AeA?AEAAIA IAOAEO?A?EIA AEAAeAI?ss

OE?A?IE

I?IEAeAE TH??e Na?a?eiae/

OAeE 669.187.2:669.14.018.294:669.182.7

?IC?IAEA AOAEOEAII? OAOIIEIA?? AE?IAIEOeOAA

EIE?NII? NOAE? C AEEI?ENOAIIssI IAOIAe?A

IICAI?*II? IA?IAEE OA NIAOeAEAEO?IIAOAEO?A??

05.16.2- «Iaoaeo?a?y /i?ieo iaoae?a»

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy o/aiiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianeuee — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y o aeaeyae? ?oeiieno

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Aea?aeaai?e iaoaeo?a?ei?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio

aeaaeai?e IAI Oe?a?ie,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

IAAeIAA? Ai?en ?c?a?eiae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

IAO?OeIA Aiaoie?e Iaaeiae/

(Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, ?aeoi?);

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

OeEA??EI Aaeoa?ae ?aaiiae/

(Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani?);

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

OeEEOEAIEI Aiaoie?e Einoyioeiiae/

(?inoeooo aeaeo?icaa?thaaiiy ?i.?.I.Iaoiia IAI Oe?a?ie,

ia/aeueiee a?aeae?eo)

Aaaeo/a i?aei?e?inoai

Caii??cueea aea?aeaaia ?iaeaia?ia aeaaeai?y. I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny « 25 » o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 12-30 ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 08.084.03 i?e Aea?aeaai?e
iaoaeo?a?ei?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie (320635, i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
i?.Aaaa??ia, 4).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Aea?aeaaii?
iaoaeo?a?eii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie (320635, i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
i?.Aaaa??ia, 4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii «_______» ______________1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

ae.o.i., i?ioani?
A.E.Oeaiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie.

I?iaeaia i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? eie?nii? noae? ? oe?eueiieaoaieo eie?n aeey
?ooiiiai neeaaeo iacaiiiai o?ainii?oo ? iao?iiie?oaio iaeaaeeoue aei
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo caaaeaiue aeey noaeaieaaeeueii? i?iieneiaino?
iaoaeo?a?eiiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie. Oe?iei ?icaaeoaeaeaia ia?aaea
cae?cie/ieo iaa?no?aeae iaoi? e?a?ie (iiiaae 62 oen.ei) c ?icaeiooei
ia?eii ?ooiiiai neeaaeo ?, ia??ai? c aaoiiia?eueieie, aiaeyieie
o?ainii?oieie a?oa??yie, iniiaith iaea?eueo aea?aeieo oae caaieo
e??onueeeo ei?eaei??a, ui iaceaathoueny o i?aeaea?aeaaieo aeieoiaioao
«?ioaa?aoi?aie Oe?a?ie a ?a?iio». Ia eiioa?aioe??, yea i?ioiaeeea ia
ino?ia? E??o i?ae aa?aeith ?a?iiaeneueiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa, aoei aeciaii,
ui ?c aeaa’yoe o?ainii?oieo ei?eaei??a /ioe?e, ui ca’ycothoue Cao?aeio
?a?iio c Oeaio?aeueiith oa No?aeiith, iai?yio ca/?iathoue aeiiii?/i?
?ioa?ane Oe?a?ie.

O ca’yceo c oeei o?aiceo aaioaae?a o?ainii?oieie ei?eaei?aie ia
oa?eoi-??? Oe?a?ie iiaea noaoe iaeiei ?c aaaeeeaeo aeaea?ae aaethoieo
iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei athaeaeaoo e?a?ie.

sse a?aeiii, Oe?a?ia ? iaeiei ?c aaaeo/eo aenii?oa??a oe?eueiieaoaieo
eie?n aeey aaaii?a oa eieiiioeaieo aaiaeaae?a ?ooiieo neeaae?a o ?yae
e?a?i ?a?iie, Ac?? oa Noiaeo, ui oaeiae iaoiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue
iino?eiiai i?aeaeuaiiy eiieo?aioicaeaoiino? aenii?oiaaii?
iaoaeii?iaeoeoe??.

Oaeaee?noue ianaaee?nueeiai o?ainii?oo, ui iino?eii c?inoa?, oa
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia a?nue eie?nii? ia?e oiaa?ieo ii?cae?a, aenie? aeiiae
aei aaciaee ?ooiieo neeaae?a, iaae?eiino? oa no?eeino? eie?n i?e
o?ainii?ooaaii? niaoe?aeueieo aeae?a aaioaae?a (aeo?aeia ?
a?aei?aoeueiaaia aoiiia aia?aaoe/ia iaeeai, ia’?eoe iai?iiiiai cia/aiiy
oiui) aeeeoothoue iaiao?aei?noue i?aeaeuaiiy eiiieaeno o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae eie?nii? noae? oa aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee
oe?eueiieaoaieo eie?n.

I?iaeaia i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? oe?eueiieaoaieo eie?n o oe?ie?e iinoaiiaoe?
iiaea aooe ?ica’ycaia eiiieaenii o aca?iica’yceo oeyoii oaeineiiaeaiiy
ae?th/eo oaoiieia?e aeieaaee ? ?iceeaee noae? oa iaoeiaiai iiooeo a?eueo
i?eaeaoieo ?aaeei?a i?anii?ieaoee caaioiaie, i?ioeoeieaiii? ia?iaee oa
iioei?caoe?? ia?aiao??a oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee (iaa??a i?ae caaa?ooaaiiy,
i?enei?aia ioieiaeaeaiiy oa iecueeioaiia?aoo?iee a?aeione). Iaeiae
oe?eeii i/aaeaeii, ui ye?noue e?ioeaai? i?iaeoeoe?? o oe?e neeaaei?e
oaoiieia?/i?e noai? ae?iaieoeoaa eie?n aaaaoi a /iio aecia/a?oueny
ia?a?nii aeanoea?noth noae?, aieeaii ?yaeo iaoaeo?a?eieo oaeoi??a ia
noaae?? aeieaaee iaoaeo o ia/?, iicai?/ii? ia?iaee oa ?iceeaee.

Aeeeaaeaiee i?aeo?ae aei ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaiiiai eiiieaeniiai caaaeaiiy
i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? eie?nii? noae? aecia/ea iaoeiaee iai?yiie oai?aoe/ieo
oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaiiy aaeeeiianooaaieo
aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaeo ?ia?o o neeaaeieo oiiaao noaeaieaaeeueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa, ui, o e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo, caaacia/eei iaea?aeaiiy
aaeeeiai aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaiiai iaoa??aeo aenieiai
nooiaith aeinoia??iino? ? a?aeoai?thaaiino? ?acoeueoao?a, ocaaaeueiaieo
o oe?e aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?.

Aeooaeuei?noue iinoaiiaee ? aeeiiaiiy ?iaioe i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny oei,
ui oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee ? iaea?aeai? i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe ?aae?ciaai?
a?aeiia?aeii aei aeeiiaiiy iinoaiia ?aaee I?i?no??a N?N?, I?i?noa?noaa
/i?ii? iaoaeo?a?? N?N? (?icii?yaeaeaiiy ? NE 10083/13 a?ae 13.08.84),
Aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?ia?aie «?ic?iaea ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?ano?nicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?/ieo noai ia?a?iaee a?aeoiae?a
aeaeo?ioa?i?/iiai ae?iaieoeoaa noae?, oa?inieaa?a, oethn?a, aa?acea?a oa
?ioeo aoi?eiieo iaoa??ae?a» (i?iaeo Aea?aeaaiiai eii?oaoo ii iaooe? oa
oaoiieia?yi Oe?a?ie ? 5-53.07/124-92), a oaeiae o ?aieao aeeiiaiiy
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o ca eii?aeeiaoe?eieie ieaiaie I?ii?iio Oe?a?ie,
aaeocaaeo ?inoeooo?a oa oaiaoe/ieie ieaiaie Aea?aeaaii? iaoaeo?a?eii?
aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ?iaioe: aieiaia ?aeay ?iaioe iiaiith i??ith ei?aniiiaeo? c ??
iacaith ? caiaeeoueny aei iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii? ?ic?iaee ?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aoaeoeaii? oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa eie?nii? noae? o
??cieo noaeaieaaeeueieo aa?aaaoao (ia?oai?anueeeo oa aeaeo?iaeoaiaeo
ia/ao) c oe?ieei aeei?enoai-iyi no/anieo iaoiae?a iicai?/ii? ia?iaee
??aeei? eie?nii? noae? ? niinia?a ?ao?ioth/eo aeaeo?iia?aieaa?a.

Caaaeaiiy, ye? iaiao?aeii ?ica’ycaoe aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe.

Aea/aiiy oiia aenieoaoaoe?? cae?cie/ieo eie?n, oaeoi??a, ui
aecia-/athoue ?o iaae?ei?noue ? aeiaaia?/i?noue, oa aecia/aiiy ia oe?e
iniia? aeiia aei yeino? noae? ? aeanoeainoae oe?eueiieaoaieo eie?n.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy no/aniiai noaio oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa eie?nii? noae?,
aeeaaeo iaoaeo?a?eieo oaeoi??a o iieacieee yeino? iaoaeo oa aecia/aiiy
i?eioeeiiai iiaeo iai?yie?a oaeineiiaeaiiy ae?th/eo oaoiieia?e aeieaaee,
iicai?/ii? ia?iaee oa ?iceeaee noae?.

Oa?iiaeeiai?/ia ioe?iea iiaaae?iee eenith i?e ieeneaii? aoaeaoeth i?ae
/an aeieaaee eie?nii? noae?, i?ioean?a aeaoinoi?aoe?? ? ?iceeneaiiy
iaoaeo ??cieie iaoa??aeaie, aeanoeueoo?aoe??, aeyaeaiiy oaeoi??a, ui
aieeaathoue ia oaeaee?noue i/euaiiy noae? a?ae ia?ic/eiieo o i?e
iaiaoae?/ieo aeeth/aiue.

Aea?? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai neeaaeo ?iceenethaa/?a, ?aaeei?a ?iceeneaiiy, ui
caaacia/othoue iaea?aeaiiy eie?nii? noae? ? oiaa?ieo eie?n aeniei?
yeino?, a oaeiae iie?ioaiiy oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a.

Iaa?oiooaaiiy ia aac? oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co, e?oa?aoo?ieo oa
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo iiaeeeaino? iiaeeo?eoaaiiy eie?nii? noae? c
iaoith iiae??aiaiiy ia?aeiii? no?oeoo?e, ci?ie i?e?iaee, nooiaith
aeenia?niino? oa ii?oieia?? iaaeeeoeiaeo oac; i?iieneiaa aei?iaoaaiiy ?
inai?iiy oaoiieia?? ea?aii?o??aeiiai ci?oeiaiiy ? iiaeeo?eoaaiiy
eie?nii? noae? oaeueeiaai?aeieie aeaiaioaie.

Anoaiiaeaiiy i?eioeeiiai? iiaeeeaino? aieeao ?ao?ioth/eo
aeaeo?iia?aieaa?a ia i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? iaoaeo ? aioiaeo eie?n ca
?aooiie aeanoeueoo?aoe?? noae?, ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe?? aeii?oie
eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a ? aac?a, e?eueeino? ? neeaaeo iaiaoae?/ieo
aeeth/aiue, a oaeiae ia?aa??ao ye niiniao ea?oaaiiy no?oeoo?iooai?aiiyi.

Eiiieaeni? eaai?aoi?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oe?ieiianooaaia i?iieneiaa
aei?iaoaaiiy aeioe?eueiino? aeei?enoaiiy iaoiae?a niaoeaeaeo?iiaoaeo?a??
i?e ae?iaieoeoa? eie?n a?aeiia?aeaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy.

Aaaaoioaeoi?iee aiae?c, aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iioei?caoe?y oaoiieia?/ieo
ia?aiao??a aeieaaee ? ianooiii? eiiieaenii? iicai?/ii? ia?iaee c iaoith
aeeaieiai ?ao?ioaaiiy iaoaeo a?ae n??ee, iaiaoae?/ieo aeeth/aiue ?
aac?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

I?aoaiaeaioii ia caeiaoooy o/aiiai nooiaiy iniaenoi cai?iiiiiaai? oae?
iaoeia? ??oaiiy:

aeeiiai? oai?aoe/i? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaaae?iee
eenith o eeiey/?e noaeaieaaeeuei?e aaii?,i?ioean?a ?iceeneaiiy ?
?ao?ioaaiiy aoaeaoeaai? eie?nii? noae?, ui aeicaieeei o
aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaeo oiiaao i?iaanoe eiiieaeni? aeine?aeaeaiiy c
aeieaaee eie?nii? noae? o 100-oiiieo aeoaiaeo ia/ao c ianooiiei
aaeooioaaiiyi ? i?iaeoaaiiyi ?ia?oiei aacii ca ??cieie oaoiieia?/ieie
noaiaie ? aa??aioaie aeieaaee oa iicai?/ii? ia?iaee, ianooiiei
aeaioiaeaiiyi eie?n ? anoaiiaeaiiyi ?o i?ae aenieioaeaee?ni? ii?caee;

i?iaaaeai? oa?iiaeeiai?/iee aiae?c ? o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?ioean?a iiaeeo?eoaaiiy no?oeoo?e noae? ? ea?oaaiiy oi?ioaaiiyi
aoi?eiieo oac c aeei?enoaiiyi no/anieo aeinyaiaiue iaoaeio?ceee;
noiniaii aei eie?nii? noae? iieacaia i?eioeeiiaa iiaeeea?noue
i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? iaoaeo oeyoii ea?aii?o??aeiiai ci?oeiaiiy ?
iiaeeo?eoaaiiy oaeueeiaai?aeaie;

ia i?aenoaa? eiiieaenieo eaai?aoi?ieo ? iai?ai?iieneiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
?ic?iaeaia, aeine?aeaeaia ? inai?ia ?aoe?iiaeueia oaoiieia?y
ae?iaieoeoaa eie?nii? noae? iaoiaeii AOI, ui caaacia/eea oi?eaeueia
ii?aeiaiiy neoaeaiaeo aeanoeainoae i?e iaeii/anii aenie?e ieanoe/iino?
oa a’yceino? iaoaeo; c aeei?enoaiiyi no/anieo iaoiae?a iaoaeio?ceee
aia?oa iieacaii, ui aeniea iaeii??aei?noue ? aeenia?ni?noue eie?nii?
noae? AOI iaoiiaeai? ia o?eueee iai?aaeaiei ? i?enei?aiei
oaieia?aeaiaeii, aea ? cia/iei ia?aioieiaeaeaiiyi e?enoae?coth/iai
?icieaao aiane?aeie nooo?aiai ia?aa??ao ??aeeiai iaoaeo;

iioei?ciaai? oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e iicai?/ii? ia?iaee eie?nii? noae?
(i?/-e?ao ? aaeooiaoi?), ui aeicaieeei cia/ii i?aeaeueoe ye?noue noae?,
noaa?e?coaaoe iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? ? caaacia/eoe ai?no n??ee aei
0,004-0,006%.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy yeino?
aoaeaoeaaeo noaeae i?e aeei?enoaii? ??cieo ?iceenethaa/?a aeicaieeee
aecia/eoe oiiae ooai?aiiy ? ci?ie i?iaeoeo?a ?aaeoe?? ?iceeneaiiy,
aeyaeoe oaeoi?e, ui aieeaathoue ia oaeaee?noue i/euaiiy noae? a?ae
ia?ic/eiieo o i?e ieene?a oa ienenoeueo?ae?a, a oaeiae aecia/eoe ca’ycie
?iceeneaiiy c i?ioeanii aeanoeueoo-?aoe?? oa aaciiane/ai?noth ??aeeiai
iaoaeo, ui ia? aaaeeeaa i?aeoe/ia cia/ai-iy aeey i?aeaeuaiiy yeino?
eie?nii? noae?.

?ic?iaeaia ? inai?ia oaoiieia?y aeieaaee eie?nii? noae? o
aaeeeiaai-oaaeieo aeoaiaeo aeaeo?iia/ao c ianooiiei aaeooiiei
?ao?ioaaiiyi caaacia/eea cae?cie/iei eieanai aenieee caian i?oeiinieo ?
ieanoe/ieo aeanoeainoae: aeey iaoaeo eie?n ia?ee 1 oei/aniaee ii??
?ic?eao neeaaea? 940-1000 I/ii2, ia?ee 2 — 960-1070 I/ii2. Ieanoe/i?
aeanoeaino? iaoaeo eie?n aeyaeeeny o na?aaeiueiio o 1,5-1,8 ?ace aeua,
i?ae na??eiiai, a oaea?ia a’yce?noue o iaeano? iaaaoeaieo oaiia?aoo?
aeua o 1,5 ?ace. Aenieoaoaoe?ei? aei?iaoaaiiy eie?n o ?ooiiiio neeaae?
oaeaeeeo ianaaee?nueeeo ii?cae?a i?aeoaa?aeeee ?o aenieo no?ee?noue
i?ioe ni?aoethaaiiy ? iaae?ei?noue.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaoiieia?? ?iceeneaiiy eie?nii? noae? Si-Mg-Ti-ai?nieie
e?aaoo?aie ia Ieaeiueiaei?i?ianueeiio o?oaii?ieaoiiio caaiae? (IOC)
aeicaieeei ca?eueoeoe aeo?ae i?eaeaoieo eie?n ia 6,42%, i?e oeueiio a?ae
eie?n ca iaoaeo?a?eieie iciaeaie cieceany ia 0,71%, a a?ae caaioiaie —
ia 2,21%. ?acoeueoaoe a?aea?aeiaee caaioiaie ? eie?n a oiiaao
Aeenoinueeiai iaoaeo?a?eiiai caaiaeo (AIC) iieacaee, ui caaaeueia
a?aea?aeiaea ii anueiio ia?aae?eo ciaioeeanue ia 17%.

?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y oeaeiaiai ?aaeeio c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoa??ae?a, ui
i?noyoue aethi?i?e — i?iaeoeo?a ia?a?iaee oeae?a ae?iaieoeoaa aoi?eiiiai
aethi?i?th — caaacia/eea cia/ia cieaeaiiy ieeneaiiy iaoaeo ? oeaeo.
I?e?ino?oeoo?a aeine?aeiiai iaoaeo i?e oeueiio yaey? niaith
ni?a?oiiiae?aiee ia?e?o c oiieith oa??oiith n?oeith, ia a?eueoino?
ieaaie aeinyaiooi iiae??aeaiiy ca?ia aei 7-8 aae?a i?ioe 6-7 aae?a o
iaoae? iioi/ii? aeieaaee. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaiiai oeaeiaiai ?aaeeio
aeicaieeei nei?ioeoe ia 10% aeo?aoe ia?aaioeaaeo oa e?aii?noeo
oa?inieaa?a ? cieceoe nia?aa?o?noue eie?nii? noae?.

