AeIIAOeUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

*aeueoeaaa Ieaia Ieoaee?aia

OAeE  – 941/949

?IEUe ?ONUeEI? I?AAINEAAII? OeA?EAE

A IAOe?IIAEUeIIIO A?Ae?IAeAEAII?

I?AAeAIIEO NEIA?yi

07.00.02 – Anana?oiy ?noi??y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Aeiiaoeuee — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aeiiaoeueeiio Aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe E?ai?a?i I.A.,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e iiai? oa iia?oiuei? ?noi???

Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

— aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ee?naiei I.A.,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee oa i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa
Aeeieiiaoe/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie i?e ICC Oe?a?ie

— aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe I??ei A.I.,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?noi??ia?ao??, aeaea?aeiciaanoaa, iaoiaeeee
aeeeaaeaiiy ?noi??? Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao “Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea
Aeaaeai?y”, eaoaae?a ?noi??? oa iie?oieia??.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 26 aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 13 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 11.051.02 aeey caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e a
Aeiiaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? (340055, i. Aeiiaoeuee,
aoe. Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 24, ae?oaee o/aiaee ei?i., aoae. 38).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (340055, i. Aeiiaoeuee,
aoe. Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 24).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 25 ” ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I.?. Caaei?i?ianueeee

1

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oi?iaeiaae inoaii?o ?ie?a a
oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? iii?oii c?inea caoe?eaaeai?noue ?noi???th
Oea?eae oa noaiiaeaiiyi iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaaiino?. Oea, aacia?a/ii,
ii?iaeaeaii no/anieie i?ioeanaie, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a Oe?a?i?, aea
iaoe?iiaeueia oa ?ae?a?eia ieoaiiy caeeoathoueny iaeieie c iniiaieo oa
iaea?eueo aino?eo c nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo, eoeueoo?ieo oa
oea?eiaii-?ae?a?eieo ieai?a. Oaeiae, oea coiiaeaii ?aeaieia?/iei
aaeooiii, iiaei noaaeaiiyi aea?aeaae aei ?ae?a?? oa ?? ?noi?e/iiai
ieioeiai, niiae?aaiiyie iaoiai ia?iaeo, ui ca aeiiiiiaith Oea?eae
?icii/iaoueny aeooiaia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy noni?euenoaa, yea ni?eyoeia
?icaoaeia? Oe?a?ie.

?noi??y iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy i?aaeaiieo neia?yi ia? aaaaoi
ni?eueiiai c iaoe?iiaeueiei a?ae?iaeaeaiiyi oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo a
aiaeia?/iee ia??iae. Iaei??th c aieiaieo ocaaaeueithth/eo ?en a ?noi???
aeaio ia?iae?a ? oa, ui ?aeaieia?/iith iniiaith noaiiaeaiiy iaoe?? aoea
i?aaineaaia a??a, yea c?yaeeany iaoe?iiaeueii-eiinie?aeoth/ith iniiaith.
Aacia?a/ii, aeooaeueiei uiaei no/anii? ?noi?e/ii? iaoee, ? ieoaiiy i?i
?ieue Oea?eae o caa?aaeaii? ia?iaeieo o?aaeeoe?e, i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino?, noaiiaeaii? iaoe?iiaeueieo aea?aeaa,
ye o ieioeiio, oae ? ca?ac.

Aea/aiiy caaaeueieo, oeiieia?/ieo caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeoeo i?ioeano
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy i?aaeaiieo i?aaineaaieo neia?yi a oeth
ia?aeiiio aiioo oa ie?aieo i?iaeai oeueiai ia??iaeo oe?eaaeoue no/anio
Oe?a?io. Aiae?c aeinyaiaiue oa iiieeie i?ioeano iaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy i?aaeaiieo neia?yi aeiiiiiaea no/aniei ?noi?eeai uiaei
i?aaeeueiiai ?icoi?iiy aiaeia?/iiai i?ioeano iaoe?iiaeueii-aeooiaiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo a no/aniiio e aeicaieeoue
ni?iaiicoaaoe ?noi?e/ia iaeaooi? iaoi? aea?aeaae.

?icaeyae ?ie? ?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae a iaoe?iiaeueiiio
a?ae?iaeaeaii? i?aaeaiieo neia?yi, iaiiaeeeaee aac aea/aiiy o/ano?
Oe?a?ie, ye /anoeie ?in?enueei? ?iia??? a oeueiio i?ioean?, ine?eueee a
iniiaiiio /a?ac ?? oa?eoi??th cae?enithaaeeny iie?oe/i?, eiioan?ei?
a?aeiineie, aanue eiiieaen noni?eueieo ca?yce?a ?in?? c i?aaeaiieie
neia?yiaie. Aea/aiiy oeueiai ieoaiiy aeicaieeoue c?iaeoe na?e aianie aei
?icaeoeo no/anii? oe?a?inueei? ?noi??ia?ao??.

Oey oaia aeooaeueia e /a?ac oa, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny ca?ac ia oa?eoi???
eieeoiuei? THaineaa??, aea /a?ac iaoe?iiaeuei? oa ?ae?a?ei? i?ioe??//y
i?eeoee aei a?eie. ?ae?a?eia ieoaiiy ia Aaeeaiao caeeoa?oueny iaeiei c
aieiaieo, ye ? i?ae /an iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, oea
i?aeoaa?aeeee iiae?? c 1992 ?. a Aini??, aea c?oeioeeny ?neai,
i?aaineaa?y oa eaoie?oeeci, oea i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue ? iiae??,

2

ye? a?aeaoaathoueny ca?ac a Einia?. Cae/aeii, aea/aiiy aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaie aea? a?aeiia?ae? ia ?yae caieoaiue uiaei iiae?e, ye?
a?aeaoaathoueny ca?ac ia Aaeeaiao.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eiiieaeniee aiae?c ? ioe?iea ae?yeueiino?
?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae o i?aaeaiiineia?yinueeeo caieyo a
ia??iae neeaaeaiiy iaoe?e aieaa? oa na?a?a c o?aooaaiiyi caaaeueiiai,
oeiieia?/ii noiaeiai oa a?aei?iiiai, ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-oa?aeoa?iiai uiaei
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oeueiai ia?iaeo, c eiai o?aaeeoe?yie,
?noi?e/ieie iniaeeainoyie, niaoeeo?eith aeyaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo,
iie?oe/ieo oa ?ae?a?eieo i?iaeai.

Ia??eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? c iaeiiai aieo – i?ioeane iaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy i?aaeaiieo neia?yi, a c ?ioiai – aieea ia oe? i?ioeane
?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae.

O?iiieia?/i? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?enay/aiiai ?ie? ?onueei?
I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae a iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?ae?iaeaeaii? i?aaeaiieo
neia?yi, ioiieththoue ia??iae c ae?oai? iieiaeie XVIII no. e aei 70 –
??. XIX no., eiee iniiaia /anoeia i?aaeaiiineia?yinueeeo aea?aeaa
ca?eueieeany a?ae oo?aoeueeiai y?ia.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, uia ia iniia? iiaeeaeaiiai aea/aiiy
anueiai eiiieaeno aeaea?ae, ui iathoue a?aeiioaiiy aei ia?aii? oaie,
iiynieoe oa i?iaiae?coaaoe, ye aeiiiiiaa, yeo cae?enithaaea ?onueea
I?aaineaaia Oea?eaa, ni?eyea oe??ieaiith i?aaineaa?y, neeaaeaiith iaoe?e
o i?aaeaiieo neia?yi a ia??iae iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oa
i?aeneeaiith ai?ioueae ca iiaia aecaieaiiy.

A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai aaoi? noaaeoue oae? caaaeaiiy a aeena?oaoe?ei?e
?iaio?:

— aecia/eoe cia/aiiy i?aaineaa?y aeey i?aaeaiieo neia?yi, ye
?aeaieia?/ii? iniiae i?ioeano iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy;

— aeyaeoe iniiai? i?e/eie, caaaeyee yeei ?onueea I?aaineaaia Oea?eaa
c?iaeeany canooiieoeath i?aaineaaieo neia?yi ia Aaeeaiao;

— ?icaeeaeoeny noaiiaeua thaeiineia?yinueeeo i?aaineaaieo oea?eia a
Iniainuee?e ?iia??? oa ?iia??? Aaanao?a?a ? ?o i?ecia/aiiy a ai?iouea?
ca iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy;

— aeine?aeeoe ?ieue ?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae o oi?ioaaii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? aieaa?, na?a?a, /i?iiai?oe?a,
iaeaaeiioe?a, aini?enueeeo na?a?a, ai?aiaeeioe?a, aeaoaeueii ?icaeyiooe
iaoa??aeueio, eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeo oa ?aeaieia?/io aeiiiiiao,
iaaeaio ?in?enueeei aeooiaainoaii;

— aeaoe ioe?ieo ?ie? ?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae o ae??oaii? a?aei-
aieaa?nueeiai oea?eiaiiai eiioe?eoo. I?iaiae?coaaoe aieea io?oe?eieo
oea?eiaieo e?e ia iiceoe?? ?in?enueei? aeeieiiao?? a oeueiio 19

second half of the XVIII century to the end of the 70th of the XIX
century. The importance of the religions and spiritual factor in the
process of formation of the national consciousness of the Bulgarians,
Serbs, Montenegrins, Voivodians, Bosnian Serbs are investigated in the
work. The main forms of the assistance rendered by the Russian Orthodox
Church to coreligions Southern Slavs in the given period are first
analyzed in the investigation.

