IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO AeA?AEAAE ? I?AAA ?i. A.I. EI?AOeUeEIAI

IAI OE?A?IE

OAeE 323: 321.01

IA?AEA? Oaoyia ?aai?aia

?IEUe NIOe?AEUeII-I?AAIAI? AeA?AEAAE I?IA**EIE O NOAA?E?CAOe??
NONI?EUeNOAA

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 23.00.02 — iie?oe/i? ?inoeoooe oa i?ioeane

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iie?oe/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? iie?oieia?? ? nioe?ieia?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

aeieoi? iie?oe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

AAAE?IA Ieueaa Aieiaeeie??aia,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iie?oieia?? ? nioe?ieia??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

AIOIIAIEI Aieiaeeie? A?eai?iae/,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e iie?oe/ieo iaoe Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea

eaiaeeaeao iie?oe/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

NIIEssITHE Aieiaeeie? Oaaei?iae/,

aeieoi?aio Aeaaeai?? Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao aoae?aieoeoaa ?
a?o?oaeoo?e, eaoaae?a iie?oe/ieo iaoe

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «29» n?/iy 1999 ?. i 1530 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 50.24.01 ii caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iie?oe/ieo iaoe i?e ?inoeooo?
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:
252001, Ee?a, aoe. O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «28» a?oaeiy 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao iie?oe/ieo iaoe
A.I. Ai?aaoaiei

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 27.10.1998 ?. Cai. ? 24/10-98.

Ianya 1,0 ae?oe. a?e. Oi?iao 60 ( 90/16. Oe?. ( 100.

Aeaeaaie/ee oeaio? ?inoeoooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa

?i. A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie: Ee?a, aoe. O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iai?ee?ioe? OO no. Oe?a?ia noaea ia oeyo
ia?aoiaeo a?ae oioae?oa?ecio aei aeaiie?ao??, a?ae e?i?eieo aei
iie?aa??aioieo oi?i ?nioaaiiy. Aiaeii/an ia?aae iath iinoaea
iaiao?aei?noue iiaea?i?caoe?? noni?euenoaa, aeai?o iaaiiai aa??aioo
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo. Iaaeinoaoi? oai?aoe/ia ?ic?iaea oa
??aaiue ocaaaeueiaiiy iayaiiai o na?o? aeina?aeo ia?aoiaeo a?ae
aaoi?eoa?ii-ath?ie?aoe/ieo ?aaeei?a aei aoaeoeaieo oi?i aeaiie?ao??
aeiaaee /an coiiaethaaee iaaecia/ai?noue eiioeaiooaeueieo canaae
iiaeaeueoi? aaiethoe?? aea?aeaae. Ca oeeo oiia iaa?oiooaaiiy
no?aoaa?/ii? iaoe ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa, ?ic?iaea iaaii? ia?aaeeaie
oeueiai i?ioeano ? ae??oaeueiei /eiieeii oi?ioaaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ii?
aea?aeaae. Ia /an? iaiao?aei?noue iaoeiaiai iiooeo ?aeaieia??, caeaoii?
aenooieoe ?aeaeiei ?aaoeyoi?ii ethaenueei? iiaaae?iee ? noaoe
aaeaeaaoiith iia?e ia?aaeeai? noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo.

I?e oi?ioaaii? iiai? ?aeaieia?? noiniaii no/anii? Oe?a?ie aieiaia oaaaa,
ye i?aaeei, aeoeaioo?oueny ia ?icaeoeo nenoaie i?eioeei?a ? oe?iiinoae,
iia’ycaieo c? noaiiaeaiiyi ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. Iiae?aiee aeaoa?i?i?ci o
?icoi?ii? i?noey ethaeeie a noni?eueiiio i?ia?an? iaoiiaeth? aeieeiaiiy
oeaieo oyaeaiue i?i iniaeeao aaaeeea?noue ia’?eoeaiiai ia/aea ia
i?ioeaaao noa’?eoeaiiio, aeooiaiiio. Noa?a cae/ea nie?aoeny ia
iii?noe/ia iiyniaiiy na?oo oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeaaoiai?caoe??th ethaeeie
a noni?euenoa?. Naia oiio ia ia?oee ieai aenooia? i?iaeaia aoiai?cio,
yea iinooiiai iaaoaa? iiaeo iciae ? iiaeo ianooaa?a. Aoiai?ci ? iniiaith
? noooth iiai? ia?aaeeaie ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa, oeaio?ii yei? iinoa?
naia ethaeeia ye iaeaeua oe?ii?noue, iaoa ? aieiaia oiiaa noni?eueiiai
?icaeoeo. Caiia?aoe oaino oe?eeiaeoi? aeaaoiai?caoe?? oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa iiaeia eeoa iia’ycaaoe anth iie?oeeo, ii?aeue, i?aai,
nioe?aeueio ineoieia?th ?c caaaeueiiethaenueeeie aoiai?noe/ieie
oe?iiinoyie, ye? ? ?aeaieia?/iith iniiaith nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaae.
Aeciaiiy i??i?eoaoo aoiai?oa?iiai ni?eeiyooy noni?eueiiai i?ia?ano
aenoaa? a yeino? ia?oi/a?aiaiai caaaeaiiy iaiao?aei?noue iiaoaeiae
nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaae, yea naiai /ano aecia/eea oni?oiee eo?n ia
cae?eniaiiy nioe?aeueieo ia?aoai?aiue oe?eiai ?yaeo no/anieo ?icaeiaieo
e?a?i.

Iniaeeaee ?ioa?an yaey? niaith aeina?ae noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaaiino? iiai?iii? I?ia//eie. Oea iiynith?oueny
ianaiia?aae oei, ui cacia/aia e?a?ia cana?ae/eea iaeei ?c iaea?eueo
ia?aeiieeaeo i?eeeaae?a oni?oiiai ia?aoiaeo a?ae
aaoi?eoa?ii-oa?i?enoe/iiai ?aaeeio aei no?eei? aeaiie?ao?? ia iniia?
ii?aeiaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?
nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino? a ?ioa?anao noaa?eueiino? ? i?aaiii?yaeeo.
C iiai?iieo /an?a ? aeioaia? aea?aeaaa a I?ia//ei? ae?? ye eaoae?caoi? ?
ni?yiiaoth/a neea ooaa?aeaeaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ieo ? ?eieiaeo oe?iiinoae.
Iniiaia ?? iieeeeaiiy — caoeuaoe ethaeae a?ae iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieo. O oeueiio iieyaa? nooue caeii?a i?i nioe?aeueiee
caoeno ? nooue aea?aeaae aeaaiaeainoaa, ye? neeaaeathoue iniiao
i?aeoe/ii-nioe?aeueiiai ao?eaiiy i?aaiai? aea?aeaae a I?ia//ei?. Ii?yae
c aeuacacia/aiei oaaaa aei nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaaiino? cacia/aii? e?a?ie
iia’ycaia c? ni?euei?noth ?noi?e/ii? aeie? oe?a?inueeiai oa i?iaoeueeiai
ia?iae?a. Oey ni?euei?noue — o oeny/ie?oi?e ?noi??? eoeueoo?ii?,
iie?oe/ii? ? aeiiii?/ii? aca?iiae?? aeaio e?a?i, a oaeiae o ni?euei?e
aeey Oe?a?ie e I?ia//eie 19-20 no. aeie? «iaacaeia?iieo» e?a?i, eio?? c
a?eueoei /e iaioei oni?oii i?aaioee e?ea?aeoaaoe naith
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io a?aenoae?noue oe?iith oi?niaaieo coneeue,
?i?oe?eiaaieo aaoi?eoa?iith aea?aeaaith.

O ia??iae ei??iiiai ia?aoai?aiiy nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie
ia’?eoeaii c?inoa? caoe?eaaeai?noue aeina?aeii noaa?e?caoe??
noni?euenoaa — iaei??? c iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?iaeai iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo.
Ona?aeiieaia ye iaeia c «a?/ieo i?iaeai» noni?eueiiai aeeooy, ye
oe?ii?noue ii/anoe aeii?ioth/a, aea ia??aeei aoyaiooa o eiioe?eoiaaiiee
aeoi? i?ioe??/ c ?ioeie oe?iiinoyie, cacia/aia i?iaeaia — yaeua ia eeoa
aaaaoiieaiiaa, a e aaaaoiaei??ia. Eiai iiaeia aoei a aaaaeaoe /enoi
noa’?eoeaiei, a oiio aii?oiei oaiiiaiii, yeae ia eiai i?aeoe/ia
cia/ei?noue aeey noni?euenoaa, eio?a iniaeeai c?inoa? a ia??iaee
e?eciaiai ?icaeoeo. Aeyaeaiiy nooiaiy noaa?eueiino?, oiia ?? caa?aaeaiiy
ca aeeiai?/ii? ci?ie ianoaaei ? iaa?ae’?iiith neeaaeiaith nenoaiiiai
aiae?co. Aea/aiiy i?iaeaie aeeiai?ee ? noaa?eueiino? iie?oe/ii? nenoaie
iaiao?aeia aeey noai?aiiy a Oe?a?i? i?eeiyoieo oiia oi?ioaaiiy
aeaiie?aoe/ii?, i?aaiai?, nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaae.

Nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. O iaooe? aaea neeaeanue iaaia
o?aaeeoe?y aea/aiiy iiai?iii? i?iaeaiaoeee I?ia//eie, ?? ?noi?e/ieo,
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo, aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaeo aniaeo?a,
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino?, eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo, ?aeaieia?/iiai
oa aeiiii?/iiai i?ioenoiyiiy aeaio i?iaoeueeeo aea?aeaa ? o.?i.
A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai o iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo, cina?aaeaeaieo ia
aeacai?e i?iaeaiaoeoe?, iiaeia aeae?eeoe aeae?eueea iai?yi?a.