Aeey eie?n aaioaaeieo aaaii?a c iaaaioaaeaiiyi ia a?nue iiiaae 25 o
?ic?iaeaia ? ai?iaaaeaeaia oaoiieia?y ae?iaieoeoaa noae? c
ea?aii?o?eaeiei ci?oeiaiiyi, a ?acoeueoao? /iai aoee noai?ai?
OO14-15-281-92 «Eieana i?aeaeuaii? i?oeiino? ?c noae? c ea?aii?o?eaeiei
ci?oeiaiiyi». Aenieoaoaoe?ei? aei?iaoaaiiy eie?nieo ia? o caieiooiio
ia?o?oo? o ?acoeueoao? ??/ii? aenieoaoaoe?? i?ae iaaeyaeii
Ana?in?enueeiai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo
(AIAe?CO) iieacaee, ui ni?aoethaaiiy a?aaaiy -a?aeiia?aeaeueiiai
aeaiaioo eieana — ieae/a ia 10%, a na?aaeiueii?ny/iee i?ieao iaioa ia
40-50%, i?ae o na??eieo; ca aanue /an aenieoaoaoe?? ia aoei aeiaaee?a
a?ae/aieaiiy aaaii?a c i?e/eie aino?ie?ioeaaiai iaeaoo ia iiaa?oi?
ei/aiiy eie?n.

I?iaaaeai? e?oiiiianooaai? aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei aieeao ?ao?ioth/eo
aeaeo?iia?aieaa?a eie?nii? noae? ??cii? aeieaaee caaacia/eee iaoaeo
oi?eaeueia ii?aeiaiiy neoaeaiaeo aeanoeainoae i?e iaeii/anii aenie?e
ieanoe/iino? ? a’yceino?, ui aeicaieeei ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe eieana ?c iaoaeo
AOI aei aenieoaoaoe?? ia niaoe?aeueieo a?aeiia?aeaeueieo ae?eyieao
cae?cieoe? (OO 14-15-185-88 «Eieana oe?eueiieaoai? ae?aiao?ii 950 ii ?c
noae? aeaeo?ioeaeiaiai ia?aieaao»). Aei?iaoaaiiy eie?n ?c iaoaeo AOI
i?ae ieaooi?iaie niaoe?aeue-iiai i?ecia/aiiy, i?iaaaeai? ca aei?o/aiiyi
I?i?noa?noaa na?aaeiueiai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy (eieeoiueiai N?N?), iieacaee
?o aenieo iaae?ei?noue. I?ioyaii aa?aio?eiiai no?ieo neoaeae ? o
i?ioean? iiaeaeueoi? aenieoaoaoe?? i?aoaic?e ? ?aeeaiaoe?e a?ae
niiaeeaa/?a ia iaaeoiaeeei.

Iioei?caoe?y oeaeiaiai ?aaeeio i?e aeieaaoe? eie?nii? noae? o
ia?oai?anueeeo ia/ao ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy a?ao?oiai?nieo ii?ioe?a
(0,8 ea/o) ni?eyei ?ioaineaiiio i?iaiith oeaeo o ia??iae eeio, aeia?iio
eiai noiaeo /a?ac ii??a ?iai/iai a?eia, oaiia?aoo?a iaoaeo i?e oeueiio
i?aeaeuoaaeany oo?e/? oaeae/a, i?ae i?e cae/aei?e oaoiieia??, ai?no
oinoi?o ii caaa?oaiith ia??iaeo iie??oaaiiy cieaeoaaany aei 0,010%, a
o?eaae?noue ia??iaeo aeiaiaeee nei?ioeeany ia 0,5 aiaeeie. Iaaiaeea
?ao?ioaaeueiiai oeaeo o eiao? i?enaaeeaie iaoa??ae?a, ui i?noyoue
aethi?i?e oa aaiii, ye ia aeioneo, oae ? i?ae /an ia?iaee iaoaeo ia
onoaiiaoe? i?/-e?ao, aeicaieeea cieceoe ai?no n??ee aei 0,004-0,006%, a
oaeiae caaaeueio caa?oaeiai?noue iaiaoae?/ieie aeeth/aiiyie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aoee iia?aeiieai? (aeeeaaeai?)
ia 12 i?aeia?iaeieo, Ananithcieo ? ?anioae?eainueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo,
cie?aia:

Ananithcia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia eiioa?aioe?y «Iniiai? iai?yiee i?aeaeuaiiy
yeino? ? neoaeaiaeo aeanoeainoae iaoaeii?iaeoeoe?? ?c /i?ieo iaoae?a oa
?? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy o ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa? c iaoith
cieaeaiiy iaoaeii?noeino? iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeioiaeo». Iineaa. 1987?.;

1 ?aaeyinueei-*aoineiaaoeueeee neiiic?oi c oai??? iaoaeo?a?eieo
i?ioean?a. Iineaa, 1989?.;

O Ananithcia eiioa?aioe?y c o?ceei-o?i?/ieo iniia iaoaeo?a?eieo
i?ioean?a. Iineaa, 1991?.;

1 oa O eiia?ane noaeaieaaeeueiee?a o Iinea? a 1992?. oa o ?eaieoe?
(I?eaei?no?ia’y) o 1998?.;

iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia eiioa?aioe?y «Aeaeo?inoaeaieaaeeueia ae?iaieoeoai
Oe?a?ie: noai ? ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo iicai?/iiai ?ao?ioaaiiy ?
iiaeeo?eoaaiiy noae?». Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1997?.

Ioae?eaoe??.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeeeaaeai? o aeaio iiiia?ao?yo, aeaio
iaa/aeueieo iin?aieeao, iaei?e a?ioo??, 35 noaooyo o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao
? ca??ieeao, 3 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoaao, a oaeiae ? 26 noaoae, oac
aeiiia?aeae ? aenooi?a, ye? ia oa?eoee aei nieneo i?aoeue, ui
aeiaeathoueny.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??.

?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a oa aeniiae?a, aeeeaaeaia
ia 338 noi??ieao, aeeth/ath/e 45 oaaeeoeue, 87 ?enoie?a, 4 aeiaeaoee oa
nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae 243 iaeiaioaaiue.

Aaoi? aeneiaeth? ue?o aaey/i?noue iaoeiaiio eiinoeueoaioo aeaaeai?eo IAI
Oe?a?ie Iaaeiaa?o A.?., caa?aeoth/iio eaoaae?ith aeaeo?iiaoaeo?a??
AeIaoAO aeaaeai?eo IAI Oe?a?ie Aaneeo I.?., a oaeiae i?io., ae.o.i.
?naoeiao A.I., i?io., ae.o.i. Oceiao ?.A., i?io.. ae.o.i. Oeieueieeo
E.I., e.o.i. Noa?inaeaoeueeiio I.?., e.o.i. I??ioie/aieo I.A.,
ni?a?ia?oieeai IOC, AIC, ?*I IAI Oe?a?ie ?i.C.?.Iae?aniaa, ?AC ?i
?.I.Iaoiia IAI Oe?a?ie, AIAe?CO, ?iao ?AI, nai?i eieaaai —
ni?a?ia?oieeai eaoaae?e aeaeo?iiaoaeo?a?? AeIaoAO ca i?aeo?eieo ?
iaaeaio aeiiiiiao i?e i?iaaaeaii? aeine?aeaeaiue, ocaaaeueiaieo o aeai?e
aeena?oaoe??.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

Oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy, aiae?c no/aniiai noaio ?

i?iieneiai? i?aeoeee i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? eie?nii? noae? ia

noaae?? iaoaeo?a?eiiai ia?aae?eo

Aiae?c oiia aenieoaoaoe?? cae?cie/ieo eie?n ? oaeoi??a, ui aecia/athoue
?o iaae?ei?noue ? aeiaaia?/i?noue, ?, a?aoo?-?aoo, aaciaeo ?ooo
ii?cae?a, iieacaa, ui oae? oa?aeoa?enoeee, ye oaea?iay a’yce?noue,
ieanoe/i?noue, ii??a oieiaeiieai-eino?, caeaaeaoue, ia?o ca ana, a?ae
yeino? noae?: o?i?/iiai neeaaeo, ai?noo aac?a, caa?oaeiaiino?
iaiaoae?/ieie aeeth/aiiyie, oa?iiia?iaee, aaee/eie ca?ia ? no?oeoo?iiai
noaio.

Aeey aeaioiaeaiiy nooe?eueiieaoaieo cae?cie/ieo eie?n canoiniaothoue, a
iniiaiiio, aoaeaoeaao noaeue. A Oe?a?i?, ye ? a ?in??, oey eie?nia
noaeue ae?iaey?oueny a?aeiia?aeii aei AINOo 10791-89. sse iaia’yceiaee
aeiaeaoie aei iueiai, i?noyoueny aeiiae oaoi?/ieo oiia I?aeia?iaeii?
Ni?eee cae?cieoeue (UIC) oa I?aeia?iaeii? i?aai?caoe?? c?
noaiaea?oecaoe?? (ISO). A?aeiia?aeii aei oeeo aeiia aeei?enoiao?oueny
noaeue c ??ciei ai?noii aoaeaoeth. A ocaaaeueiaiiio aeaeyae? aeiiae aei
yeino? eie?nii? noae? caeaaeii a?ae ai?noo aoaeaoeth iiaeai? ia ?en.1.

Aoaeaoeue — iaea?eueo aaaeeeaee ? aeinooiiee aeaiaio o noae?.
Ca?eueoaiiy eiai ai?noo o iaoae? i?aeaeuo? i?oei?ni? aeanoeaino?, aea
cieaeo? ieanoe/i?, a oaeiae iia??oo? no?ee?noue i?ioe ooai?aiiy oaieiaeo
iioeiaeaeaiue.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyie, i?iaaaeaieie ?*I IAI Oe?a?ie, AeIaoAO, AIAe?CO
anoaiiaeaii, ui eie?nia noaeue, yea aeieaaey?oueny iei? o ia?oai?anueeeo
ia/ao, ? iaea?eueo iioeiaeueiith ca nai?i neeaaeii ye c oi/ee ci?o
aeiiii?/iiai ?icoi?iiy ? caaacia/aiiy iaiao?aeieo aenieoaoaoe?eieo
oa?aeoa?enoee, oae ? ca oiiaaie ?iaioe «ia?e» eieani-?aeea. O oeueiio
ca’yceo ieoaiiy iiaeaeueoiai i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? eie?nii? noae? aa?oi
ae??ooaaoe c o?aooaaiiyi i?eioeeiiai iiaeo iai?yie?a oaeineiiaeaiiy
ae?th/eo oaoiieia?e aeieaaee, iicai?/ii? ia?iaee oa ?iceeaee noae?.

?en.1 Caeaaei?noue oei/aniaiai iii?o ?ic?eao a?ae ai?noo aoaeaoeth o
eie?ni?e noae? Ia Ieaeiueiaei?i?ianueeiio o?oai-i?ieaoiiio caaiae? ca
o/anoth ?*I IAI Oe?a?ie oa AeIaoAO o 1974 ?ioe? aoea ae?iaeaia
eii-oeaioe?y ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? iane??c-ii? oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa
eie?n-ii? noae?: aeaeo?iieaaea — iica-i?/ia ia?iaea — aacia?a?aia
?iceeaea. O oeueiio ca’yceo aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe?? i?iaaaeaii ?yae
aeine?aeieoeueeeo ?ia?o c ?ic?iaee ?aoe?iiaeueii? oaoiieia?? aeieaaee
eie?nii? noae? a aeaeo?iia/ao i?noe?noth 5; 30 ? 100 oii, ??
aaeooioaaiiy ia onoaiiaeao eaia?iiai ? ii?oe?-iiiiai oeio, ?iceeaee
iaoaeo ia iaoeiao iai?aaacia?a?aiiai

eeooy caaioiaie (405 ii oa iaoiaeii oeaio?ia?aeii? a?aeeeaee c
iaea?aeaiiyi ceeae?a aioo??oi?i ae?aiao?ii 140 ii oa ciai?oi?i — 450 ii

Nii/aoeo a oiiaao *a?aiiaaoeueeiai iaoaeo?a?eiiai eiia?iaoo aoee
i?iaaaeai? aeine?aei? ieaaee ca ??cieie oaoiieia?/ieie aa??aioaie ?
ianooiiei ?ao?ioaaiiyi o aaeooieaia?? c iaoith iaea?aeaiiy aeo?aeieo
aeaieo aeey i?iaeooaaiiy aeaeo?inoaeaieaaeeueiiai oeaoo ia IOC. Caiaeii
oey ?iaioa iaea?aeaea iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie a aniaeo? caaacia/aiiy
aenieioaeaee?niiai ?ooiiiai neeaaeo iaae?eieie eieanaie, a oaeiae
i?i?iaee oaoiieia?/ieo noai, ui caaacia/othoue iaea?aeaiiy eie?n ?c
noae? aeaeo?ii?/ii? aeieaaee ? ianooiiei aaeooioaaiiyi, c o?aooaaiiyi
aeoiaeo ia i?aeia?iaeiee ?eiie iaoaeii?iaeoeoe?? c eieanaie ?c noae?
aeniei? yeino?. Oaoiieia?y aeieaaee eie?nii? noae? ?ic?iaeyeany a oiiaao
caaiaeo «Aei?i?iniaoenoaeue» (AeNN) oa Aeiiaoeueeiai iaoaeo?a?eiiai
caaiaeo (AeIC). O caaaeeo ia/? AeNI-30 (AeNN), ii?yae c /aaoiii,
aeei?enoiaoaaany eien (aei 3%). I?ney iiaiiai ?icieaaeaiiy oeooe
i?enaaeaeoaaee ?oaeo (0,42 ea/o) aei i?iaiiy oeaeo. Iio?i oeae nea/oaaee
? iaaiaeeee iiaee ?c aaiia (0,4 o), ieaaeeiaiai oiaoo (0,01 o) oa aith
oaiioo (0,020 o). Ieeneaiiy aaiie i?iaiaeeee ?oaeith o e?eueeino? 2,15
ea/o, a oaeiae aaciiiae?aiei eeniai (5-7 ii3/oa). Oaeaee?noue ieeneaiiy
aoaeaoeth neeaaeaea 0,31-0,51iN/a. I?ney cae?i/aiiy ieenethaaeueiiai
ia??iaeo nea/oaaee /anoeio ieenethaaeueiiai oeaeo, ui caeeoeany —
?iceeneyee ii?ioeaie eieno ? oa?inee?oe?th.

Caaaeueia o?eaae?noue ieenethaaeueiiai ia??iaeo neeaaeaea o na?aaeiueiio
50 oa. Iaoae ?c ia/? aeioneaee i?e aeinyaiaii? oaiia?aoo?e
1610-1620iN. Inoaoi/ia ?iceeneaiiy noae? i?iaiaeeee o eiao? aethi?i??i
(0,3 ea/o) aai nee?eieaeueoe??i (1,3 ea/o). Aaeooioaaiiy iaoaeo
cae?enithaaee o eiao? i?e caeeoeiaiio oeneo o aaeooi-eaia?? 1064-1330
Ia, a i?iaeoaeo a?aiiii — i?e oeneo 2(105 Ia i?ioyaii 10-12 oa.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaciiane/aiino? i?ia iaoaeo, a?ae?a?aieo ?c aeene?a
eie?n, iieacaei, ui caeeoeia? eiioeaio?aoe?? eenith neeaaeathoue
0,0035-0,0052%, a acioo — 0,010-0,012%.

I?e aeieaaoe? noae? a ia/? AeNI 100?CA (AeIC) o caaaeeo aeei?enoiaoaaee
noaeueiee aoaeaoeaaee a?ooo (85-90%) ? /aaoi (10-15%) c ?ic?aooieii
io?eiaiiy i?ney ?icieaaeaiiy ai?noo aoaeaoeth 0,85-1,30%. Iana oeooe ia
ieaaeo neeaaeaea 117-121 o, ieaaeo i?iaiaeeee aeaioeaeiaei i?ioeanii.
Inoaoi/ia ?iceeneaiiy, ye ? i?e ia?oai?anueeiio i?ioean?, i?iaiaeeee o
eiao? nee?eieaeueoe??i NE-15 (1,5 ea/o). Ia aeaio ieaaeao o aeine?aeiiio
ii?yaeeo inoaoi/ia ?iceeneaiiy o eiao? ia i?iaiaeeeiny, a iaoae
?iceenethaaany o oiae? aaeooioaaiiy aethi?i??i (0,3 ea/o).
Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaciiane/aiino? iieacaei, ui aeaeaeaiiy aiaeith o
i?ioean? aaeooioaaiiy neeaaeaei a?ae 19% aei 67%, ? eiai ai?no
aei??aithaaa 3,0-3,2 ni3/100 a, eiioeaio?aoe?y acioo aeua o ii??aiyii? c
ia?oai?anueeei iaoaeii ? neeaea o na?aaeiueiio 0,0073% i?ioe 0,0058%,
ai?no eenith aei aaeooioaaiiy aoa 0,0081-0,185%, i?ney aaeooioaaiiy
?iceeneaiiai nee?eieaeueoe??i iaoaeo — 0,0073-0,0119%, a iaeieae/ee — o
iaoae?, ?iceeneaiiio aethi?i??i — 0,0057%. Aecia/aiiy iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae iieacaei, ui on? eieana c aaeeeei caianii caaeiaieiythoue
aeiiaai AINO 10791-81 ? UIC 812-3. Oe? ?acoeueoaoe iaee aeiyoeiai
aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy, oae ye i?iaeoii aaaaoueio ca?oa?aeieo eiio?aeo?a
ia?aaeaa/aeiny aeei?enoaiiy eie?n o?eueee ?c aaeooiiaaiiai iaoaeo.

