigation
into the effect of the surfacing mode on productivity and hygiene
condition allowed to optimize them. The developed electrode material and
the process design for mechanized surfacing found an application in
metallurgical and machine-engineering factories in Ukraine.

#15. CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

O na?oia?e i?aeoeoe? niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aeioneo noae? a
aeaeo?e/ieo aeoaiaeo ia/ao, ui iiynith?oueny ?? aenieith ye?noth, a
oaeiae oe?eith ieceith ia?aaaa aeaeo?iieaaeaiiy o ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie
niiniaaie io?eiaiiy noae?. C?inoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa aeinyaa?oueny ye ca
?aooiie aoae?aieoeoaa iiaeo aa?aaao?a, oae ? ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? ?nioth/eo. I?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? no?eio?oueny
iecueeith aeiaaia?/i?noth ie?aieo aeaiaio?a ia/?.

A iaeaaae/eo oiiaao i?aoeththoue eiioaeoi? uiee aeaeo?iaeio?eia/a
aeoaiai? noaeaieaaeeueii? ia/?, i?e/iio iayai?noue aeaeo?ia?ic?eiiai
ciino ia ?o iiaa?oi? ? iaei??th c aieiaieo i?e/ei aeoiaeo ?o c eaaeo. Ia
aeeaey/enue ia iino?eia oaeineiiaeaiiy, i?aoethth/? ia nueiaiaei?oi?e
aeaiue eiino?oeoe?? aeaeo?iaeio?eia/?a ia caaacia/othoue iiaiiai
onoiaiiy i?e/ei aeaeo?ia?ic?eiiai ciino.

Iaeiei ?c oeyo?a ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie ? iaianaiiy ia iiaa?oith
eiioaeoii? uiee aeaeo?ia?ic?eiino?eeiai oa?o iaieaaeaiiyi.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ia aeaiee /an aeey iaieaaee i?ae? ? ?? nieaa?a
iiaeooue aooe canoiniaai? ??ci? niiniae. Aaciaa, ?o/ia aeoaiaa,
iai?aaaoiiaoe/ia aeaeo?iaeoaiaa iaieaaeaiiy o caoenieo aacao
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaaenieith i?iaeoeoeai?noth, aaaeeeie oiiaaie i?aoe?.
Aaoiiaoe/ia aeaeo?iaeoaiaa iaieaaeaiiy ii?ioeiaeie no??/eaie ia? iaai?
ia?aaaae: aenieo i?iaeoeoeai?noue, ia oae? aaaee? oiiae i?aoe?,
noaa?eueii aenieo ye?noue iaieaaeaiiai iaoaeo. Iaeia/a aieea neeaaeo ?
no?oeoo?e iaieaaeaieo i?aeieo nieaa?a ia aeaeo?ia?ic?eio no?ee?noue
aea/ai? iaaeinoaoiuei.

A ca’yceo c oeei iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui iiaeaeueo? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ni?yiiaai? ia ?ic?iaeo aeaeo?ia?ic?eiino?eeiai iaieaaethaaeueiiai
iaoa??aeo ? oaoiieia?? iaoai?ciaaiiai aeaeo?iaeoaiaiai iaieaaeaiiy, ?
aeooaeueiei caaaeaiiyi.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia
ia iniia? i?ia?aie IAe? ? IE? IAeOO ia 1992-1997 ?.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
?ic?iaea aeiiiiiieaaiaaiiai aeaeo?iaeiiai iaoa??aeo ? oaoiieia??
iaoai?ciaaiiai iaieaaeaiiy, caaacia/oth/eo i?aeaeuaiiy yeino?
iaieaaeaiiai iaoaeo ? no?ee?noue aeaoaeae, i?aoethth/eo a oiiaao
aeaeo?ia?ic?eiiai ciino.

Aeey ae??oaiiy oe??? iaoe o ?iaio? aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaaeaiiy:

?ic?iaeoe aei?iaoaaeueio onoaiiaeo ? iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee aeaeo?ia?ic?eii?
no?eeino? iaoa??ae?a;

aeine?aeeoe aieea neeaaeo ? no?oeoo?e i?aeieo nieaa?a ia aeaeo?ia?ic?eio
no?ee?noue, aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue ? iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? c iaoith aeai?o
iioeiaeueiiai neeaaeo aeey iaieaaee;

?ic?iaeoe iaieaaethaaeueiee iaoa??ae c aenieeie oaoiieia?/ieie ?
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie i?ae /an i?ioeano iaieaaeaiiy ? a
ia??iae aenieoaoaoe??;

ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue ? oai?aoe/ieo aeniiae?a ?ic?iaeoe
oaoiieia?/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii iaieaaeaiith i?aeieo eiioaeoieo u?e;

i?iaanoe i?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?ic?iaeai neeaae ii?ioeiaiai
aeaeo?iaea ia iniia? i?ae?, aeei?enoiaoth/ee
eiiieaenii-eaaiaaio e?aaoo?o IA-E101, ye eaaoth/ee eiiiiiaio (ai?no
o?iio ? cae?ca o a?aeiioaii? 1,8 – 2,0) a ina?ae? ii?ioeiaiai
aeaeo?iaea, yeee aeicaiey? io?eiaoe iaieaaeaiee iaoae o aeaeyae?
o?iii-cae?cii? a?iice, ai?uoth/i? neaia-oaco (?ioa?iaoae?ae CrFe).

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaaaeaiiy a oeooo ii?ioeiai? no??/ee (yea ia? neeaae:
eiiieaenii–eaaiaaia e?aaoo?a IA-E101 – 6,0 – 6,5%, ii?ioie
aethi?i?ai–iaai??aee IAI-4 – 1,9 – 2,9%, ooi?iieano O-4 – 1,7 – 1,9%,
i?e eiao?oe??io? caiiaiaiiy ??aiiio 30%) ia?io?o 3-4% aeicaiey? ca
?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy iniiaiino? oeaeo ia noaae?? e?aie? i?aeoe/ii
iiaeaaeoe e?aii?ea?aeiiaethaaeueiee i?ioean ? cieceoe ai?no e?aii?th c
0,221 aei 0,128%, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino?
iaieaaeaiiai iaoaeo.

Aeiaaaeaia iiaeeea?noue iaieaaeaiiy eiiiiceoe?eieo nieaa?a nenoai
Cu-Cr3C2, Cu-Mo2C ? Cu-WC, c ai?noii ooaiieaaei? oace aei 15 % (ca
ia’?iii).

