AeI?I?IIAO?IANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

AEAAeAIIA TH?IE AIAOIEIEIAE*

OAeE 820-31 I?.091

?IIAI AeAEI?AeAEA I?OAEEA «1984» O EIIOAENOI

AIOEOOIII? IA?OI? IIEIAEIE OO NOIEIOOss

10.01.04 – e?oa?aoo?a ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? ca?oa?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e oa eeane/ii?
o?eieia?? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeaaeai?e AI AO Oe?a?ie,
i?ioani? I?o?eueia Ieaenaiae? Aeieo?iae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?noi???
ca?oa?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e oa eeane/ii? o?eieia?? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei?

iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oieieiai/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aeai/aiei Aieiaeeie?
Aeieo?iae/, Aeiii?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oiiaa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e aeo?iae?noeee;

eaiaeeaeao oieieiai/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Naiaeeiia Iaoae?y Ieeiea?aia,
Oa?eianueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeaiiy eoeueoo?e, aeioeaio eaoaae?e
e?oa?aoo?e.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Niioa?iiieueneee aea?aeaaiee oiiaa?neoao, eaoaae?a
?in?enueei? oa ca?oa?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i.
N?ioa?iiieue.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 17 eenoiiaaea 1999 ?ieo i 13 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 08.051.12 ii caoenoo aeena?oaoe?? ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe i?e
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? (320625,
i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, i?ia. Iaoeiaee, 13, ei?i. 1, aoae. 804).

3 aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (320050,
i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, aoe. Eicaeiaa, 8).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 16 aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa? Aeooei I. I.

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie aeineiaeaeaiiy. A OO noi?i//i i??? i?i “caiiee ?ae”,
“cieioee aie”, yei caaaeaee noi?iaiaeaeoaaee ethaenoai ia oeyoo eiai
?icaeoeo, io?eiothoue ?aaeueii oaine aooe aoieaieie o aeeooy, ui
i?eaiaeeoue aei o?ainoi?iaoei? aeaiooeny/ieioiuei? ooiii/ii? o?aaeeoei?,
ia?ai?i?ioaoei? e?oa?aoo?e ia i??i?eoaoiee ?icaeoie iaaaoeaii? ooiii?
(aioeooiii?). I?iaeaie ao?eaii? ooii??, ye? noathoue aeooaeueieie naia a
ia?o?e iieiaei? XX no., c iaea?eueoith ae?aci?noth iinoathoue a ?iiai?
Aeae.I?oaeea “1984” – oeaio?aeueiiio oai?? oeueiai aeai?o. Oea coiiaeei
iaiaoiaeiinoue aea/aiiy ?iiaio Aeae. I?oaeea o eiioaenoi aioeooiii?
icia/aiiai ia?iiaeo.

Aio/eciyia eioa?aoo?iciaanoai iino?aaeyinueeiai ia?iiaeo
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaeaea iiaiith aiaenooiinoth niaoe?aeueieo
aeineiaeaeaiue oai?/inoi aeaeaoiiai aiaeienueeiai ienueiaiieea oa
iaaeinoaoiueith aea/aiinoth oaiiiaia aioeooiii?. Oeth neooaoeith
iaeiaea/aiinoi iiaeia iiynieoe ciaaaaeeeaei noaaeaiiyi aei aeai?o
iaaaoeaii? ooiii?, yeo aeiaaee /an ia aeciaaaee ca ?iaiioeiiiee aeai? o
i?inoi?i aaeeei? eioa?aoo?e, a oaeiae iaaeii?ii iieioeciaaiei
iiaeoiaeii aei oai?ia Aeae.I?oaeea, ?.Cai’yoiia, I.Oaenei, ui caaaaeaei
?o na?eiciiio aea/aiith.

Aeooaeueiinoue aeineiaeaeaiiy coiiaeaia ii-ia?oa, iac?ieith o no/aniiio
aio/eciyiiio eioa?aoo?iciaanoai iaiaoiaeiinoth aeaoe ia’?eoeaio ioeiieo
aioeooiii? ia?oi? iieiaeie OO no., aeine?aeeoe oiiae ?? oi?ioaaiiy i
?icaeoeo, aca?iiaiaeiineie c eeane/iith ooiii?th, ii-ae?oaa,
iaaeinoaoiueith aea/aiinoth oai?/inoi caniiaieeia iaaaoeaii? ooiii? OO
no. — ?.Cai’yoiia oa I.Oaenei, yei nai?ie ?iiaiaie “Ie” oa “Oeae aeeaiee
iiaee naio” iaaeaee oai?/ee iiioeuen iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeo iaeiiai c
ia?niaeoeaieo iai?yieia o no/aniie eioa?aoo?i, ii-o?ao?, iio?aaith
caa?iooeny aei aea/aiiy oai?/inoi Aeaei?aeaea I?oaeea, yeee c?iaea
aaeeeee aianie o ni?aao oi?ioaaiiy ? noaiiaeaiiy iaaaoeaii? ooiii?,
iaaeaiiy ?e noaoono aaeeei? eioa?aoo?e.

Nooiiiue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. A e?oa?aoo?iciaanoai inoaiiio ?ieia
i?iaeaie iiceoeaii? oa iaaaoeaii? ooiii? noathoue ana aieueo
ceiaiaeaiieie e ciaoiaeyoue aeeaiea oai?aoe/ia inieneaiiy. I?i oea
naiae/aoue ?iaioe ye caoiaeii?a?iiaenueeeo aeineiaeieeia (O.Aioiai,
A.Aoaeeie, AE.Atha?ia, AE.Aaaaeue, Aeae.Aa??ao, A.Aa?aeia?, A.A?eooon,
Ae.Athioa?, Ae.Aei/aa, ?.Aeaain, ?.Aeaeaenii, A.Eaeoaa, A.Eieaanueei,
E.Eoia?, O.Iaioaeue, A.Ii?nii, ?.Iicie, O.Iieae, ?.?in, ?. Naiaea?nii,
E.Na?aeaeaio, ?.Niie, Ae.Noaii, A.O?iii, ?.Oaoeueeee, Aeae.Oeey? e
ae?.), oae i oe?a?inueeeo (N.Aac/aoieeiaa, I.Aieueei, I.Eaca?aiei,

E. Iaie?ianueea, E. Neo?aoianueea, I.Aiooaei) oa ?in?enueeeo iaoeiaoeia
(?.A?aioiai, A.Aaoaeia, N.Aao?aeiaa, I.Aanooaeaa-Eaaea, ?.A?aiaein,
E.Aoee/ia, A.Aieaii, Ae.Aaeia, A.Ao?aae/, A.Aooi?ia, N.Caeeaii,
O.Ca??aa, I.Ina?a, A.Eicae, *.Ei?aaeue, I.Eoae?yaoeaa, I.Ioae?aaae,
A.Iiaeeia, I. Naaiiiia, A.*aeeeiaa, ?.*a?oeiaa, A.Oanoaeia, A.Ooaeei),
yei c’yaeeeny inoaiiii /anii.

Nueiaiaei? iiaeaaaeth?oueny e?eoe/iee aiaeic i iaoeiaa aeineiaeaeaiiy
oai?/inoi ?.Cai’yo?ia, I.Oaene?, Aeae.I?oaeea — caniiaieeia iaaaoeaii?
ooiii? XX no. (A.Aeiiia, I.Aanianueea, I.Aieueei, I.Ai?aoeueeee,
ss.Iauaiei, I.Ieoaeeia, A.Iaaeioeaii, I.Iaei?anueeee, E.?aa?eeiaa,
A.Naoiiiaa, A.Neaa/aiei, O.Ea?aeai, A.*aeeeiaa, O.*a?ieoiaa oa ii.).
Inoaii?i /anii caoeuaii eieueea aeena?oaoeieieo ?iaio, i?enay/aieo
i?iaeaiai ooiii? oa aioeooiii? (A.A?aaei?a, N.Aac/aoieeiaa, I.Aeno?iaa,
I.Aieicoaia, I.Eaca?aiei, A.Eaiii, A.Eiiii, E.Eaoeiiia, I.Iieieaiei,
I.Iao?iaa, N.?iiaiia, I.Naaiiiia, A.Oeiio??aa, N.Ooceia, E.Oaaiaoeiia).

Caneoaa oeeo aeineiaeieeia iieyaa? o iiaeieaiii iaeiiai/iiai iiaeyaeo ia
eioa?aoo?io niaaeueio Aeae.I?oaeea, ?.Cai’yoiia, I.Oaenei. Aiae nooi
iieioeciaaieo ioae?oeenoe/ieo ioeiiie, yei iaee iinoea o iaaeaeaeiio
ieioeiio, ia no/aniiio aoaii iaiioeany ia?aoiae aei na?eicii?
eioa?aoo?iciaa/i? ?iaioe.

Oai?/inoue Aeae.I?oaeea, aeaeaoiiai ienueiaiieea no/aniinoi, i?eaa?ioea
oaaao cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo aeine?aeiee?a (?.?in, Aeae.Aoaeeie,
?.Oieueyin, A.Caa?aeeiia, E.Ieae?iae, O.Oiieiinii). Ani aiie
iiaeoiaeyoue c ?icieo aieia aei aiaeico oaiiiaia Aeae.I?oaeea, aea iica
?o oaaaith caeeoa?oueny iaeoeiiiioa — ooaeiaeii iniaeeainoi oai?/inoi
aiaeienueeiai ienueiaiieea. O iino?aaeyinueeie e?eoeoei inoaiiii /anii
c’yaeeiny aeaeieueea ?iaio, yei ? aoaiieie uiaei oi?ioaaiiy aiaeiioaiiy
aei I?oaeea-ooaeiaeieea (A.*aeeeiaa, A.Iaaeioeaii, O.Ca??aa,
?.*a?oeiaa). Oei ?iaioe noeioethaaee iiyao oeiei? oaee? aeo?iaeueieo
ioaeieaoeie, aea aaeeeeo iiiia?aoi/ieo ?iaio i?i oai?/inoue ienueiaiieea
iiee ui ia c’yaeyeiny.