?aae?coth/e eiioeaioe?th ?ano?oeoo??caoe?? oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa
eie?nii? noae?, i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei aieeao iai?aaacia?a?aii?
?iceeaee ia ye?noue iaoaeo aeaeo?ii?/ii? aeieaaee ? aeanoeaino?
cae?cie/ieo eie?n. I?ae /an ?iceeaee ia IIIEC (AeNN) aeei?enoaee aeaa
no?oiee c ae?aiao?ii e?enoae?caoi?a 405 ii, oaeaee?noue aeoyaaiiy ceeaeo
a ?iai/iio ?aaeei? neeaaeaea 0,25 i/oa. Aioia? ceeaee iaee aeaaeeo, aac
caaei?a e??ee, iiaa?oith. Aeey ciyooy aioo??oi?o iai?oa, ui aeeeeeathoue
?ico??neaiiy iaoaeo, ceeaee i?aeaeaaaeeny a?aeiaeo i?e oaiia?aoo??
820-840iN i?ioyaii 5 aiaeei. sse?noue iaoaeo eie?n ( 905 ii
a?aeiia?aeaea aeiiaai noaiaea?oo ? oa?aeoa?ecoaaeanue a?aenooi?noth
oeieai?a, iacia/iith caa?oaeiai?noth aeeth/aiiyie, ia?aaaaeii ae??aiei
(aei 8-10 aae?a) i?e?iaeiei ca?iii. Ieanoe/i? aeanoeaino? iaoaeo o
1,4-1,5 ?ace, a oaea?ia a’yce?noue i?e (20 — (40iN o 1,4-3,2 ?ace aeu?,
i?ae o iaoaeo eie?n iioi/iiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? ?iceeoiai ii aeeeaieoeyo o
ceeaee ianith 4,2 o.

sse aeueoa?iaoeaiee aa??aio aea/aii aieea ia?aiao??a oeaio?ia?aeii?
a?aeeeaee eie?nieo caaio?aie ia ye?noue iaoaeo cae?cie/ieo
eie?n.Aeieaaeo noae? i?iaiaeeee a oiiaao noaeaeeaa?iiai oeaoo
I?eiiieuenueeiai i?aaeaiii-o?oaiiai caaiaeo (IOC) a iniiaieo ia/ao
AeNI-5 c inoaoi/iei ?iceeneaiiyi iaoaeo o eiao? nee?eieaeueoe??i aai
aethi?i??i, a ?iceeaaee ia oeaio?ia?aei?e iaoei? N-2 ai?eciioaeueiiai
oeio a eie?eue ae?aiao?ii 475 ii oa aeiaaeeiith 4260 ii, oooa?iaaiee
i?neii. Caneieo eie?eth i?neii i?iaiaeeee i?e oaeaeeino? iaa?oaiiy 400
ia/oa. i?ioyaii 1,5 oa., a caeeaeo iaoaeo — i?ioyaii 1,0 oa. i?e 600
ia/oa. c ia?aoiaeii ia oaeaee?noue iaa?oaiiy 850 ia/oa. ca 0,3 oa. ?
aeaea?aeoe? i?e oe?e oaeaeeino? iaa?oaiiy 1,7 oa. Iaea?aeai? ceeaee
(aeiaaeeia 4000 ii, ciai?eoi?e ae?aiao? 450 ii, aioo??oi?e ae?aiao? 140
ii) i?aeaeaaaee a?aeiaeo ca oaeei ?aaeeiii: iaa??aaiiy aei oaiia?aoo?e
820iN, aeaea?aeea 3,5 a, ioieiaeaeaiiy c i?//th c? oaeaee?noth 45iN/a.
I?ney ioieiaeaeaiiy iiaa?oith ceeae?a i?aeaeaaaee iaaee?oe?.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae no?oeoo?e iaoaeo cae/aeieo ceeae?a o oeaio?ia?aeieo
a?aeeeaeao niinoa??aa?oueny neeueia iiae??aiaiiy aeaiae??oii? no?oeoo?e.
I?anii?ieaoea ii?iaeienoeo caaioiaie i?ieoea aac ii?ooaiue i?eeiyoi? o
oeaoo oaoiieia??, ui caaacia/eei iaea?aeaiiy caaeia?eueiiai ??aiy
iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ? no?oeoo?e iaoaeo.

Oaei?noi/aiiy oiia aenieoaoaoe?? oe?eueiieaoaieo eie?n, i?aeaeuaiiy
aeiia aenii?oieo eiio?aeo?a iaoiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue i?enei?aiiy iiaeo
iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie c iaoith aecia/aiiy iniiaieo iai?yie?a uiaei aeai?o
?aoe?iiaeueieo oaoiieia?e ae?iaieoeoaa eie?nii? noae?. Oiio iie?ioaiiy
o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee eie?nii? noae? iaoiiaeei aea?? oaeeo
iaoaeo?a?eieo niinia?a aieeao ia no?oeoo?o iaoaeo, i?e yeeo i?aeaeuaiiy
a’yceino? (ieanoe/iino?) noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny a i?i?iaeueiei cieaeaiiyi
i?oei?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee. Aeey aea/aiiy o?ce/ii? i?e?iaee aeacaiiai
aca?iica’yceo ? aeai?o ia oe?e iniia? ?aoe?iiaeueieo iaoaeo?a?eieo
caoiae?a (aeieaaea ? ?iceeaea, i?e?ieaaoaaiiy) i?iaiae?ciaai? iniiai?
iai?yiee i?aeaeuaiiy i?oeiino? eie?nii? noae?, yea ca Aieueaeooaeiii
I.?. iiaea aooe ?aae?ciaaia oeyoii oaa?aei?ic/eiiiai (((o.?.),
aeeneieaoe?eiiai (((ae),. aeenia?n?eiiai (((ioae.o.) /e ca?iia?aie/iiai
(((c.n.) ci?oeiaiiy:

((o.?. = (EiCi (1); ((oae= (IiGa-1/2((2); (iae.o. = 2,4 I
(3);

(oae.o. = 0,84 Ii Ga/2( (Eaeln((/2a) (4); ((3 = Eod-1/2(5); ((n =
KN l-m(6),

aea: G — iiaeoeue cnoao (aeey cae?ca G = 84000 I/ii2); E? — eiao?oe??io
ci?oeiaiiy ( — Fe ?-i eaaoth/ei aeaiaioii; N? — eiioeaio?aoe?y ?-ai
aeaiaioo o ( — Fe; Mo — i???ioaoe?eiee iiiaeiee (aeey ( — Fe Mo =
2,75); a — aaeoi? Ath?aa?na (a = 0,25 ii); ( — a?aenoaiue i?ae /anoeaie;
Eae — eiao., ui aecia/a? oei aeeneieaoe?e (Eae = 1,25); I — i?ioeaio
ia?eeoo o no?oeoo??;( — eiao. (( Ii = 0,5); ( — u?euei?noue
aeeneieaoe?e; Eo = 20 I/ii3/2; d — ?ici?? ca?ia; En = 0,13 I/ii i?e m =
1; 1 — ?ici?? noaca?ia. Nooi?iue ?icaeoeo oiai /e ?ioiai iaoai?cio
caeaaeeoue a?ae o?ce/ii? i?e?iaee canoiniaoaaieo iaoaeo?a?eieo caoiae?a,
a noia aeeaaeo eiaeiiai iaoai?cio ci?oeiaiiy aecia/a? o caaaeueiiio
aeiaaeeo iaaeo oaeo/ino? ci?oeiaii? oa?eoi-ia?e?oii? noae?:

(o = (i + ((o? + ((ae + ((aeo + ((3,
(7)

aea: (i — aeo?aeia i?oei?noue iiiie?enoaeo cae?ca ((i = 2(10-4G).

Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co oai?aoe/ieo ia?aaeoiia, e?oa?aoo?ieo,
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ? ?acoeueoao?a aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeia
c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui iiaeaeueoa eiiieaenia i?aeaeuaiiy iaoai?/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee aoaeaoeaai? oa??oi-ia?e?oii? noae? ca ?aooiie eaaoaaiiy,
no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy, i?anii?ieaoee ? oa?iiia?iaee aeinyaa?oueny a
?acoeueoao? ci?ie no?oeoo?e noae?: oeio, e?eueeino?, ?ici??o oac;
u?eueiino?, oa?aeoa?o ? ?iciiae?eo aeaoaeo?a e?enoae?/ii? aoaeiae;
aeenia?niino? no?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo; ?ici??o ca?ia oiui.

Oai?aoe/i? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaaae?iee eenith o
eeiey/?e aaii? ia?oai?anueeeo ? aeaeo?iaeoaiaeo ia/ae ? i?ioean?a
?iceeneaiiy aoaeaoeaai? eie?nii? noae?.

Ii oiaeo ieenethaaeueiiai ia??iaeo ai?no aoaeaoeth cieaeo?oueny o
na?aaeiueiio a?ae 1,2% aei 0,45%. O i?ioean? eiai ieeneaiiy a?aeiinia
ia?aieen-eaii?noue (oa?i?i ca A.I.Eaa?iei) oiaoi mo = [%C]([%O] oaeiae
ciaioo?oueny: mo = 0,00301 + 0,00503 [%C]. Noiniaii aei ae?iaieoeoaa
eie?nii? noae?, aiia iiaeiia aecia/aoeny eiie?aoieie oiiaaie ?
ia?aiao?aie ieeneaiiy aoaeaoeth.

C iaoith iaea?aeaiiy ca’yceo Vc = f(() aeey eiie?aoieo oiia aeieaaee
eie?nii? noae? noaoenoe/i?e ia?iaoe? (40 ieaaie) aoee i?aeaeai?
?acoeueoaoe aiae?co ci?ie ai?noo aoaeaoeth i?e ieeneaii? eiai o
ia?oai?anuee?e ia/? i?noe?noth 250 o i?ae /an ieenethaaeueiiai ia??iaeo,
oiaoi o ooieoe?? /ano. Aeoeaiee eei (45-75 oa) cae?i/oaaee oeyoii
i?eieiaiiy aea/? ?oaee ? caa?thaaeueiiai oeaeo, /enoee eei o?eaaa aei 45
oa. i?ioyaii yeiai ?iiae? i?enaaeaeoaaany iaaaeeeeie ii?oe?yie (aei
0,5%) a?ae aaae naaeee ieenethaa/. Oaeei /eiii, o?eaae?noue
ieenethaaeueiiai ia??iaeo neeaea 100-120 oa. E?euee?niee ca’ycie [%C] =
f(() iiaeia iienaoe ae?acii

[%C] = 0,392 + 0,906 e0,0172( .
(8)

Aeeoa?aioe?th/e oeae ae?ac, iaea?aeaia caeaaei?noue oaeaeeino? ieeneaiiy
aoaeaoeth Vc a?ae /ano

. (9)

Ni?eueia ?ica’ycaiiy ??aiyiue 8 ? 9 aeicaieeei ciaeoe caeaaei?noue Vc =
([%C], yea ia? aeaeyae aeey eie?nii? noae?

Vc = 0,017 [%C] — 0,0066.
(10)

Aiae?c ae?aco (10) iieaco?, ui oaeaee?noue ieeneaiiy aoaeaoeth, yeee
i?noeoueny o aaii? ia?oai?anueei? ia/? a ?ioa?aae? 1,2-0,32%, a i??o
cieaeaiiy aoaeaoeth ciaioo?oueny, iaeiae oaii cieaeaiiy Vc iacia/iee.
Oa?iiaeeiai?/ia ioe?iea iiaaae?iee eenith i?e ieeneaii? aoaeaoeth o
i?ioean? aeieaaee eie?nii? noae? iieacaea, ui aaniethoia
ia?aieeneaii?noue eeiey/i? aaiie noiniaii aei ae?iaieoeoaa eie?nii?
noae? iiaeiia aecia/aoeny eiie?aoieie oiiaaie ieeneaiiy aoaeaoeth, i?e
oeueiio aeey eiaeiiai i?ioeano iaea?aeaiiy noae? aa?oi aecia/aoe
iaiao?aeiee ai?no aoaeaoeth o noaeaieaaeeuei?e aaii? ? iia?/ii,
oaeoe/io eiioeaio?aoe?th eenith o iaoae?. I?e i?eeiyoeo ia?aiao?ao
ieaaee iiaeia i?iaiicoaaoe e?ioeaaee ai?no aoaeaoeth (eenith) o noae?.
Ai?no eenith o

?en.2 Ci?ia oaeaeeino? ieeneaiiy aoaeaoeth ? eiai ai?no i?ae /an
ieenethaaeueiiai ia??iaeo i?e aeieaaoe? eie?nii? noae? o ia?oai?anuee?e
ia/? eeiey/?e ia?oai?anuee?e aaii? eie?nii? noae?, ca aeaieie aiae?co ia
aenoaeia?ao? «Aaeueoea?n», neeaaea? i?ney ?icieaaeaiiy i?e (1,12-1,40%N)
— (11,0-28,4)(10-3%, ia?aae ?iceeneaiiyi ([%N] = 0,55-0,60) aeecueei
14,0(10-3%, i?ney ?iceen-eaiiy ia aeioneo — 9-18(10-3%. Aeey ii??aiyiiy
a?aei?oeii, ui i?e aeieaaoe? noae? a aeaeo?iia/ao eiioeaio?aoe?y eenith
o i?e ia?aae aeioneii ??aiyeany (3,7-7,0)(10-3%. O ca’yceo c oeei,
oaoiieia?y ?iceeneaiiy noae? o eiao? iiaeiia ia?aaeaa/aoe canoinoaaiiy
iaaieo aeae?a ?iceenethaa/?a ? ieoiia ?o aeo?a/aiiy c o?aooaaiiyi ?yaeo
?ioeo caaaeueiia?aeiieo oaoiiei-a?/ieo i?eeii?a.

Iaeiei ?c aoaeoeaieo niinia?a cieaeaiiy ieeneaiiino? oeaeo ? iaoaeo i?e
ia?oai?anueeiio i?ioean? ? canoinoaaiiy ??cieo iaoa??ae?a, ui i?noyoue
aethi?i?e. Anoaiiaeaii, ui canoinoaaiiy oeaeo ae?iaieoeoaa aoi?eiiiai
aethi?i?th (65-70% Al2O3; 2-4% SiO2; 2,8-3,2% NaI; 4,2-6,7% FeO; 15-20%
Aliao) i?eaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy ieeneaiiino? iaoaeo ? oeaeo ia 50%, ui
aeicaieeei i?e ianooiiiio ?iceeneaii? iaoaeo cieceoe aeo?aoe
ia?aaioeaaeo oa e?aii?noeo oa?inieaa?a.

Ai?no e?aii?th o eie?ni?e noae? neeaaea? 0,40-0,60% (ia?ea 1) oa
0,22-0,45% (ia?ea 2). Aeey aecia/aiiy ??aiiaaaeii? eiioeaio?aoe?? eenith
o cae?c? caeaaeii a?ae ai?noo e?aii?th o iaoae? iiaeia nei?enoaoeny
ae?acii ?.?aaiiaa.

. (11)

I?eeiath/e ai?no e?aii?th o eie?ni?e noae? ??aiei 0,30%, ciaoiaeeii
??aiiaaaeio eiioeaio?aoe?th eenith i?e 1600iN, yea neeaaea? 0,009%, ui
caaeia?eueii ocaiaeaeo?oueny c oaeoe/ieie aeaieie. Iaeiae ?ic?aooiee
??aiiaaaeieo ai?no?a eenith o nenoai? Fe-Si-O c aeei?enoaiiyi ??cieo
aeaieo iieacothoue nooo?ao ?o a?aei?ii?noue (?en.3).

I?e/eiith oeueiai ?icoiaeaeaiiy ? iaaeinoaoi?noue ?ioi?iaoe?? ye i?i
aeoeai?noue eiiiiiaio?a, ?ic/eiaieo o iaoae?/ieo ?icieaaao, oae ? i?i
oa?iiaeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aaeoe?e ooai?aiiy i?iaeoeo?a
?iceeneaiiy.

?acii c oei, ye aeaeii ?c ?en.3, oaeoe/iee ai?no e?aii?th o eie?ni?e
noae? ia?aaoaa? o ni?eyoeeaiio ?ioa?aae? eiioeaio?aoe?e.

O eie?ni?e noae? i?noeoueny 0,80-1,20% (ia?ea 1) oa 0,50-0,90% (ia?ea 2)
ia?aaioeth. Aeei?enoiaoth/e inoaii? aeai? i?i caeaaei?noue ia?aiao?o
aca?iiae??

?en.3 ?cioa?ie ai?noo eenith o nenoai? Fe-Si-O ca aeaieie I?e?o?ia A.I.
(1) oa Eoeeeiaa N.?. (2) aMnO a?ae oaiia?aoo?e, iiaeia c oe?eeiaeoith
oi/i?noth ?ic?aooaaoe eiioeaio?aoe?th eenith caeaaeii a?ae ai?noo
ia?aaioeth o cae?c? i?aeoe/-ii i?e aoaeue-ye?e oaiia?aoo??.

sse i?aaeei, ia?aae i?enaaeeith oa?iia?aaioeth o aaii? eie?nii?
noae? i?noeoueny 0,011-0,018% [O]. Oiio aaiaeoaaiee oa?iia?aaiaoeue
aeo?a/a?oueny ia eaaoaaiiy oa /anoeiaa ?iceeneaiiy oeaeo. I?e-naaeea
ia?aaioeth i?enei?th? oaeiae aeanoeueoo?aoe?th noae?, ui ia? aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy i?e i?e?iea-aoaaii? eie?nii? noae? o eiao?.

I?e a?aei?aoethaaii? oaoiieia?? aeieaaee eie?nii? noae? a aeaeo?i-

ia/ao c iiaeaeueoei aaeooioaaiiyi

anoaiiaeaii, ui canoinoaaiiy aethi?i?th aeicaiey? aoaeoeaii ia o?eueee
?iceenethaaoe iaoae, aea ? iiae??aithaaoe no?oeoo?o. Oiio, c 1989 ?ieo
iaiaaeaiiy uiaei eiai canoinoaaiiy aoee ciyo?. Oa?iiaeeiai?/i?
?ic?aooiee c ?ic/eiiino? eenith o ??aeeiio cae?c? iieacothoue, ui eiai
eiioeaio?aoe?y (0,0004-0,0006%) a?aeiia?aea? iioeiaeueiiio ai?noo
aethi?i?th 0,020-0,060%. Iacaaaeath/e ia iaea?aeai? aeinoia??i? cia/aiiy
ia?aiao??a aca?iiae?? aeey ?aaeoe?? ?iceeneaiiy cae?ca aethi?i??i o
??aiiaaaeieo oiiaao, oaeoe/iee ai?no eenith o noae? aeyaey?oueny aeua
??aiiaaaeieo. ?c caeaaeiino? eiioeaio?aoe?? eenith a?ae ai?noo
aethi?i?th

