IAeANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?i. ?. ?. IA*IEEIAA

Ai?aaothe Iaoae?y Iaae?aia

OAeE 947.7:327(71+477)”1991/1997”

?ieue oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e Eaiaaee a oi?ioaaii?
oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueeeo a?aeiinei (1991-1997 ??.)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 07.00.02.-Anana?oiy ?noi??y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?aooe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Iaeana – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei ?inoeoooa
nioe?aeueieo iaoe Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?.?.
Ia/ieeiaa I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aiiaoia Naiai Eineiiae/,

eaoaae?a i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei

?inoeoooo nioe?aeueieo iaoe

Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

?iai? ?.?.Ia/ieeiaa,

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eauaiei Eaii?ae Iaae?eiae/,

?inoeooo na?oiai? aeiiii?ee oa

i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie,

aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee.

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Oia?nueeee Aaaeei Ieoaeeiae/

?noi?e/iee o-o Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai

oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?.?. Ia/ieeiaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e anana?oiuei? ?noi??? ?
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 2000 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo i “ 1400 ” ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee E41.051.08 i?e Iaeanueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?.?. Ia/ieeiaa ca aae?anith: i.
Iaeana-57, aoe Uaie?ia 12 aoae. 9.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?.?. Ia/ieeiaa ca aae?anith: i. Iaeana-57,
aoe. I?aia?aaeainueea, 24.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “20” aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Eicianueeee A.E.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie: Ea?aeeiaeuei? ci?ie, ye? a?aeaoeeny a na?o? c
?iciaaeii N?N?, a ?acii c iei an??? na?oiai? nioe?ae?noe/ii? nenoaie,
i?ecaaee aei ia?aa?oioaaiiy nee ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai? ? noai?eee iia?
oiiae aeey ?icaeoeo no/anieo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei. Iaeei c iiaeo
oeaio??a a o?ainoi?iiaai?e nenoai? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei oiniaeth?
iacaeaaeia Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa. Aoaeoeai?noue ? ?acoeueoaoeai?noue
ae?e Oe?a?ie ye noa’?eoo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao
aecia/aeeny noaaeaiiyi aei ia? c aieo ?iicaiieo aea?aeaa ? o??th
iie?oeeith, yeo i?iaiaeeei na?oiaa ni?aoiaa?enoai o a?aeiioaii? eieeoi?o
?anioae?e N?N?. A oeueiio ca’yceo ?icaeyae oa?aeoa?o ? yeino?
oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueeeo a?aeiinei ? aeineoue aeooaeueiei a iaoeiaiio oa
iie?oe/iiio ieai? ua e oiio, ui oaeoi? aieeaiai?, aeia?a ci?aai?ciaaii?
oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e a Eaiaae? aeicaiey? aiai?eoe i?i iaaio
a?aei?ii?noue oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueeeo ca’yce?a a?ae a?aeiinei Oe?a?ie c
?ioeie aea?aeaaaie.

A oiiaao, eiee oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueei a?aeiineie iathoue noaoon
“iniaeeaiai ia?oia?noaa”, aeine?aeaeaiiy i?noey oa ?ie? oe?a?inueei?
ae?anii?e a oi?ioaaii? aeainoi?iii?o a?aeiinei iaaoaa? aaaeeeaiai
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiai cia/aiiy.

Iaoeiaa aeooaeuei?noue oaie oaeiae aecia/a?oueny a?aenooi?noth a
oe?a?inuee?e ?noi?e/i?e ? iie?oieia?/i?e iaooe? ?ia?o, ye? a i?eae?eyee
niaoe?aeueio oaaao i?iaeaiai, ui iia’ycai? c oai???th ? i?aeoeeith
aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?anii? ye noa’?eo?a i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei a oe?eiio i
noiniaii ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie a iniaeeaino?.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aieea oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e Eaiaaee ia
aea?aeaai? oa iaaea?aeaai? no?oeoo?e e?a?ie i?ae /an oi?ioaaiiy
i?aeia?iaeieo ca”yce?a i?ae Oe?a?iith oa Eaiaaeith.

Ia’?eoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oe?a?inueea ae?anii?a
Eaiaaee a eiioaeno? i?aeaea?aeaaieo oe??inueei-eaiaaenueeeo noinoie?a.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee ?iaioe ioiieththoue ia??iae c na?iiy 1991 ?ieo, oiaoi
c iiiaioo oaeoe/iiai iacaeaaeiiai ?nioaaiiy Oe?a?ie, ui aecia/ea ??
iiaee noaoon ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?, aei 1997 ?ieo aeeth/ii.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?? neeaaeathoue iaoiae nenoaiiiai
aiae?co oa iaoiae ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iiai aiae?co. Caniaii i?aeoe/iiai
aeeiiaiiy /anoee iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue noaa iaoiae ?ioa?a’th, yeee
canoiniaoaaany aeey cai?o ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaaieo ?
iaaea?aeaaieo no?oeoo? ? noni?eueieo i?aai?caoe?e, ui iathoue
aaciina?aaei? a?aeiioaiiy aei i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy
oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueeeo a?aeiinei.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
? anaa?/iee eiiieaeniee aiae?c i?noey ? ?ie? oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e
Eaiaaee a no?oeoo?? oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueeeo a?aeiinei. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy
iinoaaeaii? iaoe aecia/ai? ne?aeoth/? caaaeaiiy:

— Aeaoe caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo oaiiiaio ae?anii?e ye iaeiiai c
aeaiaio?a no/anii? nenoaie i?aeaea?aeaaieo a?aeiinei;

— Aecia/eoe oiiae, i?e/eie ? caniae aeoea?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? aoi?/ii?
a?oie ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?;

— I?inoaaeeoe ?noi??th ? aeoiee oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? aoi?/ii? a?oie a
Eaiaae?;

— ?icaeyiooe nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia, iie?oe/ia ? eoeueoo?ia iieiaeaiiy
oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e a eaiaaenueeiio noni?euenoa? c iaoith aecia/aiiy
a?aeiia?aeiino? oa?aeoa?enoee aeaii? aoi?/ii? a?oie oa?aeoa?enoeeai, ye?
i?eoaiaii? caoe?eaaeaiei a?oiai oeneo;

— ?icaeyiooe oe?a?inueeo ae?anii?o Eaiaaee ye caoe?eaaeaio a?oio oeneo,
ui caeaoia /eieoe aoaeoeaiee aieea ia oaaea?aeueiee o?yae e?a?ie a
i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? no?aoaa?? o a?aeiioaii? aei
aoi?/ii? aaouee?aueie oe?a?inueeeo eaiaaeoe?a;

— Aeaoe ia??iaeecaoe?th oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueeeo a?aeiinei ? aeyaeoe
iniaeeaino? eiaeiiai c aoai?a;

— ?icaeyiooe caniae ? oeyoe aieeao oe?a?inueei? aoi?/ii? a?oie ia
aea?aeaai? ? iaaea?aeaai? no?oeoo?e Eaiaaee, ye? iathoue aaciina?aaei?
a?aeiioaiiy aei i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy ca’yce?a c Oe?a?iith;

— Aecia/eoe nooi?iue aieeao oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e ia nenoaio
i?aeaea?aeaaieo a?aeiinei aeaio e?a?i.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe??. A aeine?aeaeaii? aia?oa ia iniia? iiaeo
aeaea?aeueieo iaoa??ae?a eiiieaenii aea/a?oueny i?iaeaia aieeao
oe?a?inueei? aoi?/ii? a?oie a ieth?ae?noe/iiio aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiiio
na?aaeiaeu? Eaiaaee i?ae /an oi?ioaaiiy ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iiai eo?no
eaiaaenueeiai o?yaeo o a?aeiioaii? aei aoi?/ii? aaouee?aueie
oe?a?inueeeo eaiaaeoe?a c iiiaioo i?iaieioaiiy oe?a?inueei?
iacaeaaeiino? i aei e?ioey 1990-o ?.?.

Aeena?oaioea aia?oa aaaea a iaoeiaee ia?a cia/io e?euee?noue ?ai?oa ia
aea/aieo iaoa??ae?a ? aeieoiaio?a aea?aeaaieo ? iaaea?aeaaieo no?oeoo?
Eaiaaee, i?aeoe/ii an?o aaaeo/eo noni?eueieo i?aai?caoe?e oe?a?inueeeo
eaiaaeoe?a, a oaeiae iiao i?ea?iaeueio aeine?aeieoeueeo e?oa?aoo?o.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

— Oe?a?inueea ae?anii?a a Eaiaae? ? no?oeoo?iei aeaiaioii no/anieo
oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueeeo a?aeiinei;

— I?aaenoaaieee oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e a?eueo, i?ae i?aaenoaaieee ?ioeo
aoi?/ieo a?oi, ui iaoeathoue a Eaiaae?, caoe?eaaeai? a i?iaeoeoeaiiio
?icaeoeo iiaiiianooaaiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa c Oe?a?iith;

— Aeoea?caoe?y ae?e oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e a ni?aa? eiaoaaiiy nai?o
niaoeeo?/ieo ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo ?ioa?an?a ia ??ai? oaaea?aeueiiai
o?yaeo aoea aeeeeeaia iiae?yie o aioo??oiueiiie?oe/iiio aeeoo? Oe?a?ie
i?ney ?icaaeo N?N?;

— sse?ni? ci?ie a nenoai? oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueeeo a?aeiioaiue
a?aeaoeeny i?ney na?iiaaeo iiae?e 1991 ?ieo. Aiie ae?aceeenue a ?icaeoeo
nenoaie aea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai oe?ieiianooaaiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa, ye? a
cia/i?e i??? aoee ?i?oe?eiaai? oe?a?inueeith ni?eueiioith Eaiaaee;

— Ni?euei? oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueei i?ia?aie iai?aaeai? ia noai?aiiy a
Oe?a?i? noaa?eueiiai na?aaeiueiai eeano, iaeneiaeueio aaeaioaoe?th
eiia?oe?eieo ? ?eieiaeo iaoai?ci?a a Oe?a?i? aei ae?th/eo no?oeoo?
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeiai ? i?ai?/iiaia?eeainueeiai ?eie?a, a oaeiae ia ye
iiaa nei??oa aoiaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie a ?eieiao aeiiii?/io nenoaio, ui
iiaeiii iiceoeaii a?aeaeoeny ia ?icaeoeo eaiaaenueeiai a?ciano a
Oe?a?i?;

— Aieea oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e ia oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueeeo
a?aeiinei cae?enith?oueny /a?ac o/anoue i?aaenoaaiee?a ae?anii?e a
ni?eueieo i?aeaea?aeaaieo i?iaeoao, a yeino? aeeiiaaoe?a, eiinoeueoaio?a
? aenia?o?a, a oaeiae oeyoii noai?aiiy iiaeo i?aai?caoe?eieo ae?anii?ieo
no?oeoo?, ae?yeuei?noue yeeo aeoiaeeoue ca ?aiee aoi?/iiai
ni?aoiaa?enoaa ? iaoe?eaia ia noai?aiiy iioeiaeueieo oiia aeey ?icaeoeo
a?aeiinei i?ae aeaiia e?a?iaie;

— Oe?a?inueea ae?anii?a Eaiaaee ? ?ioaa?iaaiei naaiaioii eaiaaenueeiai
noni?euenoaa, oiio ?? ae?? o a?aeiioaii? aei nai?? aoi?/ii? aaouee?aueie
ia aeoiaeyoue ca ?aiee iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a eaiaaenueei? aea?aeaae.

