5

AeI?I?IIAO?IANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE AA?A?IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

AIAe??AIIAA Aaeaioeia Aa?nii?aia

OAeE 331.101.26:338.436.33(477.9)

?ieue a?aeoai?aiiy ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo a

aeiiii?oe? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa E?eio

i oeyoe eiai oaeineiiaeaiiy

08.07.02 — aeiiii?ea n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ? AIE

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oaa??enueeiio ?inoeooo? i?ae?e?iieoeoaa oa i?aaa
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
aeaaeai?e

AI E?eio, caneoaeaiee ae?y/
iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie

Iia?eia
TH??e Ieeieaeiae/,

Oaa??enueeee ?inoeooo
i?ae?e?iieoeoaa oa i?aaa,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
aeiiii?ee.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe : aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?

?aae/aiei
A?eoi? Aaneeueiae/,

Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee
aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e i?aai?caoe??
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai

ae?iaieoeoaa;

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio

Eai?oeueea Na?oeaia
TH???aia,

Aeaaeai?y ieoii? neoaeae Oe?a?ie, aeioeaio eaoaae?e

aeiiii?/ii? oai??? oa aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy

aeiiii?ee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Ieeiea?anueea aea?aeaaia
aa?a?ia aeaaeai?y, eaoaae?a

i?aai?caoe??
ae?iaieoeoaa oa aa?ia?ciano, I?i?noa?noai

AIE Oe?a?ie;
i.Ieeiea?a.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 29 ” aeiaoiy 1999?. i 14-00 aiaeei?
ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.08.804.01
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith:
320600, i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee-27, aoe.Ai?ioeeiaa, 25, aoae.342.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe?
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith:
320600, i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee-27, aoe.Ai?ioeeiaa, 25.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 25 ” aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

i?ioani?
Iaea?aiei I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Oyaeea i o?eaaea aeiiii?/ia e?eca a Oe?a?i?
caaino?eea an? a?aeoai?thaaeuei? i?ioeane. A iniaeeai aaaeeiio noai?
iieieeenue ?ia?oieee aa?a?iiai naeoi?a – aieiaii? i?iaeoeoeaii? neee
noni?euenoaa.

A E?eio ca inoaii? 7 ?ie?a aeaoei c noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa a?eueo
i?ae 34% caeiyoeo. A cia/i?e i??? ciaioeeanue iieaoa i?aoe? o ii?iaiyiii
c ?inoii oe?i ia i?iaeoeoe oa?/oaaiiy, iaeya, oa?eoaie ia iineoae, oiui.

Nenoaiaoe/ii cao?eio?oueny ia aaaaoi i?nyoe?a aeieaoa ca?ia?oii? ieaoe.
C?inea /anoea ieaoieo iineoa o caeeaaeao ioi?iie caei?ia’y oa ina?oe.
I?aoeaaeaaoe?, ei?enooth/enue neaaeinoth eiio?ieth c aieo aea?aeaae ?
i?ioni?eie, nei?i/othoue iieaoo i?aoe? o noai?ai?e i?iaeoeoei?. Ana oea
cia/iith i??ith i?ae?eaa? i?ioean a?aeoai?aiiy ?iai/i? neee oiaoi
ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo.

Eaoaai??th “ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo”, ye noie aeo?ao ia oi?ioaaiiy
caei?ia’y ? ina?oe ?ia?oiee?a, ia ?o i?ioan?eio i?aeaioiaeo ? caeiaoooy
niaoe?aeueiino?, ia?oeie aeei?enoaee o nai?o ?iaioao I. Aeaoa, N. Aaoe?,
I. Aoaeoiee, Aeae. A?aenii, A. Aeai?nii, I. Aeaeci oa ?io?. O
a?o/eciyi?e e?oa?aoo?? ia?oeie aei oeueiai ieoaiiy caa?ioeeny
A. ?. Aania, A. N. Aaee, I. A. Aeaeiianueeee, ?. ?. Eiiaethoieeia,
A. A. Ei?/aa?i, A. ?. Ia?oeeieaae/ oa ?io?.O 90-o? ?iee i?iaeaie
a?aeoai?aiiy ?iai/i? neee aoei ?icaeyiooi o ?iaioao ?. I. Aea?aiaa,
I. ?. Aeia?ei?ia, A. A. Ei?iie/oea, I. I. E?eonueeiai,
N. E. Eo?aainueeiai, O. A. Eaiiiaa oa ?ioeo.

A inoaii? ?iee caa?ioeeny aei ieoaiiy i?i ethaenueeee eai?oae, aei
aiaeico i?iaeai eiai oi?ioaaiiy A. N. Aaoiiiiia, N. I. Aeyoeia,
A. A. Aeoe?iiaa, O. I. N?aeeo oa ?io?.

?acii c oei, o e?oa?aoo?? iaaeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo
ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo, i?iaeaie eiai a?aeoai?aiiy, iniaeeai uiaei
aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno, yeee ? i??i?eoaoiei o noai?aii? aeeoo?ai
iaiao?aeieo i?iaeoeo?a. Oea e iineoaeeei i?e/eiith aeey aeai?o oaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoiaeeoue aei ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
Oaa??enueeiai ?inoeoooo i?aei?e?iieoeoaa oa i?aaa ca i?iaeaiith “?aca?ae
?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee E?eio ? oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie a
ia??iae ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiioaiue”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeineiaeaeaiiy iieyaathoue a iaoeiaiio iaa?oiooaaii? ?
?ice?eo? ?aca?a?a a?aeoai?aiiy ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo a n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa?.

Aeoiaey/e c iinoaaeaii? iaoe o ?iaio? ?ica’ycai? oaei caaea/e:

 c?iaeaii oai?aoe/ia ooi/iaiiy eaoaai??? ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo oa
aecia/aii eiai ca’ycie c iiaeaeeth ethaeeie o noni?euenoa?
(“aeiiii?/iith ethaeeiith”);

 aecia/aii nooi?noue i?iaeaie a?aeoai?aiiy ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo;

 iaa?oioiaaii iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee ?ic?aooieo ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo o
??cieo ae?iaie/eo oeiao ainiiaea?noa;

 cae?eniaii aiae?c i?ioeano ci?i ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo E?eio, eiai
no?oeoo?e ca inoaii? 7 ?ie?a;

 aeaia ioe?iea oaiaeaioe?yi ci?i ? iniaeeainoyi a?aeoai?aiiy
ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo a AIE E?eio;

 aeyaeaii iniaeeaino? oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanii a?aeoai?aiiy ethaenueeiai
eai?oaeo a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao;

 cai?iiiiiaaii caoiaee uiaei noeioethaaiiy o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino? a
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?;

 ioe?iaia iaiao?aei?noue c?inoaiiy ?ie? i?ioni?eie o ni?aa?
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ?ia?oiee?a naea.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia.Ooi/iaii iiiyooy eaoaai???
“ethaenueeee eai?oae”, yeee ?icaeyaea?oueny ye noia?ia aa?o?noue
?iaanoeoe?e ia oi?ioaaiiy ?ia?oiee?a, aieiae?th/eo iaaiith
eaae?o?eaoe??th, caianii caei?ia’y ? caeaoi?noth ae?iaeyoe iaoa??aeuei?
? aeooiai? aeaaa, aai iaaiith i?iaeoeoeai?noth, a oie /an ye eaoaai??y
“aeiiii?/ia ethaeeia” a?aeia?aaea? iiaeaeue ethaeeie a aeiiii?oe?, yea
ia? iaai? nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? ? ii?aeuei? ?ene, i??i?eoaoe oa
?ioa?ane.

Aeaiaioe iiaecie ia? iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo, ye noie
aeo?ao ia ina?oo, ioi?iio caei?ia’y, ?aeo, oo?eiaiiy aeeoea, iaeya,
caaeiaieaiiy aeooiaieo iio?aa, o?ainii?oi? aeo?aoe oa ?ioa, yea
aaco?oueny ia oi?ioe? neeaaeieo i?ioeaio?a c oa?i?iii 20 ?ie?a aeey
iaeaae?o?eiaaiiai ?iaioieea ? 25 ?ie?a — aeey niaoe?ae?noa.Aecia/aia
/anoea ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo i?aoe?aiee?a n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa o
ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa? E?eio, ?aa?aneai? ci?ie o aa?oino? eai?oaeo ca
inoaii? 7 ?ie?a, no?oeoo?a ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo AIE ? 10 oa?aeoa?ieo
ae?iaie/eo oei?a ainiiaea?noa E?eio, iaa?oioiaaii i?iaeo ci?i iieaoe
i?aoe? c iaoith a?aeiiaeaiiy niiaeeoiai ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo. Aecia/aii
c?inoath/o ?ieue i?ioni?eie o ni?aa? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ?ia?oiee?a ?
aeio?eiaiiy i?eioeei?a Eiaeaeno Caeii?a i?i i?aoeth.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny
noeoiiinoth i?iiiceoe?e oa ?aeiiaiaeaoeie uiaei oi?aae?iiy i?iii?oeiyie
iiae niiaeeaaiiyi i iaa?iiaaeaeaiiyi a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
iiaei?e?inoaao i ia ?aaiiiaeueiiio ?iaii, o ai?iaaaeaeaii? iiai? nenoaie
iieaoe i?aoei, yea aea? iiaeeeainoue o 2-3 ?ace caieueoeoe iieaoo i?aoei
o nia?aa?oinoi iaeeieoe? i?iaeoeoeii.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a:

 ooi/iaii aeao?i?oe?th eaoaai??? “ethaenueeee eai?oae”;

 iaa?oioiaaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa;

 ?ice?eoi oaiaeaioe?? ci?i ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo E?eio, AIE E?eio ? 10
ae?iaie/eo oei?a ainiiaea?noa;

 aeei?enoaii iia? iieacieee, oae? ye aeeaaeaiiy ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo a
iaeeieoeth caiaeueii? ieiu?, a?aeaea/a ia aeeaaeaiee ethaenueeee eai?oae
oa ?io?;

 ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee uiaei oi?aae?iiy ethaenueeei eai?oaeii
a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?;

 iaa?oioiaaii nenoaio iioeaaoe?? i?aoe? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
?ia?oiee?a;

 iinoaaeaia ieoaiiy i?i iaiao?aei?noue c?inoaiiy aeoeaiino? i?ioni?eie
o ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiioaiue aeey iineeaiiy
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ?ia?oiee?a.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?i cae?eniaia oeyoii aenooi?a ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo Oaa??enueeiai ?inoeoooo
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa oa i?aaa a 1997-1998?.?., N?ioa?iiieuenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo a 1998 ?ioe?, ia?aae i?ioeaae?aie ? aeoeaii A?
E?ei. O?aaiaioe ?iaioe oa?eoee aei i?ae?o/ieea ii oi?aae?iith
ia?niiaeii, yeee aeiouaii I?i?noa?noaii ina?oe Oe?a?ie aeey nooaeaio?a
aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a.