?yae ?ia?o i?enay/ai? aea/aiith caaaeueieo oai?aoe/ieo aniaeo?a
iie?oe/ii? nenoaie noni?euenoaa — ?? nooiino?, no?oeoo?e, ooieoe?e,
aeyaeaiith i?e/ei ?? no?eeiai /e iano?eeiai ?icaeoeo (i?aoe? A. Aaae?ia,
A. Aaee?ia, ?. Aaa?eeaiea, A. Aoe??aa, AE.-I. Aeaieaia, I.
?eue?inueeiai, A. Eocaia, ?. Iaoa??aa, I. I?oeia, O. ?oaee/a, N. ?yaiaa,
I. Naie?aa, A. Oaiiaaea, I. Oa?aia, A. sseooeea oa ?i.).

Aiae?c iniaeeainoae noaiiaeaiiy , ?icaeoeo ? oa?aeoa?o nioe?aeueii?,
i?aaiai? ? aeaiie?aoe/ii? aea?aeaaiino? I?ia//eie ia? i?noea o i?aoeyo
I. Ae?en??aa, A. Aiiaeueoa, I. Aooaiaa?aa, TH. Ai?ei, I. Aa?eaiiaa, A.
Aaee?ia, A. Aeaca?a, E. Caaaaenueei?, ?. ?eue?inueeiai, A. Eo?e?ia, A.
Eoae?y/aiea, A. Ei?oaoe?ia, O. Eoi?aa, ?. Eaaeyo, A. Iaiiaa, O. Ioioea,
I. Iiiiaa, I. Iaoiiaiei, O. Oeaoa?a oa ?i.

Aea/aiiy niaoeeo?ee iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe?? iniiaieo i?eioeei?a
nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai? aea?aeaae I?ia//eie, aecia/aiiy iiiyooy, no?oeoo?e,
oiia caaacia/aiiy ?? aoaeoeaii? ae?yeueiino? iaea?eueo iiaii
i?aaenoaaeaii o aeine?aeaeaiiyo E. Aeueaa?a, A. Aeuea?aooa, O. A?aioea,
I. Aaoeo?a, A. Aaeaioa?aea, A. Aaiaea, A. Ao?iaenoa?a, A. Aa?oeiaa, Ae.
Aoaeeiaiei, ?. Aea?aiaei?oa, I. Aeeiaiena, E. ?caica?, I. Ee?ooioa, I.
Eeiaiieoa, E. Eiiia, I. Eoiiaia, A. Eoeaoaai?, A. Iae??a, A. Iaoeia?a,
N. Iicaei?oa, I. I?eiai?, E. Iieeoa, O. ?aoaoieeiaa, A. ?iae?iiiaa, TH.
O?’yna, O. Oioiaia, A. Oaiiaaea, E. Ooa?ia, E. A?oa?aea, E. Aio?ia oa
?i.

Aeaea?aeiciaa/o oe?ii?noue uiaei aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie iathoue
oaeiae iaoa??aee th?eaee/iiai oa?aeoa?o (eiinoeoooe??, eiaeaene, caeiie
oa ?i.), aenooie aeaa aea?aeaa ? o?yae?a, i?ia?aii? aeieoiaioe
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, aenooie ?o ea??aiee?a oa a?aeiia?aeia ?ioi?iaoe?y c
ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue.

Oa?aeoa? iie?oe/ieo iiae?e, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a Oe?a?i? c 1990 ?.
ae??oaeueii aieeioa ia ci?no iie?oieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. O inoaii?o
ia?aaeyaeathoueny o?aaeeoe?ei? i?aeoiaee aei aiae?co i?iaeaiaoeee
iie?oe/ii? nenoaie, oai??? aea?aeaae, ?? oi?i ? ooieoe?e ia
iinooioae?oa?iiio aoai? ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa, ?? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c
a?iiaaeyinueeei noni?euenoaii, ui ia?aaoaa? o noaae?? oi?ioaaiiy.
Ooaa?aeaeothoueny iia? oyaeaiiy i?i ?ieue ? ooieoe?? nioe?aeueii?
iie?oeee, nioe?aeueieo aii?oecaoi??a oa ?io?ano?oeoo?. Iniaeeaa oaaaa
ni?yiiao?oueny ia aeyaeaiiy i?e/ei e?ece aea?aeaaiino?, nioe?aeueii?
aeanoaa?e?caoe?? noni?euenoaa a oe?eiio (??aaiue ?icaeoeo iie?oe/ii?
eoeueoo?e, aeaoi?iaoe?? nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e noni?euenoaa, ooenee i?aa
? naiaiae iniaenoino? oa ?i.). Aei oeeo ieoaiue caa?oathoueny o nai?o
i?aoeyo I. Aaae?ia, A. Aooeaae/, ?. Aaeaoe?ia, A. Ai?aaoaiei, A.
Aaoueiai, I. Cae/oe, TH. Eeeeiiee, I. Eeeeiiee, I.  Eeyie?i, A.
E?aiaiue, A. Eocai, C. Ethiiaa, I. Ii/a?iee, I. Iieeye, A. Iacaiie, I.
?icoiiee, O. ?oaee/, N. ?yaia, A. Nae?aaiia, I. Noaiaithe, I. Ne?eiithe,
I. Oiiaiei, A. Oeiioaiei, A. *aie?i, I. *a?ieo, A. Oeiea?oe, A. Uaae?iaa
oa ?i.

Cae?enithaai? iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy iathoue cia/aiiy aeey anaa?/iiai
?noi?e/iiai oa iie?oeei-th?eaee/iiai aea/aiiy I?ia//eie. ?acii c oei
ieoaiiy aca?iiiaoiiaeaiino? aeaiie?aoe/ii?, nioe?aeueii? ? i?aaiai?
aea?aeaaiino? oa iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe?? iniiaieo i?eioeei?a
nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai? aea?aeaae o oe?e e?a?i? aeinoaoiueith i??ith ia
aeine?aeaeoaaeenue. Cie?aia oaeoe/ii ia i?aeaeaaaeenue aiae?co aeaye?
aniaeoe ?? no/aniiai ?icaeoeo.

O aeai?e ?iaio? cae?eniaii ni?iao eiiieaenii ioiieoe ?icaeoie ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai? aea?aeaae I?ia//eie oa ?aae?caoe??
?? noaa?e?coth/i? ooieoe?? a ?aeiino? ?noi?e/iiai, ii??aiyeueiiai ?
iie?oieia?/iiai aniaeo?a.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aaiethoe?y ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai?
aea?aeaae I?ia//eie.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aea/aiiy niaoeeo?ee noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai? aea?aeaae I?ia//eie, iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe?? ??
iniiaiiieiaeieo i?eioeei?a, cania?a ? iaoiae?a aeinyaiaiiy noaa?eueiino?
a noni?euenoa?; aecia/aiiy aieeao ?aeae nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaaiino? ia
ae?iaeaiiy iiaeae? noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie, ia ooieoe?iioaaiiy
iie?oe/ieo ?inoeooo?a ? i?ioean?a.

A?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ca no/anieo oiia noaiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaiino? a
Oe?a?i? ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe aeina?ae ?icaeiaieo e?a?i, oai??y ? i?aeoeea
yeeo i?aai?/ii ii?aeiothoue iciaee i?aaiai? ? nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaae.

I/aaeaeiei ? aecia/aiiy oaia??oiueiai noaio oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa
ye ia?ao?aeiiai. O a?aeiia?aeiino? c oeei aeina?ae I?ia//eie yaey?
niaith iaea?eueo ia?aeiieeaee i?eeeaae oni?oiiai ia?aoiaeo a?ae
aaoi?eoa?ii-oa?i?enoe/iiai ?aaeeio aei no?eei? aeaiie?ao?? ia iniia?
ii?aeiaiiy aoaeoeaii? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?
nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino? a ?ioa?anao nioe?aeueii? noaa?eueiino?.

Aeina?ae I?ia//eie cana?ae/o?, ui naia nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaa
aea?aeaai?noue caeaoia: ae??oeoe i?iaeaio ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? ? nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino?; aecia/eoe iaae? ?
aeioe?euei?noue ao?o/aiiy aea?aeaae a aeiiii?/io noa?o; noai?eoe
?aaeuei? oiiae aeey caaacia/aiiy aeinoieiiai aeeooy ? naiaiaee
iniaenoino?, caoenoo ?? nioe?aeueieo ? aeiiii?/ieo i?aa, noaa?eueiino?
?icaeoeo iie?oe/ii? nenoaie, ?? caeaoiino? aaeaeaaoii ?aaaoaaoe ia ci?ie
a noni?euenoa? oa ia iia? aeeeeee /ano.

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aecia/aiiy ?ie?
nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai? aea?aeaae I?ia//eie o noaa?e?caoe?? noni?euenoaa
/a?ac aeyaeaiiy niaoeeo?ee iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe?? eiai iniiaieo
i?eioeei?a.

Caaeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe ? ia?aa??ee aenoiooi? aaoi?ii a?iioace o
aeine?aeaeaii? iinoaaeai? oae? iniiai? caaaeaiiy:

— aeine?aeeoe iniaeeaino? iie?oe/ii? nenoaie I?ia//eie oa ??
iaeaaaeeea?o? oa?aeoa?enoeee;

— aecia/eoe iiiyooy nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai? aea?aeaae I?ia//eie, aeyaeoe
niaoeeo?eo ?? oi?ioaaiiy, ci?no ae?yeueiino? iniiaieo ooieoe?e
inoaiiuei? o iiai?iiee ia??iae;

— ?ice?eoe nooi?noue o?aaeeoe?e, ui neeaeeny o noa?? nioe?aeueii?
iie?oeee, ?aeaieia?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy oa ?? i?aeoe/iiai cae?eniaiiy
i?iaoeueeeie nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoaie ? iaieiina?aaoi?aie;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe no/aniee iaoai?ci ?aae?caoe?? i?eioeei?a
nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai? aea?aeaae I?ia//eie oa eiai niaoeeo?eo;

— cae?enieoe ii??aiyeueii-iie?oieia?/iee aiae?c ?ie? nioe?aeueii?
aea?aeaaiino? o iiaea?i?caoe?eieo i?ioeanao Oe?a?ie oa I?ia//eie.

Iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaio aeoiaeeoue c
iaiao?aeiino? eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aei aecia/aiiy iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aaiaceno, ?icaeoeo ? ooieoe?e nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai?
aea?aeaae I?ia//eie. Aeei?enoiaothoueny o?einionuee?, caaaeueiiiaoeia?
oa niaoe?aeuei? iaoiaee, ye? caaacia/othoue ?aei?noue aiinaieia?/iiai,
nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeiai oa iie?oieia?/iiai aiae?co
nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai? aea?aeaae o aca?iica’yceo c ?ioeie eiiiiiaioaie
iie?oe/iiai aeeooy noni?euenoaa. Aiinaieia?/iee i?aeo?ae ni?yiiaaiee ia
?icaeyae niaoeeo?/ii? oi?ie a?aeia?aaeaiiy ? i?ciaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
ia’?eoa, a nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeee ? iie?oieia?/iee — ia ?ice?eooy
eiai ?ie?, i?noey, ooieoe?e ? cia/eiino? o aeeoo? noni?euenoaa.

O aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? nooo?aa cia/aiiy iaaea?oueny iaoiaeai
nenoaiiiai oa no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai aiae?co. I?e oeueiio
iie?oe/i? yaeua oa ?o oai?aoe/ia ?icoi?iiy ?icaeyaeathoueny ye neeaaei?
ooai?aiiy, ye? aeeiiothoue iaaio ooieoe?th a a?eueo caaaeuei?e nenoai?.
I?ea?iaeuei?noue nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo iaoiiaeth? oe?e?nia ni?eeiyooy
ia’?eoa aeine?aeaeaiiy ? anaa?/iee aiae?c ca’yceo i?ae ie?aieie
aeaiaioaie a ?aieao oe?ieiai oe?eiai.

Aeei?enoaiiy nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo uiaei aea/aiiy iie?oe/iiai aeeooy ?
iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei, iine?eueee aeicaiey? oyaeoe niaoeeo?/i?noue
noaiiaeua oa oiia ooieoe?iioaaiiy iie?oe/ii? nenoaie e?a?ie, aeine?aeeoe
i?iaeaio noaa?e?caoe?? ? iiaea?i?caoe??. Aeyaeaiiy nooiaiy noaa?eueiino?
iie?oe/ii? nenoaie, oiia ?? caa?aaeaiiy ca ci?ie ianoaaei ?
iaa?ae’?iiith neeaaeiaith nenoaiiiai aiae?co.

Aeei?enoaiiy ii??aiyeueii-?ao?iniaeoeaiiai iaoiaeo aiae?co aeicaieeei
aeena?oaioia? ni?anoaaeoe i?ioeane noaiiaeaiiy, iie?oe/i? ?inoeoooe?? oa
iaoai?cie ae?yeueiino? nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai? aea?aeaae a ??cieo
?noi?e/ieo oiiaao ? e?a?iao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o ni?ia? nenoaiiiai aiae?co
iaaeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeaiiai o a?o/eciyi?e iaooe? ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo
oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy a no/anieo oiiaao nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai? aea?aeaae
I?ia//eie c aecia/aiiyi ?? ?ie? a nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo ia?aoai?aiiyo,
cae?enithaaieo o no/ani?e Oe?a?i?.

Aeuacacia/aia aeicaieeei noi?ioethaaoe e iaa?oiooaaoe ianooii? iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy, ye? a?aeaeaathoue iiaecio aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iniaenoee aianie
caeiaoaa/a a ii?aoethaaiiy i?iaeaie:

— aia?oa cae?eniaii ni?iao oe?e?niiai, eiiieaeniiai aiae?co aaiethoe??,
ci?noo ae?yeueiino?, ooieoe?e ? oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo
nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai? aea?aeaae I?ia//eie, ?? iaeaaaeeea?oeo
oa?aeoa?enoee, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ? aca?iica’yceo c a?iiaaeyinueeei
noni?euenoaii;

— nenoaiii i?iaiae?ciaaii oi?ie iaoa??ae?caoe?? ?aeae
nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai? aea?aeaae a Iniiaiiio caeii? I?ia//eie oa a
eiinoeoooe?yo ?yaeo caiaeue, iaa?oioiaaii aeniiaee uiaei iaoiae?a
caaacia/aiiy noaa?eueiino?, iniiaiiieiaeieo i?eioeei?a eiinoeoooe??;

— aecia/aii ?ieue nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai? aea?aeaae o noaa?e?caoe??
noni?euenoaa oa i?aeo?eiaii? no?eeiai noaio nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo;

— ?ice?eoi nooi?noue iiaiai iie?oieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei ?icoi?iiy
iniia iiaea?i?caoe?eiiai i?ioeano, aieiaia i?noea a yeiio caeia? ?aeay
nioe?aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy noni?eueii-iie?oe/iei ?icaeoeii;

— aeine?aeaeaii aaiethoe?th ?aea? nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaaiino? a Oe?a?i?,
noi?ioeueiaaii aeniiaee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeei?enoaiiy iiceoeaiiai
aeina?aeo iiaoaeiae nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaae a I?ia//ei? aeey i?ioeano
oi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai? aea?aeaae a Oe?a?i?.

A ?acoeueoao? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeai? e aeiinyoueny
ia caoeno ianooii? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy:

— iaeaieiai?oith iniaeea?noth iie?oe/ii? nenoaie I?ia//eie, yea
noi?ioaaeanue o i?neyai?iiee ia??iae, ? noaa?euei?noue ?icaeoeo,
caeaoi?noue aaeaeaaoii ?aaaoaaoe ia ci?ie a noni?euenoa? ? ia iia?
?noi?e/i? aeeeeee;

— iaa?oioiaaii, ui noaa?euei?noue nenoaie, no?ee?noue ni?eeiyooy iiaeo
?aaeueiinoae iaoiiaeth?oueny aeaiie?aoe/iei nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaei
oa?aeoa?ii aea?aeaae, cia/ei?noue ?ie? yei? aecia/a?oueny ?noi?e/iith
o?aaeeoe?ei?noth neeueii? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa niaoeeo?/i?noth
iiai?iiiai ia??iaeo, cie?aia aieeaii ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iiai oa
aeiiii?/iiai /eiiee?a;

— aeyaeaii iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai? aea?aeaae
I?ia//eie, ye? aecia/athoueny iayai?noth ?icaeiaiiai a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa, a?eueii? iiiceoe??, iie?oe/iiai ieth?ae?cio, eio?? o naith
/a?ao ?aae?cothoueny /a?ac ae?yeuei?noue ia?o?e ia iniia? eiinainonii?
eoeueoo?e ni?eeoaaiiy ? o. ?i.;

— anoaiiaeaii, ui iaoai?ci ?aae?caoe?? iniiaieo i?eioeei?a
nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai? aea?aeaae oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aaaaoiaei??i?noth ?
ioiieth? eiinoeoooe?eiee iaoai?ci ia?iaeiaeaaeaey, iaoai?ci ae?yeueiino?
aeueo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, i?aaiao ? i?aaicaoeni? nenoaie,
??ciiiai?oi? i?aaia? oa nioe?aeuei? ?inoeoooe, a?iiaaenuee?
i?aai?caoe??, ae?th aeaiaio?a iie?oe/iiai ieth?ae?cio, a oaeiae nenoaio
??cieo onoaiia, no?oeoo?, oiiae?a ? i?eioeei?a.

— ae?eaeaii aeniiaeo i?i oa, ui: caeaoi?noue aei aeeiai?/iiai ?icaeoeo
aeanoeaa eeoa aeaiie?aoe/iiio noni?euenoao ?c nioe?aeueiith
ni?yiiaai?noth; nioe?aeueia aea?aeaai?noue iineoaoaaea aieiaiith
caii?oeith noaa?eueiino? ? aeia?iaooo i?iaoeueeiai noni?euenoaa o
iiai?iiee ia??iae, a oaeiae iniiaith ?ai?aai?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a e?ioey
OO no.; nioe?aeueia aea?aeaai?noue iieeeeaia ae??ooaaoe i?iaeaie, ye?
iinoathoue ia?aae noni?euenoaii aiane?aeie iie?oe/ii? iiaea?i?caoe??.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui ??
?acoeueoaoe a?aee?eaathoue iiaeeea?noue ?icoe?eoe oyaeaiiy i?i i?noea ?
?ieue nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaae o noaa?e?caoe?? noni?euenoaa, iaoai?ci
?aae?caoe?? ?? iniiaieo i?eioeei?a.

Oi?aa?naeuei?, aeiaaeuei? eiioeaioe?? neoaothoue ooiaeaiaioii aeey
ae?iaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo aeieo?eie oai?aoe/ieo iiaeaeae i?enoinoaaiiy
aea?aeaae aei iiaeo aeiiii?/ieo oa nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo oiia c iaoith
noaa?e?caoe?? ? iiaea?i?caoe?? noni?euenoaa.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy aeina?aeo cae?eniaiiy nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee a I?ia//ei?
aeicaiey? iaoeiai inieneeoe ?? aeinyaiaiiy oa iaaaea/? c iaoith
noai?aiiy ia oe?e iniia? iioeiaeueii? aeey oe?a?inueei? neooaoe??
iie?oeei-i?aaiai? iiaeae? ? ia?aaeaa/eoe ia?niaeoeae ?? ?icaeoeo.