I?aaeiao aeineiaeaeaiiy — ?iiai Aeaei?aeaea I?oaeea “1984” o eiioaenoi
iaaaoeaii? ooiii? ia?oi? iieiaeie OO no. — ia?iiaeo noaiiaeaiiy i
“e?enoae?caoe??” oeueiai aeai?o.

O aeena?oaoe?? oaaaa aeineiaeieea cia/iith ii?ith cina?aaeaeaia ia
anaai/iiio aea/aiii oaiiiaia aioeooiii?, ?? aaiethoei?, ?iciiaeaeia,
ca’yceia ?c iiia?aaeiueith ooiii/iith o?aaeeoei?th o naioiaie
eioa?aoo?i.

Iaoa ?iaioe — aeyaeaiiy ooaeiaeiuei? nai??iaeiinoi ?iiaio Aeae.I?oaeea
“1984” o naioei i?iaeai ooiii/ii? eioa?aoo?e (iiceoeaii? e iaaaoeaii?),
aecia/aiiy oeiieiai/ieo ?en aioeooiii? ia?oi? iieiaeie OO no. (ia
iaoa??ae? oai?ia Aeae.I?oaeea, ?.Cai’yoiia, I.Oaenei). Aeey aeinyaiaiiy
iinoaaeaii? iaoe ne?ae ae??oeoe oae? caaaeaiiy:

— aeyaeoe aieiaii aeeneonieii i?iaeaie aea/aiiy ooiii? oa aioeooiii? ye
iniaeeaiai aeai?o eioa?aoo?e oa oaiiiaia noniieueii? naiaeiiinoi;

— i?inoaaeeoe ?noi??th ?icaeoeo ooiii/ii? aeoiee e ooiii/iiai iai?yieo a
eioa?aoo?i;

— ?ice?eoe cia/aiiy e iinoea iaaaoeaii? ooiii? a eioa?aoo?i OO no. oa
niiaaiaeiioaiiy ?? c “aaeeeith” eioa?aoo?ith;

— aecia/eoe caaaeaiiy, iaeaeio ni?yiiaaiinoue oa i?iaeaiii-ooaeiaei?
iaiiaiaiiy oai?ia iaaaoeaii? ooiii? ia?oi? iieiaeie OO no.;

— ocaaaeueieoe inoi?ith e?eoe/iiai aeineiaeaeaiiy oai?/inoi Aeae.I?oaeea
o aio/eciyiie oa ca?oaiaeiie iaooei;

— ie?aneeoe iniiaii aoaie oai?/inoi Aeae.I?oaeea;

— i?iaiaeicoaaoe ?iiai “1984” a cinoaaeaiii c aeaeaoieie ooiiiyie
ieioeiai oa no/aniiai ? aeyaeoe iiaecio iinoaiiaee oa ooaeiaeiueiai
ae??oaiiy o?aaeeoeieieo ooiii/ieo ieoaiue o oai?/inoi Aeae.I?oaeea;
aecia/eoe iniaeeainoi ooaeiaeiueiai aoieaiiy iaeae aaoi?a,
nai??iaeiinoue ia?acii? nenoaie ?iiaio “1984” o eiioaenoi “aaeeei?”
eioa?aoo?e.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiai/io aaco aeena?oaoei? neeaaeathoue i?aoei c oai?i?
oa inoi?i? eioa?aoo?e, iaoiaeieiai? eioa?aoo?iciaanoaa (nooae??
I.Aaooiia, A.Iini?eiaa, Ae.Eeoa/iaa; oieinionueei ?iaioe I.Aa?aey?aa,
I.Iiaai?iaeoeaaa, A.Oei?ianueeiai, a yeeo aiaeia?aaeaii caoeieaaeaiinoue
aaoi?ia aei oieinioi? ooiii?). Eiioeaioeiy ooiii?, iieeaaeaia a iniiao
aeena?oaoei?, a?aoiao? aaaaoee aeinaiae naioiai? ooiiiieiai? (A.Aaoaeia,
A.Aeio, A.Aoaeeie, O.Ca??aa, E.Eoia?, E.Iaiaaei, A.Ii?nii, E.Iaioi?ae,
*.Ei?aaeue, A.*aeeeiaa, C.Oaoeueeee oa ii.). Iaoiaeeea aeineiaeaeaiiy
aaco?oueny ia ii?aeiaiii oeiieiai/iiai, nenoaiii-oeieiniiai,
inoi?eei-aaiaoe/iiai i eoeueoo?ieiai/iiai iiaeoiaeia aei eioa?aoo?iiai
oaenoo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny iinoaaeaieie a iie caaea/aie,
oni?oia ?ica’ycaiiy yeeo aeicaieeei c?iaeoe aeniiaee ye i?i iniaeeainoi
oai?/inoi Aeae.I?oaeea a oe?eiio, oae ? i?i nai??iaeiinoue i?iaeaiaoeee
i iiaoeee ?iiaio “1984”, i?i eiai iinoea e cia/aiiy a inoi?i? naioiai?
eioa?aoo?e cie?aia. Aea/aiiy oai?ia caniiaieeia iaaaoeaii? ooiii?
aeineiaeaeoaaiiai ia?iiaeo a cinoaaeaiii c iiia?aaeiueith ooiii/iith
o?aaeeoei?th aeicaieeei aeyaeoe oa?aeoa?ii oeiieiai/ii ?ene, aeanoeai
aioeooiii? ia?oi? iieiaeie OO no.

O ?iaioi c?iaeaii e?ie ia oeyoo iiaeieaiiy o?aaeeoeieiiai iiaeyaeo ia
eeane/io ooiiith ye cia?aaeaiiy iaeaaeueiiai aeineiiaeiai noniieuenoaa
oa aioeooiiith eeoa ye caia?a/aiiy iiceoeaii? ooiii?. ?ice?eaa?oueny
iniaeeaa ?ieue aeai?o iaaaoeaii? ooiii? a eioa?aoo?i OO no. Aeey
oa?aeoa?enoeee oai?ia iaaaoeaii? ooiii? aaiaeyoueny iiai oa?iiie —
aiia?ooiiiy oa ooiiiy iiea?iaoa, a yeeo ?iaeoueny aeoeaio ia no/aniiio
?icoiiiii iaaaoeaii? ooiii? ye caeieniaii?, aoieaii?, ?aaeiciaaii?
ooiii?.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny ianooiii iieiaeaiiy:

— i?i iiaaoi?nueeee iiaeoiae Aeae.I?oaeea aei aeai?o iaaaoeaii? ooiii? a
naoe?e/iie iiainoi “Neioiee aeai?” oa ?iiaii “1984”;

— i?i niaoeeoi/ii aeai?iai oa?aeoa?enoeee aioeooiii? ia?oi? iieiaeie OO
no.;

— i?i ooiiith ye ?aeeiee aeai?, yeee ia? aeaa iiaeaeaee: iiceoeaia e
iaaaoeaia ooiiiy;

— i?i iaaaoeaio ooiiith ye aoieaio, ?aaeiciaaio ooiiith;

— i?i aaaaeaiiy iiaeo oa?ieiia — aiia?ooiiiy (caieueoaia ooiiiy) oa
ooiiiy iiea?iaoa (aoieaia ooiiiy).

Oai?aoe/ia e i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoei?. I?iaaaeaia aeineiaeaeaiiy
aeicaiey? ?ic?iaeoe no/ani? i?aeoiaee aei aea/aiiy oai?/ino?
Aeae.I?oaeea, aianoe ei?aeoeae a aeai?iao oai?ith ooiii? oa aioeooiii?,
ii-iiaiio iiaeeaeoenue ia aaiethoeith ooiii/ii? eioa?aoo?e, ?ice?eoe
nooo?ai caeiiiii?iinoi ?? ?icaeoeo i, oaeei /eiii, anoaiiaeoe iaiaoiaeii
oai?aoe/ii i iaoiaeieiai/ii i?i?ioe?e aeey iiaeaeueoeo aeineiaeaeaiue a
oeie aaeoci.

Iaoa?iaee e ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoaii i?e
aea/aiii eo?no ca?oaiaeii? eioa?aoo?e OO no., aeey iiaeaioiaee
niaoeeo?nia oa niaoenaiiia?ia, i?enay/aieo i?iaeaiai no/anii?
aiaeienueei? eioa?aoo?e.

Aeena?oaoeieia aeineiaeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaia aiaeiiaiaeii aei ieaio
iaoeiai-aeineiaeieo ?iaio oieieiai/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Oa?eianueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oiiaa?neoaoo.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoeiy iaaiai?thaaeanue ia caniaeaiii eaoaae?e
ca?oaiaeii? eioa?aoo?e Oa?eianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oiiaa?neoaoo. Iniiaii
iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoei? aiaeia?aaeaii o aeaa’yoe ioaeieaoeiyo.
?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy aoee aeeeaaeaii o aeiiiaiaeyo ia
iiaeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioeiyo (“Eioa?aoo?ia e oieinionueea
niaaeueia Aieueoa?a e no/aniinoue”, Oa?eia, 1994 ?.; “Naio, aieia,
inoi?iy”, Oa?eia, 1995 ?.; “Aca?iiaeiy eioa?aoo? o naioiaiio
eioa?aoo?iiio i?ioeani”, A?iaeii, 1996 ?,; “O?aioeiy oa Oe?a?ia”,
Aeiii?iiao?ianuee, 1996, 1997 ?.?.).

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoei?. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, aeaio ?icaeieia,
aeniiaeo oa aiaeiia?aoi?. Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? — 202 noi?.,
iniiaiee oaeno — 182 noi?., a?ae?ia?ao?y (295 iaeiaioaaiue) — 20 noi?.

INIIAIEE CIINO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooii iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoeieiiai
aeineiaeaeaiiy, aecia/a?oueny iaoa oa caaaeaiiy, nooi?iue iaoeiai?
?ic?iaee i?iaeaie, iaoeiaa i i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoei?). Aea/aiiy
oe?a?inueeeie, ?inienueeeie oa ca?oaiaeieie aeineiaeieeaie oai?/inoi
Aeae.I?oaeea naiae/eoue i?i iayaiinoue iiey?ieo iiaeyaeia: aiae aeciaiiy
I?oaeea eeaneeii no/anii? aiaeienueei? eioa?aoo?e aei ioe?iee
ienueiaiieea ye aacaea?iiai iaioeaoenoa. Aeineiaeaeaiiy oai?/inoi
Aeae.I?oaeea aea? ciiao aiaeieoe aiae o?aaeeoeieiiai iiaeyaeo ia ooiiith
oa aioeooiiith ye i?ioenoaaeaieo aeai?ia, iaii/aii oeyoe no/aniiai
?icaeyaeo i?iaeaie ooiii? oa aioeooiii?.