Anoaiiaeaii, ui neeaae ii?ioeiai? no??/ee c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoai?/ii?
noi?o? eiiiiiaio?a (a?aeiioaiiy ai?noo o?iio aei a?ao?oo neeaaea? 3,1 –
3,3), o ca’yceo c a?aenooi?noth noaae?? aeenioe?aoe?? ea?a?aeo o?iio i?e
iaieaaeaii?, caaacia/o? a?eueo noaa?euei? caa?thaaeueii-oaoiieia?/i?
aeanoeaino? ? ??aiii??iee ?iciiae?e ea?a?aeo o?iio Cr3C2 o iaoae? oaa,
i?ae neeaae ii?ioeiai? no??/ee, ai?uoth/ee aioiaee ea?a?ae o?iio Cr3C2.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aecia/aia caeaaei?noue
aeaeo?ia?ic?eii? no?eeino? eiiiiceoe?eieo iaieaaethaaeueieo iaoa??ae?a
a?ae neeaaeo. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeaeo?ia?ic?eia no?ee?noue c?inoa? o ?yaeo
: Cu-Cr3C2, Cu-Mo2C ? Cu-WC.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Neeaae ?ic?iaeaiiai
ii?ioeiaiai aeaeo?iaea caaacia/o? i?aeaeuaiiy aeaeo?ia?ic?eii? no?eeino?
iaieaaeaiiai iaoaeo a?eueoa i?ae a 1,7 ?aca o ii??aiyii? c i?aeaeth, i?e
aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? ??ai?e 79% a?ae aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? i?ae?.

Aecia/ai? ia?aiao?e iioeiaeueiiai ?aaeeio iaieaaeaiiy, caaacia/oth/iai
aenieo i?iaeoeoeai?noue, i?i?iaeueio /anoeo iniiaiiai iaoaeo o
iaieaaeaiiio, i?i?iaeuei? aeae?eaiiy ieeo ? aac?a, ia iniia? yeiai
?ic?iaeaia ? aei?iaoaaia oaoiieia?y iaieaaeaiiy eiioaeoieo u?e
aeaeo?iaeio?eia/?a aeoaiaeo noaeaieaaeeueieo ia/ae.

Aeei?enoaiiy iaieaaethaaeueiiai iaoa??aeo ? oaoiieia?? iaieaaeaiiy
aeicaieeei iie?ioeoe ye?noue iaieaaeaiiai iaoaeo, i?aeaeueoe
i?iaeoeoeai?noue, iie?aueoe oiiae i?aoe? o ii??aiyii? ?c ?ai?oa
canoiniaoaaiei ?o/iei aeoaiaei iaieaaeaiiyi.

I?iaaaeaia ai?iaaoe?y iaieaaethaaeueiiai iaoa??aeo ? oaoiieia??
iaieaaeaiiy a oiiaao AAO “Acia” (i. Ia??oiieue). Cai?iiiiiaai?
iaieaaethaaeueiee iaoa??ae ? oaoiieia?y iaieaaeaiiy acyoa aei
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy.

Iniaenoee aeeaae iiooeoaa/a. Aaoi?ii ia iniia? aiae?co oiia ?iaioe
eiioaeoieo u?e aeaeo?iaeio?eia/a ?ic?iaeai? onoaiiaea ? iaoiaeeea
aei?iaoaaiue ia aeaeo?ia?ic?eiee ciin. Aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaii aieea
neeaaeo iaieaaeaiiai iaoa??aeo ia aeaeo?ia?ic?eio no?ee?noue ?
aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue, iiaoaeiaaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue. Aaoi?ii
i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii ?ic?iaoe? ? aecia/aiith oa?aeoa?enoee
eiiiiceoe?eieo iaieaaethaaeueieo iaoa??ae?a nenoai: Cu-Cr3C2; Cu-Mo2C;
Cu-WC. Aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaii aieea ?aaeeio iaieaaeaiiy o?iii-cae?cii?
a?iice ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue ? nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/i? oiiae. ?ic?iaeai?e
aaoi?ii aeaeo?iaeiee iaoa??ae ? oaoiieia?y iaieaaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeai? ia
AAO “Acia” (i. Ia??oiieue) ca iniaenoith o/anoth iiooeoaa/a. Aaoi?ii
i?aeoaa?aeaeaii i/?eoaaia i?aeaeuaiiy no?eeino? eiioaeoieo u?e
aeaeo?iaeio?eia/a ? iie?ioaiiy oiia i?aoe? o ii??aiyii? c ?ai?oa
canoiniaaiith oaoiieia??th a?aeiiaeaiiy ?o/iei aeoaiaei iaieaaeaiiyi.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia Ananithci?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoai?ea neio/eo
o?e” (Iaeana, 1991 ??e); Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaaeoaa?ae? ?
eiiiiceoe?ei? iaoa??aee ? iie?eooy, ?o canoinoaaiiy” (Ee?a, 1991 ??e);
?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? (Ia??oiieue, 1992 ??e); III
?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? (Ia??oiieue, 1995 ??e); ia
iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao eaoaae?: “Iaoaeeo?a?y e oaoiieia?y caa?thaaeueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa” oa “Iaeaaeiaiiy ? oaoiieia?y caa?thaaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa”
I?eacianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (Ia??oiieue 1994,
1999 ?.?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii 4
noaoo? a iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao, 4 oace aeiiia?aeae ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 4
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae c 132 iaeiaioaaiue, 1
aeiaeaoeo ? ai?uo? 134 noi??iee iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, 29 iaethie?a, 25
oaaeeoeue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

?icae?e 1. Oa?aeoa?enoeea oiia ?iaiou aeaeo?iaeio?eia/?a aeoaiaeo
noaeaieaaeeueieo ia/ae ? aiae?c oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy ?o ?iaioicaeaoiino?.

Eiioaeoi? uiee aeaeo?iaeio?eia/?a aeoaiaeo noaeaieaaeeueieo ia/ae
caciathoue eiiieaeniiai aieeao aenieeo oaiia?aoo?, aa?aneaiiai aaciaiai
na?aaeiaeua, iaai?oiiai iiey aeniei? iai?oae, oa?oy ia a?ao?oiaaiee
aeaeo?iae ? a?a?aoe?? i?ae ae??th aeaeo?iae?iai?/ieo nee, ui i?eaiaeeoue
aei iieiiie aeaeo?iae?a ? aeieeiaiiy ei?ioei/aniaeo aeoa o eiioaeo?
“aeaeo?iae-eiioaeoia uiea”. I?e/iio iayai?noue aeaeo?iaeoaiaiai ciino ia
iiaa?oi? eiioaeoieo u?e aeaeo?iaeio?eia/a ? iaei??th c aieiaieo i?e/ei
aeoiaeo ?o ?c eaaeo.

I?e/eie aeaeo?iaeeiaie/ieo eieeaaiue aeaeo?iae?a ? niin?a ?o onoiaiiy
aeine?aeaeai? a ?iaioao Naiei A.?., Eiaaeue I.A., Noaoeaiei I.A.
Iaeiaeiai cai?iiiiiaai? i?eno?i? aeiaaathoue cia/ieo iaoa??aeueieo
aeo?ao ia ?aeiino?oeoe?th, aei oiai ae aiie ia caaacia/othoue iiaiiai
caaeoooaaiiy eieeaaiue, a eeoa ciaioothoue ?o aiie?ooaeo.

Iaeiei ?c oeyo?a ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie ? iaianaiiy ia iiaa?oith eiioaeoieo
u?e iie?eoue c iioeiaeueiei ii?aeiaiiyi aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? ?
aeoaino?eeino?.