Ioaeieaoei?. Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 6 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o ianyaii
1,8 iae.aeae. a?eooa, an? a aaoi?nueeiio aeeiiaii?.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (197). ?iaioo
aeeeaaeaii ia 173 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, aiia i?noeoue 33
oaaeeoe?, 10 ?enoie?a, 3 aeiaeaoee.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oai?aoe/i? iniiae a?aeoai?aiiy ethaenueeiai
eai?oaeo” aeeeaaeaii eiioeaioe?? eaoaai??e ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo, eiai
no?oeoo?o, aecia/aii ??cieoeth c iiiyooyi “aeiiii?/ii? ethaeeie”
(iiaeaeeth ethaeeie o noni?euenoa?). ?icaeyiooi i?iaeaie a?aeoai?aiiy
ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo ? iaa?oioiaaii iaoiaee/i? iniiae ?ic?aooieo
ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo, a oiio /ene? a ainiiaea?noaao ??cieo ae?iaie/eo
oei?a.

Oe?a?ia ye ?iaeono??aeueii-aa?a?ia aea?aeaaa, ia?aaoaa? ia ii/aoeia?e
noaae?? ia?aoiaeo aei iinonioe?ae?noe/iiai oeio noni?euenoaa, ia yeiio
ia eeoa i?aei?e?ioe?, a ? ?ia?oieee iiaeii? a?aeiineoe nai? i?iaeoeoeai?
cae?aiino? aei aeeaaeaiue, ye aei eai?oae?ciaaieo iaeiie/aiue.

?iaanoeoe?? a ina?oo, ioi?iio caei?ia’y, eoeueoo?o ethaeeie, aac
noii?ao, aaaeooue aei c?inoaiiy ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo, a oea, a naith
/a?ao, aaaea aei c?inoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?, aei ca?eueoaiiy
aeioiae?a, nioe?aeueii? a?aeaea/i a?ae aeeaaeaiue.

Ethaenueeee eai?oae – oea aaeaeaaoia ?iaeono??aeueiiio ?
iinonioe?ae?noe/iiio noni?euenoao oi?ia ae?aaeaiiy (i?aai?caoe??,
ooieoeiiioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo) i?iaeoeoeaieo nee ethaeeie, aeeth/aieo aei
nenoaie nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaii? ci?oaii? aeiiii?ee ?eieiaiai oeio a
yeino? aieiaiiai oaeoi?a noni?eueiiai a?aeoai?aiiy.Ethaenueeee eai?oae
iaoe?? a iaoe?iiaeuei?e aeiiii?oe? a?ae?a?a? aaee/acia cia/aiiy.
Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa iaoiiaeaia ia eeoa ye?niei
neeaaeii ?iaeea?ae?a ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo a noni?eueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?,
aea ? nooiaiai ?o aca?iii? a?aeiia?aeiino? ? ii?aeiaiiyi yeinoae
noeoiiiai eai?oaeo iaoe??, ??aiai ?iciiae?eo i?aoe?, ?? niaoe?ae?caoe??
oa eiiia?aoe??. I?e oeueiio iiaeia aeae?eeoe o?e aeiee ethaenueeiai
eai?oaeo (?en.1)

Ethaenueeee eai?oaeAeeaaeaiiy o oiciieiai/iee noai ethaeeieAeeaaeaiiy a
iioaeaeooaeueiee ?icaeoie ethaeeieAeeaaeaiiy a nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iee
noai ?iaeea?aeooioAaiaoe/ii caaeaoee aaoueeia

Oa?/oaaiiy, oiiae aeeooy aiae ia?iaeaeaiiy aei aei?ineino? ?iaeea?aea

Oice/ia eoeueoo?a

?iaaiue ioi?iie caei?ia’y, i?ioieaeoeea oa eieoaaiiy oai?ia, oa
?ioaAeoiaaiiy aeeoeie o ?iaeeii

Oeieueia aeoiaaiiy oa inaioa

I?ioan?eia iaa/aiiy

Aeua oeiea

Nenoaia i?aeaeuaiiy eaaeioieaoei?, oa ?ioaAoeea iiaaaeiiee

I?aaiaa aeoiaaiiy

O?aooaaiiy o?aeaeecio

Aeooiaiee ?icaeoie

Anoaoe/ia aeoiaaiiy, oa ?ioa

?en.1 No?oeoo?a aeeaaeaiue aei ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo.

A ia??iae ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiioaiue, a oiiaao iaae?iiy
aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy, aac?ia?ooy, nenoaiaoe/ieo aaaaoii?ny/ieo
cao?eiie aeieaoe ca?ia?oii? ieaoe, caaino?aiiy nioe?aeueii-iieioe/iiai
noaio, c?inoaiiy aeeiaie?cio, ia?eiiai??, aeieia?/iiai iaaeaaiiieo//y,
i?aeaeuaiiy caoai?thaaiinoi, nia?oiino?, iia??oaiiy oa?/oaaiiy ethaeeie,
iniaeeai ae?oae, c?inoaiiy no?aniai? neooaoe??, e?eca ethaenueeiai
eai?oaeo iaaoea noaio ia’?eoeaii? ?aae??.

Ca nai?th aeiiii?/iith i?e?iaeith aeo?aoe ia ?iai/o neeo noaiiaeyoue oo
/anoeio iiainoai?aii? aa?oino? a i?ioean? a?aeoai?aiiy noeoiii?
aa?oino?, yea ooai?th? oiiae aeeoo?aeo cania?a, ui iio??ai? aeey
a?aeoai?aiiy ?iai/i? neee a eiie?aoieo aeiiii?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo
oiiaao.

Aeo?aoe ia ?iai/o neeo ? aeaeaoeaie ia a?aeoai?aiiy ?iai/i? neee, ye?
cae?eniththoueny ia i?ioyc? anueiai aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo ?ia?oiee?a oa
iiaeooue caaacia/oaaoe ii?iaeueio aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue ye naieo
?ia?oiee?a, oae ? ?o ?iaeei.

Aeaea?aeaie iaiao?aeieo eioo?a ?:

 aeo?aoe i?aoeaaeaaoe?a;

 athaeaeaoi? aeo?aoe nioe?aeueieo i?ia?ai;

 ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? aeo?aoe a?iiaaeyi ia oi?ioaaiiy cae?aiinoae aei
i?aoe? oa i?aeo?eieo caei?ia’y.

A?aei?ia oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai ii?yaeeo aecia/aiiy i?iii?oe?e aeei?enoaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeioiaeo ? eiio?ieth iaae niiaeeaaiiyi oa
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiyi a oiiaao iaae?iiy ae?iaieoeoaa i?eaaea aei noeo?eiiai
oi?ioaaiiy oeeo ni?aa?aeiioaiue.

Ana aeuaneacaia caaino?th? iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?aooieo aa?oino?
ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo, eiai ciino ? eiai a?aeoai?aiiy.

Ia iiaeia ci?ooaaoe iiiyooy “ethaenueeee eai?oae” oa “aeiiii?/ia
ethaeeia”.

sseui “ethaenueeee eai?oae” noaiiaeoue aa?o?niee ae?ac aeo?ao, ye?
aeei?enoaii ia oi?ioaaiiy caei?ia’y (a?ae ia?iaeaeaiiy aei aeoeaii?
o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino?), ia i?eaeaaiiy oeyoii ina?oe ciaiue, aeina?aeo,
eaae?o?eaoe??, oeyoii aeo?ao ia aeoiaaiiy, eoeueoo?e iiaaae?iee a
noni?euenoa?, yeui “ethaenueeee eai?oae” a i?ioean? niiaeea/iai
aeei?enoaiiy ciioo?oueny, “aii?oeco?oueny” ? iio?aao? a?aeiiaeaiiy, ia
ui, ia?o ca ana, aeo?a/a?oueny iieaoa i?aoe?, oi “aeiiii?/ia ethaeeia”
(ye iiaeaeue ethaeeie a aeiiii?oe?) aieiae?? caeaoi?noth niiaeea/iai
aeai?o, ineoieia?/iiai aea?aoo, nioe?aeueiei i?anoeaeai, ii?aeueiei
caaeiaieaiiyi, caeaoi?noth io?eioaaoe caaeiaieaiiy a?ae aeaa,
aeiiii?/iith iiaaae?ieith oa aeanieie i??i?eoaoaie.

“Ethaenueeee eai?oae” – oea eai?oae, a?ioiaee ae?ac iaeiie/aii?
cae?aiino? aei i?aoe? oa ?? i?iaeoeoeaiino?.