— 2/3 [%Al]- aIAl[%Al] (12)

ciaeaeaii ?ic?aooieiaee ai?no eenith o cae?c? i?e 0,025% Al ??aiei
13,6(10-10%. Aeine?aeiee eie?niee iaoae i?e aeacaiiio ai?no? aethi?i?th
i?noea 35,0(10-4% eenith.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyie i?iaaaeaieie ia eaoaae?? aeaeo?iiaoaeo?a?? anoaiiaeaii,
ui aieea iaai?th, ye ? eaeueoe?th, i?iyaey?oueny o ci?i? ii?oieia??
ieenieo oa noeueo?aeieo aeeth/aiue. C iaoith aeai?o aa??aioo ?iceeneaiiy
eie?nii? noae? e?aaoo?aie, ui i?noyoue iaai?e, o eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao
(?iaeoeoe?eia i?/ ICT-0,06) aoee i?iaaaeai? ieaaee iaoiaeii ia?aieaao
eie?nii? noae? i?ae oeaeii c ianooiiith ?iceeaeith iaoaeo o /aaoii?
aeeeaieoe? c i?eaooeiaeie iaaenoaaeaie aeey iaea?aeaiiy ceeae?a ianith
10 ea. Ii oiaeo ?iceeaee o aeeeaieoe? aeaaaeanue e?aaoo?a ONIa c
aethi?i??i (55% Si; 6,7% Mg; 5,9% Al) oa oee?eii??i (55% Si; 7,2%
Mg;1,7% Zr). Ceeaee i?aeaeaaaeeny aeaoi?iaoe?? c aeio?eiaiiyi ?aaeei?a
iaoeneo, yeeo cacia? eie?nia caaioiaea i?e i?anii?ieaooe?. Iaiaoae?/i?
aeeth/aiiy aea/aeeny c aeiiiiiaith ?ano?iaiai aeaeo?iiiiai i?e?ineiio c
aia?aiaeenia?niei niaeo?iiao?ii. O neeaae? ieneaeieo aeeth/aiue a
iaoae?, ?iceeneaiiai e?aaoo?ith Mg-Zr, aoee iayai? ieneaee Mg, Zr,Si,
e??i oeueiai niinoa??aaeeny a?aeie?aieai? ea?a?aee oee?eii?th ?ici??ii
(1-2 iei). Iaea?eueo ni?eyoeea? aeeth/aiiy aoee o noae?, ?iceeneai?e
e?aaoo?ith ONIa, ui i?noeoue aethi?i?e. I?iaeoeoe ?iceeneaiiy iaee
aeaeyae ie?aii ?icoaoiaaieo aeiaoe?a. O ?o neeaae? ieneaee iaai?th,
oeoaio ? aethi?i?th. Ci?ia oaciaiai neeaaeo aeeth/aiue iaoiiaeea
i?aeaeuaiiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae iaoaeo. I?iieneiaa inai?iiy
?ic?iaeaii? oaoiieia?? cae?enithaaee o ia?oai?anueeeo ia/ao IOC. Ia an?o
ieaaeao iaoae ia?oiai eiaoa ?iceeneyee ca ae?th/ith oaoiieia??th, a
ae?oaiai — c aeei?enoaiiyi e?aaoo?e, ui i?noeoue iaai?e, o e?eueeino?
a?ae 200 ea (ia 130 o e?ao) aei 800 ea (c iiaiith cai?iith oa?inee?oe?th
? e?aaoo?e NEO?A). Iaoae i?iaeoaaee a?aiiii ii oiaeo aeioneo /a?ac
ii?enoo anoaaeo o aeieu? eiaoa. Ai?no acioo ? aiaeith ia aeine?aeiiio oa
ii??aiyeueiiio iaoae? ciaoiaeeany i?aeoe/ii ia iaeiiio ??ai?. ?acii c
oei, canoinoaaiiy e?aaoo?e aeicaieeei cieceoe ai?no eenith ia 23%.
Caeaaeii a?ae aa??aioo ?iceeneaiiy a?ae caaioiaie neeaaeaa ia a?eueoa
3,57%, a ca ae?th/ith oaoiieia??th aei 14,88%. Caa?oaeiai?noue
aeine?aeiiai iaoaeo ieneaeieie aeeth/aiiyie o na?aaeiueiio ia 0,5 aaea
iaioa, i?ae o iaoaeo, ?iceeneaiiai ca aaciaith oaoiieia??th. Aaaeeeaith
?ici?ciaaaeueiith iniaeea?noth ieneaeieo aeeth/aiue ? a?eueo ie?oaea
oi?ia, iaioa aeaoi?i?ai?noue i?e i?ieaooe?, ui ni?eyoeeai iicia/eeiny ia
iaoai?/ieo oa aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoeeao. I?e aeei?enoaii? o?eueee
e?aaoo?e aeey ?iceeneaiiy, iaoae iaa a?eueo aenie? iieacieee oei/aniaiai
iii?o ?ic?eao 1030 I/ii2 (i?ioe 990 I/ii2), cia/aiiy ieanoe/ieo
aeanoeainoae (( oa () c?inee ia 7,5% a?aei. Inaiaiiy oaoiieia??
?iceeneaiiy eie?nii? noae? e?aaoo?ith ONIa c oee?eii??i a oiiaao
Aeenoinueeiai iaoaeo?a?eiiai caaiaeo oaeiae i?aeoaa?aeeei ?? aenieo
aoaeoeai?noue.??/iee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo
caoiae?a ii oaeineiiaeaiith ?aaeei?a ?iceeneaiiy eie?nii? noae? a oiiaao
IOC neeaa 386 oen.o.a.i., a AIC — 412 oen. o.a.i.

Oa?iiaeeiai?/iee aiae?c oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a
iiaeeo?eoaaiiy no?oeoo?e ? oi?aae?iiy oi?ioaaiiyi aoi?eiieo oac.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a aca?iiae?? acioo c
i?o??aei-ooai?thth/eie aeaiaioaie i?e aeei?enoaii? no/anieo aeaieo i?i
cia/aiiy ia?aiao??a aca?iiae?? aeicaieeei aecia/eoe, ui ?ic/eii?noue
acioo o eie?ni?e noae? neeaaea? 0,0364%. C aeei?enoaiiyi oai???
eaac??aaoey?ieo ?ic/ei?a ?ic?aoiaaia oaiia?aoo?a ooai?aiiy i?o?eae?a
aethi?i?th o eie?ni?e noae?, yea aei??aith? 1377iN.

Ieaaee i?iaiaeeee o ia?oai?anueeeo ia/ao IOC c aeioneii iaoaeo o
aeine?aeiee oa ii??aiyeueiee eiao?. sse acioai?ni? iaoa??aee
aeei?enoiaoaaee noaiaea?oi? acioiaai? aeaeo?ioa?i?/iee ia?aaiaoeue
(89,4% Mn; 7,3% N2; 0,14% N; 1,2% Si; 0,06% ?) ia?ee I?I — 6A (OO
14-5-59-80) ? oa?iaaiaae?e (40,4% V; 3,0% N2; 3,8% Mn) ia?ee AaeI2Ii-6
(OO 14-5-122-80), i?o??aeiooai?thth/eie aeaiaioaie neoaeeee: aoi?eiiee
aethi?i?e, aaiaae?e (OIiAi-1), ?CI aaiaeaeoaai? eeaaoo?ith NOeI?o-1, ui
i?noeoue 34% ?CI; 42,5% Si; 4,7% Al (OO 14-5-136-81) ? oa?ioeoai (AINO
4761-80).O an?o aeiaaeeao nieaae, ui i?noyoue acio, aaiaeeee o e?ao i?e
aeioneo ieaaee a iaeei i?eeii i?ney i?enaaeee i?o??aeiooai?thth/eo
iaoa??ae?a. ?acoeueoaoe aecia/aiiy ai?noo acioo iieacaee, ui eiai
caeeoeia? eiioeaio?aoe?? o 2-3 ?ace aeu?, i?ae o ii??aiyeueiiio, a eiai
canai?iiy o na?aaeiueiio neeaei 38,5%; ai?no ?CI eieeaaany o iaaeao
0,127-0,0145%, aethi?i?th 0,009-0,010%, aaiaae?th 0,09-0,13%. Ioe?iea
aaee/eie i?e?iaeiiai ca?ia i?iaiaeeeanue ca AINOii 5939-82. Anoaiiaeaii,
ui o ii??aiyeueiiio iaoae? aaee/eia i?e?iaeiiai ca?ia neeaaea? a?ae 4,0
aei 6,0 aae?a, c i?o??aeaie ?CI — 7,0-8,0 aae?a, a c i?o??aeaie
aethi?i?th ? aaiaae?th — 8,0-9,0 aae?a. Oi?ioaaiiy aonoai?oiiai ca?ia o
i?ioean? iaa??ao niinoa??aaee c aeiiiiiaith aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai
i?e?ineiio. O noaeyo c i?o?eaeiooai?thth/eie aeaiaioaie i?e ia?aoiae?
/a?ac e?eoe/io oi/eo An3 o no?oeoo?? noae? ? a?aeiia?aei? i?o?eaee, ui
i?eaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy a?eueo ae??aiiai ca?ia aonoai?oo, i?ae o
noae?, yea ia i?noeoue niaoe?aeueieo i?o?eaeieo oac. Iaiaoae?/i?
aeeth/aiiy, aea/ai? ia ?aioaaiiniaeo?aeueiiio i?e?iaiae?caoi??, e??i
i?o?eae?a Al, V, Ti oa ?CI, iiaeai? aeeth/aiiyie ?aeaioe/ieo oei?a:
noeueo?aeaie MnS, ieneaeaie Al2O3 oa a?eueo neeaaeiiai neeaaeo
MnO-SiO2-CaO-Al2O3 i?e/iio ?o aaee/eia ia ia?aaeuoaaea 2,5 aaee. Aiae?c
aeaieo iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae eie?n iieacaa, ui iaea?eueo aenie?
cia/aiiy i?oeiino? (1000-1040 I/ii2) o ii?aeiaii? ?c cia/iei caianii
ieanoe/ieo aeanoeainoae (( = 10-16,5%; ( — 15,5-35,0%) oa noaa?eueieie
cia/aiiyie oaea?ii? a’yceino? (o na?aaeiueiio 39 Aeae/ni2) aieiae?a
iaoae c i?o?eaeaie aaiaae?th, a aeei?enoaiiy aethi?i?th, ye
?iceenethaa/a ? i?o?eaeiooai?thth/iai aeaiaioo, aeicaieeei iaea?aeaoe
iaeaeu? cia/aiiy (aei 63 Aeae/ni2). Aenieoaoaoe?ei? aei?iaoaaiiy ia
caieiooiio ia?o?oo? i?e iaaaioaaeaii? ia a?nue 25 o i?aeoaa?aeeee aenieo
aoaeoeai?noue i?o?eaeiiai ci?oeiaiiy.

sse iiaeeo?eoth/? aeiaaaee o noaeue, ii?yae c oeie, ui o?aaeeoe?eii
aeei?enoiaothoueny, canoiniaothoueny naeai ? oaeo?. Iaeii/anii c
?aaeaiaioaoe??th ii?oieia?? ? aeanoeainoae oace, ui i?noeoue n??eo,
iiaeeo?eoaaiiyi noae? oaeueeiaai?aeaie iiaeia oaeiae aeoeaii aieeaaoe ia
no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy iaoaeo. Ooai?aiiy aeeth/aiue o i?yiiio iaaeeaeaii?
iiaeia iienaoe oaeeie ?aaeoe?yie:

o[Mn] + (1+x)Fe+y[S]+(1-y)[Se]=MnxFe1-ySySe1-y,
(14)

x[Mn]+(1-x1)Fe+y1[S]+(1-y1)[Te]=Mnx1Fe 1-x1Sy1Te1-y1 .
(15)

Iiaeeo?eoth/ee aieea Se i Te ia ii?oieia?th aeeth/aiue, ui i?noyoue
n??eo, iaoiiaeaiee oei, ui o iaoae? aeeo/a?oueny iiaeeea?noue ooai?aiiy
aeeth/aiue I oeio ? ci?iith aeaoi?i?aiino? oace, ui i?noeoue n??eo. A
?acoeueoao? iaoaeia?ao?/iiai aiae?co ii?oieia?? aeeth/aiue iaea?aeaia
caeaaei?noue ci?ie aeaoi?i?aiino? oeeo aeeth/aiue ( (a?aeiioaiiy
aeiaaeeie aeeth/aiue aei oe?eie) a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy o iaoae? ai?noo
naeaio aei n??ee (nSe) aai oaeo?o aei n??ee (nTe), iiaeai? ia ?en.4. ?c
iaaaaeaieo aeaieo aeoiaeeoue, ui iaea?eueo ni?eyoeeaa oi?ia aeeth/aiue
caaacia/o?oueny i?e nSe = 0,4 — 0,8 aai nTe = 0,05 — 0,15.

?en.4 Ci?ia aeaoi?i?aiino? aeeth/aiue, ui i?noyoue n??eo, caeaaeii a?ae
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy o iaoae? ai?noo naeaio (nSe) aai oaeo?o (nTe) aei n??ee
Iiae??aithth/ee aoaeo iiaeeo?eaoi??a o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a
i?iyaey?oueny /a?ac i?aeaeuaiiy ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy noae? i?e ??
e?enoae?caoe??. Inia-eeaino? no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy iaoaeo, iiaeeo?eiaaiiai
naeaiii oa oaeo?ii, aeine?aeeee iaoiaeii AeOA i?e oaeaeeino?
ioieiaeaeaiiy (a?ae 1600iN) 40iN/oa. I?e ioieiaeaeaii? ye
ii??a-iyeueiiai, oae ? aeine?aeiiai iaoaeo ooai?ththoueny o?e
aecioa?i?/i? aeno?aioie, ui o?enothoue ii/aoie aeiaae?iiy ia?aeiieo
e?enoae?a ( ? ( (), ia?eoaeoe/ia ia?aoai?aiiy (( + ? ( ( + ?) ?
aaoaeoi?aeiee ?iciaae (( ( ( + Fe3C). I?e oeueiio aieea Se i Te
i?iyaey?oueny a iniiaiiio o i?aeae-

uaii? aaee/ei ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy ((t, oC) i?e oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiiyo
(oaae.1).

O ?acoeueoao? i?aeaeuaiiy ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy i?e oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiiyo
iiaeeo?eoaaiiy eie?nii? noae? Se aai Te iaoiiaeei nooo?aa iiae??aiaiiy
no?oeoo?e eie?niiai iaoaeo. Aieea oeeo iiaeeo?eaoi??a ia no?oeoo?o
eie?nii? noae? i?iyaey?oueny o iaaiiio iioeiaeueiiio ?ioa?aae?
eiioeaio?aoe?e oeeo aeaiaio?a ??aieo 0,008-0,024% Se oa 0,005-0,030% Oa.

I?iieneiaa inai?iiy oaoiieia?? iiaeeo?eoaaiiy eie?nii? noae? naeaiii ?
oaeo?ii i?iaiaeeee a oiiaao Ieaeiueiaei?i?ianueeiai o?oaii?ieaoiiai
caaiaeo o 250-oiiieo ia/ao ca iienaiith ?ai?oa oaoiieia??th.
Iiaeeo?eaoi?e i?enaaeaeoaaee o aeaeyae? oa?inaeaio (Fe + 30% Se) ?
oa?ioaeo?o (Fe + 30% Te).

Oaaeeoey 1

Aieea iiaeeo?eoaaiiy eie?nii? noae? oaeueeiaaieaeaie ia aaee/eio

ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy i?e oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiiyo

Iaoaee Aaee/eia ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy, iN

(t?(( (t(+?((+? (t((Fe3C+(

Aeo?aeiee 6-8 43-45 80-82

Iiaeeo?eiaaiee Se

10-12

80-85

85-86

Iiaeeo?eiaaiee Oa

14-18

100-103

80-90

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iae?i-, i?e?i- ? oiiii? no?oeoo?e ii??aiyeueiiai ?
aeine?aeiiai iaoaeo iieacaee, ui Se i Te aeoeaii aieeaathoue ia
aeacai? ia?aiao?e eie?nii? noae?. Iaoae, iiaeeo?eiaaiee Se i Te, iaa
a?eueo u?eueio iae?ino?oeoo?o ? ??aiii??iee ?iciiae?e e?eaao?a. ?ici??e
ca?ia na??eiiai iaoaeo a?aeiia?aeaee 6-7 aaeo, a iiaeeo?eiaaiiai naeaiii
— 7-8 aaeo, oaeo?ii — 8-9 aaeo.

Iniaeeaee ?ioa?an noaiiaeoue aieea naeaio ? oaeo?o ia oiauo oeaiaioeoieo
ieanoeiie (tc o ia?e?o?, yea aaaaoi a /iio aecia/a? oieiaeiieaie?noue
ia?e?oii? noae?. sse iieacaee aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aaee/eia (tc ciaioeeany c 80-90 iei aei 40-60 iei, oiaoi, cia/aiiy (tc
o aeine?aeiiio iaoae? aoei oaea?/? ieae/a, i?ae o na??eiiio (?en.5).

?en.5 No?oeoo?a aeo?aeiiai (a), iiaeeo?eiaaiiai Se (a) oa Oa (a)

eie?niiai iaoaeo, o27000

Iiaeeo?eoaaiiy ni?eyei i?aeaeuaiith oaea?ii? a’yceino? noae? ia 15-20%
i?e +20iN ? o 2-4 ?ace i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 0 — i?ion 60iN.

No?oeoo?o aeo?aeii? ? iiaeeo?eiaaii? noae? naeaiii (0,005%) oa oaeo?ii
(0,005%) aea/aee ?aioaaiiaeeo?aeoe?eiei iaoiaeii. Canoinoaaiiy
iiaeeo?eoaaiiy ia?aaaaeii aieeaa? a oe?eiio ia i?e?ioa?oiiaoaaiiy
??aeei? noae?, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?ici??aie ii?yaeeo e?eueeio
iaiiiao??a ? i?noeoue aeecueei oeny/? aoii?a. Aeey oe??? noae?,
i?eaeecii ia 7%, ciaioothoueny ?ici??e i?e?ioa?oiiaaiue ?
niinoa??aa?oueny aei 20% cieaeaiiy e?eueeino? aoii?a o oeeo ae?eyieao.
Iiaeia ia?aaeaa/eoe, ui ciaioaiiy ?ici???a i?e?ioa?oiiaaiue aeey noae? c
oaeueeiaai?aeaie o ii??aiyii? c aeo?aeiith, i?eaaei aei i?aeaeuaiiy
aeenia?niino? ceeaeo, yeee cae?enoae?coaaany.

?ic?iaea ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aenieiaoaeoeaii? oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa
eie?nii? noae? c aeei?enoaiiyi i?ioean?a niaoeaeaeo?iiaoaeo?a??.

?icaeoie on?o aaeocae iiai? oaoi?ee iinoaaea ia?aae iaoaeo?aaie
caaaeaiiy iaea?aeaiiy noaeae ? nieaa?a c iaaa/aiei ?ai?oa ii?aeiaiiyi
neoaeaiaeo aeanoeainoae, iai?eeeaae, cia/ii? i?oeiino? i?e iaeii/anii
aenie?e ieanoe/iino? oa a’yceino?. Oae? aeanoeaino? ia? iaoae
?ao?ioth/eo aeaeo?iia?aieaa?a, i?e yeeo aaea?oueny iaea?aeaoe
aa?aioiaaio /enoioo iaoaeii?iaeoeoe?? ca ai?noii iaiaoae?/ieo aeeth/aiue
? aac?a, a oaeiae o?i?/io ? o?ce/io iaeii??aei?noue a?aeeeaie, ui, a
e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo, aecia/a? ieanoe/i? ? i?oei?ni? aeanoeaino? aioiaeo
ae?ia?a.

Nii/aoeo ia?aieaaaie AOI oa AAeI ia?ane?aeoaaeany, ia?o ca ana,
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ia iaoa c’ynoaaiiy a?aie/ii? iiaeeeaino? i?aeaeuaiiy
yeino? eie?nii? noae? ?ao?ioth/eie ia?aieaaaie. Aeaeo?ioeaeiaee ia?aieaa
ia?oai?anueei? noae? i?iaiaeeee ia onoaiiaoe? IEA-1065 (o?e ieaaee). A
iaio aeiaaeeao aeei?enoiaoaaee noaiaea?oiee oethn AIO-6 neeaaeo(ian. %):
NaF2 65; Al2O3 30; CaO 35; SiO2 0,40; MnO 0,64; Fe2O3 0,46.
Aaeooiii-aeoaiaee ia?aieaa eie?niiai iaoaeo aeaeo?iaeoaiai? oa
ia?oai?anueei? aeieaaie i?iaiaeeee ia onoaiiaoe? AeNA-6,3 A6 o
e?enoae?caoi? ae?aiao?ii 500 ii, i?e oeueiio ?iai/ee oene o ieaaeeueiiio
i?inoi?? ia ia?aaeuoaaa 1,33(10-3 AIa. Iaoaeia?ao?/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie
anoaiiaeaii, ui iaoae AOI ii??aiyii c aeo?aeiei iaa cia/ii iaioa
iaiaoae?/ieo aeeth/aiue, aiie ae??aiiaeenia?ni? ? ??aiii??ii ?icoaoiaai?
ii ia?a??co ceeaea. O iaoae? AAeI iaioa aeii?oie eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a,
oae iai?eeeaae, eiioeaio?aoe?y ieo’yeo ? i?ae? o iaoae? aeo?aeii?
ia?oai?anueei? aeieaaee cieceeanue ia 50 oa 57% a?aeiia?aeii.