Aea/aiith aeaeo?ia?ic?eiiai ciino, ?ic?iaoe? aeaeo?ia?ic?eiino?eeeo
iaoa??ae?a aeey canoinoaaiiy a aeaeo?ioaoi?oe? i?enay/ai? oe?ea iecea
?ia?o Ieiaeiai? ?.A., O?aioeaae/a ?.I., A?aoa?nueei? A.I. I?e
aenieoaoaoe?? aeaeo?ioaoi?/ieo i?eno?i?a oeio ei?ioeicaieea/?a ?
?ic’?aeioaa/?a, ye? i?aoeththoue a oiiaao aaaaoi a /iio iiae?aieo c
aeine?aeaeoaaieie ( no?oiiaa iaaaioaaeaiiy a?ae 10 aei 1000 A), a
onueiio na?o? ciaoiaeyoue canoinoaaiiy nia/ai? eiiiiceoe?ei? iaoa??aee
nenoai: Cu-W; Cu-WC; Cu-Mo; Cu-Mo2C ?c ai?noii ooaiieaaei? oace aei
70% (ca ianith), a oaeiae a inoaii?e /an Cu-Cr ? Cu-Cr-C.

Iaeia/a oe? iaoa??aee ? aei?iaeie ? aino?iaeao?oeeoieie, a iaoiaee
ii?ioeiai? iaoaeo?a?? i?e iaianai? iie?eoue ia ae?iae oaei? oi?ie ?
aaaa?eo?a i?aaenoaaeythoueny aaaeei?aae?ciaaieie.

Aoaeoeaiei niiniaii i?aeaeuaiiy no?eeino? ? iaianaiiy ia iiaa?oith
eiioaeoii? uiee aeaeo?ia?ic?eiino?eeiai oa?o iaieaaeaiiyi. ?o/ia aeoaiaa
iaieaaeaiiy, yea canoiniao?oueny, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aaaeeeie oiiaaie
i?aoe? ? a?aenooi?noth iaieaaethaaeueieo iaoa??ae?a, i?ecia/aieo aeey
aeaeo?ia?ic?eiino?eeiai iaieaaeaiiy. Ana oea aeaco? ia iaiao?aei?noue
?ic?iaee aeaeo?iaeiiai iaoa??aeo ? oaoiieia?? iaoai?ciaaiiai iaieaaeaiiy
aeaeo?ia?ic?eiino?eeiai nieaao.

?icae?e 2. ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee aei?iaoaaiue ia aeaeo?ia?ic?eiee ciin.

Ia iniia? aiae?co oiia ?iaioe eiioaeoeo u?e aeaeo?iaeio?eia/?a ?
?nioth/eo iaoiaeee c aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaeo?ia?ic?eiiai ciino, ?ic?iaeaia
onoaiiaea ?i?ooth/a oiiae ?iaioe eiioaeoieo u?e ? iaoiaeeea aei?iaoaaiue
iaoa??ae?a ia aeaeo?ia?ic?eiee ciin.

?ic?iaeaia onoaiiaea aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe aei?iaoaaiiy c aa?oeeaeueiith
ieiueiith eiioaeoa, ui a?aeiia?aea? ?aaeueiei oiiaai aenieoaoaoe??
eiioaeoieo u?e, iaoe no?oiiaa iaaaioaaeaiiy aei 400 A ? aa?oith iaaeo
ae?aiaciio /anoio ei?ioeeo caieeaiue aei 2 Aoe, ioieiaeaeoaaoe caoeneiee
iao?ii aiaeith. Noaia onoaiiaee aeey aeaeo?ia?ic?eieo aei?iaoaaiue
i?aaenoaaeaia ia iae.1

1 – caoeneiee iao?ii; 2 – aeine?aeaeoaaiee c?acie; 3– ia?ooiia o?aaa?na;

4 – a?ao?oiaa ieanoeia; 5 – ?ooiia o?aaa?na; 6 – aeaea?aei aeeaeaiiy;

7 – aeaeo?iiaai?o; 8 – nenoaia ea?oaaiiy yeaeo?iiaai?oii.

Iae.1. Noaia onoaiiaee aeey aeaeo?ia?ic?eieo aei?iaoaaiue

Onoaiiaea neeaaea?oueny c aeaio iniiaieo /anoei: iaoai?/ii? ?
aeaeo?e/ii?. Iniiaiei neeaaeiaeie iaoai?/ii? /anoeie ?: caoeneiee iao?ii
1 ?c aeie?aeaeoaaiei c?aceii 2, cae??ieaiei ia ia?ooii?e o?aaa?n? 3,
a?ao?oiaa ieanoeia 4, cae??ieaia ia ?ooii?e o?aaa?n? 5. A aeaeo?e/io
/anoeio aoiaeeoue aeaea?aei aeeaeaiiy ci?iiiai no?oio 6, aeey
ia?aaeaaaiiy no?oio a?ae iueiai aei c?acea ? a?ao?oiai? ieanoeie
aeei?enoiaothoueny aio/e? oeie. sse aeaea?aei no?oio canoiniao?oueny
caa?thaaeueiee o?ainoi?iaoi? NOO-500. Aeey iaaeaiiy
cai?ioii-iinooiaeueiiai ?ooo ?ooii?e o?aaa?n?, a ?acii c iath ?
a?ao?oiaie ieanoei? aeei?enoiao?oueny aeaeo?iiaai?o 7. Oi?aae?iiy
aeaeo?iiaai?oii cae?enith?oueny nenoaiith ea?oaaiiy 8, c?a?aiith ia
iniia? ioeueoea?a?aoi?a ? aeicaieyth/ith ci?ithaaoe /anoioo eieeaaiue
?ooiii? o?aaa?ne.

Iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy aei?iaoaaiue iieyaa? a ianooiiiio. C?acie o
aeaeyae? oeee?iae?a ae?aiao?ii 16 ii caaaeo?oueny ia aaaao a AEO-1 c
oi/i?noth aei 0,01 a. Iio?i a?i cae??ieth?oueny ia o?eia/? oaeei /eiii,
uia caaacia/oaaany iaae?eiee eiioaeo o ia?? “c?acie – a?ao?oiaa
ieanoeia”. I?e aeieeiaii? eieeaaeueiiai i?ioeano i?aeaiaeeoueny iai?oaa
a?ae aeaea?aea aeeaeaiiy ? can?ea?oueny /an ii/aoeo aei?iaoaaiue. I?ney
cae?i/aiiy /ano aei?iaoaaiue c?acie aeeia?oueny ?c o?eia/a ?
i?iaiaeeoueny eiai iiaoi?ia caaaeoaaiiy c o??th ae oi/i?noth. ??cieoey o
aac? aei ? i?ney aei?iaoaaiue aea? e?euee?nio oa?aeoa?enoeeo
aeaeo?ia?ic?eii? no?eeino? aei?iaoaaiiai iaoa??aeo.