Iiaeaeue “aeiiii?/ii? ethaeeie” ? ae?acii iiaaae?iee ethaeeie o
noni?euenoa?, ?? ?ie? a aeiiii?oe?, ?? ?ioa?an?a, ia?aaaa.

A aeena?oaoe?? ?ice?eaa?oueny ci?no noaie ?icoe?aiiai a?aeoai?aiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa o aeaeyae? iine?aeiaii aca?iiiia’ycaieo eaioetha?a,
iia’ycoth/eo 1 i?ae?icae?e – ae?iaieoeoai cania?a ae?iaieoeoaa ? 2
i?ae?icae?e – ae?iaieoeoai cania?a niiaeeaaiiy.

Caeiaoaa/, ?icaeyaeath/e i?ioean c?inoaiiy ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo,
?ic/eaiiao? eiai ia aea? a?oie ?ooo aa?oino?: iaeia, – oea ? aeo?aoe ia
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy niiaeeoi? aa?oino? ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo, a ae?oaa, –
oea aeo?aoe ia i?e??no aa?oino? ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo.

Iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe, ui aecia/aiiy /anoee, iai?eeeaae, ca?ieaoe, yea
ni?yiiaaia ia i?aeo?eieo i?aoeacaeaoiino? ethaeeie ? /anoee, yea
ni?yiiaaia ia a?aeoai?aiiy ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo, aeoaea oo?oaeiaia.

A aeena?oaoe?? iaaaaeaii noaie ?iciiae?eo aeo?ao ye ?ia?oieea, oae ?
aea?aeaae, ye? ni?yiiaai? ia a?aeoai?aiiy ? iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy ethaenueeiai
eai?oaeo.

Caaaeaee, aeiee aoaea ?nioaaoe ethaenueea noni?euenoai, aoaea iaoe
i?noea i?iaeaia a?aeoai?aiiy ethaeeie, noie ?? i?ioan?eieo ciaiue, ??
caei?ia’y. Oeae i?ioean a oiaa?iiio noni?euenoa? aenooia? ye ?oo
eai?oaeo (ye cania?a ae?iaieoeoaa oae ? ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo) eiai
c?inoaiiy oa a?aeoai?thaaiiy.

Aaaeeeaei ? oa, uia aeaniee ?iai/i? neee, ye iniaeno?noue, iino?eii
caa??aaa noaaeaiiy aei ?iai/i? neee ye aei nai?? aeaniino?. I?aai
aieiae?iiy caeeoa?oueny o ?ia?oieea, a iieoiaoeue ?iai/i? neee ia? i?aai
eeoa oei/aniai ?inii?yaeaeaoeny ? ei?enooaaoeny iath o i?ioean?
i?iaeoeoeaiiai niiaeeaaiiy. Iiaa iiaeiia eoe, iiaeeeai, ia i?inoi i?i
eoi?aeth-i?iaeaae ?iai/i? neee, ye i?i ?ioee oiaa?, a i?i iniaeea? oiiae
?? iaeio.

Ae?enii, aeaniee ?iai/i? neee ia i?iaea? ?? acaaae?, a ye ae caea? ?? o
oei/aniaa aeei?enoaiiy, a iniaeeao i?aiaeo, a?i ia ao?a/a? aeaniino?
(ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo). ?nioth/a oi/ea ci?o ia i?e?iaeo oiaa?o “?iai/a
neea” ia caaaeaee aeicaiey? i?eeiyoe naia oaeee iiaeyae. A?i iio?aao?
iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy ? ia? ia eeoa oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy. Oaeee i?aeo?ae
aei aecia/aiiy oiaa?o “?iai/a neea” iio?aao? ia?aaeyaeo aaaaoueio
ii?iaoeaieo, i?aaiaeo aeieoiaio?a, ui aeeeeea? iaiaoiaeiinoue a?eueo
iaa?oioiaaieo oiia ?aae?caoe?? a?aeiioaiue noa’?eo?a a?aeoai?aiiy.

I?e oeueiio, iiaeyae ia i?e?iaeo ?iai/i? neee ye i?aiaeii? eaoaai??? ia
ci?ith? ?? oiaa?ieo oa?aeoa?enoee: ci?ith?oueny eeoa oa?aeoa? ?ooo,
aca?iiae?y noa’?eo?a oeeo a?aeiioaiue.

?iai/a neea ? oiaa?ii ye ca oi?iith, oae ? ca ci?noii. ?? oiaa?iee
oa?aeoa? aecia/a?oueny aeanoeainoyie, a oaeiae oa?aeoa?ii ?iaanooaaiiy.

?iai/a neea ? oiaa?ii ua e oiio, ui aiia cae?enith? ?oo a ?aieao
eai?oaeo, ae?iaie/eo oiiae?a o oiaa?i?e oi?i?, aiia i?aeii?yaeeiaaia
caeiiai ia?ao oiaa??a, caeiiai ?ooo eai?oaeo, iaoa??aeueiith aacith
yeiai ? oaoi?ei-oaoiieia?/i? oaeoi?e ae?iaieoeoaa, ia’?aeiai?
eiiia?iaaiith i?aoeath.

A i?ioean? niiaeeaaiiy ?iai/i? neee ia eeoa ?aaeicothoueny ie?ai?
noi?iie ?? ei?eniino?, aea i iiaea a?aeaoaaoeny io ca?eueoaiiy a
eiie?aoieo oiiaao ae?iaieoeoaa, ?iai/iai i?noey.

Oea aaaeeeaa iieiaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii? oai???, yea aeicaiey? ii-iiaiio
iiaeyiooe ia i?ioean a?aeoai?aiiy ?iai/i? neee a oe?eiio ? ia ?eieiaee
iaoai?ci ?ooo ?? aa?oino?, ei?eniino? ? iniaeeai a?aie/ii? ei?eniino?,
oiio ui iaaea niiaeeaaiiy, iio?aae a aeai?e eiie?aoi?e ?iai/?e nee?
i?iyaeythoueny ia eiie?aoieo ?iai/eo i?noeyo.

Ethaeeia, ye iin?e cae?aiinoae aei i?aoe?, ? aiaeii/an aeaiaioii
i?e?iaee ? aeaiaioii noni?euenoaa. A ia?oiio aeiaaeeo aiia aenooia? c?
nai?ie ineoio?c?ieiai/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. A ae?oaiio – oea “ethaeeia
aeiiii?/ia”, ?iaeoa eaaeo/e, /anoeia ?aeeii? nenoaie a?aeoai?aiiy. A
aeiiaoiueiio ainiiaea?noa? aiia – aeaiaio ?iaeeiiiai nioe?aeueiiai
eiiia?oaaiiy i?aoe?. A ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio a?aeoai?aii? — ?? oaeoi?,
aeaiaio eai?oaeo. A noni?eueiiio a?aeoai?aii? — oea aeaiaio
i?iaeoeoeaieo nee ? noni?eueiiai a?aeoai?aiiy, oiaa?.

Aoea iio??aia aeiei??iia ci?ia nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? a
aea?aeaa? aeey oiai, uia ?eieiaee oa?aeoa? a?aeoai?aiiy ?iai/i? neee
noaa i/aaeaeiei. A?aeoai?aiiy ?iai/i? neee cae?enith?oueny a
aaaaoi??/iiio i?ioean? niiaeeaaiiy aeeoo?aeo cania?a, yeee aenooia? a
oiaa?i?e oi?i? a aeiiaoiueiio ainiiaea?noa?, ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio ?
noni?eueiiio a?aeoai?aii?. ?iciiae?e cae?enith?oueny o oi?i?
i?aeaaeocaai? ? i?ae?aa?iiaeueii? i?a?aoe??.

A i?ioean? iai?io ?iai/a neea ia’?aeio?oueny ?c caniaaie ae?iaieoeoaa ?
noai?ththoueny oiiae aeey ?? i?iaeoeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy, a ?iaioiee
iaea?aeo? ca?ia?oio ieaoo a?ioiaei aea?aaeaioii aa?oino? oiiaeo
aeeoo?aeo cania?a. A i?ioean? niiaeeaaiiy ?iai/i? neee cae?enith?oueny
a?aeoai?aiiy aea?aaeaioo ?? niiaeeoi? aa?oino?, iaiao?aeiee ?
aeiaeaoeiaee i?iaeoeo – noai?th?oueny ony noeoii?noue niiaeea/eo
aa?oinoae: iaoa??aeueieo aeaa oa iineoa, iaiao?aeieo noni?euenoao. Oiio
?iai/?e nee? iaeaaeeoue aaaeeeaa ?ieue a oi?ioaaii? eiie?aoieo ?en
ae?iaieoeoaa.

?acii c oei a Oe?a?i? aei oeueiai /ano cae?enith?oueny i?ioean i?inoiai
a?aeoai?aiiy ?iai/i? neee, a?i oneeaaeith?oueny iecueeith /anoeith
oiiaeo ca?ia?oii? ieaoe a iaoe?iiaeueiiio aeioiae?. Noaany a?ae?ea
ca?ia?oii? ieaoe a?ae aeiia caeiio a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy aeo?ao ?iai/i? neee ?
i?iaeeoeiaiai i?i?ioio.

A noni?euenoa? iiaeiai aiaeaooeny ia?ao?ae a?ae “oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii”
aei “oi?aae?iiy ethaenueeei eai?oaeii”, ui iaaiei /eiii aieeia ia
nenoaio a?aeoai?aiiy ?iai/i? neee i?aei?e?inoaa. A oeaio?? oaaae
noni?euenoaa iiaeiia aooe ethaeeia c ?? ioa?anaie, iio?aaaie ?
iiaeeeainoyie. Eeoa a oiiaao aiaaiaiino? a “ianooiiiio aei?” ?ia?oiee
ciiaea ?icaeiooe na?e oai?/ee iioaioe?ae. Aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy
oi?? /e ?ioi? oi?ie aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?eieo ?iai/i? neee
iaoiiaeaia ?? cia/aiiyi a noni?eueiiio ? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio a?aeoai?aii?
ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo, eiie?aoiei ci?noii, ia?aiao?aie ooieoeiiioaaiiy a
/an? ? i?inoi??, iiaeeeainoyie oaeaeeiai ?aaaoaaiiy ia iio?aae
ae?iaieoeoaa.