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iiaeooue ni?eyoe ae??oaiith iac??eeo o noa??
nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee i?aeoe/ieo i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c ae?iaeaiiyi
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?e iie?oe/ii? nenoaie, a
oaeiae cae?eniaiiy caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia i?aeaeuaiiy ?? aaeaioeaiino?
aei ioi/aiiy oa iineeaiiy nioe?aeueii? aoaeoeaiino? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a
o i?ioean? iiaea?i?caoe?? a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ieo ?inoeooo?a; aeyaeaiiy
iie?oe/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo «iai?oaeaiue» o iie?oe/i?e nenoai? oa
ae?iaeaiiy caoiae?a uiaei ?oiueiai onoiaiiy; aecia/aiiy ??aiy iie?oe/ii?
noaa?eueiino? o e?a?i?.

Aeniiaee ? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoenue o
caeiiioai?/?e, iaaeaaia?/i?e, iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeuee?e ?iaio?; a
?ic?iaoe? iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a c iie?oieia??, i?enay/aieo i?iaeaiai
iie?oe/ii? nenoaie, nioe?aeueii? ? i?aaiai? aea?aeaaiino?, i?ioeanai
noaa?e?caoe?? ? iiaea?i?caoe?? noni?euenoaa; o noai?aii? niaoeeo?n?a c
i?iaeai nooiino? nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaae; o ?icoe?aii? eoeueoo?ieo ?
iaoeiaeo eiioaeo?a i?ae Oe?a?iith oa I?ia//eiith.

Ai?iaaoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?ioean i?aeaioiaee ? aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeenue ia eaoaae?? iie?oieia??
? nioe?ieia?? IIO ?i. I. I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, canoiniaoaaeenue i?e
i?iaaaeaii? iaa/aeueieo caiyoue c eo?no iie?oieia??, ioae?eaoe??
iaoeiaeo noaoae ? ?icae?eo iaa/aeueiiai iin?aieea c iie?oieia??,
?aeiiaiaeiaaiiai aeey nooaeaio?a I?i?noa?noaii ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??: o a?aeiia?aeiino? c iaoith, iinoaaeaieie
caaaeaiiyie oa eia?eith aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c?
anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a (i’yoe ia?aa?ao?a), aeniiae?a ? nienea
e?oa?aoo?e. Ianya aeena?oaoe?? o noi??ieao neeaaea? 189 noi??iie, ianya
aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae neeaaea? 249 iaeiaioaaiue.
Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue oaeiae aeiaeaoie c 9 oaaeeoeue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
nooi?iue ?? aeine?aeaeaiino?, aecia/athoueny iaoa, caaaeaiiy, ia’?eo ?
i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aecia/athoueny eiai oai?aoe/i? ? iaoiaeieia?/i?
iniiae, aeeeaaeai? iaoeiaa a?iioaca, iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia
cia/ei?noue ?iaioe, oi?ie ai?iaaoe?? ?? ?acoeueoao?a.

Ia?oee ?icae?e «I?noea ? ?ieue aea?aeaae o iie?oe/i?e nenoai? I?ia//eie»
neeaaea?oueny c aeaio ia?aa?ao?a.

O ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? «Iniaeeaino? iie?oe/ii? nenoaie I?ia//eie»
aiae?co?oueny nooi?noue iie?oe/ii? nenoaie, i?aaenoaaeaii? ye
?ioaa?iaaia noeoii?noue iie?oe/ii? aeaaee, noa’?eo?a, a?aeiinei,
iie?oe/ii? i?aai?caoe?? oa iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e noni?euenoaa, yea
caaacia/o? eiai nioe?aeueio noaa?euei?noue, nioe?aeueiee ii?yaeie ? ia?
iaaio nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/io i???ioaoe?th.

*a?ac aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeo nenoaiiiai aiae?co ? oai??? iie?oe/ii?
nenoaie, caii/aoeiaaii? aia?eeainueeei oai?aoeeii Ae. ?noiiii, aaoi?
aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo i?i oa, ui iaeaieiai?oith iniaeea?noth iie?oe/ii?
nenoaie I?ia//eie, yea noi?ioaaeanue o iiai?iiee ia??iae, ?
noaa?euei?noue ?icaeoeo, caeaoi?noue aaeaeaaoii ?aaaoaaoe ia ci?ie a
noni?euenoa? e ia iia? aeeeeee /ano. Ii?yae c oeei ?e aeanoeaa
iayai?noue iaoai?ci?a eiio?ieth a?iiaaeyi ca aeaaeith ? oi?aae?iiyi,
aea??ieo i?ioeaaeo? ? ciaaaeueiino? o oi?ioaaii? aeaaeieo no?oeoo?,
aaoiiiiiino? a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa ye aeia?ia?eueiiai
ia’?aeiaiiy ?iaeea?ae?a oa ?i.

Iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeaii? iie?oe/ii? nenoaie iaoiiaeai? ?ieeth
? nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaei oa?aeoa?ii ?? aieiaiiai noa’?eoa — aea?aeaae, ia
oi?ioaaiiy oeio yei? cia/iee aieea ni?aaeea ?noi?e/ia o?aaeeoe?ei?noue
neeueii? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? niaoeeo?/i?noue iiai?iiiai ia??iaeo,
cie?aia aieeao ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iiai ? aeiiii?/iiai /eiiee?a.

O aeaiiio ia?aa?ao? aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?aeoe/ia ?aae?caoe?y oai???
noaa?eueiino? a I?ia//ei?. Iiiyooy noaa?eueiino? ?icaeyaea?oueny ye
naiino?eia oe?ii?noue ii a?aeiioaiith aei ?ioeo, ca aeeeth/aiiyi
oe?iiino? a?eueo aenieiai ?aiao, yea ?ioaa?o? anth noeoii?noue a?aeiinei
o noni?euenoa? ? ?icaeyaea?oueny a aeiionoei?e aano?aeoe?? ye iaaia
oe?e?ni?noue.

Noaa?euei?noue i?iaoeueeiai noni?euenoaa, aea?aeaaiiai ? iie?oe/iiai
ono?ith aeinyaa?oueny /a?ac iina?aaeieoeoai oiai, ui iie?oe/i? ?inoeoooe
iaaiith i??ith a?aeaeaathoue iio?aae a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa,
aenooiath/e a yeino? eiai aaciina?aaeiueiai i?iaeiaaeaiiy o
aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/i?e noa??.

A?iiaaeyinueea caiaea noiniaii iie?oeei-i?aaiaiai ono?ith ? i?iaeai
?icaeoeo I?ia//eie, yea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny cia/iith i?aeo?eieith
cae?enithaaiiai eo?no ? a?aenooi?noth eiai aeoeaiiai iani?eeiyooy
aeinyaa?oueny iina?aaeieoeoaii eiinainono. A?eueii noi?iiaaia i?aeo?eiea
?nioth/iai ?aaeeio a?eueo?noth i?iaoeueeeo a?iiaaeyi iaoiiaeth?
iiaeeea?noue eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ye ?aaeeio aeaiie?ao??, iine?eueee
aeicaiey? caaacia/eoe noaa?euei?noue aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith ? aaaeaiee
iai?yi iie?oeei-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo aac canoinoaaiiy ?ai?aneaieo
iaoiae?a. Ia?aaaae eiinainono ia?aae ?ioeie niiniaaie ae??oaiiy i?ioe??/
iieyaathoue o oiio, ui a?i ia eeoa ni?eya aaciina?aaeiueiio aieeao
a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee ia iie?oe/i? i?ioeane, a e oi?ioaaa naio
a?iiaaenueeo aeoieo.

Aaoi? aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo i?i oa, ui iniiaith aoaeoeaiiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iie?oe/ii? nenoaie I?ia//eie ? i?eioeei
eiinoeoooe?iiae?cio ? aeaiie?aoecio (ia?eaiaioa?ecio ? oaaea?ae?cio),
nioe?aeueii? ? i?aaiai? aea?aeaaiino?, ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue iayai?noue
?icaeiaiiai a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, naiaiaee iiiceoe??,
iie?oe/iiai ieth?ae?cio, eio?? ?aae?cothoueny /a?ac ae?yeuei?noue ia?o?e
ia iniia? eiinainonii? eoeueoo?e ni?eeoaaiiy ? o. ?i.

O aeaiiio ia?aa?ao? cacia/a?oueny, ui eiinoeoooe?y ? iniiai? i?aaa ?
nueiaiaei? iciaeith i?aaiai? aea?aeaae i?iaoeueeiai c?acea, a
eiinoeoooe?eia aea?aeaaa, coiiaeaia iniiaieie i?aaaie, — aieiaiith
iaoith aaaaoueio e?a?i No?aeii? ?a?iie. Eiinoeoooe?eia aea?aeaaa
o?eia?oueny ia aeaio i?aeaaeeiao: ia?iaeiiio noaa?ai?oao? ? a?aeiino?
ethaeeie. O oeueiio ca’yceo aiae?co?oueny i?iaeaia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
aeaaee e ia?iaeo, yeee aenooia? ye aeaiie?aoe/ia, eiinoeoooe?eiaaia
ni?aoiaa?enoai, yea na?aeiii i???ioo?oueny ia caoeno a?aeiino? ethaeeie
? aaa/a? o oeueiio na?e iaia’ycie. Oaea ?icoi?iiy noo? ni?aae aeicaiey?
caiia?aoe iaaaciae, ye? aeieeaee ?c na?aeiiiai ia?aa?eueoaiiy ?ie?
eieaeoeao ? ni?e/eithaaee i?iyae oioae?oa?ecio.