Aeey aeai?o iioeiaeueieo ia?aiao??a aei?iaoaaiue i?iaaaeai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ii aecia/aiith aieeao neee no?oio ei?ioeiai caieeaiiy a
ae?aiacii? a?ae 220 aei 400 A, o?eaaeino? aei?iaoaaiue a ae?aiacii? a?ae
90 aei 300 n, /anoioe ei?ioeeo caieeaiue a ae?aiacii? a?ae 0,70 aei 1,90
Aoe ia aaee/eio ciino c?ace?a, i?e aiaeyiiio ioieiaeaeaii? (aeo?aoe
aiaee 1,65(10-5 i3/n).

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? aieeao ia?aiao??a ?aaeeio aei?iaoaaiue ia
aeaeo?ia?ic?eiee ciin anoaiiaeaii, ui aaee/eia ciino a iaea?eueo?e i???
caeaaeeoue a?ae aaee/eie neee no?oio ? /anoioe ei?ioeeo caieeaiue,
i?e/iio caeaaei?noue o iaio aeiaaeeao ia? aeniiiaioe?aeueiee oa?aeoa?.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ia?iaeai? iaoiaeii ?aa?aneaiiai aiae?co c
aeei?enoaiiyi ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee. ??aiyiiy iiiaeeiii? ?aa?an??
aeey aaee/eie ciino a caeaaeiino? a?ae neee no?oio ei?ioeiai caieeaiiy,
o?eaaeino? aei?iaoaaiue ? /anoioe ei?ioeeo caieeaiue i?aaenoaaeai? o
aeaeyae? ??aiyiue 1-3.

(1)

aea (I – aaee/eia ciino, a; I – neea no?oio, A.

(2)

aea (I – aaee/eia ciino, a; ( – o?eaae?noue aei?iaoaaiue, n.

(3)

aea (I – aaee/eia ciino, a; f – /anoioa ei?ioeeo caieeaiue, Aoe.

Oaeei /eiii ?aaeei aei?iaoaaiue: neea no?oio ei?ioeiai caieeaiiy –
300 A, /anoioa ei?ioeeo caieeaiue – 1,7 Aoe, o?eaae?noue aei?iaoaaiue –
300 n.

?icae?e 3. ?ic?iaea neeaaeo iaieaaethaaeueiiai iaoa??aeo.

Aeiiae, ui i?aae’yaeythoueny aei iaoa??ae?a, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey
iaieaaeaiiy iiaa?oi? eiioaeoieo u?e: aeniea aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue,
aeoaino?ee?noue, aea?ino?ee?noue ? aea?ii?oei?noue. A iaea?eueo?e i???
?i a?aeiia?aeathoue i?aei? nieaae, ci?oeiai? aeenia?nieie aeae?eaiiyie
iaaeeeoeiaeo oac – oeio neaia-oace (?ioa?iaoae?aeo CrFe).

Ia iniia? aiae?co niinia?a iaieaaeaiiy i?aeieo nieaa?a ?aeiiaiaeiaaia
iaieaaea ii?ioeiaei no??/eiaei aeaeo?iaeii i?ae oethnii.

Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui aaaaeaiiy eiiieaenii-eaaiaaieo e?aaoo? aei neeaaeo
oeooe aeaeo?iaeieo iaoa??ae?a i?aeaeuo? o?i?/io iaeii?iaei?noue
?iciiae?eo aeaiaio?a o iaieaaeaiiio iaoae?, cieaeo? o??ueiiooai?aiiy ?
ooai?aiiy oeaeiaeo aeeth/aiue, aoa i?iaiae?ciaaiee neeaae e?aaoo?, ui
aeionea?oueny i?iieneia?noth. Iioeiaeueiei ? aeei?enoaiiy e?aaoo?e
IA-E101, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy io?eiaiiy cae?ca ? o?iio a ye?e (1,8 – 2,0)
?iaeoue aenieith a??ia?aei?noue ooai?aiiy ?ioa?iaoae?aeo CrFe o i?aei?e
iao?eoe?.

Aeey aaaaeaiiy aeoeaieo ?iceenethaa/?a aoa aeei?enoaiee ii?ioie
aethi?i??ai-iaai??aee ia?ee IAI-4, ye can?a aeaeaeaiiy aiaeith ?c
caa?thaaeueii? aaiie aeei?enoiaoaaany ooi?iieano O-4. Iaoa??ae iaieiiee
– i?aeue I1.

O ca’yceo c iayai?noth o neeaae? oeooe eiiieaenii-eaaiaaii? e?aaoo?e
IA-E101, a oaeiae aethi?i??ai-iaai??aiai ii?ioea, ca ao?aei? ia?aiao?e
i?eeia?ii: O1 – noia?iee ai?no o?iio, cae?ca, i?eaeth, ia?aaioeth,
e?aii?th, a oaeiae aoaeaoeth ( yeee ia?aoiaeeoue o nieaa ?c e?aaoo?u), a
c?aceao (a % ian); O2 – noia?iee ai?no aethi?i?th ? iaai?th o c?aceao (a
% ian); O3 – ai?no aoaeaoeth (yeee ia?aoiaeeoue o nieaa ?o ooi?iieanoo)
a c?aceao (a % ian). I?e oeueiio ca ieaei?e ??aaiue aa?aoueny: noia?iee
ai?no aeaiaio?a, ui aiinyoueny eiiieaenii-eaaiaaiith e?aaoo?ith – 0,70
%; noia?iee ai?no aethi?i?th ? iaai?th – 0,18 %; ai?no aoaeaoeth, ui
aiineoueny ooi?iieanoii – 0,01 %. Ca aa?oi?e ??aaiue acyo?: noia?iee
ai?no, ui aiinyoueny eiiieaenii-eaaiaaiith e?aaoo?ith – 1,65 %; noia?iee
ai?no aethi?i?th ? iaai?th – 0,73 ; ai?no aoaeaoeth, ui aiineoueny
ooi?iieanoii – 0,03%.

(% aei i?ae?).

Iieaciee a?aeiinii? aeaeo?ia?ic?eii? no?eeino? aecia/a?oueny ca
oi?ioeith 4

– ao?aoa ia’?io i?aeiiai c?acea i?e aei?iaoaaii?;

– ao?aoa ia’?io iaieaaeaiiai c?acea i?e aei?iaoaaii? .

O aeiaaeeo aei?iaoaaiiy iaieaaeaieo iaoa??ae?a, ye? a iacia/i?e i???
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae i?ae? ieoiieie aaaaie, iiaeeeaa aeei?enoaiiy o
yeino? iieacieea a?aeiinii? no?eeino? – a?aeiioaiiy ao?aoe aaae i?aeiiai
c?acea i?ae /an i?ioeano aei?iaoaaiue aei ao?ao aaae iaieaaeaiiai i?e
iaeiaeiaeo oiiaao aei?iaoaaiue.

I?e aeaioiaeaii? aeaicaieiai? no??/ee ia noai? IA-765 aaee/eia coneeey
iaoeneoaaiiy a?aeiia?aeaea 15 eI.

Iaieaaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue ia aia?ao? AAeO-1004 c aeaea?aeii aeeaeaiiy
AAeO-1201. I?iaiaeeeanue iaieaaea ieanoei ?c i?ae? I1 i?ae oethnii
AI-20I ia ?aaeei? Ii=600(650, Uae = 30(32 A, Vi = 15 i/a, aee?o
aeaeo?iaea — 70 ii, no?oi iino?eiee, iiey?i?noue cai?ioia.

Iaieaaea i?iaiaeeeanue a iaeei ? aeaa oa?e. Oaiia?aoo?a iiia?aaeiueiai
i?ae?a??aaiiy o ia/? 500(N ia i?ioyc? 30 oa.

Aecia/aiiy iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?iaiaeeeinue ca noaiaea?oieie
iaoiaeeeaie, aea?ii?oei?noue ioe?ithaaee ca iaoiaeith iaeiiaiaeeiii?
aa?y/i? oaa?aeino? i?e oaiia?aoo?? 500°N ? 700°N.

Cai??thaaiiy aeaeo?iiii?o c?ace?a i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeii iai?yieo
aei??thaaiue ia iinoia?e onoaiiaoe? O309 ca noaiith iiaea?eiiai iinoa.
Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ia?a?aoiaoaaeenue o cia/aiiy aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino?
a?aeiinii aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? i?ae?.

Ca aeiiiiiaith ei?aeyoe?eii-?aa?aneaiiai aiae?co i?iaaaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia
ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioo. Io?eiai? e?i?ei? iiaeae?:

(6)

Aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui iioeiaeueiei ii?aeiaiiyi
aeaeo?ia?ic?eii? no?eeino? (In>1,7) ? aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? a?aeiinii
aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? i?ae? ((=63%) aieiae?? nieaa oaeiai neeaaeo: Cr –
0,630%, Fe – 0,411%, Mn – 0,093%, Ni – 0,082%, Si – 0,221%, C – 0,080%,
Al – 0,203%, Mg – 0,182%, io?eioaaiee i?e aeei?enoaii? ii?ioeiai?
no??/ee, oeooa yei? ai?uoaaea e?aaoo?e IA-E101 – 6,5%; ii?ioea
aethi?i??ai-iaai??aiai IAI-4 – 2,1%; ooi?iieanoo O-4 – 1,9%. Aeaiee
neeaae i?eiyoee ca iniiao aeey iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

C iaoith aecia/aiiy ??aiy aeanoeainoae ?ic?iaeaiiai aeiiiiiieaaiaaiiai
iaieaaethaaeueiiai iaoa??aeo aeeeeea? ?ioa?an ii??aiyiiy eiai
oa?aeoa?enoee c iaieaaethaaeueieie iaoa??aeaie ia iniia? i?ae? ?
ea?a?ae?a o?iio, iie?aaeaio, aieueo?aio, a oaeiae i?ae? ? o?iio.

Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui iaeiei ?c iniiaieo e?eoa???a ? aeniea
aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue, ?ic?aooiie neeaaeo ii?ioeiaeo no??/ie aeey
iaieaaee eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a i?iaiaeeany c ?ic?aooieo io?eiaiiy o
ia?oiio iaieaaeaiiio oa?? ia’?iiiai ai?noo ea?a?aeii? oace – a?ey 15%.

Aeey io?eiaiiy a iaieaaeaiiio oa?? ea?a?aeo o?iio o i?aei?e iao?eoe?
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue no??/ee aeaio neeaae?a: no??/ea, ui ai?uoaaea ea?a?ae
o?iio Cr3C2, ? no??/ea, ui ai?uoaaea noi?o o?iio ? a?ao?oo.

Aeey aecia/aiiy aieeao ai?noo o?iio ia aeanoeaino? a?iice
aeine?aeaeoaaeenue ii?ioeia? no??/ee, ye? aeicaieyee iaieaaeoe iaoae
oeio A?.O1, a oaeiae nieaa i?ae? ?c i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii o?iio (aei 15%
ca ia’?iii).

Iaieaaeaiiy aeeiioaaeinue ia ieanoei? ?c i?ae? I1 ?ici??ii 250(100(20
ii, i?e iaieaaeaii? aeei?enoiaoaaany oethn AI-20I. ?aaeei iaieaaee:
I=600(650 A, UAe=30-32 A, VI=15i/a, aee?o aeaeo?iaea – 70 ii, no?oi
iino?eiee, iiey?i?noue cai?ioia. Oaiia?aoo?a iiia?aaeiueiai
i?ae?a??aaiiy 500(N. I?ney iaieaaee eiaeiiai c aeaio oa??a ?iaeeanue
aeo?eiea o ia/? i?e oaiia?aoo?? 500(N ia i?ioyc? 30 oa.

I?iaiaeeeanue ioe?iea oaoiieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaieaaethaaeueieo
iaoa??ae?a, aecia/aiiy o?i?/iiai neeaaeo, iaoaeia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
a oaeiae ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iee aiae?c ia ?aioaai?anueeiio aeeo?aeoiiao??
O?N-50EI.

A ca’ceo c oei, ui ?ic?iaeaiee neeaae ii?ioeiai? no??/ee c aeei?enoaiiyi
iaoai?/ii? noi?o? eiiiiiaio?a (a?aeiioaiiy ai?noo o?iio aei a?ao?oo
neeaaea? 3,1 – 3,3) caaacia/o? a?eueo noaa?euei?
caa?thaaeueii-oaoiieia?/i? aeanoeaino? ? ??aiii??iee ?iciiae?e ea?a?aeo
o?iio Cr3C2 o iaoae? oaa, i?ae neeaae ii?ioeiai? no??/ee, ai?uoth/ee
ea?a?ae Cr3C2, oi aeae? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue c eiai
aeei?enoaiiyi.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue i?aaenoaaeai? ia iae.2 o aeaeyae?
aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? iaieaaeaiiai iaoaeo a?aeiinii aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino?
i?ae? I1 ? a?aeiinii? aeae?ia?ic?eii? no?eeino?.

Iae.2 Ae?aa?aia a?aeiinii? aeaeo?ia?ic?eii? no?eeino? ?
aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? iaieaaeaieo iaoa??ae?a a?aeianaii? aei
aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? i?ae?: 1 – A?.OAE; 2 – A?.O1; 3 – A?.OE10-1; 4 –
Cu+6%Cr3C2; 5 – Cu+15%Mo2C; 6 – Cu+24%WC

O aeine?aeaeoaaieo eiiiiceoe?eieo nieaa?a ia iniia? i?ae?
aeaeo?ia?ic?eii no?ee?noue c?inoa? o ?yae?: i?aeue-ea?a?ae o?iio,
i?aeue-ea?a?ae iie?aaeaio, i?aeue-ea?a?ae aieueo?aio. C?inoaiiy
aeoaiaaneeueieo aeanoeainoae o ?yaeo iiynith?oueny i?aeaeuaiiyi
oaiia?aoo?e ieaaeaiiy ? eei?iiy ooaiieaaei? oace, ??ciei aieeaii
i?iaeoeo?a a?ic?? ia noaa?euei?noue aeoaiaiai i?ioeano.
I?aaenoaaey? ?ioa?an nenoaia i?aeue-ea?a?ae o?iio – iecueeee ??aaiue
aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? iiynith?oueny cia/iith e?euee?noth e?aii?th, a
oaeiae a?eueiei o?iiii.