Key-words: Russian Orthodox Church, Southern Slavs, religions factor,
and national revival, church ties, Sinod, assistance.

Ioeaea! Ioeaea nayce.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 16.02.99 ?. Oi?iao 60×84 1/16. Iai??
oeiia?aonueeee.

Ionaoiee ae?oe. Oiiai. ae?oe. a?e. 1,1. Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Caiiaeaiiy ?
3.

Eaai?aoi??y eiiithoa?ieo oaoiieia?e Aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiai
?inoeoooo AeiiAeOO

18

?onneay I?aaineaaiay Oea?eiaue aianee cia/eoaeueiue aeeaae a ?acaeoea
oeieueiiai aeaea a thaeiineaayineeo caieyo, a iiaeaioiaea
thaeiineaayineie eioaeeeaaioeee, a i?aaiecaoeee iieo/aiey ia?aciaaiey a
aeooiaii-o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo ?inneeneie eiia?ee. Cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea
ia eoeueoo?ioth aeeciue thaeiineaayineeo ia?iaeia ieacaea ?onneay
eeoa?aoo?a, i?aeiouanoaaiii yoi auea oea?eiaii-neoaeaaiay e o/aaiay
eeoa?aoo?a. N iiiiuueth ?onneie Oea?eae o thaeiuo neaayi oei
?ani?ino?aiaiea ?onneiai e oe?aeineiai eneonnoaa. Iaaethaeaeinue
neeueiia aeeyiea eeiiiieniuo oeie ia thaeiineaayineoth eeiiia?aoeth.

Iaoa?eaeueiay iiiiuue i?aaineaaiui oea?eayi a Na?aee, Aieaa?ee,
*a?iiai?ee, Iaeaaeiiee, Aiaaiaeeia, Ainiee e Aa?oeaaiaeia, icia/aea
iauaeoeaioth iiaeaea?aeeo iaoeeiiaeueiuo aeaeaeaiee a yoeo caieyo.
Eaeaieiae/aneay iiiiuue ?onneie I?aaineaaiie Oea?eae caeeth/aeanue a
aeoeaiii i?ioeaiaeaenoaee ?ani?ino?aiaieth eneaia e eaoiee/anoaa a yoii
?aaeiia.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?iaiaeece?iaaia ?ieue ?onneie I?aaineaaiie Oea?eae a
?ac?aoaiee a?aei-aieaa?neiai oea?eiaiiai eiioeeeoa. Enneaaeiaaia
aeayoaeueiinoue oea?eiaiuo i?aaiecaoeee e ioaeaeueiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae
?onneie I?aaineaaiie Oea?eae a iaoeeiiaeueiii aic?iaeaeaiee thaeiuo
neaayi.

Iaoiaeieiae/aneoth iniiao aeenna?oaoeee ninoaaeyao nenoaia iao/iuo
i?eioeeiia e iaoiaeia iiciaiey: i?eioeeiu iao/iie iauaeoeaiinoe,
enoi?ecia, eoeueoo?ieiae/aneiai iiaeoiaea. A niioaaonoaee ni niaoeeoeeie
oaiu, a enneaaeiaaiee aue i?eiaiai ?aeeaeaaaae/aneee iiaeoiae, /oi
iicaieeei aieaa iieii e eiie?aoii inaaoeoue oea?eiaii-enoi?e/aneia
i?ioeia ?onneie e thaeiineaayineeo i?aaineaaiuo oea?eaae,
i?iaiaeece?iaaoue eo acaeiiaeaenoaea e acaeiiaeeyiea a ?aciua
enoi?e/aneea yiioe, iauynieoue nooue ?aeeaeiciuo eiioeeeoia a
enneaaeoaiue iaie ia?eiae.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?onneay I?aaineaaiay Oea?eiaue, thaeiua neaayia,
?aeeaeiciue oaeoi?, iaoeeiiaeueiia aic?iaeaeaiea, oea?eiaiua nayce,
Neiiae, iiiiuue.

Chaltseva H. The role of the Russian Orthodox Church in the National
Revival of the Southern Slavs Manuscript.

Dissertation for the academic degree competition of the candidate of
Sciences (History) in speciality – 07.00.02 – World History. Donetsk
State University, Donetsk, 1999.

The thesis is a complex historic research of the Russian Orthodox Church
role in the national revival of the Southern Slavs in the period from
the

3

ieoaii?;

— aecia/eoe caaaeaiiy ?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae uiaei i?aeo?eiee
i?aaineaa?y o thaineia?yi a ia??iae noaiiaeaiiy iaoe?e c o?aooaaiiyi
iniaeeainoae oeueiai i?ioeano a Na?a??, Aini??, Aa?oeaaiaei?,
*i?iiai???, Iaeaaeii??, Ai?aiaeei?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui ia iniia? iiaeeaeaiiai
aea/aiiy ??ciiiai?oiiai iaoa??aeo ?noi?e/ieo aeaea?ae, ui noinothoueny
oe??? oaie, a aeena?oaoe?? c?iaeaia ni?iaa eiiieaeniiai aiae?co
i?iaeaie, yea ua ia aoea aeine?aeaeaia ai? o a?o/eciyi?e, ai? a
caei?aeiii?e ?noi??ia?ao??. A ?iaio? aaoi? i?aaioa aeyaeoe o? ?ene
iiaiai, ui aeanoea? i?ioeano iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy i?aaeaiieo
neia?yi, oa aieea ia oeae i?ioean ?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae;
?ice?eoe iniiai? oi?ie aeiiiiiae iaaeaii? ?in?enueeei aeooiaainoaii a
ia??iae neeaaeaiiy iaoe?e o i?aaeaiieo neia?yi, uia /a?ac oa ae??oeoe
ieoaiiy i?i cia/aiiy ?ae?a?eii-aeooiaiiai oaeoi?o iaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy i?aaeaiieo neia?yi ? eiai i?noea a
?in?enueei-i?aaeaiiineia?yinueeeo ca?yceao oeueiai ia??iaeo. Eiiieaenia
aea/aiiy ?ie? ?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae a iaoe?iiaeueiiio
a?ae?iaeaeaii? i?aaeaiieo neia?yi iicia/a? a?oe ?iaioe, yea ia?
a?aeaooeny uiaei neioaco oiai aaee/aciiai iaoa??aeo, ui aoiaeeoue aei
iiiyooy “iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy”.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui aeine?aeaeaiiy icia/aii?
i?iaeaie aeiiiiiaea no/ani?e ?noi?e/i?e iaooe? aaciina?aaeiuei i?ae?eoe
aei aea/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy i?aaeaiieo neia?yi c
o?aooaaiiyi ?ae?a?eiiai oaeoi?o; aeyaeaiiy oeiieia?? i?ioeano
noaiiaeaiiy iaoe?e, /anoeith yeiai ? ia?iaee Aaeeainueeiai i?aino?iaa.
Oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, ui i?noeoue a nia? aeena?oaoe?y, oai?aoe/i?
iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e i?aeaioiaoe?
ocaaaeueithth/eo ?ia?o c eo?no ?noi??? i?aaeaiieo oa cao?aeieo neia?yi,
a ?noi??? a?o/eciyii? eoeueoo?e, a eo?n? c ?noi??? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoee nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o aeiiia?aeyo ia aoc?anueeeo
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo
eaoaae?e iiai? oa iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo, aeeeaaeai? a a?ioo?? oa noaooyo.

NO?OEOO?A ? CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a (nueiie
i?ae?icae?e?a), aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?
e?oa?aoo?e

4

(193 iaca.), aeiaeaoe?a (5 noi?.).

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy, iiaeathoueny
eiai o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee. Aecia/a?oueny i?aaeiao, iaoa ? caaaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe??, ?? iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

Ia?oee ?icae?e “?noi??ia?ao?y, aeaea?aea oa iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaeaie” i?noeoue ?noi??ia?ao?th ieoaiiy, yea ?icaeyaea?oueny ca
i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iei i?eioeeiii, oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeaea?ae, oa
iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy.

?noi??ia?ao?y i?iaeaie, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny, aaaaoianiaeoia ? ia?
??ciiiai?oi? iai?yiee. Uia aeaoaeueii aea/eoe oaanue eiiieaen
e?oa?aoo?e, aaoi? oiiaii ?iciiae?eea ?? ia oae? o?iiieia?/i? ia??iaee:
? – aei?aaeyinueeee, ?? – ?aaeyinueeee, ??? – no/aniee.

Ieoo/e aeena?oaoe?eio ?iaioo, aaoi? caa?oaany a oe?eiio aei i?aoeue
i?aaenoaaiee?a ?in?enueei? ?noi??ia?ao?? e?ioey O?O – ii/aoeo OO no., ?,
iniaeeai ia i?aoe?, ui aoee i?enay/ai? ?noi??? Oea?eae, o.c.
?noi?e/ii-oea?eiaii? i?aaineaaii? ?noi??ia?ao?? icia/aiiiai ia??iaeo,
aea aoa caeiaooee aaeeeee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, ui a?aeiineoueny aei oe???
i?iaeaie.