?acoeueoaoe iaoai?/ieo aei?iaoaaiue iieacothoue, ui iaoae AOI, ii??aiyii
?c cae/aeiei, ia? oaea?/? a?eueoa cia/aiiy oaea?ii? a’yceino? ye i?e
iiceoeaieo, oae ? i?e iaaaoeaieo oaiia?aoo?ao. O iaoae? AAeI, ui ia? o
nai?io neeaae? noeueo?ae?a oaea?/? a?eueoa, i?ae o iaoae? AOI, i?e 20iN
oey aaee/eia ia? 40 Aeae/ni2 ii??aiyii c 52 Aeae/ni2 aeey iaoaeo AOI,
iaeiae o iaeano? — 60iN aeinyaa? 22 Aeae/ni2.

Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe iineoaeeee ia?aaeoiiaith aeey iiaeaeueoiai
a?ae?iaeaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a ?ao?ioth/eo
aeaeo?iia?aieaa?a, cie?aia AOI, noiniaii aei i?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy
iaae?eiino? ? yeino? cae?cie/ieo eie?n. sse oaea a?aecia/aeiny,
?ica’ycaiiy caaaeaiiy cieaeaiiy nooiaith ?icaeoeo aeaiae??oii? e?eaaoe??
? iiae??aiaiiy no?oeoo?e aoaeaoeaai? noae? iia’ycaia ?c i?aeaeuaiiyi
oaeaeeino? e?enoae?caoe??, yea i?e ?ioeo ??aieo oiiaao aecia/a?oueny
ia?aioieiaeaeaiiyi ?icieaao. I?aeaeuaiith ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy i?e
e?enoae?caoe?? ni?ey? ia?aa??a ??aeeiai iaoaeo aeua oaiia?aoo?e
e?ea?aeon, ui ia? i?noea i?e ia?aieaaieo i?ioeanao. O oeueiio aniaeo? ?
i?iaiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi aeeoa?aioe?eii-oa?i?/iiai
aiae?co (AeOA). Aei?iaoaaiiy i?iaiaeeee ia onoaiiaoe? AAeOA-8 a
aoiinoa?? i/euaiiai aae?th. C?acee ianith 1 a (iaei?? ? o??? ae ieaaee)
iaa??aaee a aeoiaeiaeo oeaeyo aei oaiia?aoo?e 1550-1750iN, aeo?eioaaee
i?ioyaii 45 oa., a iio?i ioieiaeaeoaaee c? oaeaee?noth 40iN/oa. O
i?ioean? iaa??ao ? ioieiaeaeaiiy caienoaaee e?ea? AeOA, i?ney /iai
aeine?aeaeoaaee no?oeoo?o iaoaeo.

?en.6 Ci?ia ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy i?e oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiiyo eie?nii? noae?
caeaaeii a?ae oaiia?aoo?e aeo?eiee ?icieaao Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a AeOA
(?en.6) iiea-caa, ui ?c c?inoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e aeo?eiee ?icieaao (tp),
oiaoi ia?aa-??ao, aeiaae?iiy ia?aeiieo e?enoae?a ? ia?eoaeoe/ia
ia?aoai?aiiy i?ioi-aeeoue i?e aenieeo nooiaiyo ia?aioi-eiaeaeaiiy. Aa?oi
iniaeeai a?aecia/e-oe no?eaeiiiae?aiee oa?aeoa? aeaca-iiai
aca?iica’yceo. Oae, i?e tp = 1550…1575iN cia/aiiy (t?((
i?aeae-uo?oueny onueiai ia 10iN, a i?e 1575-1600iN ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy
no?eaei-iiae?aii c?inoa? ia 20iN. Aiaei-a?/iee oa?aeoa? ia? oaeiae
caeaaei?noue (t? ( ( ?+ ( = f(tp).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e c?ace?a i?ney AeOA iieacaei, ui c i?aeaeuaiiyi
tp ca?eueoo?oueny aeenia?ni?noue aeaiae??oii? no?oeoo?e ? iiieaeo?oueny
nooi?iue o?i?/ii? iaiaeii?iaeiino? iaoaeo, ui iaoiiaeaii ia o?eueee
iai?aaeaiei ? i?enei?aiei oaieia?aeaiaeii, aea ? cia/iei
ia?aioieiaeaeaiiyi ?icieaao, ui e?enoae?cothoueny, aiane?aeie nooo?aiai
ia?aa??ao. Oeae oaeoi? ?ai?oa ia caaaeaee a?aoiaoaaany ? ia
aeei?enoiaoaaany iiai?noth ?aca?a AOI o aniaeo? oi?aae?iiy no?oeoo?ieie
ia?aiao?aie ceeae?a, ui e?enoae?co?oueny.

C iaoith aeai?o ?aoe?iiaeueiiai oaoiieia?/iiai aa??aioo AOI eie?nii?
noae? a eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao ia onoaiiaoe? A-550 aoee aeine?aeaeai?:

?iceeneaiiy iaoaeo ? oeaeo o i?ioean? AOI nee?eieaeueoe??i oa
eiiieaeniith e?aaoo?ith AEEIE-4?(45-50% Si; 9-12% Na; 8-10% Mg; 3-7%
?CI), c iaoith iiaeeo?eoaaiiy iaiaoae?/ieo aeeth/aiue;

ia?aieaa aeo?a/oaaieo aeaeo?iae?a ?c caoenoii iiaa?oi? oeaeo oa?ii
naaeenoiai aoaeaoeth c iaoith noai?aiiy a?aae??ioo ieeneaiino? ii aenio?
oeaeiai? aaiie aeey aeaeaeaiiy aiaeith ? i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino?
i?ioeano;

aei?iaoaaiiy aeey ?aae?caoe?? i?ioeano AOI a?aei?aoeueiaaiiai oethno
ia?ee AIO-6, ui caaacia/o? iaiao?aeiee nooi?iue ?ao?ioaaiiy iaoaeo c
iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/iino? aeaeo?ioeaeiai? oaoiieia??.

sse?noue iaoaeo aea/aee o eeoiio ? eiaaiiio noaiao. Ceeaee eoaaeeny
nooi?i/anoi c? nooiaiai oeiaoaaiiy 2,8 oa 4 c ianooiiith ae??ceith
oaiieao?a aeey iaoai?/ieo aei?iaoaaiue ? iaoaeia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.
?acoeueoaoe eiiieaenieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaieeee c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
AOI eie?nii? noae? c iiaeeo?eoaaiiyi ?? o i?ioean? AOI e?aaoo?ith
AEEIE-48 (aa??aio 1), a oaeiae oeei nieaaii o eiiieaen? c
nee?eieaeueoe??i (aa??aio 2) ia? iaee?au? iieacieee ? oey oaoiieia?y
?aeiiaiaeiaaia aeey i?iieneiaiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy.

I?iieneia? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue ia Iiaie?aiaoi?nueeiio
iaoeiiaoae?aiiio caaiae?. Ceeaee ?c ia?oai?anueei? noae? eoaaeeny o
eiaaeuenueeiio oeaoo aei ae?aiao?a 320 ii. Ia?aieaa i?iaiaeeee ia
onoaiiaoe? AOI-10A, ui i?aoeth? ca noaiith caiiaiaiiy ia?ooiiiai
e?enoae?caoi?a. C iaoith caoenoo oeaeiai? aaiie a?ae aoiinoa?ii? aieiae,
cieaeaiiy aeaa?o eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a o ieaaeeueiee i?ino?? iiaeaaaany
a?aii ia?ee A (AINO 10157-73) o e?eueeino? 3 i3/aiae. I?ney ii??cee
ceeae?a ia caaioiaee a oiiaao IOC aoee aeaioiaeai? eieana ae?aiao?ii 950
ii. Aea/aiiy iae?ino?oeoo?e iaoaeo aeine?aeieo eie?n iieacaei, ui aiia
ia? u?eueio aoaeiao aac yaii ae?aaeaieo no?oeoo?ieo cii, aaee/eia
i?e?iaeiiai ca?ia iaoaeo AOI, o na?aaeiueiio, ia 2 aaee iaioa iioi/iiai,
i?e oeueiio i?aeieanoei/aoa a?aenoaiue o ia?e?o? aei??aith? 0,17 iei. Ca
oaa?ae?noth oa i?oei?noth aeine?aeiee iaoae cia/ii ia?aaa?oo?
ii??aiyeueiee aac cieaeaiiy ieanoe/ieo aeanoeainoae, oaea?ia a’yce?noue
i?e iethnia?e oaiia?aoo?? o 1,3-1,8 ?ace, a i?ionia?e o 2,2-2,8 ?ace
aeua, i?ae o ii??aiyeueiiio.

Aei?iaoaaiiy c?ace?a, ae??caieo ia aeeaei? 10 ii a?ae iiaa?oi? eaoaiiy
eie?n ia i’yoe ??aiyo iaaaioaaeaiiy (ii 1-5 c?ace?a ia ??aaiue)
iieacaee, ui aeine?aeiee iaoae, ii??aiyii c na??eiei, ia? a?eueoee ii??
eiioaeoi?e aoiieaiino? (oaae.2). O i?aeaeuaii? aeiaaia?/iino? iaoaeo AOI
ii??aiyii c iioi/iei (i?e iaeiaeiaeo cia/aiiyo oaa?aeino?), aaeeeo ?ieue
a?ae?a?a? u?euei?noue ? iaeii??aei?noue no?oeoo?e. Aeine?aei? eieana,
ye? aieiae?thoue oi?eaeueiei ii?aeiaiiyi neoaeaiaeo aeanoeainoae i?e
iaeii/anii aenie?e ieanoe/iino? ? a’yceino?, aoee i?eeiyo?
I?i?noa?noaii na?aaeiueiai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy (eieeoiueiai N?N?),
anoaiiaeai? i?ae ieaooi?ie niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy oa i?ieoee
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aei?iaoaaiiy.

Oaaeeoey 2

Caeaaei?noue aeiaaia?/iino? eie?niiai iaoaeo AOI aei aee?eooaaiiy

i?e eiioaeoi?e aoiieaiino? a?ae iaaaioaaeaiiy

Iaaaioaaeaiiy, I Aeiaaia?/i?noue, oeeee o105

ii??aiyeueiee aa??aio 1 aa??aio 2

1200 1,87 2,91 2,79

900 2,11 3,87 2,84

800 2,80 5,78 4,56

300 4,28 9,14 8,07

120 7,91 18,9 11,2

Aaaaoioaeoi?iee aiae?c, aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iioei?caoe?y oaoiieia?/ieo
ia?aiao??a iicai?/ii? ia?ia?oee eie?nii? noae?.

Iaoiaeaie iaoaeia?ao?/iiai aiae?co ia aaeeeiio ianea? ia?oai?anueeeo
ieaaie anoaiiaeaii, ui o eie?niiio iaoae? ii?oieia?y noeueo?aeieo
aeeth/aiue ianoaa?eueia ? ci?ith?oueny a?ae ieaaee aei ieaaee. Oae o
iaoae? 70 ieaaie n??ea aeae?eyeany o aeaeyae? noeueo?ae?a I oeio, 65
ieaaie — 1 oeio, a o 115 ieaaeao — iaeii/anii 1 oa I oei?a. Noaoenoe/iee
aiae?c iieaco?, ui i?e iaeiaeiaiio o?i?/iiio neeaae? aaee/eia oaea?ii?
a’yceino? eie?nii? noae? c ie?aeiaeie noeueo?aeaie ia 10-15% ieae/a,
i?ae o iaoae? c aeiaoey?ieie noeueo?aeaie, e??i oeueiai, aiie iii?oii
i?aeaeuothoue oeieaii/ooeea?noue iaoaeo. Iaea?eueo oe?iei
?iciianthaeaeaiei iaoiaeii aieeao ia ii?oieia?th noeueo?aeieo aeeth/aiue
? iiaeeo?eoaaiiy aoaeaoeaai? noae? ECI oa ?CI. Ine?eueee eeniaaee
iioaioe?ae aiaiao?ea?a ? i?/iiai oeaeo i?e aeieaaoe? eie?nii? noae?
aeineoue aenieee, oiio caaaeaiiy ?aaeaiaioaoe?? noeueo?ae?a iaiao?aeii
?ica’ycoaaoe i?e oiiaao, eiee o noae? iiai?noth aeeo/aeanue ae
iiaeeea?noue ooai?aiiy ie?aeiaeo noeueo?ae?a. Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy
iinoaaeaiiai caaaeaiiy aoea i?iaaaeaia na??y eaai?aoi?ieo ieaaie a
?iaeoeoe?ei?e ia/?. Iaoae ?iceenethaaany ca i?eeiyoith ia oie /an (aei
aaaaeaiiy a aenieoaoaoe?th ia IOC eiiieaeno iicai?/ii? ia?iaee) noaiith:
o ia/? oa?iia?aaioeai ? oa?inee?oe??i ? ia aeioneo o eiao? e?aaoo?ith
NEO?A. I?e ?iceeaoe? aeine?aeiiai iaoaeo o aeeeaieoe? a?i ia?iaeyany
c?inoath/eie aeiaaaeaie n??/enoiai cae?ca (Fe + 30% S). ?c ?acoeueoao?a
iaoaeia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeieeaaei, ui e?eoe/ia eiioeaio?aoe?y
n??ee caeaaeeoue a?ae e?eueeino? e?aaoo?e: i?e aeo?ao? NEO?A 1,2 ea/o
e?eoe/iith ? eiioeaio?aoe?y n??ee, ui aei??aith? 0,043-0,046%, i?e
e?eueeino? 1,6-1,8 ea/o o?ainoi?iaoe?y noeueo?ae?a ?aae?co?oueny i?e
0,016- 0,028% S. O oeueiio ca’yceo aeey i?iieneiaeo oiia
?aeiiaiaeiaaia iaea?eueo iioeiaeueia aeo?aoa e?aaoo?e o e?eueeino?
1,6-2,0 ea/o.

Aeey eie?nii? noae?, ia??ai? c ii?oieia??th, aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia?
oaeiae oaiia?aoo?a ieaaeaiiy noeueo?ae?a, ine?eueee a?ae ia? caeaaeeoue
noeeuei?noue iaoaeo aei ia?aa??ao, oaoiieia?/ia (aa?y/a) ieanoe/i?noue ?
ia?iaethaai?noue ??caiiyi. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a ca oa?iiaeeiai?/ieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ?aaeoe?e ooai?aiiy noeueo?ae?a oeio MnxFe1-xS i?e
caaeaiiio cia/aii? aeoeaiino? ia?aaioeth iieacaee, ui iaea?aeaiiy
noeueo?ae?a c oaiia?aoo?ith ieaaeaiiy iiiaae 1250iN caaacia/o?oueny i?e
a?aeiioaiiyo aeoeaiino? ia?aaioeth aei n??ee (Mn/(S > 60-70.

?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaieo aaaaoiieaiiaeo oai?aoe/ieo oa
aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei ?ic?iaee oaoiieia??
i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? eie?nii? noae? i?e aeieaaoe? ?? o a?aee?eoeo aeoaiaeo
aeaeo?iia/ao, niiniaaie niaoe?aeueii? aeaeo?iiaoaeo?a?? noaee oaeiae
ia?aaeoiiaith aeey ?ica’ycaiiy ?yaeo aca?iiiia’ycaieo caaaeaiue i?e
inai?ii? oaoiieia?? ?ao?ioaaiiy ??aeei? noae? a onoaiiaeao i?/-e?ao
(LHF) ? eaia?iiio aaeooiaoi?? (VD). Aeai?aeeia caaea/a aeinyaiaiiy
a?eueo aeeaiei? aeanoeueoo?aoe?? ? i?aeaeuaiiy no?eeino? oooa?iaee
ia/?-eiaoa (iniaeeai oeaeiaiai iiyno) ?ica’ycaia ia iniia? aiae?co
oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo aeaieo neeaaeieo ieneaeii-ooi?eaeii?
NaI-Al2O3-SiO2-CaF2 ? iaoae?/ii? Na-I-Fe nenoai.

I?iaeoia oaoiieia?y, ui ?icaeyaeaeanue nii/aoeo o?eueee aeey iaa??ao
iaoaeo ia ia/?-eiao? ia?aae aaeooioaaiiyi, ia?aaeaa/aea aeei?enoaiiy
oeaeo a?ia?ii? nenoaie NaI-NaF2 (ia 120 o ??aeei? noae? aeo?a/aee 300
ea aaiia ? 20 ea ieaaeeiaiai oiaoo). Oeae oeae aeineoue aeoeaii o?i?/ii
aca?iiae?ya c aiaeaeoceoiaith oooa?iaeith eiaoa (63,4% Al2O3 oa 36,6%
SiO2), aiane?aeie /iai no?ee?noue oeaeiaiai iiyno neeaaeaea 2-4 ieaaee.
O ianooiiee ia??iae oeaeiaee iiyn oooa?oaaee ?iii?oiith
ia?eeeacio?ii?oiaith oeaaeith (ia?ea SLV20, Neiaa//eia). Iao?ia?ao?/ieie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie aeeiiie oooa?iaee oeaeiaiai iiyno, aeeiiaiiai ?c
ia?eeeacio?ii?oo, aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? o?i?/ii? a?ic?? aiaiao?ea?a i?ae
aieeaii ieneaeii-ooi?eaeieo oeae?a ? aenieeo oaiia?aoo?. Aea/aia
aeeiai?ea o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ?ao?ioaaeueiiai oeaeo o ia/?-eiao? ii oiaeo
oaoiieia?/iiai oeeeeo. Anoaiiaeaii, ui o e?ioe? ia??iaeo ?ao?ioaaiiy
noae? i?e aeeth/aieo aeaeo?e/ieo aeoaao oeae iaa oaeee o?i?/iee neeaae
(o ian.%): 40,4 NaI; 22,3 SiO2; 8,2 Al2O3; 2,12 CaF2; 20,1 MgO; 4,4
Fecaa; 0,22 S; %CaO/%SiO2=1.Eiao?oe??io ?iciiae?eo n??ee i?ae oeei
oeaeii neeaaea? LS = (%S)/[%S] = 22,0. Ia i?aenoaa? aeeiiaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui oaea cia/aiiy LS iiaeia
iaea?aeaoe, aeei?enoiaoth/e aacooi?eaeiee oeae nenoaie NaI-Al2O3-SiO2,
yeee iaio ?aaeoe?eiee ii a?aeiioaiith aei aiaeaeoceoiai? ?
ia?eeeacio?ii?oiai? oooa?iaie.

Oai?aoe/iith ia?aaeoiiaith iinoaiiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?ic?iaeaieo neeaae?a ?ao?ioaaeueiiai oeaeo noaee iia? aeai? i?i
oa?iiaeeiai?/i? aeanoeaino? ?icieaa?a oa?ia?ii? NaI-Al2O3-SiO2 oa
oao?a?ii? ieneaeii-ooi?eaeii? nenoai (A.I.Caeoeaa, A.I.Iiaooiia oa ?i.
OeIAe?*i?iao).