O iniia? i?iaoeueei? aeaiie?ao?? ye oi?ie aea?aeaae ? oi?ie i?aae?iiy
eaaeeoue ?aeay iie?oe/ii? naiaiaee, ??aiino?, i?eeiyooy ??oaiue
a?eueo?noth aiein?a, oyaeaiiy i?i ia?iae, ye aeaea?aei ? iin?y
aea?aeaii? aeaaee. Cae?eniaiiy inoaiiuei? eiinoeooth?oueny ?
eiio?ieth?oueny ia?iaeii, oiaoi a?iiaaeyiaie aea?aeaae, iine?eueee
aeaiie?ao?y aenooia? o oi?i? naiiaecia/aiiy ? naiioi?aae?iiy ia?iaeo,
a?aoe o/anoue o yeiio iiaeooue ia canaaeao ??aiino? an? a?iiaaeyie.
Ai?oeaio?ii a?eueiiai aeaiie?aoe/iiai eaaeo I?ia//eie ? iniiai? i?aaa ?
naiaiaee, cae??ieai? a Eiinoeoooe??.

I?aaiaa aea?aeaai?noue oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iayai?noth i?eiaoo i?aaa ia?aae
aea?aeaaith oa eiai i?aaiaie, ca’ycai?noth i?aaii i?aaey/i? iaioino? oa
i?aeeaaei? a?eueoino?, aa?oiaainoaii Eiinoeoooe?? ? caeiio.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? «Ci?no ae?yeueiino? ? iniiai? ooieoe??
nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai? aea?aeaae I?ia//eie» cacia/a?oueny, ui oa?aeoa?iei
iiiaioii o?aeoiaee a?ae?iaeaeoaaii? eiioeaioe?? «i?aaiai? aea?aeaae» o
O?I aaaaea?oueny aecia/aiiy ?? /a?ac nioe?aeueio ae?yeuei?noue, iaoith
yei? i?iaieioo?oueny caaacia/aiiy iaoa??aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino?,
caaaeueiiai aeaaa ? o. ?i. Aeaeea?oaaiiy nioe?aeueiiai oa?aeoa?o
«i?aaiai? aea?aeaae» aeiiiaith?oueny aeac?aeith ia oa, ui aiia iaoe?eaia
e ia caoeno iaaieo eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaeo /eiiinoae.

?icaeoie i?aaiai? aea?aeaae, a oaeiae ia?aaeaecia/aia caaacia/aiiy
nioe?aeueiiai ii?yaeeo aecia/a?oueny ye ia?oi/a?aiaa
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia caaaeaiiy oe??? aea?aeaae, i?e/iio iinooiiai
ae??oo?oueny i?iaeaia caaacia/aiiy ?aeiino? oa iaaiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
i?aaiaea?aeaaiino? ? nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaaiino?, o?nii iia’ycaieo c
?icaeoeii aeaiie?ao??.

O ia?aa?ao? iiaeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo aaiethoe??, ?aeae nioe?aeueii?
aea?aeaaiino? a I?ia//ei?, aeoiee yei? nyaathoue O?O no. Niin?a
oi?ioethaaiiy nioe?aeueii? ?aea? Iniiaiei caeiiii nooo?ai
a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?ioeo oa?aeoa?enoee, ye? Eiinoeoooe?y iaaea?
iiaoaeiaaiiio ia ?? iniia? noni?euenoao. Ii-ia?oa, o oa?i?iieia?/iiio
ieai?: oa?i?i «nioe?aeueia» aaeeaa?oueny ye i?eeiaoiee aei ?aeeieo
?iaiiee?a ?, ii-ae?oaa, ii-noo?: i?ae ?anioae?eith, aeaiie?ao??th,
oaaea?aoe??th, i?aaiaith aea?aeaai?noth ?icoi?thoue i?aai?caoe?ei? oa
i?ioeaaeo?i? i?eioeeie, ye? caaacia/othoue oiiae ii?iaeueiiai ?nioaaiiy
noni?euenoaa ? aea?aeaae, a i?ae nioe?aeueiith aea?aeaai?noth — naia oea
?nioaaiiy.

Nioe?aeueia aea?aeaai?noue iaeaaeeoue aei iaaeioi?eaieo aeey
caeiiiaeaaoey i?eioeei?a. Ia nueiaiaei? iai?aiei na?aae i?iaoeueeeo
aea?aeaaiciaaoe?a ? oi?ioethaaiiy nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaae ye
i?aai?caoe??, iieeeeaii? aeiiiiaaaoe iacaoeuaiei, aieeaaoe ia ?iciiae?e
aeiiii?/ieo aeaa o aeon? i?eioeei?a ni?aaaaeeeaino?, caaacia/aiiy
eiaeiiio ?iaeea?aeo a?aeiiai ethaeeie ?nioaaiiy. Nioe?aeuei?noue iinoa?
iaiao?aeiith oiiaith aeey ?icaeoeo an?o aeaiaio?a aeaiie?aoe/ii?
i?aaiai? aea?aeaae.

Caaaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaae ae?aaea?oueny o 3-o iniiaieo
??ciiaeaeao: iaoa??aeueia aaciaea (aaciaea); ?iaeea?aeoaeueia
iacaeaaei?noue (naiaiaea); a?iiaaenueea nie?aea?i?noue (ca’ycai?noue).
Iaeaaaeeea?oei caaaeaiiyi nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaae ?: ae??oaiiy
«nioe?aeueiiai ieoaiiy» o o?aaeeoe?eiiio eeth/? ? aa?aio?y nioe?aeueii?
aaciaee aeey an?o; noai?aiiy nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino?; «i?eeoaaiiy
i?i iianyeaeaii? aeaaa» (aa?aio?y iinoa/aiiy ianaeaiiy iniiaieie
??ciiaeaeaie oiaa??a ? i?iaeoeo?a); ?icoe?aiiy ia?aiao??a ?inoo oa
eiio?ieue ca ieie ? o. ?i. Ooieoe?? nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaae
aecia/athoueny ye caaacia/aiiy iie?oe/ii? noaa?eueiino?, a?iiaaeyinueei?
caiaee; aa?aiooaaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?aa iniaenoino? ? iineeaiiy
aae?aniino? nioe?aeueii? i?aeo?eiee; iaiaaeaiiy ianooaa?a ca?aeiaiiy;
caaacia/aiiy no?eioaaiiy aac?ia?ooy ? o. i.

Nioe?aeueia aea?aeaaa aeoiaeeoue ?c aeciaiiy cia/aiiy i?aeia?iaeieo
noaiaea?o?a III o nioe?aeuei?e noa??, oiio a aeieoiaioao Aaia?aeueii?
Anaiaea? III a inoaii? ?iee aaeeaa?oueny oa?i?i «nioe?aeueia
aeaiie?ao?y».

O cacia/aiiio ia?aa?ao? a?aei?/a?oueny, ui nioe?aeueia ? i?aaiaa
aea?aeaai?noue o I?ia//ei? cae?enith?oueny o oi?i? «nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai?
aea?aeaae» (no. 28, aac. 1 Iniiaiiai caeiio), iiaiai ??ciiaeaeo
aea?aeaae, ca yeiai nioe?aeuei? ae?? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a oo?eiothoueny a
?aieao i?aaiaea?aeaaieoeueeeo oi?i.

Nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaa aea?aeaaa o ?icoi?ii? ?? a?eueo?noth i?iaoeueeeo
aea?aeaaiciaaoe?a, ia? ca iaoo cae?enieoe eiiiainaoe?th, c??aithaaiiy,
caeaaeaeoaaiiy i?ioe??/ ia aea?aeaaiiio ??ai?, a aeiiii?/i?e ?
noni?euei?e noa?ao. Oaeoe/i? caaaeaiiy aecia/athoueny iie?oeeith
i?aaey/i? ia?o?? /e aeieo ia?o?e, ia’?aeiaieo i?ia?aiith ia?aoai?aiue.
Iniaeeainoyie ooieoe?e i?iaoeueei? aea?aeaae ? caii/aoeiaaia i?ney
ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie cia/ia ?icoe?aiiy ?o ianyao, iaae ?oiueiai aeyao
oa cae?eniaiiy, iineeaiiy i?ioeano ?oiuei? ?ioaa?aoe??.

Iaeaeaai?oith ? aieiaiith na?aae ieo ? i?aaiaa ooieoe?y, yea
?aae?co?oueny /a?ac iina?aaeieoeoai ae?yeueiino? iaoai?cio caoenoo
iniiaieo i?aa ? naiaiae a?iiaaeyi. Ooieoe?y caoenoo, cae?enithaaia
aea?aeaaith, ia?aaeaa/a? iiceoeai? coneeey, ni?yiiaai? i?ioe cac?oaiue c
aieo i?eaaoieo in?a ia aeeooy ? caei?ia’y ethaeae, i?ioe aeo?a ianeeey,
a oaeiae caoiaee uiaei onoiaiiy ?c i?aaiaiai aeeooy iiina?aaeeiaaii?
oeiaee.

Iiceoeaia ?ieue aea?aeaae aeyaey?oueny o caaacia/aii? iaiao?aeii?
iie?oe/ii? ?aeiino?, yea ia?aoai?th? ?iaeea?aea ia aaciina?aaeiueiai
noa’?eoa i?aaa ? oei naiei aa?aioo? eiai» aeeoo?caeaoi?noue» o
noni?euenoa?. A?ae ?aaeueiiai ono?ith aea?aeaae caeaaeaoue noaiaea?oe
naiaiaee, ??aiino? ? aaciaee iniaenoino?. Aea?aeaaa niiioea? ?iaeea?aea
i?aaiooe aei iino?eii? nie?aea?iino?, a a?aeoae ? noaa?eueiino?
?nioaaiiy. I?ioe??//y i?ae ?ieeth aea?aeaae ye aa?aioa iniiaieo i?aa oa
ye ?o iioaioe?eiiai ii?ooieea ?inoeoooe?eii ni?eeiyoi ? ae??aiyii
nenoaiith iiae?eo aeaaee.