Iaoeiaa oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. A iaoeiaee
ia?a aaaaeaii cia/iee ianya ?ai?oa ia aea/aieo aeaea?ae ? iaoa??ae?a,
iaaaaeaieo a aeaeyae? aeieoiaio?a, ?aciethoe?e, ca?o?a ? iaii?aiaeoi?a
eaiaaenueeeo aea?aeaaieo ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo no?oeoo? ? noni?eueieo
i?aai?caoe?e oe?a?inueeeo eaiaaeoe?a. Oe? iaoa??aee ye ? ?acoeueoaoe
i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey iiaeaeueoiai
aea/aiiy aeooaeueieo i?iaeai no/anieo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiioaiue c
o?aooaaiiyi ?ie? ae?anii?e ye neeaaeiaiai aeaiaioo oeeo a?aeiinei.
Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoenue aeey i?aeaioiaee
eaeoe?eieo eo?n?a ? niaoeeo?n?a c ?noi??? ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie ?
Eaiaaee, a oaeiae c aeooaeueieo i?iaeai no/anieo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei
a oe?eiio. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae ? iaoai?ci?a
ae?yeueiino? ae?anii?e ye caoe?eaaeaii? a?oie oeneo i?e oi?ioaaii?
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iiai eo?no oaaea?aeueiiai o?yaeo Eaiaaee o a?aeiioaii?
aei Oe?a?ie, iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a yeino? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
aea?aeaaiei ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iei, ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/iei ? i?eaaoiei
eiia?oe?eiei no?oeoo?ai, ye? caoe?eaaeai? a a?eueo i?iaeoeoeaiiio
?icaeoeo aeainoi?iii?o a?aeiioaiue i?ae aeaiia e?a?iaie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y ?
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith iaoeiai? oaie eaoaae?e i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei
Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?. ?. Ia/ieeiaa “Oe?a?ia a
nenoai? no/anieo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiioaiue”, oae ye ia? ia iao? ?icaeyae
oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueeeo ca”yceia a 1991-1997 ?iee, aeoeaiooth/e oaaao
ia aecia/aii? i?noey ? ?ie? oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e i?ae /an oi?ioaaiiy
i?aeaea?aeaaieo noinoie?a i?ae Oe?a?iith i Eaiaaeith.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei IAeO ii. ?. ?. Ia/ieeiaa, a?aeaeca?eaeai? o aenooiao ia
can?aeaiiyo iaoeiaiai nai?ia?o c oai???, ?noi??? oa ?noi??ia?ao??
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiioaiue i?e Iaeanueeiio aoaeeieo a/aieo, a oaeiae ia
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “No/ania aoiieoeueoo?ia oa aoiiiie?oe/ia neooaoe?y
ia I?aaei? Oe?a?ie ? aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy”,
Iaeana, 10-11 a?oaeiy 1996 ?. oa a iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo, nienie yeeo
aeiaea?oueny ia noi?. 15.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? coiiaeaia iaoith ? caaaeaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiiy.
?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ci anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiaeia-143 no. i
nieneo aeaea?ae, yei aeei?enoiaoaaeenue i?e iaienaii? ?iaioe (146
iaeiaioaaiue).

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??. O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue
oaie, aecia/athoueny iaoa oa oe?e? ?iaioe, iaoeiaa iiaecia, i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy, o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eaa?oueny ai?iaaoe?y
aeena?oaoe??.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Inoi?iia?aoi/iee iaeyae ? aiae?c aeaea?aeueii? aace”
c?iaeaii aiae?c aeaea?ae ? e?oa?aoo?e ii i?iaeai? aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Nenoaiaoeciaaia aeaea?aeueia aaca, iiaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y
aeaea?ae, ui noaee iniiaith aeey iaienaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Oaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieth? a?aeiinii iao?eaaeee ?noi?e/iee ia??iae, ui
aecia/eei a?aenooi?noue niaoe?aeueieo ?noi??ia?ao?/ieo ?ia?o, ye? aoee a
i?enay/ai? ?icaeyaeo ?ie? oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e a oi?ioaaii?
oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueeeo a?aeiinei. Iaeiae ?nio? cia/ia e?euee?noue
aaoi?nueeeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui oae aai ?ioa ii?ooothoue ieoaiiy,
ca’ycai? c aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noth oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e a Eaiaae?. Oe?
?iaioe iiaeooue aooe iiae?eai? ia aea? aaeee? a?oie. Ia?oa c ieo –
i?aoe?, ui aiae?cothoue i?noea ? ?ieue ae?anii? a no/ani?e no?oeoo??
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiioaiue a oe?eiio ? ?oith ?ieue a oi?ioaaii?
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iiai eo?no oaaea?aeueiiai o?yaeo Eaiaaee. Ae?oaa a?oia
– ?iaioe, ye? i?enay/ai? ?noi??? oi?ioaaiiy, aaiethoe??, o?aaeeoe?yi,
eoeueoo?? ? iiaooo oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e a Eaiaae?, a?ae ii/aoeo ??
oi?ioaaiiy aei nueiaiaei?oiueiai aeiy. A aeena?oaoe?? i?iaaaeaia
eeaneo?eaoe?y i nenoaiaoecaoe?y a?o/eciyii?, eaiaaenueei? oa
aia?eeainueei? ?noi??ia?ao?? i?iaeai, ye? aeine?aeaeothoueny.

?icaeyaeath/e ia?oo a?oio ?ia?o, ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui aeoeaia aea/aiiy
ae?anii? a ?noi?e/i?e ? iie?oieia?/i?e iaooe? a yeino? noa’?eo?a
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei ii/eia?oueny o?eueee c na?aaeeie 70-o ?ie?a.
Iaea?eueo i?iaeoeoeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy oeeo i?iaeai aaeiny a NOA ?
Eaiaae? – aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueieo aea?aeaaao, ye? ooai?eeenue caaaeyee
i?eieeao ??cii??aeieo ai?a?aionueeeo ian ia ?ai?oa ia iiaiiaai?
oa?eoi??? Iiaiai Na?oo. A Eaiaae? aea?aeaaia iie?oeea
aaaaoieoeueoo?iino? ni?eyea iiya? oe?ei? iecee i?aoeue, ye? i?enay/ai?
?icaeyaeo ?noi??? ? no/aniiai aeeooy aoi?/ieo a?oi e?a?ie. Aiaeii/an
aaeeaathoueny ni?iae oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co, eeaneo?eaoe?? ? aecia/aiiy
oaiiiaio ae?anii?e. Iaei??th c canaaeie/eo ?ia?o, c?iaeaieo a aeaiiio
iai?yieo, noaea ?iaioa aia?eeainueeiai aeine?aeieea Ae. A?ino?iiaa.1) 
Aaoi? ia iniia? aii??e/iiai aea/aiiy no/anieo ae?anii? iiaea?
eeaneo?eaoe?th, yea aaco?oueny ia nooiai? ?ioaa?iaaiino? ae?anii?e a
iiaa noni?euenoai, a oaeiae caaaea? ia i?e/eie ai?a?aoe?? aeey
ia?aaaaeii? /anoeie i?aaenoaaiee?a o??? aai ?ioi? ae?anii?e. Aeine?aeiee
oaeiae iiaea? aecia/aiiy oaiiiaia ae?anii?e. Nai? aecia/aiiy ae?anii??
aea? ? aia?eeainueeee nioe?ieia A. Oaooa?. A nai?e ?iaio? aaoi? aiae?co?
oiiae, iaiao?aei? aeey ia?aoai?aiiy ae?anii? a caoe?eaaeaieo o/aniee?a
ciai? ? aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ieo ae?e a e?a?i? i?iaeeaaiiy. 2)

Anaa?/ii ae?anii?a a yeino? noa’?eoo nenoaie i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei
aeine?aeaeaia a ?iaio? Ae. Eiinoana i A. Ieao?ana. 3)  Ia i?eeeaae?
a?aoeueei? ae?anii?e ?icaeyioo? iiaeeea? neooaoe?? aeoeaiiai aeeth/aiiy
aoi?/ii? a?oie o aioo?ioiuei- ? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ia aeeooy aea?aeaae.
Aaoi?e, ye ? A. Oaooa?, aeacothoue ia iaiao?aei?noue eiiieaeniiai
aiae?co aeaio a?oi oaeoi??a: aioo??oi?o, iia’ycaieo c? nooiaiai
i?aai?ciaaiino? ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ae?anii?iiai
i?aai?cio ? ciai?oi?o, iia’ycaieo c oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iie?oe/ii? ?
aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie e?a?ie i?iaeeaaiiy, ui caaacia/othoue aoaeoeai?noue
ae?? aoi?/ii? a?oie a yeino? noa’?eoo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei.

I?iaeai? aca?iia?aeiinei eaiaaenueeiai oaaea?aeueiiai o?yaeo ?
caoe?eaaeaieo a?oi oeneo i?enay/aii aeae?eueea i?aoeue eaiaaenueeeo
iie?oieia?a, a yeeo aiae?cothoueny iniaeeaino? eaiaaenueei? iie?oe/ii?
nenoaie, ie?aneththoueny aeiaeaoeia? iiaeeeaino? aeey ae?? caoe?eaaeaieo
a?oi ye a ciai?oi?e, oae ? o aioo??oi?e iie?oeoe? e?a?ie.4 )

Ae?? aoi?/ieo a?oi a yeino? caoe?eaaeaieo a?oi oeneo ?icaeyiooi a
?iaioao A. O?aaiona, I. ?niaia ? E. Oienoi.5 ) Aaoi?e, aeine?aeaeoth/e
ae?anii?iee i?aai?ci, caa?oathoue iniaeeao oaaao ia eiai aioo??oi?
oa?aeoa?enoeee, ie?aii aeae?eyth/e /eiiee ineoieia?/ii? ?aeiino?
ana?aaeei? ie?aii acyoiai aoi?/iiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa. Aeieeaaeii
aea/a?oueny aca?iica’ycie aioo??oi?o ? ciai?oi?o /eiiee?a, yeee
caaacia/o? oni?oi?noue eia?nonueei? ae?yeueiino?. A ciai?oiueiiie?oe/i?e
noa?? iiceoeaiee ?acoeueoao, ia aeoieo aaoi??a, caeaaeeoue a?ae nooiaiy
ca?ao ?ioa?an?a aoi?/ii? a?oie c iaoe?iiaeueieie ?ioa?anaie ?
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iith no?aoaa??th e?a?ie i?iaeeaaiiy.