Aooc?eiei iaoiaeii Eioaenaia c ianniaeo?aeueiei aiae?cii i?iaeoeo?a
aeia?thaaiiy ieneaeii? ? ieneaeii-ooi?eaeii? nenoaie oe? aaoi?e
?ic?aoiaoaaee oa?iiaeeiai?/io aeoeai?noue eiiiiiaio?a NaI, Al2O3, SiO2
oa NaF2, a oaeiae aecia/aee neeaae ia?iai? oace.

?en.7 E?i?? ?ciaeoeaiino? NaI ia ?ic?aooaaeueiiio ?cioa?i?/iiio
ia?a-oei? (O=1773 E) ae?aa?aie noaio nenoaie NaF2-SiO2-Al2O3-CaO c
x(CaF2)=0,1 (ca noaiaea?oiee noai ieneaeo eaeueoe?th ia?aii oaa?aeee
NaI) Iaeia/anii c SiF4 ? AlF3 o ian-niaeo?ao iane/aiiai ia?o aeyaeai?
?iie SiF+3, CaF+2, AlOF3+, SiO+ oa ?i., ui aeicaiey? iia?/ii
oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ia?i-aaciao oaco iaae ?ao?ioaaeueiei oeaeii ye
na?aaeiaeua neeaaeiiai eiiiiiaioiiai neeaaeo, aieiaiei na?aae yeeo SiF4
oa AlF3, ui ooai?ththoueny ca ?aaeoe?yie

2NaF2 + SiO2 = 2CaO + SiF4;

3NaF2 + Al2O3 = 3CaO + 2AlF3.

sse aeo?ea? ?c aeaieo ?en.7 o i??o caaaa/aiiy ?ao?ioaaeueiiai oeaeo SiO2
nooo?ai cieaeo?oueny aeoeai?noue NaI, ui iia??oo? aeanoeueoo?oth/o
aeanoea?noue oeaeo.

?ic?iaeaiee o aeai?e ?iaio? neeaae ?ao?ioaaeueiiai oeaeo cai?iiiii-aaii
oi?ioaaoe c aeei?enoaiiyi eiiiiiaio?a ieneaeiiai oa?aeoa?o (a?e
aiaaeaeoceoiai? oeaaee, oaiioo) ? iaoaei-ieneaeiiai iaoa??aeo, ui ?
niaith noi?ooth aeeiicaio c aeeth/aiiyie iaoae?/iiai aethi?i?th.
Noeueo?aeia ?ie?noue iniiaiiai oeaeo i?aeaeuo?oueny ?c c?inoaiiyi
oaiia?a-oo?e, aea i?e a?aenooiino? ?iceeneth-aa/a ??aiiaaaeiee
eiao?oe??io ?icii-

ae?eo n??ee ciaioo?oueny (?en.8), oiio ui i?e oeueiio i?aeaeuo?oueny
ai?no FeO o oeaoe? oa [O] o iaoae?: (NaI) + (FeS) = (CaS) + (FeO).

Canoinoaaiiy oeaei-?iceenethth/i? noi?o?, ui i?noeoue aethi?i?e,
iie?ioo? oa?iiaeeiai?/i? oiiae aeaeaeaiiy n??ee caaaeyee i?io?eaiith
noia?ii? ?aaeoe??

(NaI) + [S]Fe + 2/3Al = (CaS) + (1/3 Al2O3)

Canoinoaaiiy aeey ?iceeneaiiy iaoaeo aethi?i?th c iaaeeeoeeii [%Al]/[%O]
(25 i?eaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy aeeth/aiue /enoiai ei?oiaeo, ye? i?e
i?anii?ieaooe? eie?nieo caaioiaie ?icoaoiaothoueny o iai?yieo
aeaoi?iaoe?? ? ooai?ththoue ?yaeee.

?en.8 Caeaaei?noue LS a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ( 1500iN; 1650iN) ?
ai?noo aethi?i?th o noae? Neeaae o?ainoi?iiaaiiai ei?oiaeo caeaaeeoue
a?ae e?eueeino? aaaaeaiiai eaeueoe?th.I?e aaaaeaii? nee?eieaeueoe?th
(NE30) o e?eueeinoyo ieae/a 0,3-0,5 ea/o, ye i?aaeei, ooai?ththoueny
aeeth/aiiy Al2O3-6Al2O3(CaO, a i?e aaeee?e e?eueeino? — ooai?ththoueny
??aee? aeiaoey?i? aethiinee?eaoe eaeueoe?th, ye? oaeaeoa aeaeaeythoueny
?c noae?.

?ic?iaea ?aoe?iiaeueiiai oeaeiaiai ?aaeeio (i?e aeieaaoe? noae?, aeioneo
o noaea?iceeaiee e?ao ? ia?iaoe? ia LHF) ia?aaeaa/aea aio/ea
aeei?en-oaiiy aethi?i?th oa iaoa??ae?a, ui i?noyoue aoaeaoeue.
Ii?ioeiiiae?aiee a?ao?o (OO 4801-44-94) aaiaeeany o oeae c aeei?enoaiiyi
oi?e?ao-iaoeie oianoino?iiith o?oaith, oooa?iaaiith neoiiieie o?oaeaie.

.

?en. 9 Cieaeaiiy e?eueeino? iaia-oae?/ieo aeeth/aiue i?e i?iaeoaoe?
a?aiiii o eiao? c ?ao?ioaaeueiei oeaeii (() ? i?e cae/aei?e
oaoiieia??(i). Oeae e?ioey ia??iaeo ieaaeaiiy ?ioaineaii i?ieany ?
aeia?a noiaeea /a?ac ?iai/a a?eii, i?e oeueiio, ca /an i?iaeoaee (4
oa.40 nae) oaiia?aoo?a iaoaeo i?aeaeuoaaeany ia 15iN, oiaoi, o o?e/?
oaeaeoa, i?ae i?e cae/aeiiio i?ioean?. Ai?no oinoi?o i?ney cae?i/aiiy
iie??oaaiiy neeaaeaa ia a?eueoa 0,011%, a o?eaae?noue aeiaiaeee
nei?ioeeany ia 0,5 aiaeeie. I?ney aeioneo ia?oeo ii?oe?e iaoaeo o e?ao
i?enaaeaeoaaeeny oaa?ae? oeaei-ooai?thth/?: ii?ioie, ui i?noeoue
aethi?i?e (120-150 ea) oa iieioa aaiii (300 ea), c iaeii/aniith
iiaea/ith a?aiio.

Aeo?eiea iaoaeo i?ae ?ao?ioaaeueiei oeaeii c i?iaeoaeith (?en. 9), e??i
aeaeaeaiiy n??ee, aeicaieeea cieceoe ? caaaeueiee ai?no iaiaoae?/ieo
aeeth/aiue (o ii??aiyii? ?c cae/aeiith oaoiieia??th aeieaaee eie?nii?
noae? aac canoinoaaiiy iicai?/ii? ia?iaee). Iaaaaeaiiy ?ao?ioaaeueiiai
oeaeo ia aeioneo aeicaieeei ia?aaeaaaoe e?ao ia onoaiiaeo i?/-e?ao aac
nea/oaaiiy oeaeo ia noaiae?.

Iiaeaeueoa ia?iaea oeaeo ia onoaiiaoe? LHF i?iaiaeeeany i?enaaeeaie
aaiia (ii?oe?y ii 150 ea) oa ii?ioea, yeee i?noeoue aethi?i?e, i?e
ni?aa?aeiioaii? 3:1 o e?eueeinoyo, aecia/aieo aeo?aeiei ai?noii n??ee.
Aeei?enoaiiy iaaaaeaiiai oeaeiaiai ?aaeeio aeicaieeei iaoe o aioiaiio
iaoae? aa?aioiaaiee ai?no n??ee aei 0,010%, noaa?e?coaaoe oiiae ai??iiy
aeaeo?e/ii? aeoae ? ca?eueoeoe oa?i?i neoaeae aiaiao?eaei? oooa?iaee
noaea?iceeaiiai eiaoa.

AENIIAEE

Aieiaiee i?aenoiie oe??? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? o oiio, ui o i?e
iinoaaeaii ? iaea?aeaei eiie?aoia ?ica’ycaiiy ?yae iaoeiaeo oa
i?eeeaaeieo caaaeaiue o aaeoc? oai??? ? oaoiieia?? noaeaieaaeeueieo
i?ioean?a: ?ic?iaeai?, aeine?aeaeai?, inai?i? ? ai?iaaaeaeai?
i?eioeeiiai iia? oaoiieia?/i? noaie ? i?ioeane aeieaaee eie?nii? noae? o
ia?oai?anueeeo ? aeoaiaeo aeaeo?iia/ao, o aeaeo?ioa?i?/ieo onoaiiaeao
niaoeaeaeo?iiaoaeo?a??, oaoiieia?/i? ?aaeeie iicai?/iiai ?ao?ioaaiiy ?
iiaeeo?eoaaiiy ??aeei? eie?nii? noae? ia onoaiiaeao aeaeo?ii?/-e?ao, a
aaeooii?e eaia?? c i?iaeoaeith a?aiiii ? ia onoaiiaoe? ii?oe?eiiai
aaeooioaaiiy, ui aeicaieeei i?aeaeueoe ye?noue aoaeaoeaai? eie?nii?
noae?, ?, ye iane?aeie, eiieo?aioicaeaoi?noue oe?eueiieaoaieo eie?n ia
?a?i-Ac?aonueeeo ?eieao iaoaeii?iaeoeoe??. Aeey oni?oiiai ?ica’ycaiiy
oeueiai aieiaiiai aaaaoioaeoi?iiai caaaeaiiy o aeena?oaoe?? aeeiiaii
eiiieaen aeine?aeaeaiue, neeaaeieo ca nai?th iaoeiaith noooth oa
i?aeoe/iei cae?eniaiiyi o i?iieneiaiio ae?iaieoeoa?.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe, aeniiaee ? iieiaeaiiy, iaea?aeai? o ?iaio?, a
ocaaaeueiaiiio aeaeyae? iaaaaeai? ieae/a.

I?iaaaeaii aiae?c oaoiieia?e aeieaaee aoaeaoeaai? noae? eie?niiai
ni?oaiaioo a oiiaao Ieaeiueiaei?i?ianueeiai o?oaii?ieaoiiai caaiaeo,
Aeenoinueeiai iaoaeo?a?eiiai caaiaeo ? Ieaeiuei-Oaa?euenueeiai
iaoaeo?a?eiiai eiia?iaoo a aniaeo? a?aeiia?aeiino? ae?th/eo
oaoiieia?/ieo ?aaeei?a ia?oai?anueei? ieaaee, ?iceeneaiiy ? iicai?/ii?
aeaaacaoe?? a?aiiii, iniiaiei iieiaeaiiyi noaeaieaaeeueieo i?ioean?a ?
aeiiaai ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a «Oe?cae?cieoe?» (Oe?a?ia) oa IIN
(?in?y) aei yeino? iaoaeo oe?eueiieaoaieo eie?n oe?ieiai ni?oaiaioo ?
??ciiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy: ?ooiiiai neeaaeo cae?cie/iiai
o?ainii?oo, eieiiioea?a ? aaaii?a iao?iiie?oaio.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia a?aei?io a?ae i?eeiyoi? o i?aeia?iaei?e iaoaeo?a?ei?e
i?aeoeoe? oaoiieia?? aeieaaee eie?nii? noae? ia?aaaaeii o aeoaiaeo
aeaeo?iia/ao iniiaiei i?ioeanii c ianooiiei iaia’yceiaei aaeooioaaiiyi
??aeei? noae?, ia iaoaeo?a?eieo i?aei?e?inoaao Oe?a?ie ? ?in?? ia
ii/aoie aeeiiaiiy oe??? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe eie?nia noaeue
aeieaaeyeany o?eueee o ia?oai?anueeeo ia/ao aac canoinoaaiiy
aaeooioaaiiy ? ia aoei oai?aoe/ieo ? aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaeo aeaieo c
oaoiieia?? aeieaaee eie?nii? noae? o aeoaiaeo aeaeo?iia/ao c iicai?/iei
?ao?ioaaiiyi ? aaeooioaaiiyi. Ae?iaieoeoai eie?n ?c ia?oai?anueei?
noae?, ia i?aeaeaieo aaeooioaaiith, nooo?ai iaiaaeoaaei aenii?o
oe?eueiieaoaieo eie?n, a oaeiae ?o aeei?enoaiiy i?ae ?ooiiei neeaaeii
niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy (o?ainii?o aeo?aeiiai ? a?aei?aoeueiaaiiai
aoiiiiai aia?aaoe/iiai iaeeaa, ia’?eo?a iai?iiiiai i?ecia/aiiy oiui).

Aia?oa iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai?, ?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?? ? i?iaaaeai?
e?oiiiianooaai? na??? aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaeo ieaaie eie?nii? noae? o
aeoaiaeo ia/ao ?ie?noth 5,30 oa 100 o iniiaiei i?ioeanii ca ??cieie
aa??aioaie aeieaaee ?c canoinoaaiiyi iicai?/ieo iaoiae?a aaeooiiiai
?ao?ioaaiiy. Iaoa aeine?aeieo ieaaie iieyaaea a iaea?aeaii? aeo?aeieo
aeaieo aeey i?iaeooaaiiy aeaeo?inoaeaieaaeeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia IOC,
caaacia/aii? aeniei-oaeaee?nieo aeaeo?iii?cae?a oeio A?-200 iaae?eieie a
aenieoaoaoe?? eieanaie, a oaeiae i?i?iaoe? oaoiieia?/ieo noai, ui
caaacia/othoue iaea?aeaiiy eie?n ?c noae? aeacaiiai iioiaeaeaiiy o
aeiaaeeo ?o iio?aae ia i?aeia?iaeiiio ?eieo iaoaeii?iaeoeoe??.

?ic?iaeaia ? inai?ia oaoiieia?y aeieaaee eie?nii? noae? o aeoaiaeo
100-oiiieo aeaeo?iia/ao aeaeo?inoaeaieaaeeueiiai oeaoo Aeiiaoeueeiai
iaoaeo?a?eiiai caaiaeo ? a?aei?aoeueiaai? ?aaeeie aaeooiii? ia?iaee
noae? c aeiiiiiaith ii?oe?eiiai aaeooiaoi?a, ui aoei aeeeeeaii
iaiao?aei?noth iaea?aeaiiy aenieiye?nii? eie?nii? aeaeo?inoae?, a oaeiae
ii??aiyeueii? ioe?iee canoinoaaiiy ii?oe?eiiai aaeooioaaiiy ii??aiyii c
eaia?iei. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoaeo iieacaei, ui ii?oe?eia aaeooioaaiiy
ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae: oei/aniaee ii?? neeaa
940-1070 I/ii2, ieanoe/i? oa?ae-oa?enoeee (a?aeiinia caoaeaiiy oa
iiaeiaaeaiiy) i?aeaeueeeny o na?aaeiueiio o 1,5-1,8 ?ace, oaea?ia
a’yce?noue c?ace?a nooo?ai ca?eueoeeanue a iaeano? iaaaoeaieo oaiia?aoo?
? aoea o 1,5 ?ace aeua cia/aiue aeey iaoaeo eie?n cae/aeii?
ia?oai?anueei? aeieaaee. Ia i?aenoaa? aeaieo aenieoaoaoe?eieo
aei?iaoaaiue aeine?aeieo eie?n ?c aeaeo?inoae? a eie?nieo ia?ao aaaii?a
oaeaeeeo ianaaee?nueeeo ii?cae?a ? aaioaaeiioiaa?ieo ?ooiieo neeaae?a
anoaiiaeaii, ui aeine?aei? eieana ia?aoi/oaaeeny cia/ii ??aeoa; na?aaeiy
no?ee?noue i?ioe ni?aoethaaiiy ianaaee?nueeeo aaaii?a o ceiiaee /an ia
o?ainnea??nuee?e iaa?no?ae? (Iineaa-Aeaaeeainoie) neeaaeaea a?ae 22,55
aei 23,44 oen.ei ia 1 ii i?ieaoo i?ioe 19,65 oen.ei ia 1 ii aeey eie?n
?c iaoaeo o?aaeeoe?eii? oaoiieia?? aeieaaee o ia?oai?anueeeo ia/ao.

O ?aieao iinoaaeaiiai caaaeaiiy eiiieaeniiai i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? eie?nii?
noae? i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei aieeao iai?aaacia?a?aii? ?iceeaee
? oeaio?ia?aeii? a?aeeeaee ia ye?noue iaoaeo ? aeanoeaino? eie?n.
?iceeaea iaoaeo ia IIIEC o e?enoae?caoi? ( 405 ii c? oaeaee?noth
aeoyaaiiy 0,25 i/oa. aeicaieeea iaea?aeaoe aeaaeeo (??aio), aac
caai?io?a e??i/ee, iiaa?oith ceeae?a. sse?noue iaoaeo eie?n
a?aeiia?aeaea aeiiaai AINOo oa UIC, ieanoe/i? aeanoeaino? iaoaeo o
1,4-1,5 ?ace, a oaea?iay a’yce?noue i?e i?ioniaeo oaiia?aoo?ao o 1,4-3,2
?ace aeua, i?ae iaoaeo eie?n iioi/iiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? ?iceeoiai ii
aeeeaieoeyo. Caaaeyee iai?aaeaiiio oaieia?aeaiaeo, a oaeiae c?inoaiith
nee nieeaaiiy iaiaoae?/ieo aeeth/aiue i?e oeaio?ia?aei?e ?iceeaoe?
eie?nii? noae? c? oaeaee?noth iaa?oaiiy eieeeth 600-850 ia/oa, iaoae
a?aeeeaie oa?aeoa?eco?oueny neeueiei iiae??aiaiiyi aeaiae??oii?
no?oeoo?e ? ?ioaineaiei i/euaiiyi a?ae iaiaoae?/ieo aeeth/aiue.

Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co aeeaaeo iaoaeo?a?eieo oaeoi??a (aca?iiae?y
aoaeaoeth ? eenith o ?icieaaao, ai?no aac?a, ?aaeeie ?iceeneaiiy,
oaiia?aoo?a iaoaeo ia aeioneo, oiiae e?enoae?caoe?? oa ?i.) ia iieacieee
yeino? aoaeaoeaai? noae?, e?oa?aoo?ieo, aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ?
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui aoaeoeaiei niiniaii
eiiieaeniiai i?aeaeuaiiy iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee eie?nii?
oa?eoi-ia?e?oii? noae? ? iiae??aiaiiy ?? no?oeoo?e, i?aeaeuaiiy
no?eeino? iaoaeo aei ia?aa??ao, cieaeaiiy nooiaith eieae?caoe??
aeaeo?ii?a ia i?aee?enoae?oieo ciiao, ia?aaaaeaiiy ca?iia?aie/ieo
naa?aa??oth/eo aeaiaio?a o no?ee? aoi?eii? oace ni?eyoeeai? oi?ie.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c aeaieo oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei ?ic/eiiino?
eenith o cae?c?, a oaeiae ioe?iea eiai iiaaae?iee i?e ieeneaii?
aoaeaoeth iathoue aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo ?ic?aooie?a
aeoeaiino? eenith ? n??ee o ??aee?e noae?. Aea/ai? no/ani? aeai? c
ieoaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? aoaeaoeaaeo noaeae aeieaaeaieo o
ia?oai?anueeeo oa aeaeo?iaeoaiaeo ia/ao i?e aeei?enoaii? ??cieo
?iceenethaa/?a, ui aeicaieeei aecia/eoe oiiae ooai?aiiy ? o?ainoi?iaoe??
i?iaeoeo?a ?aaeoe?? ?iceeneaiiy, a oaeiae aeyaeoe oaeoi?e, ui
aieeaathoue ia oaeaee?noue i/euaiiy noae? a?ae ieene?a ?
ienenoeueo?ae?a. Oa?iiaeeiai?/ia ioe?iea oiia ?iceeneaiiy noae?
?ic/eiiei iaai??i aeicaieeea anoaiiaeoe iaoai?ci aca?iiae?? c iao?eoeath
noae? a caeaaeiino? a?ae eiai eiioeaio?aoe??. Aeei?enoaiiy eiiiiceoe?e,
ui i?noyoue iaai?e, i?e aeieaaoe? eie?nii? noae? caaacia/eei cieaeaiiy
ai?noo eenith ia 26-35%, caa?oaeiaiino? ieneaeieie aeeth/aiiyie ia
0,5-1,0 aae, ui aeicaieeei a oiiaao IOC ca?eueoeoe aeo?ae i?eaeaoieo
eie?n ia 6,42%, a a oiiaao AIC caaaeueia a?aea?aeiaea ii onueiio
ia?aae?eo ciaioeeanue ia 17%.

Aeine?aeaeaia oa?iiaeeiai?ea i?ioean?a aca?iiae?? acioo, ?ic/eiaiiai o
eie?ni?e noae?, c i?o?eaeiooai?thth/eie aeaiaioaie (Al, V, T?, ?CI) ?
aieea i?o?eaeieo (ea?aii?o?eaeieo) iaaei??ieo oac aeae?eaiiy ia ?ici??
aonoai?oiiai ca?ia. Iieacaii, ui ?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y aeieaaee noae? o
250-oiiieo ia?oai?anueeeo ia/ao, yea ia?aaeaa/a? canoinoaaiiy
oa?inieaa?a, ui i?noyoue acio (acioiaaieo oa?iaaiaae?th oa ia?aaioeth
iaoae?/iiai), o ii?aeiaii? c aaaaeaiiyi o aeinoaoi?e e?eueeino?
i?o?eaeiooai?thth/eo aeaiaio?a, caaacia/o? iaea?aeaiiy noae? c a?eueo
ae??aiei aonoai?oiei ca?iii (aei 9 aae?a) ii??aiyii c? noaeeth aac
i?o?eaeiiai (ea?aii?o?eaeiiai) ci?oeiaiiy, a?eueo aenie? noaa?euei?
cia/aiiy a’yceino? iaoaeo eie?n (aei 63 Aeae/ni2) i?e caa?aaeaii? ia
aeinoaoiuei aenieiio ??ai? iieaciee?a i?oeiino?. Aenieoaoaoe?eieie
??/ieie aei?iaoaaiiyie eie?nieo ia? ?c aeine?aeiiai iaoaeo o ?ooiiiio
neeaae? ia caieiooiio ia?o?oo? neeaaeiiai i?io?eth oeyoo ia ae?eyioe?
Io?iainuee-Aiaoeoe anoaiiaeaii, ui ni?aoethaaiiy iaeiiai ?c iaea?eueo
a?aeiia?aeaeueieo aeaiaio?a eieana — a?aaaiy — ciaioeeiny ia 10%,
na?aaeiueii?ny/iee i?ieao aeine?aeieo eie?n i?ioe na??eieo cieceany ia
40-50%. ?acoeueoaoe aenieoaoaoe?eieo aei?iaoaaiue eie?n ? aeai?
iaoaeia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue no?oeoo?e iaoaeo a?ey iiaa?oi? eaoaiiy
eie?n aei ? i?ney ?o ??/ii? aenieoaoaoe?? aeicaieeoe c?iaeoe aeniiaie
i?i aeioe?euei?noue aeieaaee noae? c i?o?eaeiei (ea?aii?o??aeiei)
ci?oeiaiiyi ? ?ic?iaeoe ii?iaoeaiee aeieoiaio OO 14-15-281-91 «Eieana
i?aeaeuaii? i?oeiino? ?c noae? c ea?aii?o?eaeiei ci?oeiaiiyi».

Aeeiiaiee eiiieaen iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo eaai?aoi?ieo
? aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaeo ?ia?o c iiaeeo?eoaaiiy aoaeaoeaai? eie?nii?
noae? oaeueeiaai?aeieie aeaiaioaie — naeaiii oa oaeo?ii. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
i?enaaeeith oeeo aeaiaio?a (0,008% — 0,029% Se oa 0,005-0,030% Oa)
iiaeia aieeaaoe ia no?oeoo?i? ia?aiao?e oa ii?oieia?th noeueo?aeieo
aeeth/aiue i?e a?aeiioaii? ai?noo naeaio ? oaeo?o aei n??ee, ??aiei
0,4-0,8 oa 0,05-0,15 a?aeiia?aeii. Iiaeeo?eiaaia oaeueeiaai?aeieie
aeaiaioaie eie?nia noaeue noaiaea?oiiai o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ia? cia/aiiy
oaea?ii? a’yceino? i?e +20% ia 15-20% aeua, a i?e iaaaoeaieo
oaiia?aoo?ao o 2-4 ?ace a?eueoa o ii??aiyii? c iioi/iei iaoaeii i?e
caa?aaeaii? eiino?oeoeaii? i?oeiino?. I?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui noaeue,
iiaeeo?eiaaia naeaiii (oaeo?ii) ia? i?ioeoeieaiiee ?ioi?oao.

Aeey caaacia/aiiy ?ooiieo neeaae?a niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy iaae?eieie
eieanaie, aeeiiaii eiiieaen aeine?aeaeaiue ? aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaeo
ieaaie ii i?aeaeuaiith yeino? eie?nii? noae? aeaeo?i?ao?ioth/eie
ia?aieaaaie — AOI oa AAeI, ui aeicaieeei oaeiae aeyaeoe iioaioe?aeuei?
a?aie/ii iiaeeea? aeanoeaino? aoaeaoeaai? oa?eoi-ia?e?oii? noae?, ye
eiino?oeoe?eiiai iaoaeo aeey oe?eueiieaoaieo eie?n, iaea?aeoaaieo
i?anii?ieaoeith. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ia?aa??ao ??aeei? aoaeaoeaai?
noae? i?e ?ao?ioth/eo aeaeo?iia?aieaaao ia ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy ?
no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy iaoaeo c aeei?enoaiiyi aeeoa?aioe?eii-oa?i?/iiai
aiae?co iieacaee, ui aeniea iaeii??aei?noue ? aeenia?ni?noue iaoaeo AOI
iaoiiaeai? ia o?eueee iai?aaeaiei ? i?enei?aiei oaieia?aeaiaeii, aea ?
cia/iei ia?aioieiaeaeaiiyi ?icieaao, ui e?enoae?co?oueny.

?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y AOI eie?nii? noae? c iiaeeo?eoaaiiyi eiiieaeniith
e?aaoo?ith, ui i?noeoue Si, Ca, Mg oa ?CI, ? ?iceeneaiiyi
nee?eieaeueoe??i. Iaoaeio?ce/i? ? o?ceei-iaoai?/i? aei?iaoaaiiy
iieacaee, ui iae?ino?oeoo?a ceeae?a ia? aeoaea u?eueio aoaeiao, aac yaii
ae?aaeaieo no?oeoo?ieo cii, aaee/eia i?e?iaeiiai ca?ia iaoaeo AOI, o
na?aaeiueiio, ia 2 aaee iaioa iioi/iiai, i?e oeueiio i?aeieanoei/anoa
a?aenoaiue o ia?e?o? aei??aith? 0,17 iei; ca oaa?ae?noth oa i?oei?noth
aeine?aeiee iaoae cia/ii ia?aaa?oo? ii??aiyeueiee aac cieaeaiiy
ieanoe/ieo aeanoeainoae, oaea?ia a’yce?noue i?e iiceoeai?e oaiia?aoo??
aeua o 1,3-1,8 ?ace, a i?e iaaaoeai?e — o 2,2-2,8 ?ace Oea caaacia/eei
aeine?aeiei eieanai i?aeaeuai? aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeanoeaino? c iaaa/eiei
?ai?oa ii?aeiaiiyi aeniei? i?oeiino? i?e iaeii/anii aenie?e
ieanoe/iino? ? a’yceino?. Aeey ?ooiiiai neeaaeo iniaeeai
a?aeii-a?aeaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy ?aeiiaiaeiaaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe eieana
?c iaoaeo AOI ii OO 14-15-185-88 «Eieana oe?eueiieaoai? ae?aiao?ii 950
ii ?c noae? aeaeo?ioeaeiaiai ia?aieaao».

O?ceei-o?i?/iee ? oa?iiaeeiai?/iee aiae?c aeanoeainoae nieaa?a nenoaie
NaI-NaF2, aeicaieea c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui canoiniaoaaiee ?ai?oa iie?eaiee
oeae i?e ia?iaoe? iaoaeo ia onoaiiaoe? aeaeo?ii?/-e?ao ia ? iioeiaeueiei
ye a aniaeoao oaoiieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee (aeaaacaoe?y, no?ee?noue
aiaiao?eaii? oooa?iaee, aeanoeueoo?aoe?y), oae ? o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae
(aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue ? ??aeei?ooeea?noue) oa aei?iaeia/?. O oeueiio
ca’yceo ?aeiiaiaeiaaii aei aeei?enoaiiy ? ai?iaaaeaeaii oeae nenoaie
NaI-Al2O3-SiO2, ui caaacia/o? iioeiaeuei? oiiae iaa??ao ? aeeaieo
aeanoeueoo?aoe?th eie?nii? noae?.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe?? IIOAE?EIAAII

O I?AOessO:

Eieaniay noaeue /E.A.Oceia, I.E. Aanee, A.O.Anaoeia, I.A.Ie?ioie/aiei,
TH.N.I?ieaeae. — E.: Oaoi?ea, 1985. — 186n.

Iaoaeeo?aey aunieiia?aaioeaaie noaee /I.E.Aanee, TH.I.Iao?ia,
E.A.Naiaiia, TH.N.I?ieaeae e ae? — E.: Oaoi?ea, 1990. — 136n.

Niaoeeaeueiay yeaeo?iiaoaeeo?aey: O/aa.iiniaea /I.E.Aanee, A.E.Iaaeiaa?,
I.E.Iieyeia, A.I.Ai?iaaoe, TH.N.I?ieaeae — Aeiai?iiao?iane: AeIaoE,
1987. — 92n.

Oeceei-oeiey iaiaoii?iuo ecaeaeee, oeenio?iiiuo iann e i?eiaiaiea eo a
yeaeo?iiaoaeeo?ae/aneii i?iecaiaenoaa: O/aaiia iiniaea aeey aocia
/I.E.Aanee, TH.N.I?ieaeae, A.A.Aeaaeeeo e ae?. — Aeiai?iiao?iane:
Nenoaiiua oaoiieiaee. 1999. — 201n.

Ia?aaeiaie iiuo i?iecaiaenoaa eieaniie noaee. /TH.N.I?ieaeae, A.A.Eiiu-
oaa, A.E.Ee?naiia e ae?. — Aeiai?iiao?iane. ?aae.ioaeae
iae.oi?.ii ia/aoe, 1991.-76n.

Iiauoaiea neoaeaaiuo oa?aeoa?enoee eieaniie yeaeo?inoaee /E.A.Oceia,
I.E.Aanee, I.A.Ie?ioie/aiei, TH.N.I?ieaeae e ae?. //Atheeaoaiue OeIEE*I.
— 1980. — aui. 18(878). — N.48-50.

I?ieaeae TH.N., Iaiueei A.A., Iceieia A.A. Aeeyiea niiniaia
i?iecaiaenoaa, ?aneeneaiey e aiaia/iie ia?aaioee eieaniie noaee ia
ea/anoai iaoaeea e naienoaa aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo eiean. //Iaoaeeo?aey e
eienioeiey. — E.: Oaoi?ea. — 1984. — aui.85. — N.18-24.

Aeeyiea ieo?eaeiiai oi?i/iaiey noaee ia naienoaa aioiauo eiean aeey
iiaeaeaeiiai ninoaaa IIN /A.A.Iaiueei, TH.N.I?ieaeae, N.A.A?a/aiay e
ae?. Iaoaeeo?aey e eienioeiey. — E.: Oaoi?ea. — 1984.- aui.85 —
N.24-27.

Enneaaeiaaiea aeeyiey ?aaeeicaiaeueiuo iaoaeeia ia ea/anoai eieaniie
noaee. /I.E.Aanee, A.A.Iaiueei, TH.N.I?ieaeae e ae? //Oaoiieiaey
i?iecaiaenoaa noaee aeey aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo ?aeuenia e eiean. —
Oa?ueeia, Oe?IEEIao. — 1984. — N.66-69.

I?iecaiaenoai eieaniie noaee n i?eiaiaieai ?aaeeicaiaeueiuo iaoaeeia
/I.E.Aanee, A.A.Iaiueei, TH.N.I?ieaeae e ae?. //Noaeue. — 1985. — ? 1. —
N.28-30.

Iiauoaiea ea/anoaa yeaeo?inoaee /I.E.Aanee, E.A.Oceia, TH.N.I?ieaeae e
ae?. //Atheeaoaiue OeIEE *I. — 1985. — aui.3(983). — N.38-39.

I?iecaiaenoai noaee aeey aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo eiean e aa ea/anoai.
/ss.A.Oiaa?ia, N.E.Eaa?aiei, TH.N.I?ieaeae e ae?. //Iaoaeeo?ae/aneay e
ai?ii?iaeiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. — 1985. — ? 2. — N.15-16.

Aeeyiea yeaeo?ioeaeeiaiai ia?aieaaa ia ea/anoai e naienoaa eieaniie
noaee /A.E.Iaaeiaa?, I.E.Aanee, E.A.Oceia, TH.N.I?ieaeae. //I?iaeaiu
niaoeyeaeo?iiaoaeeo?aee. — 1986. — ? 4. — N.27-30.

Aeeyiea ?acee/iuo niiniaia ?aceeaee ia ea/anoai eieaniie noaee
/TH.N.I?ieaeae, A.A.Iaiueei, I.E.Noa?inaeaoeeee e ae?. //Iaoaeeo?aey e
eienioeiey. — 1986. — aui. 90. — N.5-11.

Niaa?oainoaiaaiea oaoiieiaee auieaaee e iiaeeoeoee?iaaiey eieaniie noaee
oa??inaeaiii e oa??ioaeeo?ii. /I.E.Aanee, I.E.Noa?inaeaoeeee,
*.Ae.Eniaeeia, TH.N.I?ieaeae e ae? //Atheeaoaiue OeIEE *I. — 1988. —
aui.20. N.14-16.

Aanee I.E., I?ieaeae TH.N., Ai?iaaoe A.I. Yeaeo?ioeaeiaue ia?aieaa —
yooaeoeaiay oaoiieiaey iiauoaiey ea/anoaa eieaniiai e iiaeoeiieeiaiai
iaoaeea //Yeaeo?ioeaeiaay oaoiieiaey. Na.no. iinayuaiiuo 30-eaoeth
yeaeo?ioeaeiaiai ia?aieaaa. Iiae ?aae. Iaoiia A.A., Iaaeiaa?a A.E. e
ae?. — E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea. — 1988. — N.27-31.

Aanee I.E., Eniaeeia *.Ae., I?ieaeae TH.N. Iiauoaiea oaea?iie ayceinoe
oaea?iaeenoie noaee, iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiie naeaiii e oaeeo?ii //Eca.aocia.
*a?iay iaoaeeo?aey. — 1988. — ? 1. — N.167-168.

I?e?iaea aeeth/aiee e aiaei?iaeinoieeinoue oaea?iaeenoie noaee,
iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiie naeaiii e oaeeo?ii /I.E.Aanee. *.Ae.Eniaeeia,
TH.N.I?ieaeae e ae?. //Eca.aocia. *a?iay iaoaeeo?aey. — 1988. — ? 9. —
N.52-56.

I?ieaeae TH.N., Ao?eia A.E., Ea/aiei A.E. Iooe iiauoaiey ea/anoaa
oeaeueiieaoaiuo aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo eiean //I?iaeaiu iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. — E.: Oaoi?ea. — 1989. — aui.99. — N.39-42.

I?ieaeeaaaiinoue noaee eae ?aca?a iiauoaiey eciininoieeinoe aaiaeaaeae e
eiean /E.I.Oeieueiee, Ae.I.Ia?eia, TH.N.I?ieaeae e ae?. //Aanoiee AIEE
AEO. — 1990. — ? 9. — N.32-36.

Aanee I.E., I?ieaeae TH.N., Eniaeeia *.Ae. Aeeyiea ia?aa?aaa e
iiaeeoeoee?iaaiey aeeaeeie oaea?iaeenoie noaee ia ia?aioeaaeaeaiea e
no?oeoo?iia?aciaaiea iaoaeea //I?iaeaiu niaoe. yeaeo?iiaoaeeo?aee. —
1990. — ? 2. — N.100-104.

Aeeyiea naeaia e oaeeo?a ia oaea?ioth ayceinoue oaea?iaeenoie noaee i?e
ieioniauo oaiia?aoo?ao /I.E.Aanee, *.Ae.Eniaeeia, TH.N.I?ieaeae e ae?.
//Noaeue. — 1991. — ? 2. — N.39-41.

?ano?ninaa?aaathuay oaoiieiaey auieaaee ei??iceiiiinoieeie
o?iiiieeaeaaie iaaeueniaea?aeauae noaee /A.C.Oaaoeia, A.A.Oaa/aiei,
TH.N.I?ie-aeae e ae?. // Atheeaoaiue OeIEE *I. — 1991. — ? 8(1108). —
N.43-45.

Aeeyiea ninoaaa e ii?oieiaee iaiaoaeee/aneeo aeeth/aiee ia iaoaie/aneea
naienoaa eieaniie noaee /A.E.Iaaeiaa?, I.E.Aanee, TH.N.I?ieaeae e ae?.
//I?iaeaiu niaoe. yeaeo?iiaoaeeo?aee. — 1993. — ? 3. — N.7-12.

Oeceei-oeie/aneea iniaaiiinoe iiaaaeaiey aethieiey a ia?eiae
oeaeiia?aciaaiey, aeiaiaeee e ?aneeneaiey eieaniie noaee /TH.N.I?ieaeae,
E.E.Iaoeei, E.I.Oeieueiee e ae?. //I?iaeaiu iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. — E.: Oaoi?ea. — 1992. — aui.108. — N.61-69.