Iniaeeaee aianie aei aea/aiiy oaie aeena?oaoe?? aianee ?iaioe
?in?enueeeo ?noi?ee?a-neaa?no?a neaa?yiio?euenueeiai iai?yieo:
A.N Aoaeeei-ae/a, I.O. A?eueoa?ae?iaa, I.I. Iiiiaa1, o yeeo
?icaeeaeyeeny oea?eiai? ca?ycee ?in?enueeiai e i?aaeaiiineia?yinueeeo
ia?iae?a, iienoaaany noai i?aaineaaieo na?a?a a oiiaao ?iicaiiiai
oo?aoeueeiai oa aano??enueeiai aiiaeaiiy. A i?aoeyo I.O. A?eueoa?ae?iaa
iaaea?oueny aaeeea e?euee?noue noaoenoe/ieo aeaiieo oa iaa?oioiao?oueny
i?eoeeuei?noue i?aaeaiieo neia?yi aei i?aaineaaii? a??e. Iaea?eueo
cia/iith ?iaioith c ?noi??? *i?iiai??? ia oie /an ? o?oae I.A.
?ia?inueeiai2. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui ?iaioa iineoue a?eueo
aoiia?ao?/iee oa?aeoa?, ia i?noeoue aeeaieeo ?noi?e/ieo aeniiae?a, aiia
aeiiiiiaea iai aea/eoe noai i?aaineaa?y a *i?iiai??? oa ioe?ieoe
aeiiiiiao, iaaeaio ?onueeith I?aaineaaiith Oea?eaith a oi?ioaaii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? /i?iiai?oe?a. An? ?iaioe, ui aoee aeacai?
aeua, i?noyoue a nia? aaaaoee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, ui
aeicaiey? aeaoe ioe?ieo noaio

1 Aoaeeeiae/ A.N. I nia?aiaiiii iieiaeaiee e acaeiiuo ioiioaieyo neaayi
caiaaeiuo e thaeiuo // Neaayineee nai?iee. – NIa., 1876. – O. ?.; Eiai
ae. I/a?ee na?aneie enoi?ee. // Neaayineee nai?iee. – NIa., 1877. – O.
??.; Aeeueoa?aeeia A.O. Noaouee ii nia?aiaiiui aii?inai neaayineei.
Nia?. ni/. – NIa., 1868. — O. ??.; Eiai ae. Ainiey, Aa?oeaaiaeia e
Noa?ay Na?aey. – NIa., 1873. – O. ???.; Iiiia I.A. Na?au a Aano?ee //
?onneee aanoiee. – I., 1865. — ? 5.; Eiai ae. Iieiaeaiea ?aee a
nia?aiaiiie Ainiee // Neaayineee nai?iee. – NIa., 1875. – O. ?.

2 ?iaeineee I.A. *a?iiai?ey a aa i?ioeii e ianoiyuai // Nai?iee
ioaeaeaiey ?onneiai ycuea e neiaaniinoe Eiia?aoi?neie Aeaaeaiee Iaoe
(aeaeaa NI?ssNEAI). – NIa., 1905. – O. 80. – ei. 2.; Eiai ae. *a?iiai?ey
a aa i?ioeii e ianoiyuai. Aaia?aoey, enoi?ey, yoiia?aoey, a?oaieiaey,
nia?aiaiiia iieiaeaiea // NI?ssNEAI. — NIa., 1909. – O. 86. – ei. 2.;
Eiai ae. *a?iiai?ey a aa i?ioeii e ianoiyuai. Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeeciue
(1851 – 1907) // NI?ssNEAI. — NIa., 1915. – O. 91. – ei. 3.

17

neaayi a ia?eiae ni aoi?ie iieiaeiu XVIII aei eiioea 70-o aiaeia O?O
aaea.

A ?aaioa aeai aiaeec ?aeeaeicii-aeooiaiiai oaeoi?a iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aic?iaeaeaiey thaeiuo neaayi e, iniaaiii, aai iieiaeaiey eae
naiinoiyoaeueiiai, a ia ?anniao?eaaaiiai a eiioaenoa eoeueoo?iiai eee
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneiai oaeoi?ia. ?aeeaeiciue oaeoi? ai iiiaii
iaoneiaee i?e/eiu aicieeiiaaiey, ?acaeoey e iniaaiiinoae i?ioeanna
oi?ie?iaaiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey aieaa?, na?aia, /a?iiai?oeaa,
ainieeneeo na?aia, iaeaaeiioeaa, aiaaiaeeioeaa. A aeenna?oaoeee
ioia/aii, /oi i?aaineaaiay aa?a aeey thaeiiai neaayinoaa yaeyeanue
eoeueoo?ii-eaeaieiae/aneie iniiaie iaoeeiiaeueiiai aic?iaeaeaiey, a
I?aaineaaiay Oea?eiaue, eioi?ay iaoiaeeeanue a oneiaeyo ?aeeaeiciie
aeene?eieiaoeee, auea iaoeeiiaeueii-eiinieeaee?othuei ia/aeii.

?ao?iniaeoeaii ?anniio?aiu enoi?e/aneea nayce ?innee n thaeiuie
neaayiaie aei ia?eiaea iaoeeiiaeueiiai aic?iaeaeaiey, a iniiao eioi?uo
eaaee enoi?e/aneea nayce i?aaineaaiuo oea?eaae: ?onneie, Na?aneie e
Aieaa?neie. ?anniio?ai aii?in i i?aa?auaiee a XVIII a. ?inneeneiai
ainoaea?noaa e ?onneie I?aaineaaiie Oea?eae a iie?iaeoaeueieoe
i?aaineaaey ia Aaeeaiao, oi?ie?iaaiee aiaoiaiieeoe/aneiai i?eaioe?a
thaeiuo neaayi.

A aeenna?oaoeee aia?aua aeai eiiieaeniue aiaeec e ioeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe
?onneie I?aaineaaiie Oea?eae a thaeiineaayineeo caieyo a ia?eiae
neeaaeuaaiey iaoeee, n o/aoii iauaai, oeiieiae/anee noiaeiiai e
ioee/iiai, eiaeeaeaeoaeueii-oa?aeoa?iiai aeey iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aic?iaeaeaiey aeaiiiai ia?iaea, n aai o?aaeeoeeyie, enoi?e/aneeie
iniaaiiinoyie, niaoeeoeeie i?iyaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiuo, iieeoe/aneeo e
?aeeaeicii-aeooiaiuo i?iaeai. Ia iniiaaiee oaeoaeaiiiai eco/aiey anaai
eiiieaena enoi/ieeia, ioiinyueony e aeaiiie oaia, a aeenna?oaoeee
naeaeaia iiiuoea iauynieoue, eae iiiiuue, ieacuaaaiay ?onneie
I?aaineaaiie Oea?eiaueth, niinianoaiaaea oe?aieaieth i?aaineaaey,
oi?ie?iaaieth iaoeeiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey aieaa?, na?aia, /a?iiai?oeaa,
iaeaaeiioeaa, aiaaiaeeioeaa, ainieeneeo na?aia e oneeaieth ai?ueau ca
iieiia inaiaiaeaeaiea.

A aeenna?oaoeee auea i?iaiaeece?iaaia eaeaieiae/aneay, iaoa?eaeueiay
iiiiuue, ieacaiiay ?onneie I?aaineaaiie Oea?eiaueth i?aaineaaiiio
ianaeaieth thaeiineaayineeo caiaeue a oeacaiiue ia?eiae. Iaoeeiiaeueiia
aic?iaeaeaiea ia ia?aii naiai yoaia eiaei eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueneee
oa?aeoa?, iiyoiio iiiiuue, ieacuaaaiay ?onneie I?aaineaaiie
Oea?eiaueth, a i?inaauaiee e iiaea?oaiaaieyo auea iniaaiii aaaeia aeey
thaeiineaayineeo ia?iaeia, eioi?ua ia i?ioyaeaiee iyoe aaeia
iaoiaeeeenue a ?aanoaa iieeoe/aneii e aeooiaiii. ?inneeneia
ainoaea?noai e

16

(5070??. O?O no.) // No?ae. – 1999. — ? 2 (25) – N. 46 – 48 (0,4 ae?.
a?e)

4. Iaoeeiiaeueiia aic?iaeaeaiea ainieeneeo na?aia e ?onneay i?aaineaaiay
oea?eiaue // Iaoa??aee aoc?anueei? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ca i?aenoieaie
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe: ?noi?e/i? iaoee, iie?oieia?y (?aae.
eie.: A.O. Ao?iinia (?aae.), A.I. Ieeieuenueeee (a?aei. nae?.),
?.Ae. Eyo, A.I. ?iceioiee oa ?i) – Aeiiaoeuee: AeiiAeO, 1997. A 2 ei. –
Ei. 2. – N. 284 – 287 (0,3 ae?. a?e.)

5. ?ieue ?onneie i?aaineaaiie oea?eae a iaoeeiiaeueiii aic?iaeaeaiee
na?aia // Iaoa?eaeu aeieeaaeia aocianeie eiioa?aioeee
i?ioanni?nei-i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneiai ninoaaa ii eoiaai
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie e iaoiaee/aneie ?aaiou. Enoi?e/aneea iaoee
(?aae. eie.: A.O. Ao?iinia (ioa. ?aae.), A.A. E?aieaei (nae?.),
Oaie?iaa I.?. – Aeiiaoee: AeiiAO, 1995. – N. 1718 (0,2 ae?. a?e.)

AIIOAOe??