Oe?a?inueea ?noi??ia?ao?y, ye aei oae ? i?ney aeinyaiaiiy iacaeaaeiino?,
i?aeoe/ii ia oi?eaeanue ieoaiue, ca’ycaieo c aea/aiiyi ?ie? ae?anii? a
oe?eiio ? oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e aaciina?aaeiuei a i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iiai eo?no e?a?ie i?iaeeaaiiy. Oea iiynith?oueny oei,
ui ia a?aei?io a?ae NOA ? Eaiaaee, Oe?a?ia ia ia? o?aaeeoe?e i?eeiio ?
aani?aoe?? ?ii?a?aionueeeo ian. Iiiaeeiie? aeine?aeaeaiiy a a?o/eciyi?e
?noi??ia?ao?? aiae?cothoue ae?? aoi?/ieo a?oi a noa?? ciai?oiuei?
iie?oeee ye i?aaeei ia i?eeeaaeao ae?anii?, ye? iaoeathoue a
i?ai?/iiaia?eeainueeeo aea?aeaaao. Aei aea/aiiy cania?a aieeao
aoiiiaoeiiiaeueieo a?oi ia oi?ioaaiiy ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee o a?aeiioaii?
e?a?i ? ?aa?ii?a iioiaeaeaiiy oeeo a?oi, a oaeiae oaeoi??a, ye?
aieeaathoue ia aoaeoeai?noue ?o ae?yeueiino? caa?oathoueny A. ?.
Iiiaacooaeiiia ? N. ?. Noaeiaii. Iniiai? eiioeaioe?? aoiinioeiaeueiiai
?icaeoeo NOA ? Eaiaaee aoee ?icaeyioo? A. A. ?aoooii, yeee iniaeeao
oaaao i?eae?eea ?acoeueoaoai aieeao aoiinioeiaeueieo eiioeaioe?e ia
?icaeoie oe?a?inueeeo a?oi NOA ? Eaiaaee.6 )

Ae?oaa a?oia ?ia?o i?enay/aia ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ai?a?aoe?? ?
no/aniiio iieiaeaiith oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e ca ?oaaaeai. Inoi?iia?aoiy
oe??? i?iaeaie i?noeoue aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo, eaiaaenueeeo ?
aia?eeainueeeo a/aieo. A Oe?a?i? eiiieaenia ?ic?iaea i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo
c ?noi???th oe?a?inueei? ai?a?aoe??, ii/aeany a na?aaeei? 80-o- ia
ii/aoeo 90-o ?.?. Aei oeueiai /ano ia/eneaii? ?iaioe oe?a?inueeeo
aeine?aeiee?a – aeaaeai?ea A. I. Oeaiaeiaa i i?ioani?a E. I. Eauaiei
noinoaaeenue aeeeth/ii ?noi??? ia?oi? ai?a?aoe?eii? oaeei.7 ) Oey oaeey,
ia a?aei?io a?ae iine?aeoth/eo (ae?oai? ?, iniaeeai, o?aouei?) ia iaea
aioe?aaeyinueei? oa aioeeiioi?noe/ii? iioeaaoe?? ae?caeo i aea/aeany
a?eueo aeieeaaeii a aeiia?aaoaeia/ee ia??iae.

Iiooiaoii aeey aeaoaeueiiai anaa?/iiai aea/aiiy aeeooy ca?oa?aeieo
oe?a?ioe?a o a?o/eciyi?e ?noi??ia?ao?? noaei nayoeoaaiiyi noi??/iiai
tha?eath ianiaiai ia?anaeaiiy oe?a?ioe?a a Eaiaaeo. Aei oe??? aeaoe
aeeoei aea? eieaeoeai? ?iaioe “Ca?oa?aei? oe?a?ioe?” ? “Oe?a?ioe? a
ca?oa?aeiiio na?o?”. Oea aeia?aeeia? aeaeaiiy, ye? i?noyoue ?ioi?iaoe?th
i?i ?noi??th oi?ioaaiiy oa aaiethoe?th oe?a?inueeeo ae?anii? naioo.8 )
Aeaoaeueiee aiae?c i?ioeano nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii?, iie?oe/ii? ?
eoeueoo?ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e Eaiaaee, ii/eiath/e c
e?ioey XIX no. i aei iaoeo aei?a, c?iaeaii a ?iaioao A. A. ?aoooa ? I.
I. Eiaaeue/oe, ye? aeeoee ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?.?.9 )

A Eaiaae?, ii/eiath/e c na?aaeeie 70-o ?.?., eiee aoi?/i? a?oie noathoue
ia’?eoii aoiinioeiieiai/ieo, eoeueoo?ieia?/ieo ? ?noi?e/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ?aaoey?ii c’yaeythoueny ?iaioe, ye? ?icaeyaeathoue
ae?anii?ia aeeooy oe?a?inueeeo iinaeaioe?a a i?ia?ioe?yo I?a???. Iaeiae
aeey oeeo ?ia?o ia oa?aeoa?iee ocaaaeueithth/ee aai oai?aoe/iee
oa?aeoa?. Aiie aeine?aeaeothoue, ye i?aaeei, niaoeeo?eo ?ae?a?eiiai aai
noni?eueii-eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy oe?a?ioe?a Eaiaaee. A ?iaioao oe?iei
aeei?enoaiee iaioa?iee iaoa??ae, i?aee??ieaiee a?o?aieie
oioiiaoa??aeaie. Iniaeea?noth oaeeo ?ia?o ? ?o aeniea iane/ai?noue
oaeoe/iith ?ioi?iaoe??th, ?iaiaie, i??caeuaie ? a?ia?ao?/ieie aeaieie
iaea?eueo aeaeaoieo iinaeaioeia.10)

A ie?aio a?oio iiaeia aeae?eeoe i?aoe? oe?a?inueeeo eaiaaeoe?a, ye? ia
a?aei?io a?ae ?ia?o, ui iaee, a iniiaiiio, iiaooiaiiieniaee oa?aeoa?,
yaeythoue niaith nooi iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy. A oeeo i?aoeyo oe?a?inueea
aoi?/ia a?oia noa? ia’?eoii nioe?ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ii?yae c
?ioeie aoi?/ieie a?oiaie, ui ianaeythoue Eaiaaeo. Oaaaa aaoi??a
neiioeaio?iaaia ia ieoaiiyo anei?eyoe??, ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ? aaeaioaoe??
aoi?/ieo iaioinoae a aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiiio na?aaeiaeu?. Iiae?ai? ?iaioe
iane/ai? a?ao?eaie, ae?aa?aiaie, oaaeeoeyie, ye? aeeiiai? ia iniia?
nioe?ieia?/ieo iieooaaiue ? iaoa??ae?a ia?aien?a ianaeaiiy. 11)

Ianooiia a?oia ?ia?o, ye? i?enay/ai? oe?a?inuee?e ae?anii??,
i?aaenoaaeaia aeia?aeeiaeie aeaeaiiyie, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue iieiaeaiiy
oe?a?inueei? aoi?/ii? a?oie a aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiiio eaiaaenueeiio
noni?euenoa?. Ca nai?i ci?noii ? caniaai iiaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? aiie
iiae?ai? aei ?ia?o iiia?aaeiuei? a?oie, aea ?o a?ae??ciy? oa, ui
oe?a?inueea aoi?/ia a?oia ooo ? naiino?eiei ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy. A
?iaioao canoiniaaiee oe?ieee noaoenoe/iee iaoa??ae. Oey a?oia
i?aaenoaaeaia ca??eaie “Oe?a?inuee? iinaeaiiy. Aeia?aeiee”, “Oe?a?ioe? a
aia?eeainueeiio oa eaiaaenueeiio noni?euenoaao. Nioe?ieia?/iee ca??iee”.
12) Iaea?eueo iiaia aeia?aeeiaa aeaeaiiy, i?enay/aia oe?a?inueeei
ae?anii?ai na?oo, aeeth/ath/e no?aeii?a?iiaenuee? oe?a?inuee? ae?anii?e,
a oiio /ene? o?, ye? iaoeathoue ia oa?aiao eieeoiueiai N?N?, aeeoei a
Oi?iioi a 1994 ?. 13) A eieao oa?eoee ?iaioe aaaeo/eo oao?aoe?a a aaeoc?
aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo ae?anii? c iaoeiaeo onoaiia NOA, Eaiaaee,
?a?iie, Eaoeinueei? Aia?eee ? Aano?ae??. Ia iao iiaeyae, ?icaeyae
i?iaeai ? i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny ana?aaeei? oe?a?inueeeo
aoi?/ieo a?oi na?oo ia? iniaeeaa cia/aiiy, ine?eueee aeicaiey? iiaa/eoe
caaaeueia ? iniaeeaa a ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeeo ae?anii?, canoinoaaoe
oai?aoe/i? eiioeaioe??, ae?iaeai? i?e aea/aii? i?iaeai i?a?aoe??,
anei?eyoe?? ? aaeaioaoe?? ?ii?a?aionueeeo ian a iiii – ?
iie?iaoe?iiaeueieo aea?aeaaao c a?aei?iieie iie?oe/ieie nenoaiaie.

Aei ?ioi? a?oie ?ia?o ae?anii?ieo aaoi??a iiaeooue aooe a?aeianai?
iaoeia? iiiia?ao??, ye? i?enay/ai? oiio /e ?ioiio aniaeoo c aeeooy
oe?a?inueei? ni?eueiioe ia eiie?aoiiio aoai? ?? ?nioaaiiy, aai
i?inoaaeothoue aaiethoe?th aoaeue-yei? noa?e ae?yeueiino? ae?anii?e,
/ano?oa eoeueoo?ii? aai noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii?. Na?aae iiae?aieo i?aoeue
iiaeia iacaaoe ?iaioo I. Ai?iaeea, yea ?icaeyaea? ?ieue oe?a?iiiiaieo
ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue Eaiaaee a oi?ioaaii? oe?a?inueei? aoi?/ii? a?oie.
Oe?eee ?yae ?ia?o i?enay/aii ?noi??? iinaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo i?iia??a a
i?ia?ioe?yo I?a???. Aaoi?e caa?oathoueny aei aeoie?a noai?aiiy
ae?anii?iiai i?aai?cio a oiiaao aeeooy a oae caaieo “aeieiaeo
iinaeaiiyo”, i?inoaaeothoue i?e/eie, iaoo ? caniae noai?aiiy
oe?a?inueeeo noni?eueieo, eoeueoo?ieo ? ina?oi?o oeaio??a, ye? iaaoee
?icaeoeo a oiae? iiaeaeueoiai ?nioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e a
Eaiaaei. 14)