A aeena?oaoei? ?icaeyiooi o?e iaoiaee ioe?iee aa?oino? ethaenueeiai
eai?oaeo:

 ca aeiiiiiaith cai?uaiiy ?ia?oiee?a, ye? aeaoee, aa?o?noth iniiaieo
ae?iaie/eo oiiae?a;

 ia i?aenoaa? aeei?enoaiiy ii?iaoeaiiai eiao?oe??ioo aoaeoeaiino?
eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue;

 ca iaoiaeii eaeueeoeyoe?? aeo?ao ia a?aeoai?aiiy ?iai/i? neee.

sseui ii??aiyoe e?euee?noue ethaeae, ui aeaoee ?c n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie c 1960?. aei 1988?., a oea 2076 oen. /ieia?e, c
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiyi ?o iniiaieie oiiaeaie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
i?ecia/aiiy a noi? 55 ie?ae. ea?aiaaioe?a, oi a?ioiaa ioe?iea ?ia?oieea
– iaeeieoey ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo, aoaea neeaaeaoe 26,5 oen. e?a., ui ?
aea?aaeaioii iaeiie/aiiy na?aaeiuei??/ii? ca?ieaoe ?ia?oieea ia i?ioyc?
21,3 ?ieo.

Oaeee aea ?acoeueoao aea? ?ic?aooiie ca aeiiiiiaith ii?iaoeaiiai
eiao?oe??ioo aoaeoeaiino?, ca oiiaith, ui Ai = 0,05 (20 ?ie?a), a ia
0,12 (8 ?ie?a).

I?e aeei?enoaii? iaoiaea eaeueeoeyoe?? ??/ia aa?o?noue ?iai/i? neee
aecia/a?oueny aeo?aoaie na?aaeiueinoaoenoe/ii? ethaeeie ia oa?/oaaiiy,
iaeya, acoooy, oo?eiaiiy aeeoea, o?ainii?oi? aeo?aoe, eoeueoo?i? oa
aeooiai? iio?aae, a oaeiae aeo?aoaie ia oo?eiaiiy ? aeoiaaiiy ae?oae, a
oiio /ene? ? ia ioi?iio ?o caei?ia’y oa ina?oo. A aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo??
noia oeeo aeo?ao aecia/aia a ?ici??? 302,4 a?i. ia i?nyoeue.
Aeeoa?aioe?th?ii aeo?aoe ca ia??iaeaie a?eo:

aei 5 ?ie?a – 25%, /e 907 a?i. ia ??e;

a?ae 5 aei 12 ?ie?a – 50%, /e 1815 a?i. ia ??e;

a?ae 12 aei 15 ?ie?a – 80%, /e 2903 a?i. ia ??e;

a?ae15 aei 20 ?ie?a – 100%, /e 3629 a?i. ia ??e.

Ca?aene na?aaei?, ui??/ii aaainiaai? ia i?ioyc? 20 ?ie?a aeo?aoe, ia
oi?ioaaiiy ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo neeaaeathoue 2204 a?eai? (1997 ??e).
Aa?o?noue ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo ?iaeea?aeo a a?oe? 20 ?ie?a c
na?aaeiueith ina?oith aecia/a?oueny c o?aooaaiiyi aeeneiiooaaiiy ye

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?`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy©yyy ??)?? ???&?
?MathType??a????uthY?????

Aeey in?a, ye? ia iathoue na?aaeiuei? ina?oe – 56863 a?i., a aeey
niaoe?ae?noa c aeuith ina?oith – 88578 a?i.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeae?eai? 10 ae?iaie/eo oei?a ainiiaea?noa, ye?
i?eoaiaii? E?eio: aeiia?aaea?nueei-aeii?iaiee; ao??i-ie?eiee;
naaeiai-aeiia?aaea?nueeee; ?eniai-oaa?eiieoeueeee; iai/a-neioa?nueeee;
ca?ii-neioa?nueeee; ioao?aie/ee; iai/a-ca?iiaee; naae?aie/ee; oaiee/iee
eiia?iao.

Aeey eiaeiiai c ieo aecia/aii no?oeoo?o eaae??a ? ia oe?e i?aenoaa?
?ic?aoiaaii aaee/eio ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo, i?eoaiaiiiai o?e /e ?io?e
nenoai? ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Aeiiii?/ia ?ieue ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo a ?icaeoeo
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa E?eio” iaaaaeaia aeiiii?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea
?aa?iio, neeaaeo eiai o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a oa ioe?iea ethaenueeiai
eai?oaeo, iieacai? oaiaeaioe?? a ci?iao no?oeoo?e ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo
ca 1990-1997 ?iee, aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? a?aeoai?aiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy
ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo AIE E?eio.

Nioe?aeueia eaoano?ioa Oe?a?ie oa ?? /anoee – E?eio, yea noaea
?acoeueoaoii iaaaeaei? aeiiii?/ii? ?aoi?ie, i?eaaea aei ??ceiai niaaeo
ae?iaieoeoaa. Cai?noue 922,5 oen. /ie. a 1990 ?ioe?, a 1997 ?ioe?
caeeoeeinue caeiyoeie a aaeocyo ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa E?eio eeoa
476,8 oen. /ie., aai 51,7%, a oiio /ene? a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? –
69,8%. *enei niaoe?ae?no?a, caeiyoeo o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?,
nei?ioeeiny ia 24%. Ca inoaii? 6 ?ie?a a no?oeoo?? ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo
E?eio a?aeaoeeny na?eici? ci?ie: na?aae caeiyoiai ianaeaiiy c?inei /enei
in?a c aeuith ina?oith c 21,3% aei 28%, c na?aaeiueith niaoe?aeueiith
ina?oith — c 32,5% aei 33,1%, nei?ioeeiny /enei caeiyoeo c ii/aoeiaith ?
na?aaeiueith ina?oith.

A aeena?oaoei? i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oiiaeo
ca?ia?oii? ieaoe ? ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo noaiii ca 1997 ?ie (oaae.1).
Aiii iieacaei, ui ieoiia aaaa ca?ieaoe a ethaenueeiio eai?oae? neeaaea?
iaio i?ae 1%, a a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? – 0,62%. Oea icia/a?, ui
ca?ieaoa, yeo io?eiothoue ?ia?oieee o 7-8 ?ac?a iaioa oiai ??aiy, yeee
aeicaieea ae a?aeiiaeoe neee, caei?ia’y, i?aoeacaeaoi?noue naieo
?ia?oiee?a ? /eai?a ?o ?iaeeie.

Aeaeieai? iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo
AIE E?eio. Oae i?aoey ?ia?oiee?a n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa iia’ycaia ia
eeoa c noni?eueiei ae?iaieoeoaii, a ? c iniaenoei ainiiaea?noaii, /anoea
yeiai c?inea ?acii c nei?i/aiiyi noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Cie?aia,
/anoea iniaenoiai naeoi?a o ae?iaieoeoa? iieiea, i’yna, y?oeue neeaaea?
aea? o?aoeie anueiai ianyao.

Oaaeeoey 1

Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iieaoe i?aoe? ? ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo a AIE E?eio, 1997
??e

Aaeoci AIEAa?oinoue ethae- nueeiai eaiioa-eo, iei a?i.Oiiae iieaoe
i?aoe?,oen.a?i.Ieoiia aaaa oii-aeo iieaoe i?aoe? a ethaenueeiio
eaii-oaei, %Eieueeinoue ?ieia, ia-iaoiaeieo aeey aiaeoai-?aiiy
ethaenueeiai ea-iioaeo i?e inio-th/iio OIINieuenueea
ainiiaea?noai316919743,90,62161Oa?/iaa
i?iieneiainoue177419523,61,188Ioeiiaeueii-e?oi’yia ? eiiaiei?iiaa
i?iieneiainoue

212

2186,4

1,08

92Anueiai ii AIE514541453,90,8124

A no?oeoo?? ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa E?eio
??aaiue niaoe?ae?no?a c na?aaeiueith ? aeuith ina?oith ieae/ee, i?ae o
i?iieneiaino?. Cia/ii ieae/a ? iieaoa i?aoe?, ?? ieoiia aaaa a
ethaenueeiio eai?oae?, iecueea eai?oaeia?aeaea/a, aai aeo?ae aaeiai?
i?iaeoeoe?? ia iaeeieoeth ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo.

Ia? i?noea cia/ia aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo ii
ainiiaea?noaao ??cieo ae?iaie/eo oei?a. A 1990 ?ioe? aeo?ae aaeiai?
i?iaeoeoe?? ia iaeeieoeth ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo ii ?aeiiai E?eio cia/ii
a?ae??ciyany, oi/ aeo?ae i?eaooeo aoa i?eaeecii iaeiaeiaee (eiao?oe??io
0,05-0,07). Aeeaaeaiiy ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo ia 1 aa oiiaii? ?ieei iaa
eieeaaiiy a?ae 3,88 oen. e?a. aei 34,3 oen. e?a., a aaee/eia i?eaooeo c
1 aa – a?ae 193 aei 1884 ea?aiaaioe?a (oaae.2).

Caneoaiao? oaaae aca?iica’ycie i?ae aeeaaeaiiyi ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo ?
io?eiaiiyi i?eaooeo c 1 aa caie?: iano i?eaooeo, iaea?aeaio c 1 aa caie?
(o) iiaeeeai a?aeia?aceoe ??aiyiiyi:

o=1,097297+49,459459o, aea
(2)

o — iana aeeaaeaiue ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo a 1 aa caie? (eiao?oe??io
ei?aeyoe?? oeueiai ??aiyiiy aenieee: R=0,897).