O ia?oiio ?icaeiei ?aoa?iaaii? ?iaioe — “I?iaeaie aea/aiiy ooiii? ye
ooaeiaeiueiai yaeua” — ?icaeyaeathoueny i?iaeaie aeaoiiioei?, aaiethoei?
oa no/aniiai noaio eioa?aoo?e ooiii/iiai iai?yieo.

O ia?oiio iiae?icaeiei oeueiai ?icaeieo — “I?iaeaie aeaoiiioei?,
eeaneoieaoei?, aeai?iaeo iniaeeainoae i ooieoeie ooiii? (iiceoeaii? i
iaaaoeaii?)” — i?iaiaeiciaaii oa?aeoa? oa noai aea/aiiy ooiii/ii?
eioa?aoo?e o aio/eciyiie oa ca?oaiaeiie iaooei. Iaeaieueoi aeeneoni?
aeieeathoue /a?ac aiaenooiicoue /ioeeo aeaoiiioeie oa?iiio ooiiiy. O
?iaioi i?iaiaeiciaaii oi/ee ci?o ia oeth i?iaeaio oaeeo a/aieo, ye
A.Athioa?, AE.Aaaaeue, ?.Aeaeaenii, Aeae.Eaeoaa, I.Eanei, E.Iaiaaei,
O.Iaioaeue, A.Ii?nii, A.Ii?oii, O.Iieae, E.Na?aeaeaio, ?.Noaeon,
A.O?iii, Aeae.Oeey?, A.Aaoaeia, N.Aao?aeiaa, I.Aanooaeaa-Eaaea,
?.A?aiaein, Ae.Aaeia, A.Aieainii, TH.Aeaaeaeia, A.Aeieo?i?anueeee,
N.Caeeaii, O.Ca??aa, TH.Eaaa?eeoeueeee, *.Ei?aaeue, A.Eeiaaiia,
I.Eaca?aiei, O.Ein?a, A.Na?ioioianueeee, E.Neo?aoianueea, A.*aeeeiaa,
?.*a?oeiaa, A.Oanoaeia oa iioeo, ui aeaei ciiao aecia/eoe aieiaii,
nooo?ai aaaeeeai ?ene ooiii? ye oaiiiaia noniieueii? naiaeiiinoi oa
eioa?aoo?iiai aeai?o.

O iiae?icaeiei iaaiaeyoueny iniiaii iiaeoiaee co/anii? iaoee aei
aecia/aiiy ooiii?. Ooiiiy o?aeoo?oueny ye iainioth/a, aeineiiaea e?a?ia;
i?i? i?i uanoy; cia?aaeaiiy aeineiiaeiai noniieueiiai ono?ith,
iicaaaeaiiai iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy; aeiaieueia eiino?othaaiiy
iaeaaeia; caaaeueia iacaa ieaiia, i?iaeoia, aeey ?aaeicaoei? yeeo iaia?
i?aeoe/ieo iiaenoaa; iacaeieniaiii ieaie nioeiaeueieo ia?aoai?aiue;
noeoiiinoue nioeiaeueieo iaeae, eicoiaia, oeieae, yei iathoue aiaeoiiie
iiioeicio; eioa?aoo?iee aeai?, yeee ciaeueiao? iainioth/a aeineiiaea
noniieuenoai.

O no/aniiio eioa?aoo?iciaanoai aaaeeeaa iinoea caeia? i?iaeaia
niiaaiaeiioaiiy ooiii? oa oaioanoeee. I?i oea naiae/aoue ?iaioe
oe?a?inueeeo oa ?in?enueeeo a/aieo (?.A?aiaein, I.A?eoeeia, Ae.Aaeia,
A.Eiiii, E.Neo?aoianueea, O.*a?ieoiaa oa ii.) i ca?oaiaeieo iaoeiaoeia
(?.Aaoa?, Ae.A?eooon, O.Eea?nii, Ae.Na?aeaeaio oa ii.), ia iniiai
aiae?co yeeo ?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i iayaiinoue oaioanoe/ii? ia?aciinoi a
ooiii/ieo oai?ao. I?ioa a inoaii?o iaoeia? aiiioace, iaea? ia noathoue
iaoith (ye o iaoeiai-oaioanoe/ieo ?iiaiao, iiainoyo i iiiaiaeaiiyo), a ?
eeoa caniaii, ui aeicaiey? iaee?aua ?ice?eoe caaeoi ienueiaiieea —
cia?aceoe iaeaaeueia (aeineiiaea /e iaaeineiiaea) noniieuenoai.

O ?iaioi iiaee?aneth?oueny, ui ia ii/aoeo OO no. iiae aieeaii ao?oeeaiai
?icaeoeo iaoeiai-oaoii/iiai i?ia?ano e nioeiaeueii-iieioe/ieo
ia?aoai?aiue neeaaeathoueny oiiae aeey caeieniaiiy niieiiai/ii? i?i?
ethaenoaa i?i iaeaaeueia noniieuenoai, i?i uaneeaa aeeooy. Oea, a naith
/a?ao, aeeeeea? iiaeaeueoo iiaeeoieaoeith ooiii?.

O iiae?icaeiei iaaiaeyoueny ?iciiiaiioii eeaneoieaoei? ooiii?, yei
aeathoue ciiao c ?icieo aieia iiaeieoe aei oa?aeoa?enoeee oeueiai
iai?inoiai yaeua noniieueii? naiaeiiinoi e aeai?o eioa?aoo?e.

Iaeaieiaiioith aecia/a?oueny oaea eioa?aoo?ia ooiiiy, yea aieeaa? ia
iioi ?? oi?ie e oeie. Na?aae ooieoeie ooiii? ?aeaaaioiith ? e?eoe/ia,
caaaeyee yeie ooiiiy aeneiaeth? nai? iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy aei inioth/iai
eaaeo.

Iniaeeao oaaao o i?ae?icae?e? i?eaeieaii niaoeeoi/iei iniaeeainoyi
eioa?aoo?ii? ooiii?. O iiae?icaeiei iaaaaeaia ?iciiiaiioia aaia aeoiie,
iiaeyaeia c oeueiai ieoaiiy oe?a?inueeeo, ?in?enueeeo oa ca?oaiaeieo
aeineiaeieeia. Iaeaaaeeeaioeie, ia iaoo aeoieo, ?: i?i?ioaoeiy ia
iaeaae; e?eoeea inioth/iai noniieuenoaa; ooaa?aeaeaiiy c?acea aaaeaiiai
aeineiiaeiai noniieuenoaa; aiaenooiinoue eiioeieoia o ciaeueiaaiiio
noniieuenoai; ia?oaeoeaieici (ia?aeiiaiinoue o iiaeeeainoi aeinyaiaiiy
aeineiiaeinoi); aeaoaeiciaaia ?ic?iaea ?iciiiaiioieo noa? aeeooy
ciaeueiaaiiai noniieuenoaa; oeieiniinoue (ye i?ioenoaaeaiiy
?icae?iaiaiinoi no/aniinoi); iiaieinoe/ia noaaeaiiy aei aeieniinoi;
aioeinoi?eci (o noaaeaii? aei ieioeiai i iaeaooiueiai); ii?iaoeaiinoue,
ai?ii?eci. Oe? oa?aeoa?i? iciaee eioa?aoo?ii? ooiii? aeiiiaiaii
aiae?cii ooaeiaei?o oai??a. Iniiaii oa?aeoa?ii ?ene ooiii? iiaeathoueny
aaoi?aie ia a oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiiyo, a ?aaeicothoueny o anie
ooaeiaeiie no?oeoo?i oai?o: eiai i?iaeaiaoeoei, oa?aeoa?iiio nthaeaoi,
iniaeeaie eiiiiceoei?, nai??iaeiiio cia?aaeaii? ia?acii? cenoaie.