Aeey ae??oaiiy caaaeaiue aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeena?oaioeith
ia?iaeaii cia/iee ianya ia aaaaeaieo ?ai?oa a iaoeiaee ia?a aeaea?ae,
ye? iiaeooue aooe iiae?eai? ia o?noue a?oi. Ia?oa – oea oaenoe
aeaeea?aoe?e, iaii?aiaeoi?a ? oaiae, i?aeienaieo i?ae Oe?a?iith ?
Eaiaaeith, ii/eiath/e c 1991 ?ieo. 15) Ae?oaa a?oia i?aaenoaaeaia
io?oe?eiith o?ii?eith, cayaaie i?an-neoaeae i?aceaeaioa, oaenoaie i?iiia
ea??aiee?a aeaeaaaoe?e Oe?a?ie ? Eaiaaee, a oaeiae ?ioa?a’th, ye?
aeaaaee io?oe?ei? iniae aeaio e?a?i ia??iaee/iei oe?a?inueeei ?
ca?oa?aeiei aeaeaiiyi. 16) O?aoy – aeeth/a? ae?oeiaai? i?aaie
oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e a Eaiaae? ? NOA. Aei oe?a?iiiiaieo a?aeiinyoueny
aacaoe: “Aii?i Oe?a?ie” – ae?oeiaaiee i?aai E?ae Aecaieaiiy Oe?a?ie,
“Oe?a?inueeee aiein” – aacaoa Nithco Oe?a?ioe?a-Naiino?eiee?a a Eaiaae?,
“Iaoa” – I?aai Oe?a?inueei? iaoeiiiaeueii-aea?aeaaieoeueei? aeoiee,
“A?niee Na?oiaiai Eiia?ano A?eueieo Oe?a?ioe?a”, aeo?iaee:
“Eii?aeeiaoi?” – aeo?iae Oe?a?inueei? Eiiia?aoeaii? ?aaee Eaiaaee,
“A?aeaoei?oueny!” – aeo?iae Na?oiai? eii?aeeiaoe?eii? aeoiaii-inaioiuei?
?aaee i?e Na?oiaiio Eiia?an? Oe?a?ioe?a, “Iia? aei?”. Aiaeiiiai?
ae?anii?i? aeaeaiiy i?aaenoaaeai? aacaoith “The Ukrainian Weekly” oa
aeo?iaeaie “The Ukrainian Quarterly” i “Monitor”. Aiaei- ? oe?a?iiiiaia
i?ana eaiaaenueei? ae?anii?e Eaiaaee aea? aaaaoee aeaea?aeueiee
iaoa??ae, ui aeicaiey? i?inoaaeeoe iieai?eo, yea a?aeaoaaeanue a
ae?anii?iiio na?aaeiaeu? c ieoaiue aeciaiiy iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie
iaia?aaeiaei? ?aoa?aiaeoio 1991 ?ieo, c’ynoaaoe a?aeiioaiiy oe?a?inueeeo
eaiaaeoe?a aei i?iaeai aeiiii?/ii?, iie?oe/ii?, eoeueoo?ii? ?icaoaeiae
Oe?a?ie, aecia/eoe iiceoeai? ? iaaaoeai? iiiaioe i?ae /an ?icaeoeo
aeainoi?iiiueiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa. E??i oiai, aea/aiiy aoi?/ii? i?ane
oe?a?inueeeo eaiaaeoe?a aeicaiey? i?inoaaeeoe caniae ? oeyoe oi?ioaaiiy
a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee a e?a?i?, a oaeiae aecia/eoe iiceoe?th eaiaaenueeeo
io?oe?eieo in?a, yeo aiie caeiyee o a?aeiioaii? aei aoi?/ii?
aaouee?aueie oe?a?inueeeo eaiaaeoe?a ? aiaeii/an c’ynoaaoe noaaeaiiy
naii? ae?anii?e aei o??? aai ?ioi? aeoiee, yeo aeneiaethaaa eaiaaenueeee
o?yae noiniaii iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a Oe?a?ie.

*aoaa?oa a?oia aeaea?ae aeeth/a? ca?oia? aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee
noni?eueieo i?aai?caoe?e oe?a?inueeeo eaiaaeoe?a. Ui??/i? ca?oe
?aa?iiaeueieo a?aeae?eaiue Noni?eueii? Neoaeae Oe?a?ioe?a Eaiaaee
aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe iniiai? iai?yiee ae?yeueiino?, i?eioeeie
i?aai?caoe?? ? aeaea?aea o?iainoaaiiy oe??? iaea?eueo oni?oii ae?th/i?
iaaea?aeaaii? i?aai?caoe?? oe?a?inueeeo eaiaaeoeia. 17) Ui??/i? ca?oe
i?noyoue ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i ni?yioaaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe ae?yeueiino?
i?aai?caoe??, aeicaieythoue noaeeoe i?i i?iaeaie, ye? noiyoue ia?aae
eaiaaenueeeie oe?a?ioeyie ia no/aniiio aoai?, a oaeiae i?i o? o?oaeiiu?,
c yeeie aiie c?ooiaoothoueny a nai?e ae?yeueiino?. Aei oe??? ae a?oie
aeaea?ae a?aeiinyoueny iaoa??aee can?aeaiiy I?aceae?? Nae?aoa??aoo
Anana?oiueiai Eiia?ano Oe?a?ioe?a, yea a?aeaoeiny a Oi?iioi a ethoiio
1998 ?. Oe? iaoa??aee i?noyoue ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i iai?yiee ? ?acoeueoaoe
ae?yeueiino? oe??? eii?aeeioth/i? i?aai?caoe??, yea ia’?aeiaea an?
oe?a?inuee? ae?anii?e na?oo, a oaeiae aeicaieythoue iiaa/eoe iaoai?cie
?? ooieoe?eiioaaiiy. 18) Iaoa??aee XVII Eiia?ano Oe?a?ioe?a Eaiaaee
i?noyoue ui??/i? ca?oe ?aa?iiaeueieo o?e?e ? iiaoaeiaai? ii oaeiio ae
i?eioeeio, ui ? ca?oe aeua icia/aieo ae?anii?ieo no?oeoo?. 19)

Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii ? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? eenoe aeaaiae?eii? i?aai?caoe??
oe?a?inueeeo eaiaaeoe?a “I?eyoae? ae?oae”, ye? ia a?aei?io a?ae
iiia?aaei?o iaoa??ae?a oe?a?inueei? iaueie, aeaeathoueny ia o?eueee
oe?a?inueeith, aea ? aiae?enueeith iiaith, ine?eueee iaoa aeaeaiiy
iieyaa? a ?iciianthaeaeaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i ?acoeueoaoe, oe?e? ?
iai?yiee ae?yeueiino? i?aai?caoe?? ia o?eueee ana?aaeei? naii?
ae?anii?e, aea ? iica ?? iaaeaie. 20)

Aiaeiiiaia a?oia aeieoiaio?a i?aaenoaaeaia i?ioieieaie “e?oaeeo noie?a”
Eaiaaenueei-oe?a?inueei? Ooiaeaoe?? (Canada Ukraine Foundation), ui
a?aeaoeenue a n?/i? oa ethoiio 1998 ?. a ?aeiiioiii ? Oi?iioi. Oe?
aeieoiaioe aeicaieythoue i?iaiae?coaaoe iaoo, caaea/?, iai?yiee
ae?yeueiino?, aeaea?aea o?iainoaaiiy, i?aai?caoe?eio no?oeoo?o oe???
iauiaeaaii noai?aii? ae?anii?ii? i?aai?caoe??. Oe?ii?noue iaoa??ae?a
aecia/a?oueny ua ? oei, ui EOO ? iiaith ?i?oe?aoeaith oe?a?inueeeo
eaiaaeoe?a ? yaey? niaith ?aaeoe?th ae?anii?e ia oiiae ?icaoaeiae
aca?iia?aeiinei c o?yaeii e?a?ie, ui aeeeoothoueny ci?iith noaoono
Oe?a?ie a 1991 ?ioe?, a oaeiae na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui ae?anii?a yaey?
niaith aeeaee i?aai?ci, caeaoiee o?ainoi?ioaaoeny ? ?aaaoaaoe ia ci?ie,
ui a?aeaoeeny a na?o? i?ioyaii inoaiiueiai aeanyoe??//y. 21)

I’yoa a?oia aeaea?ae aeeth/a? aeieoiaioe eaiaaenueeeo o?yaeiaeo ?
iao?yaeiaeo i?aai?caoe?e, a yeeo a?aeaeoi iiceoe?th io?oe?eii? Iooaae o
a?aeiioaii? aei ?icaeoeo ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa c iacaeaaeiith Oe?a?iith. Oae,
iaoa??aee, aeaeai? Eaiaaenueeei Aaaionoaii I?aeia?iaeiiai ?icaeoeo,
aeaiiino?othoue iaoo, caaea/?, ia?niaeoeai? iai?yiee ?icaeoeo
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa Eaiaaee ? Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae cia/aiiy oeueiai
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa c o?aooaaiiyi aeiiii?/ieo ? iie?oe/ieo ?ioa?an?a
Eaiaaee a no?aeii?a?iiaenueeiio ?aa?ii?. Aeieoiaioe aeathoue
iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe iaoai?cie ioe?iee ?acoeueoaoeaiino?
aeainoi?iiiueiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa. 22) I?aeoe/i? ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo
ni?ai?aoe? c Oe?a?iith i?ae /an ni?eueii? ?iaioe iaae aeainoi?iii?ie
oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueeeie i?ia?aiaie ? i?iaeoaie i?aaenoaaeai? a
iaoa??aeao iaaea?aeaaii? eaiaaenueei? i?aai?caoe?? – Eaiaaenueea Ath?i
I?aeia?iaeii? Ina?oe, yea a?ae?a?a? ?ieue eii?aeeiaoi?a i?iaeo?a ?
i?ia?ai. Aeieoiaioe oe?eaa? oei, ui iiaeathoue oi/ee ci?o eaiaaenueeeo
aeeiiaaoe?a ? ea??aiee?a i?ia?ai, ia o?ae ?o ?aae?caoe?? oa ia o?
o?oaeiiu?, c yeeie c?ooiaoothoueny eaiaaenuee? ia?oia?e a Oe?a?i?.
Aeieoiaioaeuei? iaoa??aee oaeiae i?noyoue i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
aoaeoeaiiai iiaeieaiiy i?iaeai, ye? ?niothoue ia oeyoo aeainoi?iiiueiai
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa. 23)