Aeaeo?ia?ic?eia no?ee?noue ? aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue ?ic?iaeaiiai iaoa??aeo
ni?anoaaey?oueny c oa?aeoa?enoeeaie eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a.

Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? iaieaaeaiiai iaoa??aeo oeio
o?iii-cae?cii? a?iice, aeine?aeaeoaaany aieea aeiaaaie ia?io?o ia
aaeueioaaiiy e?aii?ea?aeiiaethaaeueiiai i?ioeano ?c oethno.

C iaoith aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai ai?noo ia?io?o ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaiiai
ii?ioeiaiai aeaeo?iaea aoea ?ic?iaeaia na??y ii?ioeiaeo no??/ie, o oeoo?
yeeo ai?no ia?io?o neeaaeaa 1-8%, eiao?oe??io caiiaiaiiy i?e oeueiio aoa
30%.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaaaeaiiy o oeooo ii?ioeiai? no??/ee 3-4% ia?io?o (i?e
eiao?oe??io? caiiaiaiiy ??aiiio 30%) aeicaiey? ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy
iniiaiino? oeaeo ia noaae?? e?aie? i?aeoe/ii caaaeueioaaoe
e?aii?ea?aeiiaethaaeueiee i?ioean ? cieceoe ai?no e?aii?th a?ae 0,221
aei 0,128%, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? i?ae? i?e
iacia/iiio c?inoaii? aeaeo?ia?ic?eii? no?eeino?. Ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo
ia?io?o aei 5-8% i?eaiaeeoue aei iia??oaiiy oi?ioaaiiy iaieaaeaiiai
iaoaeo, a?aeie?aiethaai?noue oeaeiai? ei?ee caaeia?eueia. I?e ai?no?
ia?io?o 6 % a iaieaaeaiiio iaoae? c’yaeythoueny iiiaeeiie? ae??ai? ii?e

C iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy aeaeo?ia?ic?eii? no?eeino? aeine?aeaeoaaany aieea
i?aeaeuaiiai ai?noo o?iio. Aoea aeaioiaeaia na??y ii?ioeiaeo no??/ie, o
oeoo? yeeo aeiaeaoeiai ai?uoaaeinue 0,5-3,0% ii?ioeo o?iio ia?ee O99A.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaee, ui ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo o?iio c 0,630
aei 1,174% a o?iii-cae?ci?e a?iic? i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy
i?oei?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaieaaeaiiai iaoaeo i?e ii?iaeuei?e ?
i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?ao (iaaea i?oeiino? (A=540 IIa, a oaa?ae?noue
HB=86 ean/ii2, iaeiiaiaeeiia aa?y/a oaa?ae?noue i?e 500(N HB1500=55
ean/ii2). Iaeiaeiai, iacia/ia c?inoaiiy aeaeo?ia?ic?eii? no?eeino?
(In=1,83) i?e cia/iiio cieaeaii? aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? ((=68%) ?iaeoue
i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo o?iio iaaeioe?eueiei.

Oaeei /eiii oeooa ?ic?iaeaiiai ii?ioeiaiai aeaeo?iaea (i?e Ec=30%) ia?
oaeee neeaae: e?aaoo?a IA-E101 – 6,0 – 6,5%; ii?ioie
aethi?i??ai-iaai??aee IAI-4 – 1,9 – 2,1%; ooi?iieano O-4 – 1,7 – 1,9%;
ia?io? – 3,0 – 4,0%. Aeaiee neeaae caaacia/o? o ia?oiio iaieaaeaiiio
oa?? aeaeo?ia?ic?eio no?ee?noue o 1,7 ?aca ia?aaeuoth/o no?ee?noue i?ae?
? aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue ia ??ai? 79% a?aeiinii i?ae? i?e oaeeo iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoyo: (A=530 IIa, HB=81 ean/ii2, (5=15%, HB1500=52 ean/ii2,
HB1700=19 ean/ii2.

I?iaiaeeeinue aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e?ino?oeoo?e, oaciaiai neeaaeo ?
?iciiae?eo aeaiaio?a iaieaaeaiiai iaoaeo.

I?e?ino?oeoo?a iaieaaeaiiai iaoaeo aeine?aeaeoaaeanue ye ia iioe/iiio
i?e?ineii? (iae.3), oae ? ia ?ano?iaiio aeaeo?iiiiio i?e?ineii? ISM —
T200. No?oeoo?a i?aaenoaaey? niaith ie?ai? aeeth/aiiy ?ioa?iaoae?ae?a
??cii? aaee/eie ? oi?ie o oaa?aeiio ?ic/ei?. Eieaeueiee niaeo?aeueiee
aiae?c iieacaa, ui e?oiii? ? na?aaeiuei? aaee/eie aeeth/aiiy
neeaaeathoueny ?c o?iio, cae?ca, e?aii?th ? i?ae?.

Iae.3. I?e?ino?oeoo?a iaieaaeaiiai iaoaeo ((400) ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iee
aiae?c i?iaiaeeany ia ?aioaai?anueeiio ae?o?aeoiiao?? O?N-50 EI.
Aeyaeai? oae? oace: CrFe, ( — Al7Cu6Mg6, ( — CuAl2, ( — Al4Cu9, ( —
Ni2Si.

Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iciiae?eo aeaiaio?a o iaieaaeaiiio iaoae?
aeei?enoiaoaaany i?e?iaiae?caoi? ?aioaai?anueeee iiaeae? SX – 50 o??ie
Naiaea.

Aiae?c ?iciiae?eo aeaiaio?a i?aeoaa?aeea ?acoeueoaoe iiia?aaei?o
aeine?aeaeaiue – iniiaiith ci?oeithth/ith oacith ? ?ioa?iaoae?ae CrFe.

?icae?e 4. Oaoiieia?/i? iniaeeaino? iaieaaee aeaeo?ia?ic?eiino?eeiai
nieaao ii?ioeiaith no??/eith.

C iaoith iioei?caoe?? ?aaeei?a iaieaaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue aeine?aeaeaiiy
aieeao ia?aiao??a ?aaeeio (neee no?oio, iai?oae aeoae, oaeaeeino?
iaieaaee) ia iieacieee i?iaeoeoeaiino? ? aaeia? aeae?eaiiy ieeo, ai?no
e?aii?th, i?ae? ? ?o c’?aeiaiue, a oaeiae aac?a, ui aeae?eythoueny i?e
iaieaaeaii?. ?acoeueoaoe iaaaaeai? ia iae.4.

Iaieaaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue ia ieanoeie c i?ae? I1 i?ae oethnii AI-20I
iaeiei oa?ii. Oaiia?aoo?a iiia?aaeiueiai i?ae?a??aaiiy a ia/? 500(N.