*aeueoeaaa I.I. ?ieue ?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae a iaoe?iiaeueiiio
a?ae?iaeaeaii? i?aaeaiieo neia?yi. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.02 – Anana?oiy ?noi??y. Aeiiaoeueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Aeiiaoeuee, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y ? eiiieaenii-?noi?e/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi ?ie? ?onueei?
I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae a iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?ae?iaeaeaii? i?aaeaiieo neia?yi
a ia??iae c ae?oai? iieiaeie XVIII aei e?ioey 70??. O?O noie?ooy. O
?iaio? ?icaeyiooi cia/aiiy ?ae?a?eii-aeooiaiiai oaeoi?o a i?ioean?
oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? aieaa?, na?a?a, /i?iiai?oe?a,
ai?aiaeeioe?a, aini?enueeeo na?a?a. A aeine?aeaeaii? aia?oa
i?iaiae?ciaai? iniiai? oi?ie aeiiiiiae, ye? ieacaea ?onueea I?aaineaaia
Oea?eaa ?aeeiia??iei i?aaeaiiei neia?yiai a ia?aiee ia??iae.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?onueea I?aaineaaia Oea?eaa, i?aaeaii? neia?yie,
?ae?a?eiee oaeoi?, iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, oea?eiai? ca?ycee,
Neiiae, aeiiiiiaa.

*aeueoeaaa A.I. ?ieue ?onneie I?aaineaaiie Oea?eae a iaoeeiiaeueiii
aic?iaeaeaiee thaeiuo neaayi. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.02 – Anaiauay enoi?ey – Aeiiaoeeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Aeiiaoee, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey yaeyaony eiiieaenii-enoi?e/aneei enneaaeiaaieai ?iee
?onneie I?aaineaaiie Oea?eae a iaoeeiiaeueiii aic?iaeaeaiee thaeiuo

5

i?aaineaa?y o i?aaeaiiineia?yinueeeo caieyo ? aeiiiiiae ?onueei?
I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae ?aeeiia??iei na?aai ? aieaa?ai, ye? ciaoiaeeeeny
i?ae y?iii Oo?oe?? ? Aano???. Aea oe? ?iaioe iinyoue acaaae? iieniaee
oa?aeoa?, aiie ia i?noyoue ieoaiiy i?i noaiiaeaiiy iaoe?e o
i?aaeaiiineia?yinueeeo ia?iae?a ? aieeao ?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae
ia oeae i?ioean.

Oe?eaaee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae i?i aieea ?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae ia
iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy i?aaeaiieo neia?yi i?noeoueny a i?aoeyo
aeaeaoiiai ?onueeiai ?noi?eea I.E. Iiaiae?ia3.

C e?ioey O?O no. – ii/. OO no. a ?in?? niinoa??aa?oueny aeoea?caoe?y o
aea/aii? oea?eiaii? ?noi???. A oeae ia??iae oea?eiai? ?noi?eee
aeyaeythoue naith caoe?eaaeai?noue ? aei ?noi??? i?aaeaiiineia?yinueeeo
i?aaineaaieo oea?eia, ?o no/aniiai noaio, aca?iia?aeiinei ?onueei?
I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae c i?aaineaaiei Noiaeii. ?iaioe ?.I. Ei?noinueeiai,
A.I. Aine?anainueeiai i?noyoue aaaaoee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae uiaei ca?yce?a
i?aaeaiieo neia?yi c ?onueeith I?aaineaaiith Oea?eaith oa ?in??th, ?o
aieea ia iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo oeeo ia?iae?a, ?icaeyaea?oueny ae?yeuei?noue
aeaeaoieo i?aaenoaaiee?a ?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae ?
i?aaeaiiineia?yinueeeo i?aaineaaieo oea?eia oa ?ioa4. ?icaeyaeo
a?aei-aieaa?nueeiai oea?eiaiiai eiioe?eoo ? a?aeiioaiiy aei iueiai
?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae ? ?onueei? aeeieiiao?? i?enay/ai? ?iaioe:
O.?. O?e?iiiaa, A. Oaieiaa, I.I. Eaaaae?aa, A. O?oaaoeueeiai5. Oe?e aea
i?iaeai? i?enay/ai? noaoo? I.I. Iiiiaa, E. AEeic?oiaa, a?o??ieneiia
Iaea??y6, a yeeo aaoi?e a?aoiaioiaaii i?aaioee aeiaanoe oeai?noue
??oaiiy Einoyioeiiiieuenueeiai Iao??a?oa i?i iaieioaiiy Aieaa?nueei?
Oea?eae iacaeiiiith o 1872 ?.

An? aeuaaeacai? ?iaioe oea?eiaieo ?noi?ee?a aoee aena?oeai? c iiceoe?e
io?oe?eiiai ?onueeiai i?aaineaa?y e i?ieoee e??cue oeaico?o Neiiaeo,
/a?ac oa ?icaeyaeaoe ?o o?aaa e?eoe/ii.

3 Iiaiaeei A.E. Enoi?ey Na?aee. Enoi?ey Aa?iiu ii yiioai e no?aiai a
n?aaeiea aaea e iiaia a?aiy. – NIa., 1910; Eiai ae. E?aoeee i/a?e
enoi?ee neaayi. – I., 1915; Eiai ae. Neaayineee ie?. Iieeoe/aneia e
yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea neaayineeo ia?iaeia ia?aae aieiie 1914 aiaea. –
I., 1915.

4 Ei?noineee E.I. Aunieii?ainayuaiiue Ieoaee, Ieo?iiieeo Na?aneee. – I.,
1898. Aine?anaineee A.A. Ec oea?eiaiie aeecie i?aaineaaiuo neaayi.
Ei?ieaanoai Na?aey // Aiaineianeee aanoiee (aeaeaa: AA). – Na?aeaa
Iinaae. – 1906. — ? 9; Eiai ae. Ec oea?eiaiie aeecie i?aaineaaiuo
neaayi. Noa?ay Na?aey. Iaeaaeiiey. *a?iiai?ey // AA. – 1906. — ? 11;
Eiai ae. Ec oea?eiaiie aeecie i?aaineaaiuo neaayi. Ainiey e Aa?oeaaiaeia
// AA. – 1909. — ? 11; oa ?i.

5 Oeeeiiia O.E. Nia?aiaiiua oea?eiaiua aii?inu. – NIa., 1882; Oaieia A.
A?aei-aieaa?neee oea?eiaiue aii?in ii iaecaeaiiui enoi/ieeai.
Enoi?e/aneia enneaaeiaaiea. – NIa.,1889; Eaaaaeaa A.I. Enoi?ey
a?aei-ainoi/iie oea?eae iiae aeanoueth oo?ie. Io iaaeaiey
Eiinoaioeiiiiey (a 1453 a.) aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie. – NIa., 1882;
O?oaaoeeie A. ?inney e Anaeaineay Iao?ea?oey iinea E?uineie aieiu (1856
– 60 aa.). Ii iaecaeaiiui iaoa?eaeai.

6 Iaea?ee, a?oeai. A?aei-aieaa?neee oea?eiaiue aii?in e aai ?aoaiea. //
I?aaineaaiia iaic?aiea. — I. — 1891. -?11-12.-N. 750-770

6

I?iaeaiai eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueei? aeiiiiiae, ui iaaeaee i?aaeaiiiio
neia?yinoao ?in?y ? ?onueea I?aaineaaia Oea?eaa a ia??iae noaiiaeaiiy
iaoe?e, i?enay/ai? ?iaioe I.A. Eoeaeianueeiai ? I. Iao?iaa7.

Aei oeueiai ia??iaeo iaeaaeaoue aeine?aeaeaiiy na?anueeeo ?noi?ee?a
?. ?oaa?oea ? I. Iaaeiae/a8, aea i?noeoueny oe?eaaee iaoa??ae, ui
noino?oueny ieoaiue aeieeiaiiy Na?anueei? Ai?aiaeeie, iie?oeee Aano??? a
Na?a?? o 171839 ??. oa ?ioa.

O ?aaeyinuee?e ?noi??ia?ao??, /a?ac i?iiaaaiaeo aoa?noe/iiai na?oiaeyaeo
ye /anoee aea?aeaaii? ?aeaieia??, ocaaaeueithth/eo ?ia?o c ?noi???
c?yce?a ?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae c i?aaeaiieie neia?yiaie a
ia??iae neeaaeaiiy iaoe?e ia aoei. Aeaye? aniaeoe oe??? i?iaeaie
?icaeyaeaeeny a iniiaiiio a eiioaeno? eoeueoo?ieo oa
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo ?onueei-i?aaeaiiineia?yinueeeo ca?yce?a.

?noi??y aieaa?nueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iiaeaia a?oioiaieie
iiiia?ao?yie aieaa?nueeeo a/aieo AE. Iaoaia, I. Aai/aaa,
A.?. Ceaoa?nueeiai9. A ?iaioao aeeaiei i?iaiae?ciaaie i?e/eie, iniiai?
aoaie ?icaeoeo ? aeanoeaino? i?ioeano neeaaeaiiy iaoe?? o aieaa?,
?icaeyioo? eiai iniaeeaino?, aeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea a?aei-aieaa?nueeiai
oea?eiaiiai eiioe?eoo. O oeeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo i?eae?eaia oaaaa ieoaiiyi
aeiiiiiae ?in?? a ai?iouea? aieaa?nueeiai ia?iaeo ca iaoe?iiaeueia
naiiaecia/aiiy. I?aoey a?oceinueeiai ?noi?eea E.N. E?eoaoa?e?10,
caniiaaia ia aaaaoiio aeaea?aeueiiio iaoa??ae?, a oiio /ene? aeieoiaioao
a?o?ao ?in?enueeiai Neiiaeo, aoea i?enay/aia ai?iouea? aieaa?nueeiai
ia?iaeo ca iaoe?iiaeueio Oea?eao e aeiiiiiae eiio a oeueiio ?onueei?
aeeieiiao?? oa ?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae.