Iaeaieiaiioith i?iaeaiith ooiii/ii? eioa?aoo?e o OO no. noa? i?iaeaia
caeieniaiinoi-iacaeieniaiinoi ooiii?, yea, caaaeii, i?eaiaeeoue aei
iiyae aioeooiii?. Ii?iaiyii c iiceoeaiith eeane/iith ooiii?th i?iaeaia
aecia/aiiy aioeooiii? oneeaaeith?oueny oei, ui aiia e aeini ia ia?
?aeeii? iacae: o i?aoeyo no/anieo a/aieo o ?icieo niiaaiaeiioaiiyo
aaeeaathoueny oa?iiie “eaeioiiiy” (iiaaia iinoea, aea?aeaaa cea);
“iaaaoeaia ooiiiy” (aeueoa?iaoeaa iiceoeaiie ooiii?); “eiio?ooiiiy”
(naiaeiia i?ioenoaaeaiiy iioie, iaienaiie ?aiioa, ooiii?); “aeenoiiiy”
(iiaaia iinoea, ia?aaa?iooa ooiiiy); “eaaciooiiiy” (oyaia, iani?aaaeiy
ooiiiy) oa iioi. Iaeaieueo iioe?aii o iaoeiaie eioa?aoo?i oa?iiie
“iaaaoeaia ooiiiy”, “aioeooiiiy” e “aeenoiiiy”. A ?iaioi aiaeaea?oueny
ia?aaaaa eeaneoieaoei? A.*aeeeiai?, ca yeith iiiyooy iaaaoeaia ooiiiy
iiaeii?yaeeiao? oa?i?ie aioeooiiiy e aeenoiiiy. Oaeee ?iciiaeie
i?eionea? inioaaiiy e iiceoeaii? ooiii?, ui ? e?ieii aei iaeiiai c
aieiaieo iieiaeaiue aeineiaeaeaiiy i?i ?aeeiee ooiii/iee i?inoi?, eio?ee
ia’?aeio? iiceoeaio e iaaaoeaio ooiiith ye aaiaoe/ii nii??aeiai?, a ia
i?ioenoaaeai? iaeei iaeiiio. Iaaaoeaia ooiiiy, i?aaenoaaeaia aeaiia
/ioei ie?aneaieie iioieaie, ia? caeii/aiee aeaeyae. Aioeooiiiy
?icoii?oueny ye eaoaai?e/ia caia?a/aiiy naii? iiaeeeainoi iiaoaeiae
iaeaaeueiiai aeineiiaeiai noniieuenoaa. Aeenoiiiy, ia caia?a/oth/e
inioaaiiy ooiii/ieo iaeaaeia, iaoeieaia ia aiaeia?aaeaiiy aeaoeeaeo
ianeiaeeia iai?iaeoiaieo aeie i?e cai?iaaaeaeaii? ?o o aeeooy. O
?iciiiaiioieo aecia/aiiyo iaaaoeaii? ooiii?, yee iaaiaeyoueny o
iiae?icaeiei, i?enooii iioeae: i?ioenoaaeaiiy ooiii? (A.A?aa-Iaee,
A.Aaoaeia, E.Eoia?, A. *aeeeiaa); cia?aaeaiiy caoaieo ianeiaeeia
ao?eaiiy ooiii/ieo iaeaaeia o aeeooy (A.Aieainii, I.Aa?aey?a,
A.Aiae?thn, O.Eaoocai, N.Iaeneiiaa, A. Io?aaeia); ea?eeaoo?e ia ooiiith
(AE.Aaaaeue, I.Aei/aa); ia?iaei? ia aeineiiaei, iaeaaeueii iinoa e
aea?aeaae (A.Ii?nii); aeeaeiiiai ona?aeiieaiiy ?aaeueiinoi, a yeie
caeieniththoueny ooiii? (I.Ca??aa, A.Iiaeeia); iaaaoeaii? iaaeaaiaiee,
yea iiaeooiaoo? ethaenoai aei iiooeia aeueoa?iaoeaieo oeyoia ?icaeoeo
(I.Naaiiiia, ?.*a?oeiaa).

Aeayei aeineiaeieee (Ae.Aaeia, N.Caeeaii, A.*aeeeiaa) iaceaathoue
iaaaoeaio ooiiith nioeiaeueiith oaioanoeeith, ui ciiaea iiaeiyoe
iaeaaaeeeaioi ooiii/ii i?iaeaie ieioeiai, no/aniiai, iaeaooiueiai e
i?eaiiaeueii ae?ioeoe ?o caniaaie ooaeiaeiuei? eioa?aoo?e.

Iaoa oi/ea ci?o aaco?oueny ia ?icoiiiii iaaaoeaii? ooiii? ye
caeieniaii?, ?aaeiciaaii? ooiii?, yea ia i?ioenoaaey?oueny eeane/iie
ooiii?, a ? ?? eiai/iei i?iaeiaaeaiiyi o no/anieo oiiaao.

O ?icaeie? aecia/athoueny oa?aeoa?ii ?ene iaaaoeaii? ooiii?, ye?
aeaeieythoueny ?icieie aeineiaeieeaie a ?iaioao, i?enay/aieo i?iaeaiai
ooiii? oa aioeooiii?: ia?iaeieiinoue, inoi?i?caoeiy (a i?ioeeaaeiinoue
ooiii?, yea caia?a/o? inoi?ith, aioeooiiiy caaaeaee inoi?e/ia),
niaaeei?iiinoue (A.Ii?nii); o?aai/ia aeiiiiaioa, oioaeueia caia?a/aiiy
no/aniiai i iiaeeeaiai aeaoeeaiai iaeaooiueiai, ii?aeiaiiy
ceiaiaeaiiinoi i aeiaaeueiinoi (I.Naaiiiia); iaiaeiiiia noia?a/ea c
ooiii?th, ianeeuenoai iaae inoi?i?th, neooaoeiy aeai?o aeey aa?i?a
aioeooiii? (I.Ca??aa).

O ae?oaiio iiae?icaeiei ia?oiai ?icaeieo — “Aaiethoeiy aeai?o ooiii? i
no/aniee iiaeoiae aei eiai inieneaiiy” — i?inoaaeothoueny iniiaii aoaie
?icaeoeo ooiii/ii? aeoiee ethaenoaa, aeine?aeaeothoueny aieiaii oai?e
ooiii/iiai iai?yieo a eioa?aoo?i, ui aea? caaaeueia oyaeaiiy i?i oeyoe
?icaeoeo naioiai? ooiii/ii? o?aaeeoei? i aeicaiey? aeyaeoe oa?aeoa?ii
oeiieiai/ii ?ene ooiii/ii? eioa?aoo?e ?icieo ia?iiaeia. Aeoeaio
?iaeoueny ia ooaeiaei?e nai???aeiino? ? iiaeci? ooiii/ieo oai?ia
aecia/a?oueny ?o aianie o caaaeueiiethaenueeo aeoieo i?i iaeaaeueiee
nioeiaeueiee ono?ie. Aiaeic ioiieth? oe?ie? o?iiieia?/i? iaae?
e?oa?aoo?e — a?ae aioe/iino? aei no/aniinoi.

Aaiethoeieiee iaeyae ooiii? aeicaieea i?inoaaeeoe aeai?iai ia?aoai?aiiy,
yeeo caciaea ooiii/ia eioa?aoo?a ia i?ioyci noieioue. ?icaeaath/enue
nii/aoeo ye ioaeioeenoe/iee oa iaoeiaee o?aeoao (Ieaoii “Aea?aeaaa” (3
no. aei i.a.), O.Ii? “Ooiiiy” (1516), O.Eaiiaiaeea “Iinoi Niioey”
(1623), O.Aaeii “Iiaa Aoeaioeaea”(1619), I.Aiae?a? “O?enoiaiiiiein”
(1619), N.Oa?oeia “Iaea?iy” (1641), Aeae.Oiinoaiei “Caeii naiaiaee”
(1652), Aeae.Oa??iiaoii “Ieaaiiy” (1656), O.Aiaeaii “Aeineiaeaeaiiy i?i
iieioe/io ni?aaaaeeeainoue” (1793)), ooiiiy, ii/eiath/e c XV??? no.,
noa? aeiecii ooaeiaeiii oai?ii i iae/anoioa aenooia? a aeai?i ?iiaio
(Ae.Aeaoi “?iaiicii E?oci” (1719), E.-N.Ia?nue? “2240 ?ie” (1770), Aeae.
Naioo “Iiaei?iaei Aoeiaa?a” (1726), A.Eaaa “Iiaei?iae aei Iea?i?”
(1840), A.Aoeaa?-Eiooii “Iaeaooiy ?ana” (1871), A.Aaeeaii “*a?ac noi
?ieia” (1888), A.Ii??in “Cainoea iiaiaeeiey” (1890)). Aiaeic eiaeiiai
ia?iiaeo ?icaeoeo ooiii/ii? eioa?aoo?e caeii/o?oueny ia?aeieii aieiaieo
iiaoieiai/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee. Iiaee?aneth?oueny, ui iaeaaee aeineiiaei?
aea?aeaae i?iieeathoue iiiaei o cianii ia ooiii/ii oai?e. Ooiii/ii
aeneo?ne o iaeaooi? ciaoiaeeii, iai?eeeaae, a ?iiai? O.?aaea
“Aa?aaiotha i Iaioaa?thaeue” (1552), a i’?n? A.Oaenii?a “Ao?y” (1623).

Aaiethoeiy iaaaoeaii? ooiii? ?icaeyaea?oueny c aeaio oi/ie ci?o: 1) ye
ai/iee noiooiee ooiii?, ui c’yaey?oueny ?acii c iath e i?ioiaeeoue ani
aoaie ?icaeoeo, aeeiioth/e ?ieue aeeiaii/iiai ei?aeoeao ooiii?, yea
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny noaoe/iinoth e caieiooinoth; 2) ye aiaeaoe ia
c?inoaiiy iaoeiai-oaoii/iiai i?ia?ano oa nioeiaeueii-iieioe/ieo
noia?a/iinoae ii/aoeo OO no., yea noa? /anii iiyae iaaaoeaii? ooiii?.

Caiaeii c ia?oith oa?aeoa?enoeeith iaaaoeaii? ooiii? aioeooiii/ii
aeaiaioe ciaoiaeeii:

— o eiiaaeiyo A?inoioaia (ye naoe?o ia ooiii/io aea?aeaao Ieaoiia);

— o oai?ao aaaaoueio ienueiaiieeia OV??-OV??? no. (ye nai??iaeio
iii?aaeo ia ?aaeueiinoue aei ooiiie O.Ii?a, O.Aaeiia, O.Eaiiaiaeee), aea
aiie a aieueoinoi aeiaaeeia aenooiathoue eeoa ye naoe?e/iee aeiiiiiaeiee
cania iaeaieiai/iiai ? i?aeoe/iiai eiiaioa?y aei ooiii/ieo iiaoaeia
(O.Aiaan “Eaaiaoai” (1651), A.Iaiaeaaieue “Aaeea i?i aaeaeie” (1714),
N.Aeaeiinii “?annaean” (1759), o?aoy oa /aoaa?oa eieae “Iiaei?iaeae
Aoeiaa?a” (1726) Aeae.Naiooa;

— o oaioanoe/ieo oai?ao ienueiaiieeia OIO no. (I.Oaeei “O?aieaiooaei”
(1818), N.Aaoea? “Aaeii” (1872), “Iiaa?iaiiy a Aaeii” (1901), A.Oaeen
“Iaoeia /ano” (1895), “No/ania ooiiiy” (1905), A.*anoa?oii “Iaiieaii c
Iiooiia-oieea” (1904).