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “?aca?ae a?aeoai?aiiy ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo a
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? E?eio” ?ice?eaathoueny iniaeeaino? oi?aae?iiy
i?ioeanii a?aeoai?aiiy ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao, i?iaeaie noeioethaaiiy aoaeoeaii? i?aoe? a ?ioa?anao
?icaeoeo ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo, iaiao?aei?noue iineeaiiy ?ie? i?ioni?eie
a ni?aa? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ?ia?oiee?a naea.

Iniaeeaino? oi?aae?iiy ethaenueeei eai?oaeii a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao iaoiiaeai? ia?o ca ana eiai niaoeeo?eith. Ethaenueeee
eai?oae iaa?aeae?eueiee a?ae naiai iin?y – ethaeeie, ceeoee c
ethaenueeith iniaith, c ?? oaeaioii, cae?aiinoyie, ina?oith,
eaae?o?eaoe??th, caei?ia’yi, aeeth/a? a naaa noio ciaiue i?i caieth,
?ineeie, oaa?ei oa oaoiieia?? ?o ae?iuoaaiiy. Ethaenueeee eai?oae
iaeiaio e?ea?aeiee o ii??aiyi? c ?ioeie oi?iaie eai?oaeo ? ia? aeiaaee
?iaanoeoe?eiee ia??iae.

Oaaeeoey 2

Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeeaaeaiue ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo, aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ?
i?eaooeo, io?eiaieo c 1 aa oiiaii? ?ieei ii n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
?aeiiao E?eio, 1990 ??e

?aeiie E?eioAeeaaeaiiy ethaenue-eiai eaiioaeo ia 1 aa oiiaii? ?iee?,
oen. e?a.Aeoiae aaeiai? i?i-aeoeoei? c 1 aa oiia-ii? ?iee?, e?a.Io?eiaii
i?eaooeo c 1 aa oiiaii? ?iee?,
e?a.Aao/ena?aenueeee34,3043641884Aieiai?nueeee7,821029420Aeaeaieienueeee
6,491120299Ei?ianueeee8,701352405E?aniiaaa?aeienueeee11,281754559E?aniii
a?aeiinueeee5,18946367Eaiiinueeee4,49626207Iiaei?ai?nueneee8,21993513Ia?
aiiaenueeee3,88749193?acaeieueiainueeee4,32916286Naenueeee5,351137331Nii
oa?iiieuenueeee13,002490850Niaaonueeee5,921106313*i?iiii?nueeee4,7796827
3

A iniia? oi?aae?iiy ethaenueeei eai?oaeii eaaeeoue ?iciiae?e i?ioan?eii?
i?aeaioiaee ia caaaeueio ? niaoe?aeueio ina?oo. Aeo?aoe ia niaoe?aeueio
i?aeaioiaeo iiaeiia ianoe aaeocue n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, o ye?e
caeiyoee, aai aoaea caeiyoee ?ia?oiee, a oaeiae n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?
i?aei?e?inoaa, ai a?aeaea/o a?ae oaeiai aeaeo i?aeaioiaee o aeaeyae?
aeiaeaoeiaiai i?eaooeo io?eia? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea i?aei?e?inoai.
Aenieieaae?o?eiaai? ?ia?oieee – oea yae?i n?eueainii?aei?e?inoaa, eiai
niaoeeo?/iee eai?oae, oiio a oeth a?oio ?ia?oiee?a iaeaaeeoue aeeaaeaoe
eiooe, i?aeaeuoth/e ?o eaae?o?eaoe?th. Caaaeueiee ethaenueeee eai?oae
?ia?oiee?a – oea oaeiae iino?ei? ?ia?oieee, aea aeiiiiiaei?, ia
eaae?o?eiaai?, aai ae oei/ania? ?ia?oieee. Caaaeueio e?euee?noue
caeiyoeo ia i?aei?e?inoa? ?aoe?iiaeueii iioei?coaaoe ca ?aooiie
caaaeueiiai eai?oaeo.

Aaaeeeaei aniaeoii oai??? ? ?ic?iaea i?eioeei?a ioe?iee ethaenueeiai
eai?oaeo i?aei?e?inoaa (oaae.3).

Iniiaiith iaoith no?aoaa?? oi?aae?iiy ethaenueeei eai?oaeii
i?aei?e?inoaa ? eiai iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy oeyoii i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy ?
ioi?iie caei?ia’y, ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ae?iaie/iai aeei?enoaiiy ?
iioei?caoe?? i?ioeano ?iaanooaaiiy a oeae eai?oae.

Oaaeeoey 3.

?aeiiaiaeiaaii i?eioeeie ioe?iee ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo i?aei?e?inoa AIE

A?oie i?eioeeiiaI?eioeeie ioeiieeCaniiaaii ia oyaeaiiyo
i?aoeaaeaaoeyEi?eniinoi

I/?eoaaiiy aeeaaeo o ae?iaieoeoaiIaeaieueo aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy
ethaenueeiai eaiioaeoA?aie/ii? ei?eniinoi

C?inoath/i? ei?eniinoi aeei?enoaiiy iiaanoeoeie a ethaenueeee eaiioae

Caaeainiaaiino? no?oeoo?e eaae?iaIia’ycaii c ?eieiaei
na?aaeiaeuaiAiaeiiaiaeiinoi iiieoo i i?iiiceoe?? 

Eiieo?aioicaeaoiino? ?iaioieeaA aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaai? aaceni?
eiiiaoaioe??, ?ice?eoi ooieoe?iiaeuei? oe?e? oi?aae?iiy ethaenueeei
eai?oaeii, i?ioean i?aeai?o eaae??a, ?o i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy, iai?yie
nenoaie noeioethaaiiy.

Ne?ae o?aoiaoaaoe oie oaeo, ui ea??aieee n?eueainii?aei?e?inoa ua ia
?icoi?thoue eaoaai??? “ethaenueeee eai?oae”, ai ia aiie oiiainoaaee
i?aeaioiaeo niaoe?ae?no?a ? eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a. Oea ?iaeeinue
noni?euenoaii ?ai?oa, o ia??iae aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? aeiiii?ee.
No/aniiio i?aei?e?ioeth ia c?icoi?ei oa, ui ia ethaeeio, ye ia
niaoe?ae?noa, i?ioan?iiaea aeo?a/aii 30-50 oen. aeiea??a ? ui oiio ??
ne?ae aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?aoe?iiaeueii. A?i ia ?iaea aiane?a i?aei?e?inoaa
/e nai?o iniaenoeo (e?ii noeiaiae?e, ye? ie?ai? ainiiaea?noaa niea/oaaee
nai?i nooaeaioai). Ca?ac, a ia??iae oiaaeeo aeiiii?ee, aeiee
iaaeei?enoaiee ?aca?a niaoe?ae?no?a ? eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a
(aac?ia?oieo), ca?aeee noaei iiaeeeaei caeo/aoe eaae?e, cae?enithaaoe
cai?io ?ia?oiee?a aac aeo?ao ia iaa/aiiy, ia ?o i?aeaioiaeo, oei a?eueo,
ui ainiiaea?noai a oiiaao o?iainiai? ne?ooe ia ia? iiaeeeaino?
cae?enithaaoe ?iaanoeoe?? a oeae aaaeeeaee iai?yiie.

I?ae i?aoeaaeaaoeai ? ?ia?oieeii a iiaeo oiiaao anoaiiaeth?oueny
iniaeeaee aei?noeee ?aaeei a?aeiinei. Cie?aia, nei?i/othoueny aeo?aoe ia
ioi?iio i?aoe? ? oaoi?eo aaciaee, ia cae?enith?oueny ?aaoey?ia ? a
iiaiiio ianyc? aeieaoa ca?ia?oii? ieaoe, yea a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao aei
oiai ae i?eeia? oi?io iaoo?aeueieo aeaea/ i?iaeoeoe??th.

I?aoeaaeaaaoeue anoia?a/ caeiiai eia?ee ?aea ia ca?eueiaiiy iac?o/ieo
eiio, aea aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a. A oeeo oiiaao aeo?aoe ia
iiaeaeuaiiy i?ioan?eii? eiiiaoaioe??, a oaeiae ia caa?aaeaiiy caei?ia’y
?ia?oiee?a aai ia ?iaeyoueny, aai ?o ?iaeyoue eeoa aeey ie?aieo
i?aoeiaieeia.

Ne?ae i?aee?aneeoe, ui i?aoeaaeaaaoeue ia caaaeaee aeio?eio?oueny
ni?aaaaeeeaino? a ?iciiae?e? aaeiaiai aeioiaeo ia niiaeeaaiiy ?
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy, i?ae?eaath/e iniiae a?aeoai?aiiy ?iai/i? neee.

?acii c oei iaiao?aeii i?aee?aneeoe, ui oe? aeo?aoe iathoue oa?i?iiaee
oa?aeoa?, aaeaea i?eioeeie oi?aae?iiy ethaenueeei eai?oaeii ia’?eoeai?,
?o iaiao?aeii aeio?eioaaoeny aeey oiai, uia caaacia/eoe iaeaooi? ye
i?aei?e?inoao, oae ? noni?euenoao a oe?eiio.

Neooaoe?y oneeaaeieeanue oei, ui iineoae a oaeeo aeeoo?aiaaaeeeaeo
aaeocyo ye ioi?iia caei?ia’y oa ina?oa, ia?anoaee aooe aeinooiieie
aaaaoueii aa?noai ianaeaiiy E?eio, ai ianoa/a athaeaeaoieo eioo?a
i?ecaaea aei oe?ieiai ?icaeoeo ieaoieo iineoa a oeeo nenoaiao.