I?iaeaie eoeueoo?ii–i?ina?oieoeueei? aeiiiiiae oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo
i?aaeaiiei neia?yiai a ia??iae, ui ian oe?eaaeoue, ?icaeyioo? a ?iaioao:
I.A. Iaaeth/aiei, I.N. Nioaiy, C.?. O?aeiye, O.I. Oaa/aiea,

7 Eoeaeianeee I.A. Ia/aei ?onneie oeieu o na?aia a XVIII a. // Ecaanoey
ioaeaeaiey ?onneiai ycuea e neiaaniinoe Eiia?aoi?neie Aeaaeaiee Iaoe —
NIa. — 1903. — O. VIII.- ei. 2.-N.247-311. Eiai ae.. Ia/aei ?onneie
oeieu o na?aia a XVIII a. //EI?ssNEAI — NIa. — 1903. – O VIII. -ei.
3.-N. 150-297; Iao?ia I. Ainieoaiieee Eeaaneie Aeaaeaiee ec na?aia n
ia/aea neiiaeaeueiiai ia?eiaea e aei oea?noaiaaiey Aeaoa?eiu II
(1721-1762 aa.) // EI?ssNEAI — NIa. — 1904. — O. IX. — ei. 4. –432 n.

8 ?oaa?oe E. Iaeeiioee i a?aoo ?i?9 Iaoai AE. Aieaa?neia aic?iaeaeaiea.
— I.,. -1949.; Aai/aa I. Aueaa?nei auc?aaeaeaia. – I., 1988.;Ceaoa?nee
A.E. Aeaenaiae? II e aueaa?neeyo oeu?eiaai aui?in / Nai?iee a /ano ia
Aa?iainee e I?aneaanee ieo?iiieeo Neiaii. — Nioey. — 1922.

10 Eeeoaoaeee E.N. Iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiay ai?ueaa aieaa?neiai
ia?iaea i?ioea oaia?eioneiai eaa e ?inney. – Oaeeene, 1978.

15

eoeueoo?iiai oa ?ae?a?eii-aeooiaiiai noaio aea?aeaae. Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy
a aeooiaiiio a?ae?iaeaeaii? noni?euenoaa iaeaaeeoue ?ae?a??, aeeeeeai?e
caiiaieoe ?aeaieia?/iee aaeooi, oiio a???oaiiy ?ae?a?eieo ieoaiue
caeeoa?oueny iaeiei c aieiaieo;

— I?e iaaiai?aii? oa ?ica?ycaii? ieoaiue oea?eiaii-?ae?a?eiiai aeeooy
Oe?a?ie iiaeii? i?eeiaoe o/anoue i?aaenoaaieee ??ciiiai?oieo eiioan?e,
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a, noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo oa eoeueoo?ieo
i?aai?caoe?e.Oe? ieoaiiy iaiao?aeii aena?oethaaoe o caniaao ianiai?
?ioi?iaoe?? a?eueo aeieeaaeii. Aeuaaeacaia aeiiiiiaea o ?ica?ycaii?
no/aniiai i?aeoea?eiaiiai eiioe?eoo;

— Iaiao?aeii iaaeaiiy ??aieo oiia an?i ?ae?a?eiei eiioan?yi. O?yaeo
Oe?a?ie iaiao?aeii caa?iooe oaaao ia iaaaoeaiee aieea aeaye?o
inaaaei?ae?a?eieo oa/?e ia noni?euenoai, iniaeeai ia i?ae?inoath/a
iieie?iiy;

— Aea?aeaaa ? Oea?eaa iiaeii? nea?iaoaaoe naith ae?yeuei?noue oae, uia
i?aeianoe ii?aeueii-aeooiaiee ??aaiue no/aniiai noni?euenoaa. Uia
aeinyaiooe oe??? iaoe, o?aaa i?aeo?eioaaoe eoeueoo?o, ina?oo, iaoeo;
caa??aaoe iaoe?iiaeuei? o?aaeeoe?? oa eoeueoo?ii-aeooiai? aeinyaiaiiy
iaoiai ia?iaeo;

— Iniiai? caaaeaiiy no/aniiai aeooiaainoaa – ia aeiionoeoe a?ae??aaiino?
a?ae ianoae, i?aaiooe aooe a?eueo i?enooiiei aei naiai ia?iaeo;

— Uia c?icoi?oe ??ciiiai?oi? oea?eiai? eiioe?eoe, iaiao?aeii ciaoe
?noi??th ?ae?a??. Oeae i?aaeiao iaiao?aeii aea/aoe a aoiai?oa?ieo
o/aiaeo caeeaaeao;

— Aea?aeaa? iaiao?aeii iaaeaaaoe aeiiiiiao a o/ano? Oea?eae a
ie?ioai?/eo aeoe?yo. Aena?oethaaoe oeth ae?yeuei?noue o caniaao ianiai?
?ioi?iaoe??.

NIENIE IOAE?EAOe?E AAOI?A

1. Aieea ?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae ia iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a
Aieaa??? oa Na?a?? (?? iieiaeia XVIII – ?? iieiaeia XIX noie?ooy) – E.:
?inoeooo Oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?iai? I.N.
A?ooaanueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, 1998. – 24 n (1,5 ae?. a?e)

2. Aei ?noi??? ca?yce?a ?in?enueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae c na?aaie
Aini?? oa Aa?oeaaiaeie a ia??iae iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy //
A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea / ?noi??y. – Ee?a,
A?niee 1998. – Aei. 38. – N. 53-59 (0,8 ae?. a?e.)

3. I?aaineaaia Oea?eaa oa aieaa?nueea iaoe?iiaeueia
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy

14

a??a aoea aeey i?aaeaiiineia?yinueeeo ia?iae?a –
eoeueoo?ii-?aeaieia?/iith iniiaith iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, yea
aei ae?oai? iieiaeie XVIII no. noi?ioaaeany a ia??aeioaaeueiee oaeoi?
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo;

— ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iei i???ioe?ii aeey nei?aieo i?aaeaiieo neia?yi, ui
ciaoiaeeeeny i?ae y?iii ionoeueiainueei? Oo?a//eie oa eaoieeoeueei?
?iia??? Aaanao?a?a, aoee ?in?y oa ?onueea I?aaineaaia Oea?eaa, ye? aei
ii/aoeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aoee ?aeeieie canooiieeaie
i?aaineaa?y ia Aaeeaiao. ?onueei – i?aaeaiiineia?yinuee? ca?ycee,
aaciina?aaeiuei aei XVIII no., iaee ia?aaaaeii oa?aeoa? oea?eiaieo
a?aeiinei, a iniia? yeeo aoee ?noi?e/i? ca?ycee i?aaineaaieo oea?eia:
?onueei?, Na?anueei? oa Aieaa?nueei?;

— iaoa??aeueia aeiiiiiaa, ui aoea iaaeaia ?onueeith I?aaineaaiith
Oea?eaith i?aaeaiiineia?yinueeei oea?eaai, ye? aoee iniiaieie
ioi?iioeyie ia?iaeii? canaaee, icia/aea ia??eoeaio i?aeo?eieo
oi?ioaaiith iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? neia?yi Aieaa???, Na?a??,
*i?iiai???, Ai?aiaeei?, Aini?? oa Aa?oeaaiaei?;

— iane?aeeii eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueei? aeiiiiiae ?onueei? Oea?eae
i?aaeaiiineia?yinueeei ia?iaeai a icia/aiee ia??iae, aoei caa?aaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? iiae oa o?aaeeoe?e iaoe?iiaeueii? ?noi???, i?aeianaiiy
??aiy ina?oe, i?aeaioiaea i?aaeaiiineia?yinueei? ?ioae?aaioe??, aieea ia
ienoaoeoai. Ana oea iaoiiaeei ?icaeoie ?aea? iaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ? aieea ia noaiiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaaiino?;

— o/anoue ? i?aeo?eiea ?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae ? ?onueei?
aeeieiiao?? a ai?iouea? aieaa?nueeiai ia?iaeo ca iaoe?iiaeueio Oea?eao,
c?yaeeany ia?oei e?ieii ia oeyoo aei iie?oe/ii? iacaeaaeiino?;

— ?onueea I?aaineaaia Oea?eaa aeoeaii ia?aoeiaeaeoaaea
?iciianthaeaeaiith ?neaio, eaoie?oeecio ? i?ioanoaionoao, ui aoei
?aeaieia?/iith aeiiiiiaith, yea aoea nea?iaaia ia i?aeo?eieo i?aaineaa?y
? eiinie?aeaoe?th iaoe?e o i?aaeaiieo neia?yi;

— cia/ia i?noea a i?aai?caoe?? aeiiiiiae i?aaeaiiei neia?yiai
a?ae?a?aaaee oea?eiai? i?aai?caoe??, i?ia?aei? i?aaenoaaieee ?onueei?
I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ie? ?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae a iaoe?iiaeueiiio
a?ae?iaeaeaii? i?aaeaiieo neia?yi, iaaea? iiaeeeaino? aaoi?o
cai?iiiioaaoe caaaeuei? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, a?aeiinii i?ioean?a
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa aeooiaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny ca?ac
a no/ani?e Oe?a?i?:

— Iaoe?iiaeueia ? aeooiaia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy caeaaeeoue ia?o ca ana a?ae
ii?iaeueiiai nioe?aeueii — aeiiii?/iiai, iie?oeei
— i?aaiaiai,

7

E.? Noaiaiiai?11. A aeine?aeaeaiiyo a?aecia/a?oueny aaeeea ?ieue
aeooiaieo o/aiaeo caeeaae?a, iniaeeai Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueei? aeaaeai??.