Ae?oaee iiaeoiae aeoeaioo? oaaao ia aeieeiaiii aioeooiii? ye ianiaiai
yaeua, ye noi?iiaaiiai eioa?aoo?iiai aeai?o. Aei iaaaoeaii? ooiii?
ia?oi? iieiaeie OO no. o?aaeeoeieii aiaeiinyoue ?iiaie “Ie” (1921)

?. Cai’yoiia, “Niiy/ia iaoeia” (1925) A.Aeiie/aiea, “Eioeiaai” (1930)
A.Ieaoiiiaa, “Oeae aeeaiee iiaee naio” (1932) I.Oaenei, “Aacaeocaea
iiaiiy” (1937) ?.Oi??aia, “1984” (1949) Aeae.I?oaeea. Aiaeiioaiiy aei
aioeooiii? ye aeai?o, ui aeieea? naia o OO no., i?eoaiaiia ?iaioai
E.Aoee/iaa, A.Ii?niia, O.?aena, I.Naaiiiii?, A.*aeeeiai?, ?.*a?oeiai? oa
ii.

O aeena?oaoei? ii?aeiothoueny aeai oi/ee ci?o ia aaiacen iaaaoeaii?
ooiii?: inioth/ee i?ioyaii eieueeio noieioue aioeooiii/iee ei?aeoea eeoa
a OO no. iaea?aeo? ia?aooi caaa?oaio aeai?iao oi?io.

O ?icaeiei iiaea?oueny no/aniee iiaeyae ia i?iaeaio ?icaeoeo iiceoeaii?
ooiii?. Iai’yoath/e i?i iiceoeaio aaoi?nueeo iiceoeith ooiiinoa oa /an
iiyae oi?? /e iioi? ooiii?, iaie ?iaeoueny ni?iaa ia iniiai oaenoo
aeayeeo eeane/ieo ooiiie i?inoaaeeoe oa aenaioeoe oi oa?aeoa?ii ?ene
ooiii/ieo iaeaaeia, eio?i, i?ioiaey/e e?icue aiee, iiaeooue ciiithaaoe
ciaee “+” ia “-”, iai?eeeaae, iaaeii?ia ?aaeaiaioiaaiinoue aeeooy
a?iiaaeyi Iiaeo naioia, ao?o/aiy aea?aeaae o noa?e iioeiieo aiaeiinei,
aeoiaaiiy aeioae, niiaeii aiaeiineie i o.i. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c aeicaiey?
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aeineiiaei aea?aeaae, iaiaeueiaaii ?aiiiie
ooiiinoaie, ao?a/athoue i?aie iaeaaeueiinoi, a oea aea? iiaenoaae
aiai?eoe i?i iaaeeaeaiiy iiceoeaii? i iaaaoeaii? ooiii? iaeei aei
iaeiiai. A aioeooiii? ciaeueiao?oueny oa naia iaeaaeueia noniieuenoai,
a yeiio ani aeuacaaaeaii ?ene aeiaaaeaii aei eiai/iiai eiioey i
ia?aoai?ththoueny ia naith iiaio i?ioeeaaeiinoue. A?aii ooiii? oa
aioeooiii? cianii noe?athoueny. Oea iiaeoaa?aeaeo? aenoiooo ?aiioa
aiiioaco i?i ?aeeiee ooiii/iee i?inoi?, aei yeiai aoiaeyoue iiceoeaia i
iaaaoeaia ooiii? ye ?? ie?ai? ??ciiaeaee.

O iiae?icaeiei iaaiaeyoueny aeneiae ?in?enueeeo oa ca?oaiaeieo
aeineiaeieeia (Aeae.Aoaeeie, O.Ea?aeai, E.Iaioi?ae, ?.Iicee, ?.O?onnii),
yei oaeiae i?eoiaeyoue aei aeciaiiy ?aeeii? i?e?iaee ooiii? oa
aioeooiii?.

O o?aoueiio iiae?icaeiei ia?oiai ?icaeieo — “Iniaeeainoi aoieaiiy
ooiii/ieo iaeae o ?iiaiao “Ie” ?.Cai’yoiia oa “Oeae aeeaiee iiaee naio”
I.Oaenei” — iiaea?oueny aiaeic aeuacaaaeaieo oai?ia c o?aooaaiiyi
aeniiaeia ae?oaiai iiae?icaeieo.

Aeai? aeey aiaeico naia oai?ia ?.Cai’yoiia, I.Oaenei, Aeae.I?oaeea
coiiaeth?oueny:

1. Caaaeueiei aeciaiiyi a e?eoeoei ?iiaiia “Ie” ?.Cai’yoiia, “Oeae
aeeaiee iiaee naio” I.Oaenei oa “1984” Aeae.I?oaeea ca iaeaieueo
aiaeiieo oeiiaeo oai?ia iaaaoeaii? ooiii?. (Oei?? oi/ee ci?o
aeio?eiothoueny Ae.Aaeia, ?.*a?oeiaa, E.Iiiii, E.Aoee/ia, I.Ca??aa,
A.*aeeeiaa, ?.Aaeueoeaaa, I.?iaeiyinueea,O.Eaoocai, A.Ethaeiiaa).

2. Iaiaoiaeiinoth aea/aiiy oai?/inoi ?.Cai’yoiia ye caniiaieea
aioeooiii? a eioa?aoo?i OO no., eio?ee ?ic?iaea eaiiie aeai?o,
aiaeooiaooth/enue aiae aaaaoia?eiai? ooiii/ii? o?aaeeoei? e iieaiicoth/e
c iath. (Iiaeoiae aei ?.Cai’yoiia ye caniiaieea aioeooiii? OO no.
ciaoiaeeii o ?iaioao ?.Aaeueoeaai?, I.?iaeiyinueei?, I.Ca??aaa,
A.*aeeeiai?, I.Oaeoaiiaa, I.Ioae?aaae, O.Eaoocai,N.Iaeneiiaa, N.Aiae?thn
oa ii.).

3. Oai?/i iiooee ?.Cai’yoiia oa I.Oaenei a /an? ia?aaeoaaee iaienaiith
?iiaio “1984” e, ca neiaaie Aeae.I?oaeea, nooo?ai aieeioee ia caaaeueiee
caaeoi oai?o. (Oea aiaecia/athoue oaei aeineiaeieee, ye A.Aa?aeia?,
Ae.Oaeen, ?.?in, O.Oiieiinii, A.Ao?aae/, Ae.Iiaeeia, TH.Eaoeiiia,
I.Naaiiiia, I.Ai?aoeueeee, I.Aieueei, E.Iaie?ianueea).

O i?ae?icae?e? iaaieioo?oueny ia iineiaeiaiino? iiyae i cia/aii? oai?ia
aeey ianooiii? eioa?aoo?e. ?.Cai’yoiio a?aeaiaeeoueny iinoea caniiaieea
aeai?o iaaaoeaii? ooiii? o naioiaie eioa?aoo?i OO no., a I.Oaenei —
iinoea oaeaiiaeoiai iineiaeiaieea, i?iaeiaaeoaa/a, yeee ia? naie
i?eaiiaeueiee iiaeoiae aei i?iaeaie aoieaii? ooiii?, caaaeyee yeiio
iaaaoeaia ooiiiy noa? ia aieueo aenieee nooiiiue naiai ooaeiaeiueiai
?icaeoeo.

O iiae?icaeiei aiaecia/a?oueny, ui ?.Cai’yoii oa I.Oaenei i?iaeiaaeeee
aaaaoiaieiao ooiii/io o?aaeeoeith a OO no., o nai?o oai?ao ooieeee
aieiaii ?ene iaaaoeaii? ooiii?, yei noaee iioii o?aaeeoeieieie, a naia:

— cia?aaeaiiy aeineiiaeiai noniieuenoaa, a yeiio aaoi? ia no/aniiio
iaoa?iaei ?aaeico? iniiaii iieiaeaiiy iiceoeaii? ooiii?, iaaeath/e ?i
caeii/aiiai aano?aeiiai aeaeyaeo;

— aeiei?iiia ciiia (a ii?iaiyiii c iiia?aaeiueith ooiii/iith
o?aaeeoei?th) ooaeiaeiueiai caaaeaiiy oai?o: ia cia?aaeaiiy aeineiiaeeo
aea?aeaa (ye o iiceoeaiie ooiii?), ia noieueee ia?iaeithaaiiy iieiaeaiue
iaeaaeueieo naioia (ye o oai?ao aioeooiii/iiai ei?aeoeao), neieueee
aeeaeiia aa/aiiy ?aaeueiinoi, a yeie oei iieiaeaiiy iaiaaathoueny
caeienieoe;

— i?i?ioaoeiy ia oiiaii-iaaaoeaiee iaeaae, ia aiaeiiio aiae
oiiaii-iiceoeaiiai a o?aaeeoeiei?e ooiii?;

— ia?iaeithaaiiy ooiii/ieo eaiiiia;

— ciiia nthaeaoii-eiiiiceoeieii? aoaeiae oai?o: a) iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy
aaoi?a aei noniieuenoaa, yea aii cia?aaea?; a) nthaeaoia noaia
iiceoeaii? ooiii? a aioeooiii? iiaoi?th?oueny ci ciaeii “-”; a) ?icaeoie
aei? aecia/a?oueny ciiiaiith iiceoei?th aa?iy: caiinoue ?aaeino? o?ioioo
(ye o iiceoeaiie ooiii?) — noiiiae aa?iy a iniiaieo iinooeaoao
noniieuenoaa, yei caeii/othoueny i?ioanoii i?ioe nenoaie; a) oaaoea
aioeooiii? iaiaeiiiii ia? eeth/iai aiiciaee: cono?i/ c eioaiith
aeiieith, noia?a/ea aieiaiiai aa?iy c i?aaeoaeai, o?aai/iee oiiae;

— cia/ia ?icoe?aiiy (a ii?iaiyiii c o?aaeeoeieiith ooiii?th) i nooo?aa
ciiia nenoaie ia?acia;

— noai?aiiy ?iiaiiiai eiioeieoo iiae aa?i?i i aeineiiaeei naioii, ia
i?ioeaaao iiia?aaeiie ooiii?, aea aa?ie oiniaeth? niaith iaeaaeueia
noniieuenoai i ? eiai iaaiae’?iiith /anoeiith;

— iioeiinoe/iee iaoin onueiai oai?o, iacaaaeath/e ia eiai o?aai/io
eiioeiaeo.