O ia?aa?ao? cacia/a?oueny, ui caniaii cae?eniaiiy nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee
aea?aeaaa ?aae?co? naith nioe?aeueio ooieoe?th. Nioe?aeueia iie?oeea ?
iniaeeaei iai?yiii ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai
aeeooy, ci???ioiaaiiai ia ?aaoethaaiiy nioe?aeueieo a?aeiinei,
caaacia/aiiy ni?eyoeeaeo oiia ? cania?a ?nioaaiiy ?iaeea?ae?a, ia
?aae?caoe?th aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaeo iio?aa, ?ioa?an?a ethaeae ? nioe?aeueieo
ni?eueiio. Nioe?aeueia iie?oeea — oea noa?a ia?ai???ioaoe?? aeiiii?/ieo
aeinyaiaiue o iie?oe/i?, oiio iaoai?ci ?aae?caoe?? ?aeeieo i?eioeei?a
nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaae ? nioe?aeueiiai ?eieiaiai ainiiaea?noaa a
I?ia//ei? noaa iniiaith aeinyaiaiiy noni?eueii? noaa?eueiino?.
Nioe?aeueia iie?oeea a I?ia//ei? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ianooiieie
iniaeeainoyie: nioe?aeuei? i?ia?aie, o?aaiaioiaai? ? ?icii?ioai? i?ae
??cieie i?i?noa?noaaie ? a?aeiinoaaie; i??i?eoao iaaea?oueny a?ioiaei
aeieaoai ? i?eaaoiiio aeei?enoaiith iineoa ?c a?aooaaiiyi
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ia?aaaa ia iniia? i?eaaoii? i?aai?caoe?? iineoa, ca
aeeeth/aiiyi ina?oe ? aeayeeo ??ciiaeae?a iaaee/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy;
io?eiaee iioe?aiiy i?ia?aie nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy ? o. ?i.

Ii?yae c aeuacacia/aiei, ?ice?eaa?oueny aaiethoe?y oyaeaiue /eai?a
i?ia?aeieo ia?o?e (OAeN/ONN, NAeII) i?i aca?iia?aeiineie
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa ? aea?aeaae, ?o oai?aoe/i? oyaeaiiy i?i
iaae? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy noni?eueiiai aeeooy.
A?aei?/a?oueny, ui ia ?oaaae? 70-80-o ?ie?a /?oei aeyaeeanue e?eca
nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei. O
oeaio?? iie?oe/ieo i?iaeai iieieany oaiiiai c?inoath/i? iaea?iaaiino?,
ui ae?aceeanue o iaaoaeoeaiino? o?aaeeoe?eiiai iaoai?cio nioe?aeueiiai
?aaoethaaiiy, caaino?aiiy aioo??oi?o i?ioe??/ nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee, o
iaae?ii? aaoi?eoaoo iniiaieo ?inoeooo?a aeaaee. sseui ?ai?oa iiaeieaiiy
e?eciaeo yaeu iia’ycoaaeinue a iniiaiiio c ?aaoethth/ith ?ieeth
aea?aeaae, oi ca iiaeo oiia iaei??th c i?e/ei e?ece iaieioo?oueny
«?icoe?aiiy ?aiie aea?aeaaii? ae?yeueiino?». Ai/aaeaeue iinoaea
iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee iiaeo, a?eueo eiino?oeoeaieo eiioeaioe?e uiaei
iiaeieaiiy iinoaei? aeanoaa?e?caoe??.

Eiioeaiooaeuei? i?aeoiaee oai?aoee?a iaieiina?aaoecio oo?eiothoue
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iiaeieaiiy e?eciaeo i?ioean?a, iaa?oioiaothoue
iaiao?aei?noue ci?ie i?iii?oe?e o ?iciiae?e? iaoe?iiaeueiiai caoenoo ia
ei?enoue i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai i?eaooeo, ciyooy ia?aoeiae ia oeyoo
naiaiaee i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, a?ae yei? caeaaeeoue, ia ?oith aeoieo,
a?aeiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii? ??aiiaaae.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e «Iaoai?ci ?aae?caoe?? iniiaieo i?eioeei?a
nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai? aea?aeaae I?ia//eie» neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio
ia?aa?ao?a.

O ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? «Oa?aeoa?enoeea iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe?? ye caniao
aeinyaiaiiy noaa?eueiino? i?iaoeueeiai noni?euenoaa» ?ice?eaa?oueny
nooi?noue eiie?aoiiai ?inoeoooe?iiaeueiiai ?ino?oiaioa??th, eio?ee
caaacia/o? iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeao iie?oe/io noaa?euei?noue o I?ia//ei?.
Aaoi? cacia/a?, ui iiiyooy iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe?? iniiaieo i?eioeei?a
nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai? aea?aeaae ioiieth? eiinoeoooe?eiee iaoai?ci
ia?iaeiaeaaeaey, iaoai?ci ae?yeueiino? aeueo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee
(caeiiiaeaa/i?, aeeiiaa/i?, noaeiai?), i?aaiao ? i?aaiioi?iiio nenoaie,
??ciiiai?oi? i?aaia? oa nioe?aeuei? ?inoeoooe, a?iiaaenuee?
i?aai?caoe??, ae?th aeaiaio?a iie?oe/iiai ieth?ae?cio, a oaeiae nenoaio
??ciiiai?oieo onoaiia, no?oeoo?, oiiae?a ? i?eioeei?a. *a?ac ae??a?noue
aeaiiai iaoai?cio iie?oe/ia ea??aieoeoai I?ia//eie aeeiio? ii?iaoeaio
ooieoe?th c? noai?aiiy oiia, ca yeeo noni?eueia nenoaia, ia ao?a/ath/e
nai?? aeeiai?/iino?, caa??aa? iaiao?aeiee nooi?iue no?eeino?.

Noaa?euei?noue ? caeaoi?noue aei aeeiai?/iiai ?icaeoeo aeanoeaa eeoa
aeaiie?aoe/iiio noni?euenoao ?c nioe?aeueiith ni?yiiaai?noth. Naia
nioe?aeuei? aii?oecaoi?e iieeeeai? a?ae?a?aaaoe ?ieue iaiaaeoaa/?a oa
/eiiee?a iii’yeoaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oae ? aeanoaa?e?coth/eo neooaoe?e,
ye? ii?iaeaeothoueny iaiaiaaeaiei canoinoaaiiyi nooi aeiiii?/ieo
e?eoa???a, e?eciaeie yaeuaie ? c?ooaiiyie a noni?euenoa?. Oea caaacia/o?
iiaeeea?noue i’yei? «aaeaioaoe??» noni?eueii? no?oeoo?e aei iiai?
neooaoe??.

Nioe?aeueia aeiiiiiaa — iaeei c iaoai?ci?a ?aae?caoe?? nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo, aai «nioe?aeueieo aii?oecaoi??a», ye? noai?ththoueny
noni?euenoaii caaeey iiaeeiaiiy iiooiao?a ?cciai? oa iiaaoaiiy eieeaaiue
o nai?e nenoai?. Noa?a nioe?aeueii? aii?oecaoe?? ioiieth? nenoaio
a?aeiia?aeieo ?inoeooo?a oa ianoaiia, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo
?aaeaiaioo?oueny ia?a?iciiae?e aeioiae?a; neeaaeiee eiiieaen aea?aeaaieo
? i?eaaoieo i?aai?caoe?e, ye? a?aeathoue nioe?aeueiei caaacia/aiiyi ?
aca?iiaeiiiiiaith, ioi?iiith caei?ia’y, ina?oith; n?oeo aaciaeo
i?iieneiaeo i?e?ino?oeoo?, ye? inoaii?i /anii aeoeaii aeeth/eeenue o
caaaeueio noa?o nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo.

I?ia//eia ? i?eeeaaeii ao?eaiiy iaieiina?aaoeaiiai aa??aioo, aea
aea?aeaaa i?eaaoecoaaea a?eueoo /anoeio nioe?aeueieo ooieoe?e i?ae
aaneii cai?ie aea?aeaae caaaeueiiai aeia?iaooo «noni?euenoaii
caaaeueiiai aeia?iaooo», o yeiio ooieoe?? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
?iciiae?eai? i?ae aea?aeaaith, a?cianii, i?noeaaei naiia?yaeoaaiiyi,
nenoaiaie i?aainoaeaey, n?i’?th, naiiaeiiiiiaith ?iaeea?ae?a oa
aca?iiaeiiiiiaith ana?aaeei? eieaeoea?a. Ia oe?e iniia? aoee noai?ai?
ia?aaeoiiae eiinainono — aieiaii? oiiae caaacia/aiiy noaa?eueiino?
iie?oe/iiai aeeooy.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? «Nioe?aeueia aea?aeaaa ye iniiaa iiaea?i?caoe??
I?ia//eie» aeine?aeaeo?oueny ?aeay nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaaiino? o
caaaeueiiio i?ioean? iiaea?i?caoe??. Nioe?aeueia aea?aeaai?noue noaea
aecia/aeueiith a eo?n? cae?eniaiiy iie?oe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue o
i?neyai?ii?e I?ia//ei?, i???ioiaaieo ia ao?eaiiy oe?iiinoae naiaiaee,
aeaiie?ao??, ethaenueeiai aei??o iie?oeee. Aiia noaea aieiaiith oiiaith
i?ia?ano oa iniiaith iiaea?i?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a e?ioey OO no.