Iniaeeaee iaoeiaee ?ioa?an aeeeeeathoue ?iaioe A.I. Eiiae?aoue?ai? oa
I.I. Aeai?eiai?12, aea i?noeoueny oe?eaaee iaoa??ae c i?iaeai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aini?enueeeo na?a?a oa o/ano? a iueiio
?in?enueei? ?iia???. Iaeiae, o oeeo ?iaioao oi/a e a?aoiao?oueny
aaaeeea?noue ?ae?a?eieo ieoaiue oa aieea ?aeeiia??ii? ?in??,
ae?yeuei?noue ?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae ia aecia/aia.

A eiioaeno? aeine?aeaeaiue A.I. Aaaeiai? oa I.?. Oeo?iai?13 a?aeaeoa
o/anoue ?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae o iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?ae?iaeaeaii?
/i?iiai?oe?a, aea, ye ? a iiia?aaei?o ?iaioao, ie?aiei ieoaiiyi oea ia
neeaaeaii.

Ae?yeueiino?  aeaeaoiiai  oea?eiaiiai  ae?y/a  XVIII  no. A.A. Naiai?nue
-eiai oa eiai o/ano? a aeiiiiic? iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?ae?iaeaeaiith na?a?a
i?enay/aia ?iaioa ?.N. Aeinoyi14.

O 90-o? ?iee a Oe?a?i? oa ?in?? cia/ii c?inea caoe?eaaeai?noue aei
aea/aiiy ?noi??? Oea?eae, c?yaeeiny /eiaei i?aoeue, i?enay/aieo
?noi?eei-oea?eiaiei i?iaeaiai. Niinoa??aa?oueny ?ioa?an no/anieo
?noi?ee?a aei aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai iaoe?iiaeueieo a?ae?iaeaeaiue ia
Aaeeaiao, oea?eiaieo ca?yce?a ?onueeiai, oe?a?inueeiai oa
i?aaeaiiineia?yinueeeo ia?iae?a o oeae ia??iae. Iaeiae, i?iaeaia ?ie?
?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae a iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?ae?iaeaeaii?
i?aaeaiieo neia?yi, a no/ani?e ?noi??ia?ao?? ua ia aeine?aeaeaia.

Na?aae no/anieo aeine?aeaeaiue iniaeeai? oaaae caneoaiao? ?iaioa
i?ioani?a Iineianueei? aeooiaii? aeaaeai?? E.?. Neo?aoa15. Aaoi?
i?eae?eea aaeeea i?noea aeine?aeaeaiith aca?iia?aeiinei
i?aaeaiiineia?yinueeeo oea?eia c ?onueeith I?aaineaaiith Oea?eaith, oa
?? aieeao ia i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino?
i?aaineaaiiai ianaeaiiy. I?e an?e iiaeci? oa aaeeeiio oaeoieia?/ii
oe?eaaiio iaoa??ae?, ui aeeeaaeaiee o i?aoe?, aaoi?

11 Iaaeth/aiei I.A. Oe?a?ia o ?in?enueei-thaineia?yinueeeo noni?eueieo
ca?yceao (ae?oaa iie. O?O – ii/. OO no.). – E., 1992; Nioaiue I.N.
I/a?ee enoi?ee oe?aeinei-aieaa?neeo naycae. – E., 1976; Oeaeiye C.E.
Eeaai-Iiaeeyineay aeaaeaiey. – E., 1988; Oaa/aiei O.I. ?ieue
Eeaai-Iiaeeyineie Aeaaeaiee a eoeueoo?iuo naycyo n aaeeaineeie no?aiaie
a XVIII a. / ?ieue Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueei? Aeaaeai?? a eoeueoo?iiio ?aeiaii?
neia?yinueeeo ia?iae?a. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. – E., 1988; Noaiaiiaa
E.E. Aeeaae ?innee a iiaeaioiaeo aieaa?neie eioaeeeaaioeee a 50 – 70 aa.
XIX a. – Eeoeiaa, 1981.

12 Eiiae?aoueaaa A.I. ?onneay iiiiuue Ainiee e Aa?oeaaiaeia a aeaea
ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey a 50 – 70 –aa. XIX a. (Ii aeiianaieyi ?onneiai
eiinoea a Na?aaaa) / Aii?inu ia?aiia/aeueiiai iaeiieaiey eaieoaea e
iaoeeiiaeueiua aeaeaeaiey a neaayineeo no?aiao. –I., 1972.

13 Aaaeiaa A.I. ?onnei-/a?iiai?neea nayce e ia/aei ainoaea?noaaiiie
i?aaiecaoeee *a?iiai?ee a XVIII a. / Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey e
aiaoiyy iieeoeea NNN?. Enoi?ey e nia?aiaiiinoue. – I., 1957; ?? ae.
*a?iiai?ey a iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiii aeaeaeaiee ia Aaeeaiao e
?onnei-/a?iiai?neea ioiioaiey a 50 – 70 –aa. XIX a. – I., 1979.

14 Aeinoyi E.N. ?onneay iauanoaaiiay iuneue e aaeeaineea ia?iaeu: Io
?aaeeuaaa aei aeaeaa?enoia. I/a?ee. – I., 1980. oa ?io?.

15 Neo?ao E.A. Enoi?ey Iiianoiuo I?aaineaaiuo Oea?eaae. –I., 1994. – A
2o. – O. 1.

8

iaaeinoaoiuei /?oei iieno? ?noi?e/i? ianoaaeie oeueiai ia??iaeo, ia
?icaeyaea? iie?oe/iee aniaeo oe??? i?iaeaiaoeee. *eiaei oe?iieo
iaoa??ae?a c aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie i?noyoue ?iaioe I.A. E?ai?a?ia16.

Oaeei /eiii, ?noi??ia?ao?/iee iaeyae cana?ae/o?, ui eiie?aoiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie, ui i?iiiio?oueny, ia ?nio? ai? a
aei?aaeyinuee?e, ai? a ?aaeyinuee?e, ai? a no/ani?e caei?aeiii?e oa
a?o/eciyi?e ?noi??ia?ao??, ui aei?aaaeiao? caa?iaiiy aaoi?a aei ?ic?iaee
oaie.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeyoue ii-ia?oa, aeieoiaioe ?
iaoa??aee oiiae?a A?o?aa Ciai?oiuei? Iie?oeee ?in?enueei? ?iia???.
Aeei?enoai? oa aea/ai? iaoa??aee: o. 86 “Niioaiey ?innee n Na?aeae e
Neaaiieae”, o. 95 “Niioaiey ?innee n *a?iiai?eae”, o. 161
“N.Iaoa?ao?aneiai Aeaaiiai A?oeaa V-A2”, “N.Iaoa?ao?aneiai Aeaaiiai
A?oeaa ?-1”, ui iaaeathoue oyao i?i aca?iia?aeiineie ?in?? ? ?onueei?
I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae c i?aaenoaaieeaie c i?aaeaiiineia?yinueeeo caiaeue,
oa i?i iaaeaiiy inoaii?i aeiiiiiae: iaoa??aeueii?, aeeieiiaoe/ii?,
?aeaieia?/ii?, eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueei?, oa ni?eyii? a ia?anaeaii?.

Iaoa??aee o. 161 “N.-Ia AA ?-1” i?noyoue oe?ii? noaoenoe/i? a?aeiiino?
uiaei e?eueeino? i?aaineaaiiai ianaeaiiy a Aini?? oa Aa?oeaaiaei?.
Iaea?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaieie c oe??? i?iaeaie aeyaeeenue aeieoiaioe o. 146
“Neaayineee noie”, ui i?noyoue o nia? /eneaii? i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy
??ciiiai?oii? aeiiiiiae ?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae i?aaeaiiei
neia?yiai a ia??iae iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy. Iaea?eueo oe?eaaeie
? aeiianaiiy ?in?enueeeo eiinoe?a o i?aaeaiiineia?yinueeeo caieyo
Iaa?-i?ieo?i?o Neiiaeo a?aoo Ae.A Oienoiio, eenooaaiiy Iaa?-i?ieo?i?a
Neiiaeo a?aoa I.I. Oienoiai c ?in?enueeei aeeieiiaoii ?.I.
Eiaaeaanueeei, eenoe Na?anueeiai ieo?iiieeoa Ieoaeea, aeiianaiiy
Ainiiaea?nueeiai oa Aeooiaii-o/aiaiai oi?aae?iue A?aeiinoaa
I?aaineaaiiai Niia?aeoaaiiy a ICN, aea i?noyoueny a?aeiiino?, ui
ciiaeooue aeiiiiiaoe iai o ?ica?ycaii? ieoaiiy uiaei ?ie? ?onueei?
I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae a ia??iae neeaaeaiiy iaoe?e o i?aaeaiieo neia?yi.