Oinoa a?oia aeaea?ae aeeth/a? oaenoe ?ioa?a’th, i?iaaaeai? aaoi?eith
aeena?oaoe?? c ni?a?ia?oieeaie Eaiaaenueeiai Aaaionoaa I?aeia?iaeiiai
?icaeoeo, I?i?noa?noaa ?iicaiieo ni?aa ? i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae? Eaiaaee,
Eaiaaenueeiai ath?i i?aeia?iaeii? ina?oe, c ni?a?ia?oieeaie
oe?a?inueeiai iinieuenoaa a Iooaa?, i?aaenoaaieeaie oe?a?inueeeo
a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e a Eaiaae? – Eiia?ano Oe?a?ioe?a Eaiaaee,
Anana?oiueiai Eiia?ano Oe?a?ioe?a, Noni?eueii? Neoaeae Oe?a?ioe?a
Eaiaaee, iieiae?aeii? i?aai?caoe?? oe?a?ioe?a Eaiaaee “Ieano”,
Oe?a?inueei? i?aai?caoe?? a?cianiai?a ? i?ioan?iiae?no?a Eaiaaee,
Eaiaaenueei-oe?a?inueeiai Ath?i, Eaiaaenueei – Oe?a?inueei? Ooiaeaoe??,
i?aai?caoe?? “I?eyoae? Ae?oae”, ea??aieeaie oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueeiai
i?iaeoo a aaeoc? aaaeei? i?iieneiaino?, iaoeiaeie ni?a?ia?oieeaie
Oi?iionueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, oi?aa?neoao?a Iaeianoa? (Aaiieueoii,
Iioa??i) ? Aaoa?eii (Aaoa?eii, Iioa??i), ye? iathoue oe?a?inueea
iioiaeaeaiiy ? i?eeiathoue aeoeaio o/anoue a noni?eueiiio aeeoo?
oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e. A oe?eiio aoei i?iaaaeaia 21 ?ioa?a’th c
i?aaenoaaieeaie oe?a?inueei? aoi?/ii? a?oie ? o?yaeiaoeyie
iaoe?a?inueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy, ye? iathoue aaciina?aaei? a?aeiioaiiy aei
oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai iai?yieo eaiaaenueei? ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee.
?ioa?a’th o?eaaee, a na?aaeiueiio, a?ae iaei??? aiaeeie aei aeaio,
?aniiiaeaioai i?iiiioaaeinue a?aeiia?noe ia 10 cacaeaeaa?aeue
i?aeaioiaeaieo caieoaiue, ye? noaaeeenue o a?aee?eo?e oi?i?. Oea aeaaaei
iiaeeea?noue c’ynoaaoe iiceoe?th aiaeiiaiaeath/iai c o??? aai ?ioi?
i?iaeaie ? ni?eyei io?eiaiith aeiaeaoeiai? ei?enii? ?ioi?iaoe?? a ?aieao
iaaiai?thaaii? i?iaeaie. A?aee?eoa oi?ia caieoaiue ni?yea oiio, ui
?ioa?a’th i?ioiaeeee o oi?i? a?eueii? aan?aee, ine?eueee i?ae /an
a?aeiia?aeae ia iniiai? caieoaiiy caaaeaee aeieeaee aeiaeaoeia?,
cacaeaeaa?aeue ia i?aeaioiaeai? caieoaiiy.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Ae?anii?e ye oaeoi? a no/ani?e ciai?oi?e iie?oeoe?
Eaiaaee” aiae?cothoueny oiiae, i?e/eie oa iioeaaoe?y aeeth/aiiy ae?anii?
a nenoaio i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei. A ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? “Ae?anii?e a
no/ani?e oai??? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei” aoi?/i? a?oie ?icaeyaeathoueny
ye aaoiiiii? iaaea?aeaai? o/anieee nenoaie i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei, ye?
aeei?enoiaothoue nai? iieiaeaiiy a e?a?i? i?iaeeaaiiy i caeaoi? /eieoe
iaaiee oene ia ?? o?yae, ?aaoethth/e a oaeee niin?a ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iee
eo?n o a?aeiioaii? aei e?a?ie aai ?aa?iio iioiaeaeaiiy.

Iiai?iiee ia??iae a ?icaeoeo nenoaie i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei
oa?aeoa?ecoaaany aeoea?caoe??th i?a?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a. A oiiaao
i?e?iaeiueiai i?ioeano naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy a iiaeo noni?euenoaao ia oe?
aeiaaeueiiai iiai?ioo aei i?aa ethaeeie, caoenoo ?ioa?an?a
iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioinoae, canoaeaeaiiy aeene?ei?iaoe?? ca
iaoe?iiaeueiith oa ?aniaith iciaeith, no/ani? ae?anii?e io?eiaee oe?ie?
iiaeeeaino? aeey naiii?aai?caoe?? ? ?icaeoeo. Caiaeii oea i?ecaaei aei
oiai, ui aoi?/i? noni?euenoaa iinooiiai ii/eiathoue o?ainoi?ioaaoeny a
iie?oe/ii ? aeiiii?/ii ni?iiiaei? a?oie oeneo.

Aoaeoeai?noue ae?e ae?anii?e ye noa’?eoo no/anii? nenoaie
i?aeaea?aeaaieo a?aeiinei caeaaeeoue a?ae aeaio a?oi oaeoi??a: ia?oa
iia’ycaia c ??aiai ? nooiaiai i?aai?ciaaiino? naii? ae?anii?e, a ae?oaa
– c oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iie?oe/ii? nenoaie e?a?ie i?iaeeaaiiy, nooiaiai
?icaeoeo iie?oe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo ? a?iiaaenueeeo naiaiae a i?eeiath/iio
noni?euenoa?. Ia?o?e a?oi? /eiiee?a i?enay/aii ae?oa?e i?ae?icae?e
“Ae?anii?e ye iaaeiiii?/ia a?oie oeneo o aioo??oi?e iie?oeoe? Eaiaaee”.
Ca oa?aeoa?ii nai?? ae?yeueiino? ae?anii?e a?aeiinyoueny aei
iaaeiiii?/ieo a?oi oeneo, ine?eueee a nai?e eia?nonuee?e ae?yeueiino?
aiie ia?ane?aeothoue oe?e?, ye? ia iathoue aaciina?aaeiueiai a?aeiioaiiy
aei aeiiii?/ii? noa?e.

sse i?aaeei, iniaeea?noth ae?? aoi?/ieo a?oi a noa?? ciai?oiuei?
iie?oeee ? nii?aaee/ia ae?yeuei?noue, yea aeeeeeaia eiie?aoiith
neooaoe??th ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?. Caoaeieeii a aeoeai?e ae?? aoi?/ieo
a?oi noathoue iiae??, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a e?a?i? aeoiaeo o??? aai ?ioi?
aoi?/ii? a?oie.

Aei aioo??oi?o oa?aeoa?enoee ae?anii?e, ui ni?eythoue oni?oiiio i?ioeano
aoi?/ii? iia?e?caoe??, oiaoi aeeth/aiith aoi?/ii? a?oie a iie?oe/ia
aeeooy e?a?ie c iaoith caoenoo nai?o ?ioa?an?a, a?aeiinyoueny ?icaeiaia
i?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a, ?aeei? aeey a?eueoino? /eai?a aeaiiai
aoi?/iiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa ?aeaieia?y ? oe?eue. sse i?aaeei, oey iaoa, oae
aai ?iaeoa, iia’ycaia c e?a?iith aeoiaeo. A oe?a?inuee?e aoi?/i?e a?oi?
Eaiaaee aenieee ??aaiue aioo??oiuei? i?aai?caoe?? (iacaaaeath/e ia
?iciiiai?aaeaiinoue iio?aa o ai?a?aio?a ia?oi?, ae?oai? ? o?aouei?
oaeeue) aaeaeiny aeinyaoe caaaeyee aenoiaiith ?aeeii? aeey a?eueoino?
/eai?a a?oie iaoe. ?? ci?no iiaeia aecia/eoe ye ni?euei? ae??,
ni?yiiaai? ia aeinyaiaiiy Oe?a?iith noaoono iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae.
A?aeiia?aeii c oe??th iaoith oi?ioaaeeny oe?e? i?eaaoiiai oa?aeoa?o,
ye? iia’ycoaaeenue c ooieoe?iioaaiiyi ae?anii?iiai i?aai?cio.

A o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e “Iniaeeaino? aioo??oiueiiie?oe/iiai ono?ith
Eaiaaee ye aeiaeaoeia? iiaeeeaino? aeey ae?? ae?anii? a
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iiio aeeoo? e?a?ie” ioe?ith?oueny eaiaaenueea
iie?oe/ia nenoaia c oi/ee ci?o a?aeiia?aeiino? ae?oa?e a?oi? oaeoi??a.
Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui aoi?/i? a?oie oeneo iathoue a oe?e e?a?i?
?icoe?ai? iiaeeeaino? caaaeyee ?nioaaiith “i?eioeeio ?ai?acaioaoeaiino?”
(iaia’yceiaa o?aooaaiiy oa?eoi??aeueii-aaia?ao?/ieo,
iaoe?iiaeueii-aoi?/ieo oa ?ae?a?eieo aniaeo?a i?ae /an oi?ioaaiiy
oaaea?aeueiiai eaa?iaoo i?i?no??a), a oaeiae “i?eioeeio ?aa?iiaeueii?
i?ea’ycee” (i?aeoeea cae??ieaiiy i?i?noa?nueeeo iino?a ca aeaiooaoaie
a?ae iaaieo i?ia?ioe?e, iacaeaaeii a?ae oiai, yea ia?o?y ciaoiaeeoueny o
aeaaee). Aeiaeaoeia? iiaeeeaino? noai?ththoueny caaaeyee ?noi?e/ii
cae??ieai?e aaoiiii??, yeith iaae?eai? eaiaaenuee? i?ia?ioe?? a noa??
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino?, a oaeiae ae?th/?e a e?a?i? iie?oeee
“aaaaoieoeueoo?iino?”.

*aoaa?oee i?ae?icae?e “Aoi?/i? a?oie oa aea?aeaaiee o?yae: i?iaeaie
aca?iiae??” aiae?co? iiaaae?ieo aoi?/ieo a?oi Eaiaaee i?ae /an
eiaoaaiiy nai?o ?ioa?an?a a noa?? ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee. Oni?oi?noue
iiae?aieo ae?e a a?eueo?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae nooiaiy ca?ao ?ioa?an?a
a?oie c ?ioa?anaie oaaea?aeueiiai o?yaeo e?a?ie a ?aieao i?iaeaie, ui
iaaiai?th?oueny. Na?aae ?ioeo neeaaeiaeo oni?oo ne?ae a?aecia/eoe
iayai?noue o aoi?/ieo i?aai?caoe?e iino?eiiai ooaoo ni?a?ia?oiee?a oa
iaoeiai-aeineiaeieoeueeeo no?oeoo?, noae?noue ca’yce?a c i?aai?caoe?yie
?ioeo aoi?/ieo a?oi, o?iainiao ni?iiiaei?noue ? aeinooi aei cania?a
ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??. Iioaioe?eii a?eueo oni?oi? a nai?o ae?yo o? a?oie,
ye? iathoue iiaeeea?noue aieeao ia aoi?/i? aieine a eeth/iaeo
i?ia?ioe?yo e?a?ie i?ae /an oaaea?aeueieo aeai??a.