Oea, a naith /a?ao, noaaeoue noni?euenoai ia?aae iaiao?aei?noth c?iaeoe
naia ca?ia?oio ieaoo iniiaiei ooiaeaiaioii a?aeoai?aiiy ethaenueeiai
eai?oaeo.

Ia aeaeue, i?aoeaaeaaoe?, a neeo neaaeino? o?iainiaiai iieiaeaiiy
i?aei?e?inoa ? i?aai?caoe?e, ia ca?eueoothoue iieaoo i?aoe? ?ia?oiee?a,
a eiaeiee /a?aiaee aeoie ?ioeyoei? ciaoe?ith? ?nioth/o ca?ieaoo,
i?aeaeuo? oe?ie ? ciia a?aeeeaea? aeeoo?aee ??aaiue ianaeaiiy aei ua
a?eueo iecueeiai ?iaiy. Oaeei /eiii, a?aeaoaathoueny i?ioeane, ui
i?ae?eaathoue iniiae noai?aiiy ? ?icaeoeo ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo E?eio.

Aca?iica’ycie i?ae ?ici??ii oiiaeo niiaeeaaiiy, yeee i?eiaaea? ia
iaeiiai iaoeaioey E?eio (o) ? eiao?oe??ioii i?e?inoo ianaeaiiy (o) ia
1000 iaoeaioe?a aaoiiii??, iiaeia a?aeia?aceoe ??aiyiiyi:

o = 0,007784437o — 10,7892
(3)

sseui ia 1 ethaeeio a i?nyoeue aoaea i?eiaaeaoe aea?aaeaio 115 aeiea??a
c oiiaeo niiaeeaaiiy (oiiae ca?ieaoe, iain??, i?eueae, ??ci? aeaeaoee,
ioi?iia caei?ia’y, ina?oa oa ?ioa), aoaea cae?enithaaoeny i?inoa
a?aeoai?aiiy ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo. Ca?ac oey aaee/eia aea?aaeaioia 78,5
aeiea??a, ui na?ae/eoue i?i a?aenooi?noue aeiiii?/ieo oiia iaaioue aeey
i?inoiai a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy ? ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo E?eio.

Ianaeaiiy ana a?eueo ? a?eueo iiaeiii naiino?eii niea/oaaoe iaaee/i?
iineoae, caeoieyoe e?ee, niea/oaaoe c iniaenoeo eioo?a oa?/oaaiiy o
e?ea?iyo, a oaeiae ca ieaoo io?eioaaoe iineoae a noa?? ina?oe oa ?ioa, a
oie /an ye athaeaeaoi? aneaioaaiiy ia oe? oe?e? ciaioothoueny. Naia oiio
/anoea oiiaeo iieaoe i?aoe? o oiiae? niiaeeaaiiy iiaeiia c?inoaoe ? o
2001 ?ioe? neeanoe 65-70% (a ii??aiyii? c 44% o 1990 ?ioe?).

Oaeei /eiii, naia ca?ia?oia ieaoa iiaeiia noaoe aieiaiei aeaea?aeii
a?aeoai?aiiy ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo.

A oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee ua ia ?nio? a iiai?e i???
ooieoe?iioth/iai ?eieo i?aoe? ye ?aaoeyoi?a oe?ie ?iai/i? neee. Oeae
?eiie ciaoiaeeoueny o ca?iaeeiaiio noai? ? eiai ?icaeoie no?eio?oueny
?yaeii ia’?eoeaieo oaeoi??a, oaeeo, ye iecueea iia?euei?noue o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a (iai?eeeaae, ua a?aenooi?e ?icaeiaiee ?eiie aeeoea, iecueea
ieaoini?iiiaei?noue ianaeaiiy) oa ?ioa. ?acii c oei, i?a?aoe?y o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a aeineoue ?icaeiooa ? ia? no?eeo oaiaeaioe?th aei ciaioaiiy
/enaeueiino? ?ia?oiee?a a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noai, na?aae i?e/ei yei?
aeineoue iiaaaeiith ? iacaaeiaieai?noue iecueeei ??aiai iieaoe i?aoe?.

Iaeiei c aieiaieo iai?yie?a ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie aeinyaiaiiy noni?eueii
iaiao?aeiiai ??aiy iieaoe i?aoe? a aa?a?iiio ae?iaieoeoa? ? iiaeieaiiy
aeiiii?/ii? aeene?ei?iaoe?? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa a
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiio eiiieaen? aea?aeaae, a no?oeoo?? noni?eueiiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Oea, a naith /a?ao, iiaea aooe aeinyaiooi
(ye ia?oa nooi?iue) oeyoii anoaiiaeaiiy aea?aaeaioiino? iai?io ia
i?aenoaa? ia?eoaoo oe?i ia an? aeaee i?iaeoeoe??, aeeth/ath/e
i?iaeoeoe?th n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, iai?eeeaae, /a?ac aa?a?io
ai?aeo. Oea icia/a?, ui eeoa /a?ac aa?a?iee ?eiie iiaeiai aooe
?aae?ciaaiei oaanue ae?iaeaiee ia nae? i?iaeoeo a eiai iiai?e ioe?ioe?,
ui iiaeeeaa eeoa a oiiaao ?eieiaiai oe?iiooai?thaaiiy. Eeoa a oaeeo
oiiaao aeey aa?a?iiai i?aei?e?inoaa noa? ?aaeueii io?eiaoe oaeee aaeiaee
aeioiae, yeee aeicaieea ae caaacia/eoe iieaoo i?aoe? ia ??ai? ?eieiai?
oe?ie ?iai/i? neee.

A?aoiaoth/e iniaeeaino? iieaoe i?aoe? n?eueaini?ia?oiee?a a ia?ao?aeiee
ia??iae aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee i?iiiio?oueny ea?aeeiaeueii ci?ieoe ?? o
2000-2001 ?ieao, aeeth/eaoe aei ia? /anoeio o?iainiaeo eioo?a, ye?
?ia?oiee nueiaiaei? iiaeiai iai?aaeoe ia iieaoo iineoa o aeeoo?ai
aaaeeeaeo noa?ao: ioi?iio caei?ia’y, ina?oo, a oaeiae i?ecia/aieo aeey
oiai, uia ae??aiyoe ca?ia?oio ieaoo o oe?e i??i?eoaoi?e noa??, yea
caaacia/o? inioaaiiy an?o /eai?a noni?euenoaa (oaae.4).

A ?acoeueoao? ci?ieoueny ? na?aaei?e ??aaiue iieaoe i?aoe? ?ia?oiee?a
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa. sseui a 1995 ?ioe? na?aaeiueii?ny/ia
ca?ieaoa a eieaeoeaieo n?eueainii?aei?e?inoaao neeaaeaea 26,9 a?i., a
1996 ?ioe? — 62,3 a?i., oi o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ?aeiiaiaeiaaiei i?iaeoii
i?iiiio?oueny ?? aeiaanoe aei 130 a?i., a a 2001 ?ioe? — aei 260 a?i. (a
oe?iao 1998 ?), aai o aeiea?iaiio ia/enethaaii? oea noaiiaeoeia 74,3 o
2001 ?ioe? i?ioe 31,1 o 1996 ?ioe?.

?aae?caoe?y oe??? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c o?aooaaiiyi athaeaeaoiiai
o?iainoaaiiy /anoee aeo?ao ia ioi?iio caei?ia’y ? ina?oo aeanoue
iiaeeea?noue aeeoe a ?ic?aooieo ia aeooo ianaeaiiy aei 47 aeiea??a (a
oe?iao 1998 ?. — 163 a?i.). Ca?eueoaiiy iieaoe i?aoe? ?ia?oiee?a
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa a 3-4 ?ace ? ia’?eoeaiith iaiao?aei?noth ?
a?ae?a?a? iiceoeaio ?ieue a i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa, a?aeiiaeaii?
aeenoeeie?ie i?aoe? oa ii?yaeeo a ainiiaea?noaao, ui a naith /a?ao
i?eaaaea aei caaacia/aiiy a?aeoai?aiiy ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo aaeoc?.

Oaaeeoey 4

I?iaeo iieaoe i?aoe? oa nia?aa?oino? i?iaeoeoe?? a ainiiaea?noaao E?eio,

a?i., oe (a oe?iao 1998 ?ieo)

Aeaee i?iaeoeoe??

1998 ??e

2000 ??e

2001 ??eC?inoaiiy ii-

eaoe i?aoe? a 2001?. aei 1998?., %*anoea iieaoe i?aoe? a nia?aa-

?oino?, %nia?aa?o?nouea o./.

iieaoa

i?aoe?nia?aa?o?nouea o./.

iieaoa

i?aoe?nia?aa?o?nouea o./.

iieaoa

i?aoe?1998

??e2001

??eCa?ii121,516320640012,530,0Iai/?1883616442430044,454,5O?oeoe165221028
1530031,353,6Aeiia?aae1462112281830042,864,3Iyni aaeeei?

?iaaoi? ooaeiae

60

9

73

22

91

36

400

15,0

39,6Iieiei20103715624040050,064,5sseoey, ca
10oo.10,151,40,51,60,640015,037,5A ia??iae, eiee caii/aoeiao?oueny
i?aei?e?iieoeoai ? ia? i?noea iineaaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai eiio?ieth ca
ae?yeuei?noth i?aei?e?inoa, iniaeeai iai/ii aeyaey?oueny ae?y oai???
“iiaii? oa ooa/?” Eea?ea Ea??a, o a?aeiia?aeiino? c yeith i?aei?e?ioe?,
c iaeiiai aieo, i?aaiooue ca?eueoeoe i?eaooie oe?iith ciaioaiiy
ca?ieaoe, i?aeaeuaiiy oe?i ia oiaa?e, ye? ae?iaeythoueny, a ?ia?oieee, c
ae?oaiai aieo, ciooai? ai?ioeny ca ca?eueoaiiy ca?ia?oii? ieaoe
(a?ioiaii, iii?iaeueii?) a ?acoeueoao? /iai oaeoe/ii ?iaeyoue caiao ia
/anoeo iaea?aeaiiai i?aoeaaeaaoeai i?eaooeo. Oaeei /eiii, i?aoeth ?
a?cian iiaeeeai ?icaeyaeaoe ye oae?, ui caeiyo? ciaaaiiyi – “iiaiiath oa
ooa/ath”.