Aaaeeeaa i?noea na?aae aeaea?ae caeiathoue ca??ee aeieoiaio?a
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a oa a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e, ui aoee iioae?eiaai?
ca oaiaoe/iei aai o?iiieia?/iei i?eioeeiii. Aiie aeathoue ciiao ca?aeii
aeieoiaio?a ?ica?ycaoe ieoaiiy, ui noinothoueny oea?eiaieo eiioaeo?a
i?ae ?in?enueeeie oa i?aaeaiiineia?yinueeeie ia?iaeaie a XVIII co.17,
iaaeathoue oyao i?i ae?yeuei?noue i?aaenoaaiee?a ?onueei? I?aaineaaii?
Oea?eae o i?aaeaiiineia?yinueeeo caieyo o 40 – 70 – ??. XIX no. c
o?aooaaiiyi iie?oeee

16 E?aieaei I.A. ?ieue i?aaineaaiie oea?eae a aicieeiiaaiee e oe?aieaiee
aeooiaiuo naycae oe?aeineiai e aieaa?neiai ia?iaeia // Oacenu aeieeaaeia
iao/iie eiioa?aioeee i?ioanni?nei-i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneiai ninoaaa AeiiAO.
Enoi?e/aneea iaoee. – Aeiiaoee, 1995. – N. 24-26 oa ?i.

17 Iieeoe/aneea e eoeueoo?iua ioiioaiey ?innee n thaineiayineeie caieyie
a XVIII a.: Aeieoiaiou / Ioa. ?aae. Ia?i/ieoeeee A.E., Iao?iae/ I. – I.,
1984; Ienueia e aoiaae Iao?a ?. – I., 1975. – O.O??. – Aui. ?.

13

Na?a?? a 1725 ?., noai?aiiy i?aaineaaieo aeooiaieo oe?e ? o/eeeu i?e
iiianoe?yo o *i?iiai???, Aini?? oa Aa?oeaaiaei?; o/anoue a i?aai?caoe??
na?anueeiai aeooiaiiai o/aiaiai caeeaaeo “Aiaineia?y” (1836 ?.);
o?iainoaaiiy na?anueeeo oe?e c eioo Neiiaeo oa ?ioa. Aeooiaii — o/aiaa
Oi?aae?iiy I?aaineaaiiai Niia?aeoaaiiy caeiaeiny aeaoooaaiiyi oa
oo?eiaiiyi na?anueei? iieiae?, yea anooiaea aei aeooiaii-o/aiaeo
caeeaae?a a ?in??. Iniaeeao ?ieue o i?aeaioiaoe? aeooiaieo in?a
a?ae?a?aaaea Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea aeaaeai?y, a iio?i Ee?anueea aeooiaia
aeaaeai?y. Ooo io?eiaee ina?oo oae? aeaeaoi? ae?y/e na?anueeiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ye ienueiaiiee Eiaai ?a?/, Aoaeeinueeee ?ieneii Ae?ii?n?e
Iiaaeiae/, Na?anuee? ieo?iiieeoe Ieoaeei oa ?iieaio?e.

Aeineoue aaaiiei aoa aianie ?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae o caaaeueiee
?icaeoie na?anueei? eoeueoo?e ia??iaeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy:
i?ae aieeaii aiaineianueei?, aiaineoaeaiai? oa oea?eiaii-?noi?e/ii?
e?oa?aoo?e neeaeany e?oa?aoo?ia na?anueea iiaa. Niinoa??aaany aieea
?onueeiai ienoaoeoaa ia na?anueeo ooaeiaeith oeieo.

C ?in?? iino?eii eoea iaoa??aeueia aeiiiiiaa , cai?e iiaea?oaoaaiue
i?iaiaeeeeny, a iniiaiiio, oea?eaaie. O 70??. XIX no. a Iinea? oa
Iaoa?ao?c? aoee noai?ai? Neaa?yii-na?anuee? iiaea???y aeey cai?o
iiaea?oaoaaiue ? aeinoaaeaiith ?o o Na?a?th, a oaeiae aeey
i?aaenoaaieoeoaa Na?anueei? Oea?eae a ?in?enueei? ?iia???.

Iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo aoea ?aeaieia?/ia aeiiiiiaa ?onueei? Oea?eae
i?aaineaaiei na?aai a ia?aiee ia??iae, oea i?ioeae?yiiy ?neai?caoe?? oa
ieaoiee/oaaiiy. ?onueea I?aaineaaia Oea?eaa a ia??iae iaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aoea iaei??th c aieiaieo ca?ycoth/eo eaiie i?ae
i?aaineaaieie na?aaie oa ?in?enueeith aea?aeaaith. Aaaeiei iieacieeii
oiai aoea ae?yeuei?noue ?onueeiai nayuaieea I.O. ?a?anueeiai, yeee aoa
ianoiyoaeai ?onueei? iinieuenueei? oea?eae o A?aei?. Caaaeoth/e
i?aaenoaaiee?a ?onueeiai aeooiaainoaa, ye? ni?eyee ?icaeoeo ca?yce?a c
i?aaeaiiineia?yinueeeie oea?eiaieie, a?iiaaenueeeie oa iie?oe/ieie
ae?y/aie, ne?ae a?aecia/eoe ae?yeuei?noue i?ioi???ay A.A. Naiai?nueeiai,
Ee?anueeiai ieo?iiieeoa Oeiio?y Ua?aaoeueeiai, ieo?iiieeoa Iineianueeiai
oa Eieiiainueeiai O?ea?aoa.

O aeniiaeao c?iaeaii ocaaaeueiaiiy ? i?aeaeoi i?aenoiee i?iaaaea-iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ye? aeieeaathoue c
iueiai. Aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe?? aoei cae?eniaii eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy
ieoaiue aeiiiiiae ?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae i?aaeaiiei neia?yiai a
ia??iae iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy.Aieiai? i?aenoiee iieyaathoue o
ianooiiiio:

— iaeiei c aieiaieo oaeoi??a i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino? o i?aaeaiieo neia?yi aoa – ?ae?a?eiee. I?aaineaaia

12

aoea aeai?noa: c iaeiiai aieo iaiao?aei?noue caa?aaoe ?aei?noue
I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae, a c ae?oaiai – iaaeaoe aeiiiiiao aieaa?ai. I?ney
?iceieo 1860 ?., eiee Aieaa?nueea Oea?eaa ia noaea aeciaaaoe
aa?oiaainoai Einoyioeiiiieuenueeiai Iao??a?oa, ?in?enueea aeeieiiao?y,
ia noaaethth/e oaeiai a?aeaa?oiai ?ic?eao, iaiaaaeany ia?aeiiaoe
Einoyioeiiiieuenueeiai Iao??a?oa iinooieoeny aieaa?ai oa aeciaoe
aaoieaoaeueio iaoe?iiaeueio Aieaa?nueeo Oea?eao. ?onueeee aea?? o
ae??oaii? oeueiai ieoaiiy ea?oaaany ii?aaeaie ieo?iiieeoa Iineianueeiai
? Eieiiainueeiai O?ea?aoa. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui ?onuee?e I?aaineaai?e
Oea?ea? oa ?in?enuee?e aeeieiiao?? ia aaeaeiny caa?aaoe ie? o No?aei?e
Oea?ea? (o 1872 ?. Anana?oi?e Niai? i?iaieinea Aieaa?nueeo Oea?eao
noeciaoe/iith), ana ae ca ?o aeiiiiiaith aoea aeinyaiooa ?ioa iaoa –
noai?aiiy Aieaa?nueei? Oea?eae, ui a cia/i?e i??? ni?eyei
a?ae?iaeaeaiith aieaa?nueei? iaoe?? oa i?aaiaiith aei iiaii?
iacaeaaeiino?.

O?ao?e ?icae?e “?onueea I?aaineaaia Oea?eaa oa iaoe?iiaeueia
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a thaineaanueeeo caieyo” neeaaea?oueny c /ioe?ueio
i?ae?icae?e?a. A?i i?enay/aiee ?icaeyaeo aeiiiiiae, yea iaaeaaaeanue
?onueeith I?aaineaaiith Oea?eaith i?aaineaaiei na?aai, ai?aiaeeioeyi,
/i?iiai?oeyi, aini?enueeei na?aai a ia??iae oi?ioaaiiy ?o iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino?. Aiae?coth/e i?ioeane iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a
thaineaanueeeo caieyo, aaoi? c?iaeea ni?iao aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? oeueiai
neeaaeiiai ?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano a ie?aii ia?aiiio ia?iae?, c o?aooaaiiyi
aioo??oiueiiie?oe/iiai oa ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iiai noaiiaeua a Na?a??,
*i?iiai???, Iaeaaeii??, Ai?aiaeei?, Aini?? oa Aa?oeaaiaei?, noaiiaeua ?o
iaoe?iiaeueii? oea?eae oa iie?oeee ?in?? a oeueiio ?aa?ii?.

I?aeo?eioaaiiy ?onueeith I?aaineaaiith Oea?eaith i?aaineaa?y – ye
eoeueoo?ii-?aeaieia?/ii? iniiae iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
na?anueeiai ia?iaeo a oiiaao ?iicaiiiai ai?oo, iaei aecia/aeueia
cia/aiiy aeey oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? oa aeoea?caoe??
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ?oo?a a oe?e /anoei? Aaeeainueeiai i?aino?iaa.
Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe, ?onueea I?aaineaaia Oea?eaa ca?aeii c
?ioa?anaie ?in?enueei? aea?aeaae, i?ioyaii XVIII – XIX no. cae?enithaaea
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeo, ?aeaieia?/io, iaoa??aeueio aeiiiiiao.