Aoi?/i? a?oie iiaeooue ?icaeyaeaoenue ye iaeei c oaeoi??a aieeao ia
o?yae e?a?ie aeoiaeo, e?a?ie i?iaeeaaiiy, i?aeia?iaei? i?aai?caoe?? ?
o?ao? e?a?ie, aea ?acii c oeei ae?anii?e ia caeaoi? ea?aeeiaeueii
ci?ithaaoe neooaoe?th, yea neeaeanue ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Oe?a?inueea ae?anii?a a Eaiaae?: ?noi??y ? no/ania
iieiaeaiiy” ?icaeyaeathoueny ?noi??y ? i?e/eie oi?ioaaiiy,
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia, iie?oe/ia ? eoeueoo?ia iieiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?
aoi?/ii? a?oie a no/aniiio eaiaaenueeiio noni?euenoa?. Ia?oee
i?ae?icae?e “I?e/eie oa aoaie oe?a?inueei? ai?a?aoe?? ca ieaai (e.XIX –
XX no.no) ?icaeyaea? i?e/eie oa iniaeeaino? i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy
oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e Eaiaaee ia eiaeiiio c aoai?a. Oe?a?inueea
ni?eueiioa Eaiaaee noi?ioaaeany a ?acoeueoao? o?ueio ai?a?aoe?eieo
oaeeue, ia?oa c yeeo o?eaaea c e?ioey XIX no. aei ii/aoeo ia?oi?
na?oiai? a?eie. I?ney iayaiiai caoooaiiy i?ae /an a?eie, ai?a?aoe?eiee
i?ioean a?aeiiaeth?oueny a i?aeai?iiee ia??iae. O?aoy oaeey ianiaiai
ia?anaeaiiy oe?a?ioe?a a Eaiaaeo ii/eia?oueny i?ney cae?i/aiiy ae?oai?
na?oiai? a?eie, nyaioaoe naiai i?eo i?ae 1947 oa 1953 ?.?.

Ia?oa oaeey aecia/a?oueny ye nooi o?oaeiaa, oiio ui ii?yae c iie?oe/ieie
? ?ae?a?eieie iioeaaie ae?caeo, aeiiii?/iee iaa ia?oi?yaeia cia/aiiy.
Ae?oaa ai?a?aoe?eia oaeey iieeaea ii/aoie ae?caeo ca iie?oe/ieie
iioeaai, aea ia a?aei?io a?ae o?aouei? – iie?oe/ii? – a ia??iae ae?oai?
oaee? aeiiii?/i? ? iie?oe/i? i?e/eie ai?a?aoe?? o??aiiaaaeoaaeenue. A
ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? “Aei aecia/aiiy oa?i?io “oe?a?inuee? eaiaaeoe?”
?icaeyaea?oueny aaiethoe?y ineoieia?/ieo eiioeaioe?e, ye? caeaaeaee a?ae
iaeaoooaaiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a o??? aai ?ioi? ai?a?aoe?eii? oaee? aei
i?eeiath/iai noni?euenoaa. A ?acoeueoao? /iai aeieea? caaaeueiiaaeeaaiee
ye a Oe?a?i?, oae ? a ae?anii?? oa?i?i “oe?a?inuee? eaiaaeoe?”.

O?ao?e i?ae?icae?e “Ia?oa ? ae?oaa ai?a?aoe?ei? oaee?:
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oa iie?oe/ii-eoeueoo?i? oa?aeoa?enoeee” aiae?co?
iniaeeaino? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai oa eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e c e.XIX – ia ii/aoeo XX no. A ?acoeueoao?
eieaeueiiai ?ici?uaiiy ia oa?eoi??? Cao?aeii? Eaiaaee ? a?aeiinii
caieiaiiai niiniao aeeooy a “aeieiaeo iinaeaiiyo” ia ia?oiio aoai? naiai
ia?aaoaaiiy a e?a?i? oe?a?ioeyi aaeaeiny caeiina?aoaaoe iaoe?iiaeueiee
aeeoo?aee ono??e ? oiia?eueieoe i?ioean anei?eyoe??.

Ci?ie, yeeo caciaea oe?a?inueea ae?anii?a c i?eaoooyi o?aouei?
ai?a?aoe?eii? oaee? i?iaiae?ciaai? a /aoaa?oiio i?ae?icae?e? “O?aoy
ai?a?aoe?eia oaeey oe?a?ioe?a a Eaiaae?: ?noi??y oa iane?aeee
ae?yeueiino?”. No/ania oe?a?inueea aoi?/ia a?oia ia?aeoea a noaae?th
“iia?e?ciaaii?” ae?anii?e, ine?eueee iiai?noth a?aeiia?aea? iaiao?aeiei
oa?aeoa?enoeeai: ia? naith noi?iiaaio ae?oo, yea ceeeanue c i?noeaaith
ae?oith, iaaoea cia/ieo iaoa??aeueii-eoeueoo?ieo caeiaooe?a, ii??aiyii c
?ioeie (ia iniiaieie) a?oiaie, ye? iaoeathoue a i?eeiath/iio
noni?euenoa?. Ia?ao?ae oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e a noaae?th
“iia?e?ciaaii?” na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui aiia caeaoia aei aeoeaieo
eia?nonueeeo ae?e ia ??ai? oaaea?aeueiiai ? i?ia?ioe?eieo o?yae?a.

Ii?yae c iiceoeaieie ?acoeueoaoaie iiaii? ?ioaa?aoe?? oe?a?inueei?
ae?anii?e a eaiaaenueea noni?euenoai na?eicio caa?ico ?? ?nioaaiith
neeaaeathoue anei?eyoe?ei? oaiaeaioe??, aeaaeae? iaae?ath/i neeo. Oea
i?iyaey?oueny a aenieiio a?aenioeo ci?oaieo oetha?a, cieaeaii? ??aiy
aaeeaaiiy a iianyeaeaiiiio ni?eeoaaii? oe?a?inueei? iiae, caoiieaii?
ciai?oiueith noi?iiith aoiia?ao?/ii? eoeueoo?e aac aeeaieiai ?icoi?iiy
?noi?e/ieo aeoie?a o?aaeeoe?e, cae/a?a ? a??oaaiue oe?a?ioe?a.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “Oe?a?inueea ae?anii?a Eaiaaee ye aeaiaio no/anieo
oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueeeo a?aeiinei” ?icaeyiooi oi?ie, iai?yiee ?
?acoeueoaoe ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e a Eaiaae? i?ae /an
oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueeeo a?aeiinei c 1991 ?ieo aei
nueiaiaeaiiy. A oeueiio ?icae?e? iiaeaia ia??iaeecaoe?y ?icaeoeo
aeainoi?iii?o ca’yce?a ? aecia/ai? niaoeeo?/i? ?ene oa iniaeeaino?
eiaeiiai c aoai?a. Ii/eiath/e c 1991 ?ieo, oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueei
a?aeiineie i?ieoee o?e aoaie: ia?oee – c 24 na?iiy ii 1 a?oaeiy 1991 ?.,
ae?oaee – c a?oaeiy 1991 ?. aei ii/aoeo 1993 ?., o?ao?e – c 1993 ?.
Eiaeiee c aoai?a ia? ?yae a?aei?iiinoae. Iniaeeaino? ia?oiai c ieo
?icaeyiooi a ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? “I?aeaioia/ee aoai a
oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueeeo a?aeiineiao”. A oiae? oeueiai aoaio oe?a?inueea
ni?eueiioa Eaiaaee, aeei?enoiaoth/e naith aoi?/io i?ano, ??ciiiai?oi?
oi?ie oeneo ia caeiiiaeaa/? oa aeeiiaa/? i?aaie aeaaee, caaaeyee
aeoeai?e ae?yeueiino? EOE, c?a?aea cia/io ?ieue a oi?ioaaii? o na?oiaiai
ni?aoiaa?enoaa ia?aco Oe?a?ie ye iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae, yea i?aaia aei
aeaiie?aoe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue ? ?icaoaeiae ?eieiai? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie.

Eaiaaenueeee o?yae ea?oaaany a nai?o ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo ae?yo ii
a?aeiioaiith aei Oe?a?ie caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueieie ?ioa?anaie ?
aeiiii?/iith aeioe?euei?noth, ?icaeyaeaa Oe?a?io ye noaa?e?coth/ee
oaeoi? a no?aeii?a?iiaenueeiio ?aa?ii? i?ney ?iciaaeo N?N?. Ia oeueiio
aoai? caeiiii??ii ni?aiaee ?ioa?ane eaiaaenueeiai o?yaeo ? oe?a?inueei?
ae?anii?e a ieoaii? uiaei aeciaiiy oe?a?inueei? iacaeaaeiino?, aea naia
iaeei?ioo? oa?i?ie ?? aeciaiiy Eaiaaeith aacoiiaii noaee ?acoeueoaoii
eia?nonueei? ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueei? aoi?/ii? a?oie.

Noai oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueeeo a?aeiinei ia ae?oaiio aoai?
aeine?aeaeo?oueny a ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? “Aoai oi?ioaaiiy
aea?aeaaii-aeeieiiaoe/ieo iaoai?ci?a aca?iiae?? Oe?a?ie ? Eaiaaee oa
iiceoe?y ae?anii?e”. Ia oeueiio aoai? eaiaaenueeee o?yae inoaoi/ii
ae?iaea no?aoaa?th ?icaeoeo ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa c iiaei aeey naaa
i?aeia?iaeiei ia?oia?ii – Oe?a?iith. Oey no?aoaa?y aaco?oueny ia
i?aeo?eioe? aeaiie?aoe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?,
ia?aoiaeo oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee aei ?eieiaeo iaoai?ci?a
ainiiaea?thaaiiy ? aaeineiiaeaiiy iieioeei-caeiiiaeaa/i? nenoaie a
aea?aeaa?, a oaeiae ia ni?eyii? i?inoaaiith eaiaaenueeeo aeiiii?/ieo
?ioa?an?a a ?aa?ii?. Oe?a?inueea ae?anii?a caeiyea aeoeaio iiceoe?th a
ieoaiiyo oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueeeo ca”yceia, aeei?enoiaoth/e
na?e aeina?ae ?iaioe a aea?aeaaieo no?oeoo?ao ? eiioaeoe c
i?aaenoaaieeaie eaiaaenueeiai oaaea?aeueiiai o?yaeo, a oaeiae oeyoii
aaciina?aaeiuei? o/ano? a ?ic?iaoe? ni?eueieo oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueeeo
aeainoi?iii?o i?iaeo?a a yeino? aeeiiaaoe?a, eiinoeueoaio?a aai
iaiaaeaea??a i?aeaea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai. Oe?ieiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy iaaoea
aeaaiae?eia ae?yeuei?noue i?aaenoaaiee?a ae?anii?e, iaoe?eaia ia
iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae iio?aaoth/ei a Oe?a?ie. A oie aea /an iecuee? oaiie
aeiiii?/ieo ? iie?oe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?
ii/aee aeeeeeaoe e?eoe/i? caoaaaeaiiy c aieo i?aaenoaaiee?a ae?anii?e.