Enneaaeiaaiea aeeyiey ?aaeeiia ?aneeneaiey oethna i?e yeaeo?ioea-eiaii
ia?aieaaa ia ea/anoai oaea?iaeenoie noaee /TH.N.I?ieaeae, A.E.Ea/aiei,
A.E.Eaaeeiia e ae?. //I?iaeaiu iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa. — E.:
Oaoi?ea. 1993. — aui.109. — N.27-30.

I?ieaeae TH.N., Ea/aiei A.E., Iy/ei A.A. Aeeyiea naeaia e oaeeo?a ia
iiaa?oiinoii-/oanoaeoaeueiua e yenieoaoaoeeiiiua naienoaa ia?aeaaathuae
noaee //I?iaeaiu iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa. — E.: Oaoi?ea. 1993. —
aui.109. — N.73-78.

Iiauoaiea ea/anoaa eieaniie noaee i?e eaae?iaaiee acioe?iaaiiui
oa??iaaiaaeeai a eiaoa /TH.N.I?ieaeae, I.E.Aanee, A.E.Eaaeeiia e ae?.
//Noaeue. — 1994. — ? 7. — N.29-30.

I?eiaiaiea oeaea aethieieaaiai i?iecaiaenoaa i?e auieaaea eieaniie noaee
/TH.N.I?ieaeae, A.E.Eaaeeiia, A.E.Ea/aiei e ae?. //Noaeue. — 1995. —
? 2. — N.24-25.

I?ieaeae TH.N. Naienoaa eieaniie noaee yeaeo?ioeaeiaiai ia?aieaaa aeey
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo eiean ioaaonoaaiiiai iacia/aiey //Oai?ey e i?aeoeea
iaoaeeo?aee. — 1997. — ? 3. — N.49-52.

I?ieaeae TH.N. ?aaeaiaioaoeey na?iniaea?aeaueo aeeth/aiee i?e
iiaeeoeoee?iaaiee oaea?iaeenoie noaee oaeueeiaaieaeaie //Oai?ey e
i?aeoeea iaoaeeo?aee. — 1997. — ? 4. N.16-19.

I?ieaeae TH.N. Iiauoaiea ea/anoaa eieaniie noaee ?acee/iuie niiniaaie
aiaia/iie ia?aaioee //Iaoaeeo?ae/aneay e ai?ii?oaeiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. —
1998. — ? 2. — N.32-35.

I?ieaeae TH.N., Aea?aayi/aiei E.A., Aaeue/aiei A.A. Oaoiieiaey auieaaee
noaee a naa?oiiuiuo aeoaiauo ia/ao n niieueciaaieai aeueoa?iaoeaiuo
enoi/ieeia yia?aee //Oai?ey e i?aeoeea iaoaeeo?aee. — 1998. — ? 2.-

N.59-60.

Aea?aayi/aiei E.A., I?ieaeae TH.N., Aaeue/aiei A.A. Eniieueciaaiea
oaea?iaeniaea?aeaueo iaoa?eaeia i?e i?iecaiaenoaa noaee a nia?aiaiiie
aeoaiaie noaeaieaaeeueiie ia/e ia Iieaeaaneii iaoaeeo?ae/aneii caaiaea
//Nenoaiiua oaoiieiaee. I?ia?anneaiua niiniau iieo/aiey e oaoiieiaee
i?iecaiaenoaa iaoa?eaeia: iao/i.o?oaeu — aui.4. — Aeiai?iiao?iane. —
1998. — N.17-23.

I?ieaeae TH.N., Eniaeeia *.Ae. Iniaaiiinoe iiaeeoeoee?iaaiey
oaea?iaeenoie noaee naeaiii e oaeeo?ii //Nenoaiiua oaoiieiaee.
I?ia?anneaiua niiniau iieo/aiey e oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa iaoa?eaeia:
na.iao/i.o?oae. — aui.4 — Aeiai?iiao?iane. — 1998. — N.84-92.

I?ieaeae TH.N. I?eiaiaiea iai?a?uaiie ?aceeaee e oeaio?iaaaeiiai eeouey
i?e i?iecaiaenoaa eieaniuo caaioiaie //Oai?ey e i?aeoeea iaoaeeo?aee. —
1998. — ? 4. — N.18-20.

A.n. 740838 NNN? io 21.02.1980. Niinia auieaaee noaee a yeaeo?iia/ao
/Oiaa?ia ss.A., Aanee I.E., Oceia E.A., I?ieaeae TH.N. e ae?.

A.n. 1247153 NNN? io 1.04.86. Noaeue /Eo/eei A.N., Oaaei?iaa E.I.,
Eiaeooei A.A., I?ieaeae TH.N. e ae?.

A.n. 1399368 NNN? io 1.02.1988. Ooaiiiaay noaeue /Iaiueei A.A., Aanee
I.E., I?ieaeae TH.N. e ae?.

Iaoaeeo?ae/aneea i?eioeeiu iiauoaiey ea/anoaa oaea?iaeenoie e
ei??iceiiiinoieeie noaeae iiaeeoeoee?iaaieai naeaiii e oaeeo?ii
/A.E.Iaaeiaa?, I.E.Aanee, TH.N.I?ieaeae e ae?. //Nai?iee iao/iuo
niiauaiee O Ananithciie eiioa?aioeee ii oeceei-oeie/aneei iniiaai
iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo i?ioeannia, /.1, 1991, n.153-155.

Aanee I.E., I?ieaeae TH.N., Eniaeeia *.Ae. Iiauoaiea oeaaeinoieeinoe
oaea?iaeenoie noaee iooai oi?aaeaiey no?oeoo?ie ia noaaeee
iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai ia?aaeaea /Iaoa?eaeu 1 Niaaonei-*aoineiaaoeeiai
neiiiceoia ii oai?ee iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo i?ioeannia. /.1. Iineaa, EIao,
1989, n.24-28.

Oaoiieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe auieaaee eieani-aaiaeaaeiie noaee n
i?eiaiaieai acioniaea?aeaueo iaoa?eaeia /I.E.Aanee, TH.N.I?ieaeae
A.A.Eiiuoaa e ae?. /O?oaeu ia?aiai eiia?anna noaeaieaaeeueueeia.
Iineaa. 1992, n.171-173.

Iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea i?ioeanna ia?aciaaiey iocu?ueeia a neeoea
oaea?iaeenoie noaee /I.E.Aanee, A.I.Ieoaeaa, TH.N.I?ieaeae, Ae.Ae.Eunue
//Iaoa?eaeu iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee «Yeaeo?inoaea- ieaaeeueiia
i?iecaiaenoai Oe?aeiu: ninoiyiea e ia?niaeoeau aiaia/iiai ?aoeie?iaaiey
e iiaeeoeoee?iaaiey noaee». — Aeiai?iiao?iane. — AeIAAI «Nenoaii?
oaoiieia??». — 1997. — N.18-20

I?ieaeae TH.N. ?ic?iaea aoaeoeaii? oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa

eie?nii? noae? c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiae?a iicai?/ii? ia?iaee

oa niaoeaeaeo?iiaoaeo?a???. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.16.02 — Iaoaeo?a?y /i?ieo iaoae?a — Aea?aeaaia
iaoaeo?a?eia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?ena’y/aia ae??oaiith i?iaeaiii? caaea/? i?aeaeuaiiy
yeino? eie?nii? noae? aeey cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo. A ?iaio? aeeiiaii
oai?aoe/i? ? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a ?iceeneaiiy oa
?ao?ioaaiiy aoaeaoeaai? eie?nii? noae?, ui aeicaieeei aia?oa o
i?iieneiaeo oiiaao i?iaanoe eiiieaeni? aeine?aeaeaiiy c aeieaaee
eie?nii? noae? o aaeeeiaaioaaeieo aeoaiaeo ia/ao c iine?aeoth/ei
aeei?enoaiiyi ??ciiiai?oieo iaoiae?a iicai?/ii? ia?iaee. Aeine?aeaeaia
oa?iiaeeiai?ea i?ioean?a aca?iiae?? acioa, ?ic/eiaiiai o eie?ni?e noae?,
c i?o??aeiooai?thth/eie aeaiaioaie ? ia oe?e iniia? ?ic?iaeaia
aoaeoeaiay oaoiieia?y ea?aii?o??aeiiai ci?oeiaiiy. Eiiieaenieie
eaai?aoi?ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie oa i?iieneiaei aei?iaoaaiiyi anoaiiaeaia
aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy iaoiae?a niaoeaeaeo?iiaoaeo?a?? i?e
ae?iaieoeoa? eie?n a?aeiia?aeaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy. Aeine?aeaeai? oa
iioei?ciaai? oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e aeieaaee eie?nii? noae? o
ia?oai?anueeeo ia/ao c iine?aeoth/ith eiiieaeniith iicai?/iith
ia?iaeith. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ciaeoee i?aeoe/ia i?ei?iaiiy i?e
aeieaaoe? eie?nii? noae?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eie?nia noaeue, ?ao?ioaaiiy, aeanoeueoo?aoe?y,
iiaeeo?eo-aaiiy, ?ao?ioth/? aeaeo?iia?aieaae, iicai?/ia ia?iaea,
aaeooioaaiiy.

I?ieaeae TH.N. ?ac?aaioea yooaeoeaiie oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa

eieaniie noaee n eniieueciaaieai iaoiaeia aiaia/iie ia?aaioee

e niaoeyeaeo?iiaoaeeo?aee. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.16.02 — Iaoaeeo?aey /a?iuo iaoaeeia —
Ainoaea?noaaiiay iaoaeeo?ae/aneay aeaaeaiey Oe?aeiu, Aeiai?iiao?iane,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia iao/ii iainiiaaiiie ?ac?aaioea e aiaae?aieth
yooaeoeaiie oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa eieaniie noaee a ?acee/iuo
noaeaieaaeeueiuo aa?aaaoao (ia?oaiianeeo e yeaeo?iaeoaiauo ia/ao) n
oe?ieei eniieueciaaieai nia?aiaiiuo iaoiaeia aiaia/iie ia?aaioee
aeeaeeie eieaniie noaee e niiniaia ?aoeie?othueo yeaeo?iia?aieaaia.

?acoeueoaou oai?aoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee ii iiauoaieth ea/anoaa
oaea?iaeenouo noaeae i?e eniieueciaaiee ?acee/iuo ?aneeneeoaeae
iicaieeee ii?aaeaeeoue oneiaey ia?aciaaiey e eciaiaiey i?iaeoeoia
?aaeoeee ?aneeneaiey, auyaeoue oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia nei?inoue i/euaiey
noaee io ia?anoai?eiuo a iae ieeneia e ienenoeueoeaeia, a oaeaea
ii?aaeaeeoue naycue ?aneeneaiey n i?ioeannii aeanoeueoo?aoeee e
aaciianuuaiiinoueth aeeaeeiai iaoaeea, /oi eiaao aaaeiia i?aeoe/aneia
cia/aiea aeey iiauoaiey ea/anoaa eieaniie noaee. ?ac?aaioaiiay e
inaiaiiay oaoiieiaey auieaaee eieaniie noaee a aieueoaa?ociuo aeoaiauo
yeaeo?iia/ao n iineaaeothuei aaeooiiui ?aoeie?iaaieai iaania/eea
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiui eieanai aunieee caian i?i/iinoiuo e ieanoe/aneeo
naienoa: aeey iaoaeea eiean ia?ee 1 a?aiaiiia nii?ioeaeaiea ?ac?uao
ninoaaeyao 940-1000 I/ii2, ia?ee 2 — 960-1070 I/ii2. Ieanoe/aneea
naienoaa iaoaeea eiean ieacaeenue a n?aaeiai a 1,5-1,8 ?aca auoa, /ai
na?eeiiai, a oaea?iay ayceinoue a iaeanoe io?eoeaoaeueiuo oaiia?aoo?
auoa a 1,5 ?aca. Yenieoaoaoeeiiiua eniuoaiey eiean a iiaeaeaeiii ninoaaa
nei?uo iannaaee?neeo iiacaeia iiaeoaa?aeeee eo aunieoth eciininoieeinoue
e iaaeaaeiinoue. Aiaae?aiea oaoiieiaee ?aneeneaiey eieaniie noaee
Si-Mg-Ti-niaea?aeaueie eeaaoo?aie ia Ieaeiaaeiai?ianeii o?oaii?ieaoiii
caaiaea iicaieeei oaaee/eoue auoiae aiaeiuo eiean ia 6,42%, i?e yoii eo
a?ae ii iaoaeeo?ae/aneei i?eciaeai nieceeny ia 0,71%, a a?ae caaioiaie
ia 2,21%. ?acoeueoaou ioa?aeiaee caaioiaie e eiean i?e aiaae?aiee
?anniao?eaaaiie oaoiieiaee ia Auenoineii iaoaeeo?ae/aneii caaiaea
iieacaee. /oi iauay ioa?aeiaea ii anaio ia?aaeaeo oiaiueoeeanue ia 17%.

I?eaaaeaiu ?acoeueoaou oa?iiaeeiaie/aneiai aiaeeca e oeceei-oeie/aneiai
enneaaeiaaiey i?ioeannia iiaeeoeoee?iaaiey no?oeoo?u noaee e oi?aaeaiey
oi?ie?iaaieai aoi?e/iuo oac n eniieueciaaieai nia?aiaiiuo aeinoeaeaiee
iaoaeeioeceee, i?e yoii, i?eiaieoaeueii e eieaniie noaee, iieacaia
i?eioeeieaeueiay aiciiaeiinoue iiauoaiey ea/anoaa iaoaeea iin?aaenoaii
ieo?eaeiiai oi?i/iaiey e iiaeeoeoee?iaaiey oaeueeiaaieaeaie. Aeey eiean
a?ociauo aaaiiia n iaa?oceie ia inue nauoa 25 o ?ac?aaioaia e aiaae?aia
oaoiieiaey i?iecaiaenoaa noaee n ea?aiieo?eaeiui oi?i/iaieai, a
?acoeueoaoa /aai auee nicaeaiu OO 14-15-281-92 «Eieana iiauoaiiie
i?i/iinoe ec noaee n ea?aiieo?eaeiui oi?i/iaieai». Yenieoaoaoeeiiiua
eniuoaiey eieaniuo ia? a caieiooii ia?o?ooa a ?acoeueoaoa aiaee/iie
yenieoaoaoeee iieacaee, /oi eciin a?aaiy — ioaaonoaaiiiai yeaiaioa
eieana — ieaea ia 10%, a n?aaeiaiany/iue i?ieao iaiueoa ia 40-50%, /ai
o na?eeiuo. I?eiaiaiea oaoiieiaee oeaeiaiai ?aaeeia n eniieueciaaieai
aethieieeniaea?aeaueo iaoa?eaeia — i?iaeoeoia ia?a?aaioee oeaeia
i?iecaiaenoaa aoi?e/iiai aethieiey — iaania/eei cia/eoaeueiia nieaeaiea
ieeneaiiinoe iaoaeea e oeaea. Iee?ino?oeoo?a iiuoiiai iaoaeea i?e yoii
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ni?aeoiia?aciue ia?eeo n oiieie oa??eoiie naoeie, ia
aieueoeinoaa ieaaie aeinoeaiooi eciaeue/aiea ca?ia aei 7-8 aaeea i?ioea
6-7 aaeea a iaoaeea oaeouae auieaaee. Aiaae?aiea ?ac?aaioaiiiai
oeaeiaiai ?aaeeia iicaieeei nie?aoeoue ia 10% ?anoiae ia?aaioeaauo e
e?aiienouo oa??inieaaia e nieceoue naaanoieiinoue eieaniie noaee.

Ia iniiaaiee eiiieaeniuo eaai?aoi?iuo e iieoi?iiuoeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee
?ac?aaioaia, enneaaeiaaia e inaiaia ?aoeeiiaeueiay oaoiieiaey
i?iecaiaenoaa eieaniie noaee iaoiaeii YOI, iaania/eaoay oieeaeueiia
ni/aoaiea neoaeaaiuo naienoa i?e iaeiia?aiaiii aunieie ieanoe/iinoe e
ayceinoe iaoaeea. N eniieueciaaieai nia?aiaiiuo iaoiaeia iaoaeeioeceee
aia?aua iieacaii, /oi aunieay iaeii?iaeiinoue e aeenia?niinoue eieaniie
noaee YOI iaoneiaeaiu ia oieueei iai?aaeaiiui e onei?aiiui
oaieiioaiaeii, ii e cia/eoaeueiui ia?aioeaaeaeaieai e?enoaeeecothuaainy
?anieaaa aneaaenoaea nouanoaaiiiai ia?aa?aaa aeeaeeiai iaoaeea.
Eniuoaiey eiean ec iaoaeea YOI (OO 14-15-185-88 «Eieana oeaeueiieaoaiua
aeeaiao?ii 950 ii ec noaee yeaeo?ioeaeiaiai ia?aieaaa») iiae
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuie ieaooi?iaie niaoeeaeueiiai iacia/aiey iieacaee eo
aunieoth iaaeaaeiinoue. Iioeiecaoeey oaoiieiae/aneeo ia?aiao?ia
aiaia/iie ia?aaioee eieaniie noaee ia eiiieaena ia/ue-eiao e aaeooiaoi?
iicaieeea cia/eoaeueii iiauneoue ea/anoai noaee, noaaeeece?iaaoue
iaoaie/aneea naienoaa e iaania/eoue niaea?aeaiea na?u aei 0,004-0,006%.
Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou iaoee i?aeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea i?e auieaaea
eieaniie noaee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eieaniay noaeue, ?aoeie?iaaiea,
aeanoeueoo?aoeey, iiaeeoeoee?iaaiea, ea?aiieo?eaeiia oi?i/iaiea,
?aoeie?othuea yeaeo?iia?aieaau, aiaia/iay ia?aaioea, ia/ue-eiao,
aaeooie?iaaiea.

Proidak Yuri Sergeevich. The elaboration of the effectve technology in
the wheel steel production with the usage of methods in special
electrometallurgy. — Typescript

The thesis is presented for a doctor degree in the speciality of
05.16.02 The Metallurgy of ferrous metals. The state Metallurgical
Academy of Ukraine, Dnipropetrovsk, 1999.

The thesis is dedicated to the solution of the problem dealing with the
improving of wheel steel quality for the railway transport. In this
paper theoretical and experimental investigations of the processes of de
oxidation and rifining of carbon wheel steel have been fulfilled. It
allowed for the first time under workshop conditions to carry out
combined research into melting of wheel steel in high capacitu arc
furnaces followed by the uses of various methods of out-of-furnace
treatment. A study is made of thermodynamics in the processes of
interaction of nitrogen dissolved in wheel steel with nitridegenerated
elements and on the dasis of it there was developed an effective
technology of carbonitriding strengthening. As a result of complex
laboratory investigations and industrial testing it was found out the
expertiency of the usage of special electrometallurgical methods in the
production of wheels for important function. The technological
parameters of the melting wheel steel in open hearth furnaces with
combined out-of-furnace treatment going immediately after, were
investigated and optimized. The main results of the work have found
practical application in the melting of wheel steel.

Keywords: wheek steel, refining, desulpgating, improving (modification),
refining electroremelting, out-of furnace treatment, vacuuming.

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