Iiaeaiaey/e iiaenoiee aiaeico ?iiaiia “Ie” oa “Oeae aeeaiee iiaee naio”,
a?aecia/a?ii, ui coneeeyie ?.Cai’yoiia oa I.Oaenei aioeooiii/iee
ei?aeoea, yeee inioaaa ia?aeaeueii c iiceoeaiith ooiii?th (A?inoioai,
A.Aiaan, Aeae.Naioo, Aieueoa?, N.Aeaeiinii, A.Iaiaeaaieue, N.Aaoea?,
O.*anoa?oii, ?.Eiieiia, A.Oinoa?, ?.Iien, E.*aiae), iaaoaa? caeii/aiiai
noi?iiaaiiai aeaeyaeo. I?ioean ia?aoiaeo ooiii? aiae aaeao?eciaaiiai
o?aeoaoo aei ooiii/iiai ?iiaio, caii/aoeiaaiee o XVIII no.,
i?iaeiaaeo?oueny ia i?ioyci XIX no. i o OO no. o oai?ao ?.Cai’yoiia oa
I.Oaenei io?eiaa nai? aeeneo/a caaa?oaiiy a iaae?ao oaia? oaea
aioeooiii/iiai ?iiaio.

O ae?oaiio ?icaeiei — “Niaoeeoiea ooaeiaeiueiai naioo a ?iiaii
Aeae.I?oaeea “1984” — c?iaeaii ni?iao ?icaeyiooe oaiiiai oeueiai
aaeeeiai aiaeienueeiai ienueiaiieea, aecia/eoe iinoea eiai o naioiaie
eioa?aoo?i.

O ia?oiio iiae?icaeiei ae?oaiai ?icaeieo — “Oai?/inoue I?oaeea a
ioeiioei e?eoeee” — ?icaeyaea?oueny oe?ieee niaeo? iiaeoiaeia aei
ioeiiee oai?/inoi I?oaeea, yei iinoieii ciiithaaeenue i?ioyaii inoaiiio
ni?iea naie ?ieia, ui ieioee iiney nia?oi ienueiaiieea.

Eioa?aoo?ia niaaeueia Aeae.I?oaeea ia? iauaneeao aeieth: iiney aeoiaeo a
naio eiai inoaiiio oai?ia “Neioiee aeai?” (1945) oa “1984” (1949) ii’y
ienueiaiieea ia aeiaai ?iee noa? ?iciiiiith ea?oith o iieioe/iiio
i?ioenoiyiii aeaio nenoai. Ia Caoiaei iineeaiiy ia I?oaeea aoee
?aaoey?ieie, eiee ?iaeeenue /a?aiai ni?iae neiii?iiaooaaoe iaea?
nioeiaeicio oa eiioiicio. Oiio a eieeoiueiio ?aaeyinueeiio Nithci ii’y
I?oaeea iaeaea ia caaaeoaaeinue, aai, i?eiaeiii, eeoa ye ianea?eyioa,
aioeeiioiinoa i o. i. Ca neiaaie I.Ca??aaa, ia Caoiaei I?oaee aoa aeaaii
eaiiiiciaaiee ye i?iaeaeaoeue, iieioe/iee ieneeoaeue, aea ye ooaeiaeiee
aii iaeaea ia aeineiaeaeoaaany. O i?aoeyo caoiaeieo a/aieo
i?aaenoaaeai?: aiia?aoi/iee aiaeic oai?/inoi I?oaeea (?.?in, Aeae.
Aoaeeie, I.Oaeaeai); aiae?c eiai iieioe/ieo iiaeyaeia oa neiiaoie
(A.Ca??aeeiia, ?.Aieueyin, E.Ieae?iae); aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiyeueiinoi
I?oaeea c ?aeiaieii-iinoe/ii? oi/ee ci?o (E.Niiee); caaaeueiee
iaaaoeaiee iiaeyae ia oai?/inoue ienueiaiieea ye aaoi?a iaaaeaeeo oai?ia
(O.Oiieiinii, ?.Ao?oac).

A oe?a?inuee?e ? ?in?enuee?e e?eoeoei ii’y Aeae.I?oaeea ii/aei
c’yaeyoeny ?acii c ia?oeie ioaeieaoeiyie eiai oai?ia o na?aaeeii 80-o
?ieia. Nii/aoeo noaooi o aacaoao oa aeo?iaeao iineee nooi iioi?iaoeieiee
oa?aeoa? aai aoee eiiaioa?yie aei oeo /e iioeo oai?ia ienueiaiieea
(N.Aieiaaoeue, ?.Aaeueoeaaa, I.?iaeiyinueea, E.Eenthoeiia,
E.?aaeci?anueeee). O?ioe iiciioa aeoiaeyoue ?iaioe A.*aeeeiai?,
I.Ca??aaa, A.Iaaeioeaiia, yei aeaee iiooiao aeey aieueo iiaiiai aea/aiiy
oai?/inoi Aeae.I?oaeea.

O ae?oaiio iiae?icaeiei oeueiai ?icaeieo — “Aei inoi?i? coai?aiiy ?iiaio
“1984” — aiaecia/a?oueny, ui ana aeeooy ienueiaiieea, any eiaiea eiai
oai?/inoi — oea eiiiy noiaeaeaiiy aei naiiiiciaiiy caaaeueiiethaenueeeo
inoei oa iaeaaeia i iaaeeaeaiiy aei aieiaiiai oai?o naiai aeeooy —
?iiaio “1984”.

Aiaeic oai?/inoi I?oaeea naiae/eoue i?i ?iciee ?iaaiue oai?ia
ienueiaiieea. Eiai ?aiii ?iiaie ni?aaaaeeeai e?eoeeoaaeenue ca ?o
nooo?a? aaaee. O?aaeeoeieiee aiaeienueeee ?iiai cae/a?a I?oaeeo ia
aaeaaaany, ai eiai iaaea?iaaiinoue iaea cianii iioo i?e?iaeo. I?i?ea o
oai?/ie aiia?aoi? I?oaeea aiaeaoaa?oueny c aeoiaeii o naio naoe?e/ii?
iiainoi “Neioiee aeai?” (1945). O iiae?icaeiei ?icaeyaea?oueny inoi?iy
aeieeiaiiy oai?o, iiaea?oueny eiai caaaeueiee iaeyae, aiaeic ooaeiaeiio
iniaeeainoae. Aecia/aii, ui aeey no/aniiai i?oaeeiciaanoaa
iaeaaaeeeaioith ? i?iaeaia aecia/aiiy aeai?o oai?o. O aeineiaeaeaiiyo
aio/eciyieo, ?inienueeeo oa caoiaeieo a/aieo “Neioiee aeai?”
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ye eacea, i?eo/a, aaeea, ooiiiy oa aioeooiiiy. Iaoa
oi/ea ci?o ia aeai?iao i?e?iaeo “Neioiiai aeai?o” aaco?oueny ia
aaoi?nueeie iiceoei? o oeueiio ieoaiii e ia aiaeici oaenoo oai?o. Ie
aecia/a?ii “Neioiee aeai?” ye naoe?e/io iiainoue c aeaiaioaie
aioeooiii/iiai naioini?eeiyooy, a yeie ooai?eany nai??iaeiee neioac
eacee, i?eo/e, aaeee, ooiii? oa aioeooiii? i yea noaea inoaiiueith
ni?iaith ia?aae iaienaiiyi aieiaiiai oai?o — ?iiaio “1984”.

A inoaiiueiio o?aoueiio iiae?icaeiei oeueiai ?icaeieo — “I?iaeaiaoeea i
iiaoeea ?iiaio “1984” — aiaeico?oueny oaiaoe/ia, noeeinoe/ia, ooaeiaei?
iiaaoi?noai oai?o Aeae.I?oaeea.

Aiaeic i?iaiaeeany o aeaio iai?yieao: c iaeiiai aieo, aeine?aeaeoaaany
ca’ycie I?oaeea ic naioiaith ooiii/iith o?aaeeoei?th (e?eoeea i
iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie), c ae?oaiai, cae?enithaaany eiiieaeniee aiaeic
oai?o, eiai ooaeiaeiio iniaeeainoae c oi/ee ci?o a?aeiioaiiy aei aeai?o
iaaaoeaii? ooiii?.

Iniaeeaa ?ieue Aeae.I?oaeea o ?icaeoeo ooiii/ii? eioa?aoo?e ia?oi?
iieiaeie OO no. aecia/a?oueny: 1) aenieiooaeiaeiii ae?ioaiiyi iniiaieo
i?iaeai iiia?aaeiuei? ooiii/ii? o?aaeeoei? e ceiaiaeaiieo ieoaiue
no/aniinoi; 2) ia?aianaiiyi aeoeaioia ooaeiaeiuei? iiiaiaei c
aiaeoai?aiiy nioeiaeueii aeineiiaeeo aea?aeaa (iiceoeaia ooiiiy) /e
e?eoe/iiai cia?aaeaiiy ooiii/ieo iaeaaeia (aioeooiiiy) ia ciaethaaiiy
eaoano?ioi/ieo ianeiaeeia ?o iiaiiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o aeeooy; 3)
iaaeaiiy iaaaoeaiie ooiii? caaa?oaiiai, eaiiii/iiai aeaeyaeo:

— iaeaaeueii iaaeineiiaea noniieuenoai I?oaeea iineoue ae?aciee
oioaeueiee ethaeeiiiaiaaenieoeueeee oa?aeoa?;

— oioaeioa?eci ye iaeaieueo no?aoia yaeua no/anii? aiioe noa? aieiaiei
ia’?eoii aeineiaeaeaiiy i ooaeiaeiueiai aiaeoai?aiiy o ?iiaii;

— eiioeieo o ?iiaii ia? aioo?ioiie ? ciaiioiie oa?aeoa?: ia?oee eaea
aiae “cei/eiieo” aeoiie aa?iy, ae?oaee — ? ?acoeueoaoii i?ioei?aaieo
aeie aa?iy;

— nai??iaeiinoue nthaeaoo iieyaa? o oiio, ui aii ?ice?eaa?oueny ia ye
iiiaiaeia iineiaeiaiinoue iiaeie, a ye inoi?iy aeieeiaiiy, ?icaeoeo,
noaiiaeaiiy e caaeaaei Iniaenoinoi o noniieuenoai ciainiaeaieo
a?iiaaeyi;

— nenoaia ia?acia ia? caaa?oaiee ? naiiaeinoaoiie oa?aeoa?;

— ooaeiaeiy no?oeoo?a ?iiaio oa?aeoa?eco?oueny neeaaeiith nenoaiith
eaeoiioeaia (iioea iii?o, iioea noiie-iai?iaei, iioea niaaeei?iiinoi
aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e ethaenoaa), yei aeicaieythoue yne?aaioa, aino?ioa
ae?iooaaoe o?aaeeoeieii i?iaeaie ooiii/ii? eioa?aoo?e;

— oaioanoe/iee aeaiaio o ?iiaii a?ae?a?a? aeiiiiiaeio, ia nthaeaoioai?/o
(ye o iaoeiaie oaioanoeoei) ?ieue;

— “1984”, ye i ee/eoue oai?ia? aioeooiii/iiai iai?yieo, ia? yne?aai
ae?aaeaio naoe?e/io caaa?aeaiicoue, ui inio? ia ?icieo ?iaiyo ?iiaio;

— I?oaee noai?th? iniaeeaee oei ooaeiaeiinoi: o ?iiai? “1984”
neioacothoueny niieiiai/ii inioth/i a ooiii/ieo oai?ao ioaeioeenoe/ii,
oaioanoe/ii oa aaeao?enoe/ii aeaiaioe.