Nioe?aeueia aeieo?eia e?aa?ae?cio oi?iaeiaae aeiaaiai /ano aoea
ea?ioanaioe??th iiaea?i?caoe?eieo oaiaeaioe?e noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo
I?ia//eie. O ia?aa?ao? iiiyooy iiaea?i?caoe?? aecia/a?oueny ye iaaeaiiy
iie?oe/iiio ?inoeoooo (nenoai?) no/aniiai aeaeyaeo; ia?ai???ioaoe?y o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c e?eoa??yie oa aeiiaaie no/aniino?. Nioe?aeuei?e
iiaea?i?caoe?? aeanoea? ianooii? iciaee: naeoey?ecaoe?y noni?eueii?
na?aeiiino?, aeaiie?aoecaoe?y noni?euenoaa, ?ioaeaeooae?caoe?y
noni?eueieo iio?aa, ?icoe?aiiy aeooiaii? oa o?ce/ii? iia?eueiino?,
e?aa?ae?caoe?y ii?iaoeaieo iniia ethaenueei? iiaaae?iee.

Iaieiina?aaoeci, ui aeiee ye ?aaeoe?y ia ci?ie oe?ii?nieo i???ioe??a ?
ii?i iiaaae?iee a ?aeaieia?? oa iie?oeoe?, iaaeaa oai?aoe/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy cae?enithaaii? iiaea?i?caoe?? nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaae o
aeaeyae? ?aeae «iiaiai nioe?aeueiiai ieoaiiy». ?aeay «iaae nioe?aeueii?
iie?oeee» ? niiniaii iiaeieaiiy ooii?/ieo ia?oeyiie iaie?aa?ae?a uiaei
«iaeaooiueiai aeinoaoeo». Iaaei??ia ao?o/aiiy aea?aeaae o
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io noa?o, ia aeoieo iaieiina?aaoi??a, ia o?eueee
iaiaaeo? naiaiaeo nioe?aeueieo noa’?eo?a, a e oeiaeeoue aeiiii?oe?,
nioe?i-eoeueoo?i?e noa??, onueiio niaeo?o nioe?aeueieo ca’yce?a.
Aacia?a/iei iane?aeeii ?icoe?aiiy noa?e aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy aaaaea?oueny c?inoaiiy aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaeo ?inoeooo?a, ii?i
? i?ioeaaeo?.

Cacia/a?oueny, ui i??i?eoao ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai iaae a?oiiaei,
eieaeoeaiei i?aaenoaaey?oueny iaieiina?aaoi?aie ye aaaeeeaee niin?a
?ioaa?oaaiiy a noni?eueio nenoaio, i?aeaeuaiiy aeoeaiino? oa
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio ??ai?.

O ia?aa?ao? a?aei?/a?oueny, ui aaiethoe?y oyaeaiue i?i ?ieue ? ooieoe??
no/anii? aea?aeaae I?ia//eie, i?i iaae? ?? ?aaoethth/iai aieeao ia
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? i?ioeane a?aeia?aaea? anth neeaaei?noue ?icaeoeo
? ooieoe?iioaaiiy iie?oe/ii? noa?e o cao?aeiiio noni?euenoa? e?ioey OO
no., aea ?aeay nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaaiino? cao/eoue c iiaith neeith.

O i?iaeo? NAeII «Nioe?aeueia aea?aeaaa o 2000 ?.» noi?ioeueiaaii
i?eioeeie iiai? iniiaii? ia?aaeeaie, eiioo?e yei? ie?aneai?
oi?ioethaaiiyi iaiao?aeiino? ii?aeiaiiy nioe?aeueiiai oa aeiiii?/iiai
noni?euenoaa, eio?a aeiaaa? ?aoi?ie niiniao ae?iaieoeoaa, iiai?
nie?aea?iino?, iiaeieaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo ei?aeii?a. O
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/iiio ?icoi?ii? aooe i?ia?aneaiei nueiaiaei? — icia/a?
a?eueo na?aeiii, i?ae ?ai?oa, iinoaaeoenue aei iniiaieo oe?iiinoae
aoiai?noe/ii? eoeueoo?e.

O?ao?e ia?aa?ao «Cia/aiiy aeey Oe?a?ie aeina?aeo noai?aiiy ?
ae?yeueiino? nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaae I?ia//eie» ocaaaeueith? aeeeaaeaiee
aeua iaoa??ae. Aeina?ae ?aoi?ioaaiiy Oe?a?ie i?ea?a aaaaoueio oai?aoee?a
aei aeniiaeo i?i iaaaoeaiee aieea iiaeae? iiiaoa?ii? e?aa?aeueii?
nenoaie. A?aenoi?iiaiiy aea?aeaae a?ae noa?e ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei
ii?iaeaeo? aeenaaeain a aeiiii?oe?, a aieiaia — iacaoeuai?noue ianaeaiiy
ia?aae ?eieiaith eiieo?aioe??th, ianiaa coaiae?iiy ianaeaiiy. Aiae?c
cae?eniaieo a Oe?a?i? ?aoi?i 1992-1998 ??. na?ae/eoue i?i a?aenooi?noue
o aeaaeieo no?oeoo?ao iaa?oioiaaii? no?aoaa?? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
ia?aoai?aiue; iaaecia/ai?noue iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a e?a?ie,
aeiiii?/ii?, nioe?aeueii?, no?oeoo?ii?, ?iaanoeoe?eii? iie?oeee. C?inea
?iioeueneai?noue ??oaiue, ui i?eeiathoueny aeaaeieie no?oeoo?aie, ana
/ano?oa c’yaey?oueny i?aei?ia iine?aeiaieo ae?e iaoiaeaie caeaooaaiiy
ae?? c iaae??th ia anaiiaooi?noue na?oiaiai ?eieo. Nenoaiaoe/ii
ii?ooothoueny eiinoeoooe?ei? i?aaa ethaeeie, iiaeeaeth?oueny i?aaiaa ?
nioe?aeueia iacaoeuai?noue ianaeaiiy oa ?i. Ana oea coiiaeth?
iaiao?aei?noue iiaoaeiae nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai? aea?aeaae a Oe?a?i?.
Aeina?ae I?ia//eie na?ae/eoue, ui o?eueee cacia/aiee ??ciiaeae aea?aeaae
noai?th? ?aaeuei? oiiae aeey ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie ni?aa?aeiioaiiy caeii?a
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee ? nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino?, caaacia/aiiy a?aeiiai
aeeooy ? naiaiaee iniaenoino?; iiaeieaiiy ??cei? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? o
nioe?aeuei?e noa?? ? o. ?i. Naia oai??y nioe?aeueiiai aecia/a? iaae? ?
aeioe?euei?noue ao?o/aiiy aea?aeaae a aeiiii?/io noa?o.

Aeoiaey/e c aeina?aeo I?ia//eie, iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo oiia
?aae?caoe?? ooieoe?e nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaae a Oe?a?i? iinoa? noai?aiiy
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai iaoai?cio a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? aea?aeaae ca
caaacia/aiiy nioe?aeueii? aaciaee iniae.

Aeaanoe noni?euenoai c aeeaiei? o?ii?/ii? e?ece, o ye?e aiia ia?aaoaa?,
caeaoia eeoa neeueia iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaia nioe?aeueia iie?oeea,
iniaeeainoyie oi?ioaaiiy ? cae?eniaiiy yei? o iaeaeeae/iio iaeaooiueiio
aoaeooue: cae?eniaiiy aioee?eciaeo caoiae?a o noa?? o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei
? caeiyoino? ianaeaiiy; ?aaoethaaiiy iieaoe i?aoe? oa a?ioiaeo
aeioiae?a; aea?aeaaia i?aeo?eiea nioe?aeueii a?aceeaeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy
oa ?i. Aeey caaacia/aiiy noaa?eueii? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? aeaiie?aoe/ii?
nenoaie iaiao?aeii ciaoiaeeoe aeiaeaoeia? /eiieee iaiie?oe/iiai
oa?aeoa?o. Iaa?oue iaea?eueo i?ioea?oath/a aeiiii?ea ia a ciic? iai?yio,
aaoiiaoe/ii caaacia/eoe noaa?euei?noue iie?oe/ii? nenoaie. I?ae
aeiiii?eith oa iie?oeeith ia? ?nioaaoe noa?a iiina?aaeeoaaiiy,
ia?aaaaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo aeinyaiaiue o iie?oe/i? iiceoeae. Oea — noa?a
nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee. Nueiaiaei? ae?ae iaiao?aeia aeoea?caoe?y
ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaae /a?ac o/anoue o eeth/iaeo ?iaanoeoe?eieo
i?ia?aiao oeyoii iiaiiai /e /anoeiaiai o?iainoaaiiy, iaaeaiiy i?eueaiaeo
e?aaeeo?a, o/ano? a ?iciiae?e? oa ia?a?iciiae?e? AII ? o. ?i.

Aeniiaee.