Aeoiaey/e ?c i??eoaaiue aeniei? i?iaeoeoeaiino?, iecueei? /anoee ai?noo
iniiaiiai iaoaeo o iaieaaeaiiio ? i?i?iaeueieo aeae?eaiue ieeo ? aac?a,
aa?aii oaeee ?aaeei iaieaaeaiiy: neea no?oio – 600-650 A; iai?oaa aeoae
– 30-32 A; oaeaee?noue iaieaaeaiiy – 15-18 i/a.

Na?aaei? aaeia? cia/aiiy i?e iaieaaeaii? ii?ioeiaith no??/eith i?ae
oethnii ia iioeiaeueiiio ?aaeei? i?aaenoaaeai? a oaae. 1.

.

Iae.4 Caeaaei?noue eiao?oe??ioa iaieaaeaiiy (I, /anoee ai?noo iniiaiiai
iaoaeo o iaieaaeaiiio (0, aaeiaeo aeae?eaiue ieeo ONNA ? ooi?eae?a F
a?ae ?aaeeio iaieaaeaiiy: a) neee no?oio; a) iai?oae aeoae; a)
oaeaeeino? iaieaaeaiiy

Oaaeeoey 1

Aaeia? aeae?eaiiy ieeo ? aac?a i?e iaieaaoe? ia iioeiaeueiiio ?aaeei?

Aa?icieue, a/ea

Aace, a/ea

Caaaeueia e?euee?noue ieeo C’?aeiaiiy i?ae? C’?aeiaiiy e?aii?th HF
? SiF4 CO

0,07–0,09

0,08 0,02–0,04

0,03 0,03–0,05

0,04 0,20–0,22

0,21 0,60–0,80

0,70

Ia aac? io?eiaieo ?ic?aooieiaeo aeaieo iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
aecia/aeueiith oe?aeeea?noth i?e iaieaaeaii? ii?ioeiaith no??/eith i?ae
oethnii AI-20I ? aeae?eaiiy ooi?eae?a. Aeey noai?aiiy iaiao?aeieo
nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/ieo oiia i?e iaieaaoe? iaiao?aeii caaacia/eoe
a?aeiia?aeiee iia?o?iiai?i, yeee aecia/aiee aeey ooi?eae?a.

Ia iniia? aiae?co ??cieo noai iaieaaeaiiy eiioaeoieo u?e
aeaeo?iaeio?eia/?a aea?aia noaia iaieaaee acaeiaae ooai?thth/i?.

I?aeaioiaea iiaa?oi? i?ae iaieaaeo i?iaiaeeoueny iaoai?/iei niiniaii aai
o?aaeaiiyi.

I?e iayaiino? aeaoaeo?a aeeaeiith a?eueoa 4 ii i?iaiaeeoueny iaoai?/ia
ia?iaea c ianooiiei caa?thaaiiyi aeaeo?iaeaie ia?ee AIOe-2.

I?ney onoiaiiy aeaoaeo?a ca aeiiiiiaith ?o/iiai aeoaiaiai caa?thaaiiy
i?iaiaeeoueny iaoai?/ia ia?iaea. I?aeaioiaeaia eiioaeoia uiea
anoaaey?oueny o niaoe?aeueia i?enoinoaaiiy ia iai?ioeyoi??, aea ca
aeiiiiiaith aaciaeo iaeueiee?a ?iaeoueny iiia?aaei? i?ae?a??aaiiy aei
400-600°N. Ioai?e ia iiaa?oi? eiioaeoieo u?e cae?eaathoueny
oaoiieia?/ieie a?ao?oiaeie caaeooeaie.

Iaieaaeaiiy aeeiio?oueny ie?aieie aaeeeaie c iie?eooyi 1/3 oe?eie
iiia?aaeiueiai ia ?aaeeiao: neea no?oio 600-650 A; iai?oaa aeoae 30-32
A; oaeaee?noue iaieaaeaiiy 15-18 i/a. I?ney iaieaaee aeeiio?oueny
eiio?ieue yeino?, o aeiaaeeo iayaiino? – aeaoaeoe onoaathoueny ca
aeiiiiiaith ?o/iiai aeoaiaiai caa?thaaiiy aeaeo?iaeaie AIOe-1 ca
oaoiieia??th, iienaiith aeua.

Canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? oaoiieia?? ? aeaeo?iaeiiai iaoa??aeo aeey
a?aeiiaeaiiy aieiaie aeaeo?iaeio?eia/?a AeNI-25 aeicaieeei i?aeaeueoe ?o
no?ee?noue c 4 i?nyoe?a aei 1 ?ieo.

Oaeoe/iee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaoiiea?? iaieaaeaiiy ?
iaieaaethaaeueiiai iaoa??aeo ??aiee 19700 a?i.

CAAAEUeI? AENIIAEE

Ia iniia? e?oa?aoo?ieo ? iaoaioieo aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeaii, ui
aoaeoeaiei caniaii i?aeaeuaiiy no?eeino? eiioaeoieo u?e, ? iaieaaeaiiy
aeaeo?ia?ic?eiino?eeiai nieaao ia ?o iiaa?oith ca aeiiiiiaith ii?ioeiaeo
no??/ie.

Ia iniia? aiae?co ?nioth/eo aei?iaoaaeueieo onoaiiaie ? iaoiaeee
aei?iaoaaiue ia aeaeo?ia?ic?eiee ciin, a oaeiae ?aaeueieo oiia ?iaioe
eiioaeoieo u?e aeaeo?iaeio?eia/?a ?ic?iaeaia eiino?oeoe?y
aei?iaoaaeueii? onoaiiaee ? iaoiaeeea, ye? aeicaieythoue cae?enithaaoe
aei?iaoaaiiy c?ace?a iaieaaethaaeueieo iaoa??ae?a a aeecueeeo aei
?aaeueieo oiiaao.

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? aieeao ia?aiao??a ?aaeeio aei?iaoaaiue ia
aeaeo?ia?ic?eiee ciin anoaiiaeaii, ui aaee/eia ciino a iaea?eueo?e i???
caeaaeeoue a?ae aaee/eie neee no?oio ? /anoioe ei?ioeeo caieeaiue,
i?e/iio caeaaei?noue a iaio aeiaaeeao ia? aeniiiaioe?aeueiee oa?aeoa?.

?ic?iaeai neeaae ii?ioeiaiai aeaeo?iaea ia iniia? i?ae?,
aeei?enoiaoth/ee eiiieaenii-eaaiaaio e?aaoo?o IA-E101, ye eaaoth/ee
eiiiiiaio (ai?no o?iio ? cae?ca o a?aeiioaii? 1,8 – 2,0) a ina?ae?
ii?ioeiaiai aeaeo?iaea, yeee aeicaiey? io?eiaoe iaieaaeaiee iaoae o
aeaeyae? o?iii-cae?cii? a?iice, ai?uoth/i? neaia-oaco (?ioa?iaoae?ae
CrFe).