Iiceoe?y ae?anii?e a?aeiinii ?icaeoeo i?aeaea?aeaaieo noinoie?a i?ae
Oe?a?iith oa Eaiaaeith ?icaeyaea?oueny a o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? “Aoai
“iniaeeaiai ia?oia?noaa” a oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueeeo a?aeiineiao oa
oe?a?inueea ae?anii?a”. O?ao?e aoai oa?aeoa?eco?oueny noai?aiiyi
aaaaoi/eneaiieo aeainoi?iii?o i?ia?ai ? ?iaioith iaae ?o aeeiiaiiyi.
Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith oeueiai aoaio ? ci?uaiiy ae?eiai? aeoeaiino? c
aeuiai aea?aeaaiiai ??aiy ia ??aaiue eiie?aoieo aeeiiaaoe?a i?aeienaieo
i?ia?ai ? aeiaiai??a a noa?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, ioi?iie caei?ia’y,
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, ina?oe, n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ?
?icaoaeiae a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa a Oe?a?i?.

I?aaenoaaieee oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e noathoue ?i?oe?aoi?aie i?ia?ai
oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueeiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa, aeoea?coth/e nai? ae?? c
iaoith noai?aiiy iiaeo i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo?, ae?? yeeo aeoiaeyoue ca
?aiee nooi ae?anii?ieo i?iaeai ? iai?aaeai? ia ni?a?ia?oieoeoai c
o?yaeaie Oe?a?ie i Eaiaaee.

Aeniiaee. Oe?a?inueea ae?anii?a, i?aaenoaaeyth/e niaith iaaeiiii?/io
a?oio oeneo, caaaeyee naiio nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio, iie?oe/iiio ?
eoeueoo?iiio iieiaeaiith a ieth?ae?noe/iiio noni?euenoa? Eaiaaee aeoeaii
aeeth/aia a i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueeeo a?aeiioaiue.

Oe?a?inuee? eaiaaeoe? noathoue ?i?oe?aoi?aie oa aaciina?aaei?ie
ae?eiaeie iniaaie ye aeeiiaaoe?, ea??aieee, aenia?oe ? eiinoeueoaioe
/eneaiieo i?iaeo?a ? i?ia?ai aeainoi?iiiueiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa, ye?
ni?yiiaai? ia noai?aiiy a Oe?a?i? noaa?eueiiai na?aaeiueiai eeano, ia
iaeneiaeueio aaeaioaoe?th eiia?oe?eieo ? ?eieiaeo iaoai?ci?a a Oe?a?i?
aei ae?th/eo no?oeoo? cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeiai ? i?ai?/iiaia?eeainueeiai
?eie?a, a oaeiae ia ye iiaa nei??oa aoiaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie a ?eieiao
aeiiii?/io nenoaio, ui iiceoeaii aieeia ia oiiae ?icaeoeo eaiaaenueeiai
a?ciano a iao?e e?a?i? oa noai?eoue ni?eyoeeaee ?iaanoeoe?eiee ee?iao
aeey eaiaaenueeiai eai?oaeo.

Oe?a?inuee? eaiaaeoe?, ye? iathoue aeaniee a?cian, aeoeai?oa ca
i?aaenoaaiee?a ?ioeo aoi?/ieo a?oi aeeth/athoueny a ia?oia?nuee?
a?aeiineie c Oe?a?iith. Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie aeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a c
oe?a?inueeeie ia?oia?aie aaeueio?oueny iaaeineiiae?noth caeiiiaeaa/i –
i?aaiai? aace, a oaeiae iaaoaeoeaii ae?th/ith nenoaiith iiiaeaoeoaaiiy
oa caoenoo i?eaaoii? aeaniino?. Ie??i oeueiai, iaaaoeaii a?aeaeaa?oueny
ia ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueeeo a?aeiinei aenieee ??aaiue ei?oioe??
oa ath?ie?aoecio a Oe?a?i?. A aeiiiaiaiiy aei oeeo ianoaaei, oe?a?inuee?
eaiaaeoe? ?ic/a?iaai? iacaaeia?eueiei, c ?o oi/ee ci?o, noaiii
iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e ? iiae a iacaeaaei?e Oe?a?i?.

A?eueoa /anoeia eaiaaeoe?a oe?a?inueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy ?aae?cothoue naith
iiaeeea?noue aeiiiiiaoe ?noi?e/i?e aaouee?auei? /a?ac ?iaioo a
aeaaiae?eieo i?aai?caoe?yo ? o/anoue a aoiai?oa?ieo aeoe?yo.

Aacia?a/ii ?nio? iaaiee aieea oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e ia oaaea?aeueiee
o?yae e?a?ie c iaoith oi?ioaaiiy iie?oeee Eaiaaee ii a?aeiioaiith aei
iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie. Oeae aieea /eieoueny /a?ac i?aai?caoe?ei? no?oeoo?e
ni?eueiioe, ia?o ca ana, oae? ye Eiia?an Oe?a?inueeeo Eaiaaeoe?a ?
/anoeiaa /a?ac iauiaeaaii ooai?ai? – Eaiaaenueei-oe?a?inueeo ooiaeaoe?th
? Eiinoeueoaoeaio ?aaeo i?e i?i?no?? caei?aeiiieo ni?aa Eaiaaee, ye?
aeoiaeyoue ca ?aiee aoi?/iiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa. ?acii c oei oe?
iiaiooai?ai? no?oeoo?e a?ae?a?athoue, a iniiaiiio, aeiiii?aeio ?ieue.
Ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iee eo?n eaiaaenueei? aea?aeaae ii a?aeiioaiith aei
iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie oi?io?oueny o a?aeiia?aeiino? c iaoe?iiaeueieie
?ioa?anaie Eaiaaee ? /anoeiai /a?ac o??th iiceoe??th, yeo aiia caeia? ia
i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?. Oe?a?inueea ae?anii?a, a naith /a?ao, c?a?aea
cia/io ?ieue a oi?ioaaii? ?i?aeaeo iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie a Eaiaae?, a
iiioey?ecaoe?? oe?a?inueei? aioo??oiuei? oa ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee, ui
ni?eyei oi?ioaaiith ae?oaei?o aca?iiaea?aeieo a?aeiinei i?ae aeaiia
e?a?iaie.

5) J. Armstrong. Mobilized and Proletarian Diasporas.//American
Political Science Review.-1976.-N2.-P. 393-409

6) G. Sheffer. Modern Diasporas in International Politics.-New-York: St.
Martin’s Press, 1980.-349 ?.

7) D. Constas, A. Platias. Diasporas in World Politics: the Greeks in
Comparative Perspective.-Macmillan Press, 1993.-239?.

8) Groups and Governments in Canadian Foreign Policy. Ed. D. Munton. —
Ottawa: Institute of International Affairs, 1982.-115?.; Elizabeth
Riddell-Dixon. The Domestic Mosaic: Interest Groups and Canadian Foreign
Policy./Groups and Governments in Canadian Foreign Policy. Ed. D.
Munton. — Ottawa: Institute of International Affairs, 1982.-P. 20-23.;
S. Dimock. Interest groups in Canadian foreign policy process: a
conceptual overview./Groups and Governments in Canadian Foreign Policy.
Ed. D. Munton. — Ottawa: Institute of International Affairs, 1982.-P.
23-25.

9) B. J. Hibbitts. Ethnic groups and Canadian propaganda policy in the
1950s./Groups and Governments in Canadian Foreign Policy. Ed. D. Munton.
— Ottawa: Institute of International Affairs, 1982.-P. 100-104.; M.
Esman. Ethnic Politics.-Cornell University Press., 1994.-277 p.; K.
Holsti. Ethnicity and Canadian Foreign Policy//Diasporas in World
Politics: the Greeks in Comparative Perspective, 1993.-239 p

10) E. A. Ieiaacooaeeiia, N. E. Noaeiaei. Aieeyiea eiiea?aioneeo a?oii
ia aiaoithth iieeoeeo naaa?iaia?eeaineeo no?ai./Iea?aoeey e iea?aiou a
ie?a eaieoaea: enoi?e/aneea noaeueau e nia?aiaiiia iieiaeaiea.-E. :
Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1990.-n. 30-47.; Aaooo A. A. Eiioeaioeee
yoiinioeeaeueiiai ?icaeoey NOA e Eaiaaeu. Oeiieiaey, o?aaeeoeee,
aaiethoeey.-E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1991.-176n.

11) Oeaiaeia A. I. Oe?a?inueea o?oaeiaa ai?a?aoe?y a NOA oa Eaiaaeo (e.
XIX — i. OO no.).-E..: Aeae-ai AI O?N?, 1960.-200n.; Oeaiaeia A. I. O
aeaea?ae oe?a?inueei? o?oaeiai? ai?a?aoe?? a Eaiaaeo//OIAE.-1966.-?6.-n.
49-57.; Eauaiei E. I. Oa?ia?nueeee ?oo a Eaiaae? a 1900-1903 ?. ?.- E.:
Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1973.-243n.

12) Ca?oa?aei? oe?a?ioei/Eaaaciee N. TH. Iaea? TH. O. -E.: Oe?a?ia,
1991.-252n.; Oe?a?ioe? a ca?oa?aeiiio naioi/Ao?eoo I. A, Aaneeaaa E. I.,
Oeaiaeia A. I.-E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1991.-138 n.

13) ?aooo A. A., Eiaaeue/oe I. I. Aoiieoeueoo?ia ae?yeuei?noue
oe?a?inueeeo eaiaaeoe?a: caeiaooee oa i?iaeaie//OIAE.-?9.-n. 42-50.;
?aooo A. A., Eiaaeue/oe I. I. Oe?a?inuee? eaiaaeoe?: i?iaeaie
nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/ii? ?ioaa?aoe??//O?AE.-1991.-?8.-n. 64-75.; ?aooo
A. A., Eiaaeue/oe I. I. Oe?a?inuee? eaiaaeoe?.-E.: Aoae?aaeueiee,
1993.-142n.

14) J.Balan. Salt and Braided Bread. Ukrainian Life in Canada.-Toronto:
Oxford Univ. Press, 1984.-125p.; Continuity and Change/The Cultural Life
of Alberta’s First Ukrainians. Ed by M. Lupul. — Edmonton: Published by
Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, 1988.-286p.; Milestones. A
History of the Ukrainian Catholic Church of the Transfiguration.
Kitchner, Ontario — 1926-1986. Ed. by I. L. Wynnyckyj. — Kitchener:
Published by the Ukrainian Church of the Transfiguration, 1987.-109 p.;
Ae. I?ieii. Oe?a?ioe? a Cao?aei?e Eaiaae?: aei ?noi??? ?oiueiai
iinaeaiiy oa iiaooo. ?aeiiioii — A?ii?iaa, 1987. O. I,2.

15) Deconstructing a Nations Immigration, Multiculturalism & Racism in
’90s Canada. Ed. by V. Satzewich. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan,
1992.-537 p.; L. Driedger. Multi-Ethnic Canada. Identities &
Inequalities. Toronto: Oxford Univ. Press, 1996.-352p.