A oeae neeaaeiee a ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae ia??iae naia i?ioni?eee – iania?
ia’?aeiaiiy o?oae?aiee?a iiaeii? i/ieeoe ai?ioueao ca iie?ioaiiy yeino?
aeeooy a?eueoino? i?aoethth/iai ianaeaiiy oeyoii a?aenoithaaiiy
iaiao?aeieo ??aiia iieaoe i?aoe? ? ?? oiia ia ae?iaieoeoa?. A Oe?a?ii,
ye i a iioeo aea?aeaaao, iiaeiia aooe ?aaeiciaaiith iaeay o?eia?oecio.
Na?oiaa i?aeoeea iaaoea iaaiee aeina?ae oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
i?ioni?eeiaiai ?ooo c iaoith caoenoo aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a o?oae?aiee?a.

A aeena?oaoe?? aiae?co?oueny ?ieue i?ioni?eeiaiai ?ooo ?icaeiooeo
aea?aeaa, ?iaeyoueny aeniiaee c eiai aeiiii?/iiai cia/aiiy,
aiae?co?oueny ?ieue i?ioni?eie Oe?a?ie a iaa?iiaaeaeaii? ? aeei?enoaii?
ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo. Oae i?ioni?eee Oe?a?ie, ia?aaoaath/e a
eiino?oeoeai?e iiiceoe?? aei no?oeoo? aeaaee, noeioeththoue ia?eaiaio,
o?yae ? i?aceaeaioa i?eeiaoe caeiie, iinoaiiae ? oeace, ye? ni?yiiaai?
ia cae?eniaiiy a?eueo aoaeoeaieo aeiiii?/ieo caoiae?a, aiie aiinyoue
nai? i?iiiceoe?? aei I?ia?aie no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae aeiiii?ee ?, oaeei
/eiii, cae?eniththoue aieea ia iaai? i?ioeane ia iae?iaeiiii?/iiio
??ai?. Aoaeo/e iaei??th c noi??i (i?eoiio aeoaea aeoeaiith) a ia??iae
i?aeaioiaee ? oeeaaeaiiy Aaia?aeueii? oaiaee, i?ioni?eee aeiaeaathoueny
a?ae Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a iaaieo ciaia’ycaiue, iio?i nai?ie aeoeaieie
ae?yie ciooothoue eiai oe? ciaia’ycaiiy aeeiioaaoe, oaeei /eiii
ni?aaeythoue iiceoeaiee aieea ia ae??oaiiy ie?aieo ( o noa?? ?o
eiiiaoaioe??) aeiiii?/ieo ieoaiue ia aea?aeaaiiio ??ai?.

?acii c oei, i?ioni?eeai Oe?a?ie ua ia aaeaeiny aeinyaoe aeeaieiai
aieeao ia aeiiii?/ia ? nioe?aeueia aeeooy, aeaye? i?ioi?aaie ua ia noaee
i?aai?caoi?aie o?oaeyueo ia ai?ioueao ca nai? i?aaa, a /eaie i?ioni?eie
/anoi caeiathoue ianeaio iiceoe?th.

AENIIAEE

Ia caaa?oaiiy aeena?oaoe?? caeiaoaa/ noi?ioethaaa iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
?iaioe o aeaeyae? aeniiae?a ? i?iiiceoe?e.

1. Eaoaai??y “ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo” yaey? niaith aa?o?niee ae?ac
iaa?iiaaeaeaii? ethaeeiith cae?aiino? aei i?aoe?, i?iaeoeoeaiino?
i?aoe?. Aa?o?noue ?iai/i? neee, ye ??/i? aeo?aoe ia i?inoa a?aeoai?aiiy
(“aii?oecaoe?th”) ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo ? iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy o aeaeyae?
??/ieo aeo?ao ia eiai ca?eueoaiiy, iiaeiia noaiiaeoe ia iaio ye 4-5%
an??? noie ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo.

2. Aiae?c no?oeoo?e ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo E?eio, yeee a 1997 ?ioe?
neeaaeaa 40 ie?ae a?i., i?aeoaa?aeea, ui iaea?eueoa /anoea eiai
cina?aaeaeaia o i?iieneiaino? – 19,3%, oa a aa?ii?iieneiaiio eiiieaen? –
15,4 a?aenioee.

Ieoiia aaaa ca?ia?oii? ieaoe a 1997 ?ioe? neeaea o na?aaeiueiio 1%, a a
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? – 0,6% a?ae aa?oino? ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo.
Oea icia/a?, ui i?e caa?aaeaii? ?nioth/iai ??aiy ca?ia?oii? ieaoe aeey
eiai a?aeoai?aiiy iio?iaii 100-150 ?ie?a.

3. Aeeaaeaiiy ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo a ??cieo ?aeiiao E?eio iathoue
cia/i? eieeaaiiy. Oae o aeiia?aaea?nueei-naae?aie/iio Aao/ena?aenueeiio
?aeii? aiie a ?ic?aooieo ia 1 aa oiiaii? ??ee? cia/ii a?eueo?, i?ae a
Ia?aiiaenueeiio oa ?acaeieueiainueeiio ?aeiiao, ui iicia/eeinue
a?aeiia?aeii ia aeoiae? aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ? i?eaooeo ia iaeeieoeth
ieiu?.

4. ?ic?aooiie aa?oino? ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo i?aeoaa?aeea, ui a?i
a?ae??ciy?oueny a ainiiaea?noaao ??cieo ae?iaie/eo oei?a. Iaea?eueoa
aa?o?noue ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo a ?ic?aooieo ia 100 i?aoethth/eo
cina?aaeaeaia o ioao?aie/eo ainiiaea?noaao, a iai/aai-neioa?nueeiio oeio
i?eoaiaiiee iaeiaioee ??aaiue.

5. Iniiaiei aaaeaeai oi?ioaaiiy ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo ? noai?a
aeiaea?aeaiiy i?iii?oe?e i?ae oiiaeii niiaeeaaiiy oa oiiaeii
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii aca?iica’ycie i?ae ?ici??ii oiiaeo
niiaeeaaiiy a ?ic?aooieo ia 1 iaoeaioey E?eio ? i?e?inoii ianaeaiiy, a
oaeiae oa, ui ??aaiue ca?ieaoe ia a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai a?aeoai?aiiy
ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo, ui iio?aao? a?ae i?aoeaaeaaoe?a c?inoaiiy oaii?a
iieaoe i?aoe? a ca’yceo ?c ci?iaie ia’?eoeaieo oiia aeeooy.

6. Aiae?c ??aiy ca?ia?oii? ieaoe a 1997 ?ioe? iieaco?, ui aiia a
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? aoea a 2 ?ace ieae/a, i?ae a
i?iieneiaino?, a 2,5 — i?ae ia o?ainii?o? ? a 1,5 -3 ?ace, i?ae a
?ioeo aaeocyo.

Iecueeee ??aaiue iieaoe i?aoe? a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? aaaea aei
cieaeaiiy aa?oino? aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe??: anueiai 6 a?i. ia 100 a?i.
ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo, o oie /an, eiee, iai?eeeaae, a oa?/ia?e
i?iieneiaino? aeo?ae aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? aoa 23 a?i. ia 100 a?i.
ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo.

Iaa?oioiaaii i?iaeo ca?eueoaiiy iieaoe i?aoe? ?ia?oiee?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa, ni?yiiaaiee ia oa, uia a 2001
?ioe? aeiaanoe /anoeo iieaoe i?aoe? a nia?aa?oino? aei 30-65%.

7. ?aeiiaiaeiaaii I?i?noa?noao aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno ? I?i?noa?noao
aeiiii?ee E?eio i?e ia?niaeoeaiiio ieaioaaii? o noa??
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, c iaoith caaacia/aiiy
a?aeoai?aiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a, noeioethaaiiy i?iaeoeoeaii? i?aoe? a
aaeoc?, a oaeiae a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo aeey aecia/aiiy aaee/eie
ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo, aeei?enoiaoaaoe oi?ioeo:

wmetafile8? ??I???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyy ??¶?? ???&? ?MathType??a?
???u?????????»????-?????a,???aue???u@th??????aea r –
a?aenioeiaa noaaea aeeneiiooaaiiy (i?eeiyoi – 5%); t – aie ethaeeie;

A – aa?o?noue ?iai/i? neee.

?aeiiaiaeiaaii oaeiae caeo/eoe aei i?ia?aie iaa/aiiy a nenoai?
iaia’yceiaiai i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? ea??aieo eaae??a AIE aea/aiiy
iaoiaeeee ioe?iee ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo ? aeio?eiaiiy oiia eiai
a?aeoai?aiiy.

8. Aeyaeaii iiceoeaiee aieea i?ioan?eieo ni?eie ia i?ioeane a?aeoai?aiiy
ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo. Cie?aia, i?ioni?eoe? AIE ?aeiiaiaeiaaia a?eueo
aeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy nenoaie eieaeoeaieo aeiaiai??a, ye iniiae
iaoa??aeueiiai noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? ?ia?oiee?a naea, ni?aaaaeeeaiai
oi?ioaaiiy oiiae?a niiaeeaaiiy ? iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy, ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
?iciiae?eo oiiaeo niiaeeaaiiy a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao, aeiiiaoeny oiai, uia oeeaaeaiiy eieaeoeaieo aeiaiai??a
oa?eoei a iaiaei?iio i?aeoeeo ?o ae?yeueiino?.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe

1.Aiae?eaiiaa A. A. ?an/ao /aeiaa/aneiai eaieoaea i?aaei?eyoee
//Yeiiiieea e oi?aaeaiea. – 1998. – ?2. – N.4-6.