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaaaeaiiy a oeooo ii?ioeiai? no??/ee (yea ia? neeaae:
eiiieaenii–eaaiaaia e?aaoo?a IA-E101 – 6,0 – 6,5%, ii?ioie
aethi?i?ai–iaai??aee IAI-4 – 1,9 – 2,9%, ooi?iieano O-4 – 1,7 – 1,9%,
i?e eiao?oe??io? caiiaiaiiy ??aiiio 30%) ia?io?o 3-4% aeicaiey? ca
?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy iniiaiino? oeaeo ia noaae?? e?aie? i?aeoe/ii
iiaeaaeoe e?aii?ea?aeiiaethaaeueiee i?ioean ? cieceoe ai?no e?aii?th c
0,221 aei 0,128%, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino?
iaieaaeaiiai iaoaeo.

Neeaae ii?ioeiai? no??/ee, ?ic?iaeaiee o ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue
caaacia/o? io?eiaiiy iaieaaeaiiai oa?o c aeaeo?ia?ic?eiith no?ee?noth a
1,7 ?aca ia?aaeuoth/o no?ee?noue i?ae? ? aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noth ia ??ai?
79% a?aeiinii i?ae?.

Aeiaaaeaia iiaeeea?noue iaieaaeaiiy eiiiiceoe?eieo nieaa?a nenoai:
Cu-Cr3C2, Cu-Mo2C ? Cu-WC ?c ai?noii ooaiieaaei? oace aei 15% (ca
ia’?iii).

Anoaiiaeaii, ui neeaae ii?ioeiai? no??/ee c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoai?/ii?
noi?o? eiiiiiaio?a (a?aeiioaiiy ai?noo o?iio aei a?ao?oo neeaaea? 3,1 –
3,3), o ca’yceo c a?aenooi?noth noaae?? aeenioe?aoe?? ea?a?aeo o?iio i?e
iaieaaeaii?, caaacia/o? a?eueo noaa?euei? caa?thaaeueii-oaoiieia?/i?
aeanoeaino? ? ??aiii??iee ?iciiae?e ea?a?aeo o?iio Cr3C2 o iaoae? oaa,
i?ae neeaae ii?ioeiai? no??/ee, ai?uoth/ee aioiaee ea?a?ae o?iio Cr3C2.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aecia/aia caeaaei?noue
aeaeo?ia?ic?eii? no?eeino? eiiiiceoe?eieo iaieaaethaaeueieo nieaa?a a?ae
neeaaeo. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeaeo?ia?ic?eia no?ee?noue c?inoa? o ?yaeo:
Cu-Cr3C2, Cu-Mo2C ? Cu-WC.

C?iaeaia ioe?iea nai?oa?ii-a?a??ie/ieo oiia i?e iaieaaethaaii?.
Anoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue aaeiaeo aeae?eaiue ieeo ? aac?a a?ae ?aaeei?a
iaieaaee. Aecia/aeueiith oe?aeeea?noth i?e iaieaaeai? ? aeae?eaiiy
ooi?eae?a, ii aaeiaei aeae?eaiiyi yeeo ?ic?aoiaai iaiao?aeiee
iia?o?iiai?i.

?ic?iaeaia ii?ioeiaa no??/ea IE-II-1 ? oaoiieia?y iaieaaeaiiy eiioaeoieo
iiaa?oaiue aeaeo?iaeio?eia/?a, yea aeicaieeea i?aeaeueoe no?ee?noue
iaieaaeaiiai iaoaeo a oiiaao aeaeo?ia?ic?eiiai ciino a 1,5-2 ?ace.

Ai?iaaaeaeaia oaoiieia?y iaoai?ciaaiiai iaieaaeaiiy eiioaeoieo u?e
aeaeo?iaeio?eia/?a aeoaiaeo noaeaieaaeeueieo ia/ae ii?ioeiaei no??/eiaei
aeaeo?iaeii ia AAO “Acia” (i. Ia??oiieue). Oaeoe/iee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo
a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy neeaa 19700 a?i.

Caaaeueiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

Aeeno?aoia A.I., *eaa?aa A.A., Naae?ia E.A. Iaoiaeeea ioeaiee
yeaeo?iy?iceiiiie noieeinoe iaieaaeaiiiai iaoaeea // Aaoiiao. naa?ea. –
1998. – ? 9. – N. 35–38.

Io?aoia A.A., Aeeno?aoia A.I. I?e/eiu ia?aciaaiey o?auei i?e iaieaaea
eiiiiceoeeiiiuo nieaaia nenoaiu ia?aaioeiaue iaeueoei?-?aeeo iiae
oethnii // Aaoiiao. naa?ea. – 1996. – ? 8. – N. 36–38.

Aeeno?aoia A.I., *eaa?aa A.A., Oaaoe O.I. Ioeaiea naienoa iaieaai/iuo
iaoa?eaeia, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey ?aaiou a oneiaeyo yeaeo?iy?iceiiiiai
eciina // Aanoiee I?eacianeiai ainoaooieaa?neoaoa. – Ia?eoiieue. – 1997.
– ? 3. – N. 145–148.

Aeeno?aoia A.I., *eaa?aa A.A. Aeeyiea ?aaeeia iaieaaee a?iicu ii?ioeiaie
eaioie ia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue e iueaauaeaeaiea // Aanoiee
I?eacianeiai ainoaooieaa?neoaoa. – 1998. – ? 6. – N. 196–198.

*eaa?aa A.A., Aaeaoiaa A.E., Aeeno?aoia A.I. Auai? oaoiieiae/aneeo
?aaeeiia i?iecaiaenoaa ii?ioeiauo yeaeo?iaeia // Eiiiiceoeeiiiua
iaoa?eaeu a ii?iaei?ac?ooathueo eino?oiaioao: Oace aeiiia. Ananithc.
iaoe. — oaoi. eiioa?. – Eaaii-O?aie?anuee, 1987. – N. 43–44.

*eaa?aa A.A., Aeeno?aoia A.I., Iaeeiia A.E. Eeiaoeea oieioiaiey ii?ioea
a iaiei/ea ii?ioeiaie eaiou // Oeceea e iaoaieea ieanoe/aneeo
aeaoi?iaoeee ii?ioeiauo iaoa?eaeia: Oace aeiiia. ?ani. nai?ia?o. –
Eoaainuee, 1991. – N.60.

*eaa?aa A.A., Aeeno?aoia A.I., Iaeeiia A.E. Iiauoaiea noaaeeueiinoe
ieaaeaiey ii?ioeiauo eaioi/iuo yeaeo?iaeia // ?aa?ii. iaoe.–oaoi.
eiio., o?aaaiue 1992.: Oace aeiiia. – Ia??oiieue, 1992. – o.2.
Iaoeiino?iaiea. – N. 77.

*eaa?aa A.A., Aeeno?aoia A.I. ?ac?aaioea yeaeo?iy?iceiiiinoieeiai
iaoa?eaea // III ?aa?ii. iaoe.-oaoi. eiio., o?aaaiue 1995. : Oace.
aeiiia. – Ia??oiieue, 1995. – N. 73.

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