Iaeaaaeeeaioith ?enith ia oieueee ?iiaio I?oaeea, aea e onio oai?ia
iaaaoeaii? ooiii? ia?oi? iieiaeie OO no., noa? i?inoi?iai-/aniaa
iiciaaai?noue, ui ciaiaio? niaith ia?aoiae aiae o?aaeeoeieii ooiii/iiai
aano?aaiaaiiai cia?aaeaiiy iaeaaeueii? aea?aeaae aei aiaeoai?aiiy ?aaeie
no/aniinoi, naoe?e/ii aiia?aieiciaaieo, yeei iaaeaii ocaaaeueithth/ee
oa?aeoa?.

Iiaaoi?noai I?oaeea iaeaieueo aeyaeeiny o aeai?iaie nai??iaeiinoi eiai
oai?ia. Oai?/i iiooee ienueiaiieea aeyaeeenue o caaaa/aiii oa
oneeaaeiaiii ooaeiaeiuei? oi?ie aeaio inoaiiio oai?ia, a yeeo I?oaee
i?iaeaiiino?oaaa i/aaeaeia i?aaiaiiy aei iieiaeai?iainoi, oiaoi aei
neioaco ?icieo aeai?iaeo oaiaeaioeie. Noaiiaeaiith aioeooiii/ieo oai?ia
I?oaeea ni?eyee eeane/ia ooiiiy, iaoeiaa oaioanoeea, ?aaeinoe/ia
eioa?aoo?a i ioaeioeenoeea. Caiaene aeoiea? niaoeeoi/ia ooaeiaeiy
no?oeoo?a ?iiaio-aioeooiii?, yeee ia’?aeio? a niai ?ene iaoeiai?
oaioanoeee, nioeiaeueii? ooiii?, oieinionueeiai oa naoe?e/iiai oai?o,
ioaeioeenoeee e iaoeiaiai, inoi?e/iiai aeieoiaioa. O “Neioiiio aeai?i”
aei aeuacaaaeaiiai aeiaeathoueny oaeiae ?ene eacee, aaeee oa i?eo/i.
Oaeee neioac ?icieo aeai?iaeo oeiia ? oa?aeoa?iith iniaeeainoth oai?ia
caeieniaii? ooiii? ia?oi? iieiaeie OO no.

Iieiaeai?iainoue aioeooiii? Aeae.I?oaeea — oea ia eieueeinia, a yeinia
yaeua. Eiie?aoii ooaeiaeii oi?ie ?icieo aeai?iaeo oeiia, ui iathoue nai?
coieei niaoeeoi/ii ?ene, ia’?aeioth/enue o iaaaoeaio ooiiith,
anooiathoue o neeaaeio aca?iiaeith, yea ca iayaiinoi i?iaiaeii?
aeai?iai? aeiiiiaioe “caeieniaiinoi, ?aaeiciaaiinoi” oi?io? iiao
ooaeiaeith ?aeiinoue.

Ana oea aeaei ciiao iinoaaeoe I?oaeea ia ia?oa iinoea na?aae aaeeei?
o??eee aioeooii?no?a ia?oi? iieiaeie OO no.

O aeine?aeaeaii? c?iaeaia ni?iaa iaa?oiooaaoe aeaye? aaaeeea? ieoaiiy,
ui aeoeaii iaaiai?ththoueny i?ioyaii inoaii?o ?ie?a. Cie?aia, eaeaoueny
i?i aecia/aiiy aca?iicaeaaeiino? e naiino?eiino? ooii?? oa aioeooii?? ye
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeai??a. Iath/e niieueiinoue o aaiaceni, eiiieaeni
nioeiaeueii-iieioe/ieo i?iaeai, iaai?i iioeaia, ?ic?icithth/enue iaoith,
oa?aeoa?ii eiioeieoia, nai??iaeiinoth iiaoeee, iiceoeaia i iaaaoeaia
ooiiiy, yaeythoue niaith aeaa iiaeaeaee aeai?o ooiii?. Aa?o/e aei oaaae
caeiiiii?iee i?ioean ia?oi? iieiaeie OO no. iiaoaeoaaiiy aea?aeaa, aea
aoei c?iaeaii ni?iao ?aaeicoaaoe iaeai/ii i?i? ethaenoaa i?i uaneeaa
ni?aaaaeeeaa aeeooy i ia?aaaaeio oaiaeaioeith a eioa?aoo?i o cia?aaeaii?
iiaeiaieo aea?aeaa caeieniaii? ooiii?, a aeineiaeaeaiii aiaecia/a?oueny
iaiaoiaeiinoue aaaaeaiiy iiaeo oa?iiiia, ye? iaea?eueo iiaii
oa?aeoa?ecothoue iniaeeainoi iaaaoeaii? ooiii? ia?oi? iieiaeie OO no.:
1) ooiiiy iiea?iaoa (aiae eao. incarnata aoieaia) — aoieaia, ?aaeiciaaia
ooiiiy; 2) aiia?ooiiiy (aiae eao. hyper — iaae) — iaaeooiiiy,
ia?aaieueoaia ooiiiy. Ia?oei oa?iiiii a aeena?oaoei? iicia/athoueny
?iiaie “Ie” ?.Cai’yoiia oa “Oeae aeeaiee iiaee naio” I.Oaenei, ae?oaei —
?iiai Aeae.I?oaeea “1984”.

O aeniiaeo aeeeaaeai? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy e iae?aneaii
iai?yiee iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy oai?/ino? aeaeaoiiai aiae?enueeiai
ienueiaiieea Aeae.I?oaeea.

NIENIE Ae?OEIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOeI?:

1. Aieueoa? e aiaeeeneay aoaenoe/aneay eeoa?aoo?a//Eeo.-oeein. ianeaaeea
Aieueoa?a e nia?aiaiiinoue. Aeieeaaeu e oacenu aeieeaaeia eiio.,
iinayuaiiie 300-eaoeth ni aeiy ?iaeaeaiey (1694-1778) ienaoaey. 26-28
ieoya?y 1994. — Oa?ueeia: Ecae-ai OAO, 1994.-N.39-43.

2. Aieia e aoaeouaa /aeiaa/anoaa (ii ?iiaio Aeae.I?oyeea “1984”)//
Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?.iao/.-i?aeo. eiio.: IE?, AIEIA, ENOI?Ess
(neaayinoai a aaiiieeoe/aneii i?ino?ainoaa: eoiae aieiu n oaoeciii e
acaeyae a OOI aae.-Oa?ueeia, 1995.-N.244-248.

3. Aeaei?aeae I?oyee e ?onneay ooiie/aneay iuneue//Acaeiiaeaenoaea
eeoa?aoo? a ie?iaii eeoa?aoo?iii i?ioeanna (i?iaeaiu oai?aoe/aneie e
enoi?e/aneie iiyoeee. Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?.iao/i. eiio.-A?iaeii, 1996.
-N.127-131.

4. Aeaei?aeae I?oyee e o?aioeocneay ooiie/aneay o?aaeeoeey// 111-y
iaaeaeoia?.eiio. “O?aioeiy oa Oe?a?ia. Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iee aeinaiae o
eiioaenoi aeiaeiao iaoeiiiaeueieo eoeueoo?”. Oace aeiiiaiaeae o 4-o
/anoeiao. -Aeiii?iiao?ianuee, 1996.-O.I.- 1 /anoeia.-N. 31-32.

5. ?iiai Aeae.I?oyeea “1984” a naaoa nia?aiaiiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee ia
ooiiee e aioeooiiee//Ainiee Oa?e.aea?ae.oi-oo.-Oa?eia, 1997.-? 388.
-N.24-27.

6. O?aioeocneay ooiiey XVI-XVI a.a. e aioeooiiey Aeae.I?oyeea “1984”
//O?aioeiy oa Oe?a?ia, iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iee aeinaiae o eiioaenoi aeiaeiao
iaoeiiiaeueieo eoeueoo?. Oace aeiiiaiaeae o 2-o o., 5 /anoeiao. —
O.I.-*.I.:Iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy iiicaiieo iia. O?aioeocnueea eioa?aoo?a
o eiioaenoi eioa?aoo?ieo ca’yceia c eioa?aoo?aie Caoiaeii? ?a?iie oa ci
neia’yinueeeie eioa?aoo?aie.- Aeiii?iiao?ianuee: Iieia?aoino, 1997.

-N.52-53.

7. Oai?/anoai I.Oaenee a eiioaenoa aioeooiiee ia?aie iieiaeiu OO aaea //
Ainiee Oa?e. aea?ae.oi-oo.-Oa?eia, 1997.-N 399.-N.77-82.

8.I aeeciaiiuo e eeoa?aoo?iuo ia?aeeaeyo A.Caiyoeia e Aeae.I?oyeea //
Noniieuenoaiciaa/i iaoee oa aiae?iaeaeaiiy iaoei?. Ca.iaoe. i?aoeue.
-Eooeuee, 1997.-Ei.1.-N.166-168.