2.Aiae?eaiiaa A. A. I /aeiaa/aneii eaieoaea (1) // Aeaeiaia iaic?aiea. –
1998. – ?7. – N.73-76.

3.Aiae?eaiiaa A. A. E aii?ino i nio?aiaiee /aeiaa/aneiai eaieoaea
E?uia

// Eoeueoo?a ia?iaeia I?e/a?iiii?uey. – 1998. – ?3. – N.9-11.

4. Aiae?eaiiaa A. A. I /aeiaa/aneii eaieoaea (2) // Eoeueoo?a ia?iaeia
I?e/a?iiii?uey. – 1998. – ?3. – N.316-317.

5. Aiae?eaiiaa A. A. Iaeioi?ua iniaaiiinoe eniieueciaaiey /aeiaa/aneiai
eaieoaea AIE E?uia // I?eaeiii?ianueeee iaoeiaee ainiee. – 1998. –
?107. – N.43-45.

6. Aiae?eaiiaa A. A. Iniaaiiinoe oi?aaeaiey i?ioeannii aini?iecaiaenoaa
/aeiaa/aneiai eaieoaea // Yeiiiieea e oi?aaeaiea. – 1999. – ?2. –
N.6-8.

Aiae??aiiaa Aaeaioeia Aa?nii?aia. ?ieue a?aeoai?aiiy ethaenueeiai
eai?oaeo a aeiiii?oe? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa E?eio ? oeyoe eiai
oaeineiiaeaiiy. ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.07.02 – aeiiii?ea n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ?
AIE. Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? i?iaaaeaii aiae?c eiioeaioe?e ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo.
Aeyaeai? caeiiii??iino? eiai oi?ioaaiiy oa a?aeoai?aiiy. ?ic?iaeai?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanii a?aeoai?aiiy
ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao.
Iniiaieie ?acoeueoaoaie ?:

 ooi/iaii eaoaai??th ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo oa aecia/aii nooi?noue
i?iaeaie eiai a?aeoai?aiiy;

 iaa?oioiaaii iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee ?ic?aooieo ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo a
ainiiaea?noaao ??cieo ae?iaie/eo oei?a;

 i?iaaaeaii aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo a
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? E?eio;

 anoaiiaeaii aeiiii?/io ?ieue i?ioni?eie Oe?a?ie c ieoaiue caa?aaeaiiy
oa a?aeoai?aiiy ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo;

 c?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei oi?ie oi?aae?iiy ethaenueeei eai?oaeii a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao oa nenoaie i?aeaeuaiiy /anoee
iieaoe i?aoe? o nia?aa?oino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??.

Aiae?eaiiaa Aaeaioeia Aa?niiiaia. ?ieue aini?iecaiaenoaa /aeiaa/aneiai
eaieoaea a yeiiiieea naeueneiai oicyenoaa E?uia e iooe aai
niaa?oainoaiaaiey. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.07.02 – yeiiiieea naeueneiai oicyenoaa e AIE.
Aeiai?iiao?ianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue aa?a?iue oieaa?neoao. Aeiai?iiao?iane
, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?iaaaeai aiaeec eiioeaioeee /aeiaa/aneiai eaieoaea.
Auyaeaiu caeiiiia?iinoe aai oi?ie?iaaiey e aini?iecaiaenoaa. ?ac?aaioaiu
?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth oi?aaeaiey i?ioeannii
aini?iecaiaenoaa /aeiaa/aneiai eaieoaea a naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoeyo.

Ii?aaeaeaia yeiiiie/aneay i?e?iaea cao?ao ia /aeiaa/aneee eaieoae,
i?iaaaeai aiaeec nouanoaothueo enoi/ieeia iaiaoiaeeiuo n?aaenoa aeey aai
aini?iecaiaenoaa.

Onoaiiaeaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?an/?oa aaee/eiu /aeiaa/aneiai eaieoaea a
oeaeyo ii?aaeaeaiey noaiaie aai eciina e aai aini?iecaiaenoaa.

Ii?aaeaeaii ioee/ea iiiyoey “/aeiaa/aneee eaieoae” io iiiyoey
“yeiiiie/aneee /aeiaae”.

Iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa /aeiaa/aneiai
eaieoaea a Oe?aeia, a oii /enea a E?uio, naeaeai auaiae i iaiaoiaeeiinoe
ia?aoiaea io “oi?aaeaiey ia?niiaeii” e “oi?aaeaieth /aeiaa/aneei
eaieoaeii”.

Iainiiaaia oi?ioea aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aaee/eiu /aeiaa/aneiai eaieoaea.

Aeey eaaeaeiai ec 10 i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oeiia oicyenoa ii?aaeaeaia
no?oeoo?a eaae?ia e ia yoie iniiaa ?ann/eoaia aaee/eia /aeiaa/aneiai
eaieoaea, naienoaaiiay ii?aaeaeaiiie nenoaia oicyenoaiaaiey.

Auaeaeaiu iniaaiiinoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai o?oaea e naycaiiua n iei
iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey e aini?iecaiaenoaa /aeiaa/aneiai eaieoaea AIE
E?uia.

I?iaiaeece?iaaia no?oeoo?a /aeiaa/aneiai eaieoaea naeueneiai oicyenoaa
E?uia. Ii?aaeaeaii niioiioaiea niaoeeaeenoia ni n?aaeiei e aunoei
ia?aciaaieai, o?iaiy iieaou o?oaea, aa oaeaeueiiai aana a /aeiaa/aneii
eaieoaea, eaieoaeiioaea/e, o.a. auoiaea aaeiaie i?iaeoeoeee ia aaeeieoeo
/aeiaa/aneiai eaieoaea a naeueneii oicyenoaa e ae?oaeo io?aneyo.

Onoaiiaeaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue no?iaiai niaethaeaiey i?iii?oeee iaaeaeo
oiiaeaie iio?aaeaiey e iaeiieaiey.

Auyaeaia acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo aaee/eiie oiiaea iio?aaeaiey e
eiyooeoeeaioii i?e?inoa ianaeaiey.

Ii?aaeaeaii o?aaiaiea aeey iienaiey caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo aeiaeaiiui
/aeiaa/aneei eaieoaeii e i?eaueueth.

Auyaeaia, naycaiiay n oiaiueoaieai athaeaeaoiiai oeiaine?iaaiey
nioeeaeueiuo i?ia?aii, oaiaeaioeey ?inoa aeiee iieaou o?oaea a oiiaea
iio?aaeaiey, iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeinoeaeaiey iauanoaaiii
iaiaoiaeeiiai a? o?iaiy a aa?a?iii i?iecaiaenoaa.

?ane?uou iniaaiiinoe oi?aaeaiey /aeiaa/aneei eaieoaeii e i?ioeannii aai
aini?iecaiaenoaa a naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo, i?iaeaiu
noeioee?iaaiey yooaeoeaiiai o?oaea a eioa?anao ?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneiai
eaieoaea, iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue oneeaiey ?iee i?ionithcia a
nioeeaeueiie caueoa ?aaioieeia naea.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou:

 ooi/iaia eaoaai?ey /aeiaa/aneiai eaieoaea e ii?aaeaeaia nouiinoue
i?iaeaiu aai aini?iecaiaenoaa;

 iainiiaaiu iaoiaeieiae/aneea iiaeoiaeu ?an/aoa /aeiaa/aneiai eaieoaea
a oicyenoaao ?aciuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oeiia;

 i?iaaaeai aiaeec yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey /aeiaa/aneiai eaieoaea a
naeueneii oicyenoaa E?uia;

 onoaiiaeaia yeiiiie/aneay ?ieue i?ionithcia Oe?aeiu a aii?inao
nio?aiaiey e aini?iecaiaenoaa /aeiaa/aneiai eaieoaea;

 ?aeiiaiaeiaaia oi?ia oi?aaeaiey /aeiaa/aneei eaieoaeii a
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo e nenoaia iiauoaiey aeiee iieaou
o?oaea a naaanoieiinoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Andrianova Valentina Varsonovna. The role of human capital’s
reproduction in the economics of agriculture in the Crimea and the ways
of perfecting . Manuscript.

Dissertation for the degree of Candidate of Economics . Speciality
08.07.02. – Economy of agriculture and agroindustrial complex.

Dnepropetrovsk State Agrarian University, Dnepropetrovsk 1999.

In the dissertation the analysis of human capital’s conceptions is made.
The conformities of its formation and reproduction are revealed.
Recommendations on perfecting the process of management of human
capital’s reproduction in agricultural enterprises are worked out.

Main results:

 the category of human capital has been determined and problems of its
reproduction have been defined;

 methodical approaches in calculation of human capital in agriculture
of the Crimea have been grounded;

 the analysis of effectiveness of human capital`s ussage in agriculture
of the Crimea has been made;

 the economic role of trade-union organizations in preservation and
reproduction of human capital has been determined;

 the form of human capital’s management of agricultural enterprises and
the system of raising labour payment in net price agricultural
production have been recommended.

___________________________________________________________________

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 10.09.99 Oi?iao 60 o 90 / 16

Oi.ae?oe.a?e. 1.0 Ionaoiee ae?oe
Iai?? ionao.

Iae.-aeae.a?e. 1.0 Cai. ? 173
Oe?aae 100 i?ei.

____________________________________________________________________

Aeae.oeaio? NAeO, 333036, i. Niioa?iiieue, aoe. sseoeinueea, 4

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