A ?acoeueoao? cae?eniaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iiiiothoueny ianooii? aeniiaee:

— eiinoeoooe?eia ioi?ieaiiy «i?aaiai? aea?aeaaiino?» I?ia//eie
o?aeoo?oueny ye iaoa??aeueii caaacia/aia ? aa?aioiaaia nioe?aeueiith ?
aeiiii?/iith ae?yeuei?noth aea?aeaae; aacia?a?aiee ?icaeoie i?aaiai?
aea?aeaae ? coiiaeaia oeei i?ioeanii caaacia/aiiy nioe?aeueiiai i?ioeano
iinoa? a yeino? ia?oi/a?aiaiai nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai caaaeaiiy
icia/aii? aea?aeaae, i?e oeueiio ae??oo?oueny i?iaeaia caaacia/aiiy
?aeiino? ? iaaiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?aaiaea?aeaaiino? oa nioe?aeueii?
aea?aeaaiino?, o?nii iia’ycaieo c ?icaeoeii aeaiie?ao??;

— i?aaiaea?aeaai?noue ? nioe?aeueia aea?aeaai?noue a I?ia//ei?
cae?eniththoueny o oi?i? «nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai? aea?aeaae» (no. 28, aac.
1 Iniiaiiai caeiio) — iiaiai ??ciiaeaeo aea?aeaae, ca yeiai nioe?aeuei?
ae?? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a aeio?eiothoueny i?aaiaea?aeaaieo oi?i;

— nioe?aeueia aea?aeaai?noue noaea aieiaiith oiiaith i?ia?ano
i?iaoeueeiai noni?euenoaa o i?neyai?iiee ia??iae, a oaeiae iniiaith
iiaea?i?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a e?ioey OO no; nioe?aeueia aea?aeaaa —
i?aai?caoe?y, yea aeiiiiaaa? neaaoei, i?aaia aieeiooe ia ?iciiae?e
aeiiii?/ieo aeaa a aeon? i?eioeei?a ni?aaaaeeeaino? c iaoith
caaacia/aiiy eiaeiiio a?aeiiai ethaeeie ?nioaaiiy;

— ?aeay nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaae aecia/a? iaoo aea?aeaae, aenooia?
neioacoth/ei ia/aeii ii a?aeiioaiith aei an?o i?aai?a aeaiie?aoe/ii?,
i?aaiai? aea?aeaae; caaaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaae ae?aaeathoueny o
o?ueio iniiaieo ??ciiaeaeao: iaoa??aeueia aaciaea (aaciaea),
?iaeea?aeoaeueia iacaeaaei?noue (naiaiaea), noni?eueia nie?aea?i?noue
(ca’ycai?noue);

— nioe?aeueia iie?oeea — oea noa?a ia?aaaaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo aeinyaiaiue
o iie?oe/i?, oiio iaoai?ci ?aae?caoe?? ?aeeieo i?eioeei?a nioe?aeueii?
aea?aeaae ? nioe?aeueiiai ?eieiaiai ainiiaea?noaa a I?ia//ei? noa?
iniiaith aeinyaiaiiy noni?eueii? noaa?eueiino?; nioe?aeueia iie?oeea a
I?ia//ei? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ianooiieie iaeaaaeeea?oeie iniaeeainoyie:
nioe?aeuei? i?ia?aie o?aaiaioiaai? oa ?icii?ioai? i?ae ??cieie
i?i?noa?noaaie ? a?aeiinoaaie; iaaieioo?oueny ia a?ioiaeo aeieaoao ?
i?eaaoiiio niiaeeaaii? iineoa ?c a?aooaaiiyi ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ia?aaaa
ia iniia? i?eaaoii? i?aai?caoe?? iineoa, ca aeiyoeii ina?oe e aeayeeo
??ciiaeae?a iaaee/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy; io?eiaee iioe?aiiy i?ia?aie
nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy; aeieaoe caeaaeaoue a?ae ca?ia?oeo ? o. i.

— nioe?aeueia aea?aeaaa, oi/a e ?aoi?iiaaia, caeeoa?oueny
iniiaiiieiaeiei aeaiaioii naiaiaee i?iaoeueeiai noni?euenoaa;
iaeaieiai?oith iniaeea?noth iie?oe/ii? nenoaie I?ia//eie, yea
noi?ioaaeanue o i?neyai?iiee ia??iae, ? noaa?euei?noue ?icaeoeo,
caeaoi?noue aaeaeaaoii ?aaaoaaoe ia ci?ie a noni?euenoa? e ia iia?
aeeeeee /ano;

— noaa?euei?noue nenoaie, no?ee?noue ni?eeiyooy iiaeo ?aae?e
iaoiiaeth?oueny ianaiia?aae aeaiie?aoe/iei nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaei
oa?aeoa?ii aea?aeaae, cia/ei?noue ?ie? yei? aecia/a?oueny ?noi?e/iith
o?aaeeoe?ei?noth neeueii? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa niaoeeo?/i?noth
iiai?iiiai ia??iaeo, cie?aia, aieeaii ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iiai ?
aeiiii?/iiai /eiiee?a.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeia?aaeai? a
ianooiieo ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

1. I?iaoeueea iiaeaeue nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaae // Iiaa iie?oeea. — 1996.
— ? 2. — C. 36-40.

2. Nioe?aeueia aea?aeaaa ye iniiaa iiaea?i?caoe?eiiai i?ioeano o
I?ia//ei? // Iiaa iie?oeea. — 1998. — ? 2. — N. 28-32.

3. Iie?oe/ia nenoaia noni?euenoaa // Iie?oieia?y: Iin?aiee aeey
nooaeaio?a aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a / A?aei. ?aae. I. A. Aaae?ia, A.
I. Ai?aaoaiei. — E.: Aeaeaaie/ee oeaio? «Aeaaeai?y», 1998.— N. 146-156.

AIIOAOe?ss

Ia?aea? O. ?. ?ieue nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai? aea?aeaae I?ia//eie o
noaa?e?caoe?? noni?euenoaa. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy
eaiaeeaeaoa iie?oe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 23.00.02 — Iie?oe/i?
?inoeoooe oa i?ioeane. ?oeiien. — ?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A. I.
Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a. 1998. Caoeua?oueny eiioeaioe?y
cia/eiino? nioe?aeueii-i?aaiai? aea?aeaae I?ia//eie o noaa?e?caoe??
noni?euenoaa ia?ao?aeiiai oeio. ?acoeueoaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeniiaie i?i oa, ui noaa?euei?noue iie?oe/ii? nenoaie
I?ia//eie, no?ee?noue ni?eeiyooy iath iiaeo ?aaeueiinoae iaoiiaeth?oueny
ianaiia?aae aeaiie?aoe/iei nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaei oa?aeoa?ii aea?aeaae,
cia/ei?noue ?ie? yei? aecia/a?oueny ?noi?e/iith o?aaeeoe?ei?noth
neeueii? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? niaoeeo?/i?noth iiai?iiiai ia??iaeo,
cie?aia aieeaii ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai /eiiee?a.
Nioe?aeueia aea?aeaai?noue noaea aieiaiith oiiaith i?ia?ano i?iaoeueeiai
noni?euenoaa iiai?iiiai ia??iaeo, a oaeiae iniiaith iiaea?i?caoe?eieo
i?ioean?a e?ioey OO no.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iie?oe/ia nenoaia, i?aaiaa (eiinoeoooe?eia) aea?aeaaa,
nioe?aeueia aea?aeaaa, iie?oe/ia noaa?euei?noue, nioe?aeueia iie?oeea,
nioe?aeuei? aa?aio??, iie?oe/ia iiaea?i?caoe?y.

AIIIOAOeEss

Ia?aea? O. E. ?ieue nioeeaeueii-i?aaiaiai ainoaea?noaa Aa?iaiee a
noaaeeecaoeee iauanoaa. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie
eaiaeeaeaoa iieeoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 23.00.02 — iieeoe/aneea
einoeooou e i?ioeannu. ?oeiienue. — Einoeooo ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa ei. A.
I. Ei?aoeeiai IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998 a.

Caueuaaony eiioeaioeey cia/eiinoe nioeeaeueii-i?aaiaiai ainoaea?noaa
Aa?iaiee a noaaeeecaoeee iauanoaa ia?aoiaeiiai oeia. ?acoeueoaoii
aeenna?oaoeeiiiiai enneaaeiaaiey yaeyaony auaiae i oii, /oi
noaaeeueiinoue iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu Aa?iaiee, onoie/eainoue aini?eyoey
ath iiauo ?aaeee iaoneiaeeaaaony i?aaeaea anaai aeaiie?aoe/aneei
nioeeaeueii-i?aaiaui oa?aeoa?ii ainoaea?noaa, cia/eiinoue ?iee eioi?iai
ii?aaeaeyaony enoi?e/aneie o?aaeeoeeiiiinoueth neeueiie ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeanoe e niaoeeoe/iinoueth iineaaiaiiiai ia?eiaea, a /anoiinoe aeeyieai
aiaoiaiieeoe/aneiai e yeiiiie/aneiai oaeoi?ia. Nioeeaeueiay
ainoaea?noaaiiinoue noaea aeaaiui oneiaeai i?ia?anna iaiaoeeiai iauanoaa
iineaaiaiiiai ia?eiaea, a oaeaea iniiaie iiaea?iecaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia
eiioea OO a.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iieeoe/aneay nenoaia, i?aaiaia (eiinoeoooeeiiiia)
ainoaea?noai, nioeeaeueiia ainoaea?noai, iieeoe/aneay noaaeeueiinoue,
nioeeaeueiay iieeoeea, nioeeaeueiua aa?aioee, iieeoe/aneay
iiaea?iecaoeey.

ANNOTATION

Pergler O. I. A Role of a social lawful state of Germany in
stabilization of a society. The dissertation on submitted for a
scientific degree of the candidate of political sciences on a specialty
23.00.02 — political institutes and processes. The manuscript. —
Institute of the State and Low by V.M. Koretsky of National Academy of
Science of Ukraine, Kiev, 1998.

The concept of the importance of a social lawful state of Germany in
stabilization of a society of a transitive type is protected. Result of
research is a conclusion that stability of political system of Germany,
the stability of perception it new realities is caused first of all by
democratic social legal character of the state, the importance of a role
of which is determined historical traditional of strong state authority
and specifically the period after The Second World War in particular by
influence international and economic forces. Social statelity has become
a main condition of progress of a germane society of postwar period, and
also basis modernization of processes of the end OO c.

Key words: political system, lawful (constitutional) state, social
state, political stability, social politics, social guarantees,
political modernization.

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