9. E enoi?ee nicaeaiey ?iiaia Aeae.I?oyeea “1984” // A?niee Oa?e.
aea?ae. oi-oo. — Oa?e?a, 1998. — ? 400/6. — N. 3-12.

AEaaeaiia TH.A. ?iiai Aeaei?aeaea I?oaeea “1984” o eiioaenoi aioeooiii?
ia?oi? iieiaeie OO noie?ooy.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oieieiai/ieo
iaoe ca niaoeiaeueiinoth 10.01.04-eioa?aoo?a ca?oaiaeieo e?a?i.
— Aeiii?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oiiaa?neoao, Aeiii?iiao?ianuee, 1999.

Aea/aii eiiieaen aeeneonieieo i?iaeai aeai?o aioeooiii? ia?oi?
iieiaeie OO no. Ia i?eeeaaei cinoaaeaiiy ?iiaiia “Ie” ?.Cai’yoiia,
“Oeae aeeaiee iiaee naio” I.Oaenei oa “1984” Aeae.I?oaeea c oai?aie
iiia?aaeiuei? ooiii/ii? o?aaeeoei? ?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i aeeceinoue
ooiii? oa aioeooiii?. Cai?iiiiiaaii ?acii c oa?iiiaie aioeooiiiy oa
aeenoiiiy aaeeaaoe oa?iiie aiia?ooiiiy oa ooiiiy-iiea?iaoa
(iaaeooiiiy i aoieaia ooiiiy), ui aieueo ca ana aiaeiiaiaeathoue
aeooia? aiioe ia?oi? iieiaeie OO no. Aiaeic ?iiaio Aeae.I?oaeea “1984”
iaaea? iiaeeeainoue iiaee?aneeoe aaiaoe/io nii?iaeiaiinoue c eeane/ieie
ooiiiyie ieioeiai e aioeooiiiyie no/aniinoi, iaeaeii-oaiaoe/io
nai??iaeiinoue oa niaoeeoi/ii ooaeiaeii iniaeeainoi oai?/inoi
ienueiaiieea ye aiaeia?aaeaiiy eiai ooaeiaeiueiai ni?eeiyooy i
naioiaeyaeo. ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy aeathoue iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe
I?oaeea eeaneeii no/anii? iaaaoeaii? ooiii?.

Eeth/iai neiaa: ooiiiy (iiceoeaia e iaaaoeaia), aioeooiiiy,
aeenoiiiy, aiia?ooiiiy, ooiiiy iiea?iaoa, naoe?a, ?ao?iniaeoei?,
ia?ac aaoi?a.

AEaaeaiia TH.A. ?iiai Aeaei?aeaea I?oyeea “1984” a eiioaenoa
aioeooiiee ia?aie iieiaeiu OO aaea.-?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.01.04 — eeoa?aoo?a ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai. —
Aeiai?iiao?ianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1999.

Eco/ai eiiieaen aeeneonneiiiuo i?iaeai aeai?a aioeooiiee ia?aie
iieiaeiu OO a. Ia i?eia?a niiinoaaeoaeueiiai aiaeeca ?iiaiia “Iu”
A.Cai’yoeia, “I aeeaiue iiaue ie?” I.Oaenee e “1984” Aeae.I?oyeea n
i?iecaaaeaieyie i?aaeoanoaothuae ooiie/aneie o?aaeeoeee aeaeaaony
auaiae i aeecinoe ooiiee e aioeooiiee: eiay iauiinoue a aaiacena,
eiiieaena ?aoaaiuo nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo i?iaeai, i?iaiice?othuai
oa?aeoa?a, iaai?a iioeaia, ?acee/aynue oeaeaaie onoaiiaeie, oa?aeoa?ii
caeiaeaiiuo a ieo eiioeeeoia, naiaia?aceai iiyoeee, iiceoeaiay e
iaaaoeaiay ooiiey i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iiaeaeaeu aeai?a ooiiey. O/eouaay
caeiiiia?iue i?ioeann ia?aie iieiaeiu XX a., iino?iaiey ainoaea?noa,
iinyaioaoeo ia ?aaeecaoeeth ecaa/iuo ia/oaiee /aeiaa/anoaa i n/anoeeaie,
ni?aaaaeeeaie aeecie e i?aiaeaaeathuoth oaiaeaioeeth a eeoa?aoo?a yoiai
ia?eiaea ecia?aaeaiey iiaeiaiuo ainoaea?noa inouanoaeaiiie ooiiee,
i?aaeeiaeaii ia?yaeo n oa?ieiaie aioeooiiey e aeenoiiey i?eiaiyoue
oaeaea oa?iei aeia?ooiiey e ooiiey eiea?iaoa (naa?oooiiey e aiieiuaiiay
ooiiey), eae iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyuea e niioaaonoaothuea aeooo yiioe
ia?aie iieiaeiu OO no. Aiaeec ?iiaia Aeae.I?oyeea “1984” aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue iiae/a?eiooue aaiaoe/aneia ?iaenoai eeanne/aneeo ooiiee
i?ioeiai e aioeooiiee ianoiyuaai, eaeaeii-oaiaoe/aneia naiaia?acea e
niaoeeoe/aneea ooaeiaeanoaaiiua iniaaiiinoe oai?/anoaa ienaoaey, eae
io?aaeaiea aai ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai aini?eyoey e ie?iaicc?aiey.
Iiaaoi?noai I?oyeea y?ei i?iyaeeinue a aeai?iaii naiaia?acee ?iiaia
“1984”. Oai?/aneea iienee ienaoaey neacaeenue a iaiaauaiee e
oneiaeiaiee ooaeiaeanoaaiiie oi?iu iineaaeiaai e eo/oaai aai
i?iecaaaeaiey, a eioi?ii I?oyee i?iyaee yaiia no?aieaiea e
iieeaeai?iainoe, oi anoue e neioaco ?acee/iuo aeai?iauo oaiaeaioeee.
Niaoeeoe/aneay ooaeiaeanoaaiiay no?oeoo?a ?iiaia-aioeooiiee “1984”
ni/aoaao a naaa /a?ou: iao/iie oaioanoeee, nioeeaeueiie ooiiee,
oeeinioneiai e naoe?e/aneiai i?iecaaaeaiey, ioaeeoeenoeee e iao/iiai,
enoi?e/aneiai aeieoiaioa. Oai naiui, I?oyee nicaeaao iniaue oei
ooaeiaeanoaaiiinoe: eneiiii nouanoaiaaaoea a ooiie/aneeo i?iecaaaeaieyo
ioaeeoeenoe/aneia, oaioanoe/aneia e ?aaeenoe/aneia ia/aea a ?iiaia
“1984” niaaeeiythony a iaeiai neioaca, io?aceaoai iiaue yoai a ?acaeoee
aeai?a. Iieeaeai?iainoue ?iiaia Aeae.I?oyeea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia
eiee/anoaaiiia, a ea/anoaaiiia yaeaiea. Eiie?aoiua ooaeiaeanoaaiiua
oi?iu ?acee/iuo aeai?iauo oeiia, iaeaaeathuea naieie onoie/eauie
niaoeeoe/aneeie /a?oaie, iauaaeeiyynue a iaaaoeaiie ooiiee, anooiatho a
neiaeiua acaeiiaeaenoaey, eioi?ua, i?e iaee/ee aaaeouae aeai?iaie
aeiieiaiou “inouanoaeaiiinoe, ?aaeeciaaiiinoe”, ia?acotho iiaia
ooaeiaeanoaaiiia aaeeinoai. Au?aceoaeueiua n?aaenoaa ?aciuo aeai?ia a
?iiaia “1984” i?aoa?iaaatho ?acee/iiai ?iaea o?ainoi?iaoeee, anooiatho a
eiioaeo n aai aaoiooiiiuie au?aceoaeueiuie n?aaenoaaie, /oi ?iaeaeaao
niaoeeoe/aneee ooaeiaeanoaaiiue yooaeo. Ana yoi i?eaeaei ?iiaio
Aeae.I?oyeea “1984” iaiiaoi?eiia cao/aiea, iicaieeei aaoi?o a aeinooiiie
e caieiaoaeueiie oi?ia aeiianoe aei /eoaoaey anth neiaeiinoue aieiothueo
aai i?iaeai nia?aiaiiie aeecie e, a eiia/iii eoiaa, ii?aaeaeeei
iaoauaathuee eioa?an /eoaoaey e eieaa I?oyeea. ?acoeueoaou
enneaaeiaaiey aeatho i?aai iinoaaeoue I?oyeea ia caneoaeaiiia ianoi
eeanneea nia?aiaiiie iaaaoeaiie ooiiee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ooiiey (iiceoeaiay, iaaaoeaiay), aioeooiiey,
aeenoiiey, aeia?ooiiey, ooiiey eiea?iaoa, naoe?a, ?ao?iniaoeee, ia?ac
aaoi?a.

Zhadanov J.A. Novel «1984» by George.Orwell in the context of the
Antiutopia of the first half of the XX th century.-Manuscript.

Thesis for the degree of Candidate of philology in the
speciality 10.01.04 — foreign literature. — Dniepropetrovsk State
University. Dniepropetrovsk, 1999.

A complex of debatable problems concerning the genre of
Antiutopia of the first half of the XX th century is studied. On the
basis of comparative analysis of the novels «We» by
Jevg.Zamyatin, «Brave New World» by A.Huxley and «1984» by
G.Orwell with the preceeding Utopia and Antiutopia is drawn. The terms
«Hyperutopia» and «Utopia-incarnata» (Super-Utopia and incarnated
Utopia) are proposed for usage equally with the terms «Antiutopia» and
«Distopia» as the most suitable and corresponding to the spirit of the
first half of the XX th century. The analysis of the novel «1984» by
G.Orwell gives the possibility to emphasize the genetic propinquity
between the classical Utopias of the past and the Antiutopias of
today, the ideological and thematic originality and specific
artistic peculiarities of the writer’s works as the reflection of his
perception and outlook. The results of the present study give the right
to call Orwell a classic of the modern negative Utopia.

Key words: Utopia (positive, negative), Antiutopia, Distopia,
Hyperutopia, Utopia-incarnata, satire, retrospections, image of the
author.

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