16) Oe?a?inuee? iinaeaiiy. Aeia?aeiee. — Iueth-Ei?e, 1980.-351n.;
Oe?a?ioe? a aia?eeainueeiio oa eaiaaenueeiio noni?euenoaao.
Nioe?ieia?/iee cai?iee.-Aeaea?ni-Nioi, 1976, O. 1.2.

17) Ukraine and Ukrainians Throughout the World. Ed. by Ann Lencyk
Pawliczko.-Toronto: Toronto Univ. Press, 1994-507p.

18) Ai?iaee I. Oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueea i?ana oa ?? cia/aiiy aeey
caa?aaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? iaioeie a Eaiaaei.-Ithioai, 1977.-341n.; J.
Kaye. Early Ukrainian Settlements ?n Canada. 1895-1900.-Toronto: Toronto
Univ. Press, 1964.-402p.; B. Kordan. The Block Settlements in Alberta. —
Edmonton, 1971.-207p.; J. Lehr. The Government and the Immigrants:
Perspectives on Ukrainian Block Settlements in the Canadian
West/Canadian Ethnic Studies.-Toronto: Toronto Univ. Press, 1987.-247 p.

19) Aeaeea?aoe?y i?i a?aeiineie i?ae Oe?a?iith i Eaiaaeith a?ae 22
aa?aniy 1991 ?ieo//Iieioeea i /an.-?10.-1991.-n. 79-80.; Ni?eueia
aeaeea?aoe?y i?i anoaiiaeaiiy aeeieiiaoe/ieo a?aeiinei i?ae Oe?a?iith oa
Eaiaaeith a?ae 27 n?/iy 1992 ?ieo// Iie?oeea i /an.-?2.-1992. -n. 69-71;
Iaii?aiaeoi i?i aca?ii?icoi?iiy a?aeiinii eiinoeueoaoe?e i?ae Oe?a?iith
oa Eaiaaeith a?ae 23 aa?aniy 1992 ?ieo// Iie?oeea i /an.-?10.-1992.-n.
68; Ni?eueia Aeaeea?aoe?y i?i iniaeeaa ia?oia?noai iiae Oe?a?iith i
Eaiaaeith aiae 31 aa?aciy 1994//Iieioeea i /an.-?5.-1994.-n. 92-94;
Oaiaea i?i ae?oaeao ? ni?a?ia?oieoeoai i?ae Oe?a?iith oa Eaiaaeith a?ae
24 aeiaoiy 1994 ?ieo// Iie?oeea i /an.-?12.-1994. -n 82-84.

20) Aiein Oe?a?ie. Aacaoa Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie. 1991-1998.; O?yaeiaee
eo?’??. Aacaoa i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee Oe?a?ie.
1991-1998.; RFE/RL Report.-1992.-N7-10.

21) Noni?eueia Neoaeaa Oe?a?ioe?a Eaiaaee. O?e?y Oi?iioi. Ca?o ca 1991
?.-Oi?iioi, 1992.-85n.; Ca?o c ??/ii? eiioa?aioe?? Noni?eueii? Neoaeae
Oe?a?ioe?a Eaiaaee: “Noni?eueia Neoaeaa o i?aeaioiaoe? aei ?ieo 2000”. —
Oi?iioi, 1993-16n.; ??/iee ca?o aieiae Aaieoaa?nueeiai a?aeae?eo
Noni?eueii? Neoaeae Oe?a?ioe?a Eaiaaee ca 1993?. — Aaieoaa?, 1993.-10n.;
??/iee ca?o aieiae Iooaanueeiai a?aeae?eo Noni?eueii? Neoaeae Oe?a?ioe?a
Eaiaaee ca 1993?. — Iooaaa, 1993.-8n.; Iioi?iaoeaiee ca?o ?aa?iiaeueieo
o?e?e NNOE ca 1994?.-Oi?iioi, 1994.-15n.; XII c’?cae Noni?eueii? Neoaeae
Oe?a?ioe?a Eaiaaee: “E?ie o 21 noie?ooy. Oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai a
eaiaaenuee?e ae?eniino?. “- A?ii?iaa, 1995.-28n.; Noni?eueia Neoaeaa
Oe?a?ioe?a Eaiaaee. O?e?y Oi?iioi. Ca?o ca 1996 ?.-Oi?iioi, 1996.-57n.

22) Ca?o i?i noiaeeie I?aceae?? Nae?aoa??aoo NEO 20-21 ethoiai 1998?. —
Oi?iioi, 1998.

23) XVII Eiia?an Oe?a?ioe?a Eaiaaee. “Iiaa ae?eni?noue – iiaa
iaeaooi?.-?aeiiioii, 1992.-125n.

24) Newsletter Help Us Help to Children.-Toronto, 1997.

25) Canada Ukraine Foundation. Report of Proceeding. — Edmonton Regional
Seminar. January 31.1998.-Edmonton, 1998.-8p.; NUF Workshop. February
7-8, 1998.-12 p.

26) Canada Cooperation with Ukraine. Ottawa: CIDA, 1997.-35p.; CIDA’s
Programming Strategy for Ukraine. — Ottawa: CIDA, 1997.-13p.; Results —
Based Management in CIDA. Policy Statement. — Ottawa: CIDA, 1998.-3p.;
CIDA in Action. Ukraine.-Ottawa: CIDA, 1998

27) CEA Forum: Ukraine. A summary of the proceeding of two-day
conference for CIDA technical assistance projects in Ukraine. November
21st-22, 1997.-Ottawa: CBIE, 1997.-35p.; Policy Options: Ukraine. A
policy paper based on a symposium held December 3rd, 1996.-Ottawa: CBIE,
1996.

Nienie ioae?eaoe?e

1. Oe?a?inueea ae?anii?a a Eaiaae? ye oaeoi? no/anieo
oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueeeo a?aeiinei//Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie iie?oeee.-aei.
3-4.-1998.-n.75-79.

2. Ieaai ia ia?aiiia. Oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueeeo a?aeiinei ?
?ieue a oeueiio oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e//Iie?oeea ?
/an.-1998.-?10.-n.19-24 (a ni?aaaoi?noa? c N.E. Aiiaoiaei).

3. Aeianii?e ye oaeoi? a no/ani?e ciai?oi?e iie?oeoe? Eaiaaee (ia
iaoa??aeao aia?eeaii-eaiaaenueei? ?noi??ia?ao??)/Caienee ?noi?e/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo.-aei.9-Iaeana,1999.-0,2 ie.

4. Oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueei a?aeiineie ia no/aniiio aoai? (1991-1994
?.?.)/Caienee ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo-aei. 5.-1997.-n.312-318.

5. ?ii?a?aoe?eia iie?oeea Eaiaaee: ?noi??y oa no/ani?noue.//Ieoaiiy
i?a?aoe??.-1998.-?4.-n.2-8 (a ni?aaaoi?noa? c N.E. Aiiaoiaei)

6. ?icaeoie eiioeaioe?? iie?eoeueoo?iino? a Eaiaae?: o?iee aeey
i?aaeaiiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie/Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??
“No/ania aoiieoeueoo?ia oa aoiiiie?oe/ia neooaoe?y ia I?aaei? Oe?a?ie ?
aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy”, Iaeana, 10-11 a?oaeiy 1996
?.-n.245.

Ai?aaothe I. I. ?ieue oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e a oi?ioaaii?
oe?a?inueei-eaiaaenueeeo a?aeiinei. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00. 02. – Anana?oiy ?noi??y – Iaeanueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao?, Iaeana, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ?icaeyaeo i?noey ? ?ie? oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e
Eaiaaee a ?icaeoeo aeainoi?iii?o a?aeiinei i?ae Oe?a?iith ? Eaiaaeith c
1991 ii 1998 ?.?.. A ?iaio? i?iaiae?ciaai? iniiai? i?e/eie, iaoiaee,
oeyoe ? ?acoeueoaoe aieeao oe?a?inueei? aoi?/ii? a?oie ia oaaea?aeueiee
o?yae Eaiaaee, a oaeiae c’yniaai? oaeoi?e, ye? ni?eythoue aai
ia?aoeiaeaeathoue aoaeoeaiiio ?icaeoeo i?aeia?iaeiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa
i?ae oeeie aeaiia aea?aeaaaie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ae?anii?a, ai?a?aoe?eia oaeey, oe?a?inueea aoi?/ia
a?oia, a?oia oeneo, oaaea?aeueiee o?yae, aoi?/ia i?aai?caoe?y.

Ai?aaothe I.I. ?ieue oe?aeineie aeeanii?u a oi?ie?iaaiee
oe?aeinei-eaiaaeneeo ioiioaiee.-?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.02.-Anaiauay enoi?ey – Iaeanneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Iaeanna, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?anniio?aieth ianoa e ?iee oe?aeineie aeeanii?u
Kaiaaeu a ?acaeoee aeaonoi?iiieo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo Oe?aeiie e Eaiaaeie n
1991 ii 1998 a.a. A ?aaioa, ia iniiaa eco/aiey oe?ieiai enoi/ieeiaiai
iaoa?eaea e eeoa?aoo?u, i?ineaaeaia yaiethoeey e enoi?ey oi?ie?iaaiey
oe?aeineie yoie/aneie a?oiiu a Eaiaaea n eiioea XIX a.,?anniio?aiu
oai?aoe/aneea aniaeou aeayoaeueiinoe aeeanii? ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie a?aia
e iniaaiiinoe eo aeaenoaee a oiaea oi?ie?iaaiey aiaoiaiieeoe/aneiai
eo?na Eaiaaeu, i?iaiaeece?iaaiu iniiaiua i?e/eiu, iaoiaeu e ?acoeueoaou
aicaeaenoaey oe?aeineie yoie/aneie a?oiiu ia oaaea?aeueiia
i?aaeoaeuenoai no?aiu, a oaeaea auyniaiu oaeoi?u, eioi?ua niinianoaotho
eee i?aiyonoaotho yooaeoeaiiio ?acaeoeth iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
nio?oaeie/anoaa iaaeaeo aeaoiy ainoaea?noaaie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeeanii?a, yiea?aoeeiiiay aieia, oe?aeineay yoie/aneay
a?oiia, a?oiia aeaaeaiey, oaaea?aeueiia i?aaeoaeuenoai, yoie/aneay
i?aaiecaoeey.

Gorbatyuk N.P. The Role of Ukrainian Diaspora in Formation of
Ukrainian – Canadian Relations (1991-1998).-Manuscript.

The dissertation for receiving the scientific degree of Ph.D. in history
within the specialty 07.00.02 – World History – Odessa State University,
1999.

The dissertation is dedicated to the analysis of the place and role of
Ukrainian diaspora in Canada for the development of bilateral relations
between Ukraine and Canada since 1991 till 1998. Its distinctive
attention was paid to studying of key reasons, methods and results in
the case of influence on the Canadian federal government by Ukrainian
ethnic group. Also it made clear the promotion factors for effective
development of international cooperation between two states.

The key words: diaspora, emigration wave, Ukrainian ethnic group,
pressure group, federal government, ethnic organization.

Похожие записи