I?ney caiaiaaeo I?/nueei? iao??a?o?? (1766 ?.) oa Io?eaenueei?
a?o??ieneii?? (1767 ?.) i?aeneeeeinue aiiaeaiiy ionoeueiaiaie oa
oaia??ioaie. A oeeo oiiaao ?onueea I?aaineaaia Oea?eaa aeeiioaaea ?ieue
caoenieea i?aaineaaieo na?a?a ia?aae noeoaiii oa Einoyioeiiiieuenueeei
Iao??a?oii.

Ca aeiiiiiaith ?in?? ? ?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae aoa c?iaeaiee
ia?oee e?ie o i?ina?o? na?anueeiai ia?iaeo: i?aai?caoe?y oe?eueii?
ni?aae o

9

?in?? ia Aaeeaiao o oeae ia??iae18.

Aeey aea/aiiy oe?eiai ?yaeo ieoaiue aoee aeei?enoai? aeaea?aea, ye? aoee
aeeeaaeai? a ia??iaee/i?e i?an?. Ia?aaaaeii oea aeo?iaee, ui aeoiaeeee o
e?i. O?O – ii/. OO no. oa i?noeee a?aeiiino? i?i ?noi??th
i?aaeaiiineia?yinueeeo ia?iae?a; i?i no/ani? iie?oe/i?, oea?eiai? oa
eoeueoo?i? iiae?? ia Aaeeaiao; i?i ?onueei-i?aaeaiiineia?yinuee? ca?ycee
oa ?i. Na?aae oeeo aeo?iae?a iiaeia iacaaoe: “Aanoiee Aa?iiu”, “Cai?iee
ioaeaeaiey ?onneiai ycuea e neiaaniinoe Eiia?aoi?neie Aeaaeaiee Iaoe”,
“Nai?iee Eiia?aoi?neiai ?onneiai Enoi?e/aneiai iauanoaa”, “?onneay
noa?eia”, “Enoi?e/aneee aanoiee”.

Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy aeey ia?aii? oaie iathoue niaoe?aeuei? oea?eiai?
aeaea?aea: oea?eiaia ia??iaee/ia i?ana ( aeo?iaee “Aiaineianeee
aanoiee”, “Oea?eiaiue Aanoiee”, “I?aaineaaiia iaic?aiea”, “O?enoeaineia
/oaiea”); oai?e oea?eiaieo aaoi??a19, ca??ee oa iaoa??aee c ?noi???
oea?eae20. Oey a?oia aeaea?ae i?noeoue eiie?aoiee ? aaaeeeaee iaoa??ae
aeey aena?oeaiiy oea?eiaieo iiae?e o i?aaeaiiineia?yinueeeo caieyo, oa
noaaeaiiy aei ieo ?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae.

Neeaaeiaith /anoeiith aeaea?aeueii? aace aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee iaioa?e oa
iiene iiaei?iaeoaaiue21 ia i?aaeaiiineia?yinueeeo caieyo, aiie
iaeaaeaoue aei ia?aoeaieo aeaea?ae. ?o aeei?enoaiiy aea? iai
iiaeeea?noue a?eueo iiaii ona?aeiieoe oea?eiaia oa caaaeueiiiie?oe/ia
aeeooy na?a?a oa aieaa? a oeae ia??iae c oi/ee ci?o ?o no/aniee?a.

Aei ooiaeaiaioo ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie aoee oaeiae caaaaeai? aioeeeeiiaaee/i?
aeaeaiiy22.

18 Ca?oaaaeiua neaayia e ?inney: Aeieoiaiou a?oeaa I.O. ?aaaneiai
40-80aa. O?O a. I., — 1975; Inaiaiaeeoaeueiay ai?ueaa ia?iaeia Ainiee e
Aa?oeaaiaeiu e ?inney 1850 – 1864. Aeieoiaiou. / Ioa. ?aae. Iena?aa
TH.A., Yeia/e/ I. – I., 1985 / Inaiaiaeeoaeueiay ai?ueaa ia?iaeia Ainiee
e Aa?oeaaiaeiu e ?inney 1865 – 1875. Aeieoiaiou. / Ioa. ?aae. Iena?aa
TH.A., Yeia/e/ I. – I., 1988.

19 Iaea?ee, ieo?ii. Enoi?ey ?onneie oea?eae. 2-a ecae-a. – NIa., 1882;
Aieoaeineee A.A. Enoi?ey ?onneie oea?eae. – I., 1900. – A 2-o o. – O.
2.; Aa?acei E.A. E?aoeee i/a?e Na?aneie i?aaineaaiie oea?eae a Oi?aaoee,
Neiaaiee, Aeaeiaoeee // I?aaineaaiia iaic?aiea. – NIa. – 1873. — ? 7.;
Ai?ioa E. Ea?eiaaoeeay ieo?iiieey a iineaaeiaa aeanyoeeaoea //
O?enoeaineia /oaiea. – NIa. – 1867. — ? 1-2. Aeea.: 4-6.

20 Nia?aiea iiaiee e iocuaia Oeea?aoa, ieo?iiieeoa Iineianeiai e
Eieiiaineiai ii aeaeai I?aaineaaiie Oea?eae ia Ainoiea. – NIa:
Neiiaeaeueiay oeiia?aoey, 1866; Nia?aiea iiaiee e iocuaia Oeea?aoa,
ieo?iiieeoa Iineianeiai e Eieiiaineiai ii o/aaiui e
oea?eiaii-ainoaea?noaaiiui aii?inai – NIa., 1888. – O. V; Iaoa?eaeu aeey
enoi?ee I?aaineaaiie Oea?eae a oea?noaiaaiea eiia?aoi?a Ieeieay ? //
Nai?iee Eiia?aoi?neiai ?onneiai enoi?e/aneiai iauanoaa. – NIa., 1902. –
O. 130.

21 Caienee a?aoa I.I. Eaiaoueaaa // Enoi?e/aneee aanoiee. – 1914. — ? 1;
Ia?eia I. Neaayineay Nia?oa. I/a?ee iooaoanoaey ii Aeaeiaoeee e
*a?iiai?ee // Aanoiee Aa?iiu. – NIa. – 1898. — ? 7.

22 O?enoeainoai: Yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue: A 3 o. / ?aae.eie. A.A.
Aaa?eioeaa e ae?. I., 1993-1995. – O. – 1-3 oa ?i.

10

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaea? nenoaia
iaoeiaeo i?eioeei?a ? iaoiae?a i?ciaiiy, c yeeo ianaiia?aae o?aaa
aeae?eeoe i?eioeeie ?noi?ecio, ia??eoeaiino?, eiieaeniiai oa nenoaiiiai
i?aeoiaeo.A ?iaio? aeei?enoiaothoueny i?eioeeie i?iaeaiii-eiioan?eiiai,
o?iiieia?/iiai, ii??aiyeueiiai ?icaeyaeo ia?aii? oaie.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e — “?onueea I?aaineaaia Oea?eaa oa ?? aieea ia
iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a Aieaa???” neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio
i?ae?icae?e?a. A?i i?enay/aiee aiae?co oi?ioaaiiy
eoeueoo?ii-?aeaieia?/iiai ooiaeaiaioo i?ioeano neeaaeaiiy iaoe?e
i?aaeaiieo neia?yi – i?aaineaa?th ? ?icaeyaeathoueny an? oi?ie
aeiiiiiae, ui iaaeaaaeany ?onueeith I?aaineaaiith Oea?eaith aieaa?ai a
ia??iae ?o iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy.

Aaoi?ii ?icaeyioo? i?e/eie, c yeeo i?aaineaa?y (?ae?a?eiee oaeoi?
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy), ye eoeueoo?ii-?aeaieia?/ia iniiaa
i?ioeano neeaaeaiiy iaoe?e i?aaeaiieo neia?yi, noi?ioaaeiny ye
ia??aeioaaeueiee oaeoi? ai?ioueae i?aaineaaieo aieaa? oa na?a?a ca
iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy. A ?iaio? i?iaiae?ciaaii cia/aiiy
i?aaineaaii? a??e ? Oea?eae aeey i?aaeaiiineia?yinueeeo ia?iae?a a
oiiaao ?iicaiiiai y?ia ionoeueiainueei? Oo?oe?? ? eaoieeoeueei? ?iia???
Aaanao?a?a aei ii/aoeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy. Aeaoaeueii
?icaeyiooa ieoaiiy i?i noai aieaa?nueeeo oa na?anueeeo i?aaineaaieo
oea?eia o Oo?a//ei? oa Aano???, ui iaoiiaeei ?nioaaiiy a?aei?iiinoae oa
iniaeeainoae a i?ioean? iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
i?aaeaiiineia?yinueeeo ia?iae?a.

A ?iaio? ?ao?iniaeoeaii i?iaiae?ciaaia ieoaiiy i?i ia?aoai?aiiy ?in?? oa
?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae a canooiieoeth i?aaineaa?y ia Aaeeaiao ?
oi?ioaaiiy ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iiai i???ioe?o i?aaeaiieo neia?yi. A
eiioaeno? oeueiai ieoaiiy noenei i?iaiae?ciaaia ?noi??y
oea?eiaii-eoeueoo?ieo ca?yce?a ?in?? c i?aaeaiieie neia?yiaie aei XVIII
co.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? i?iaiae?ciaaia aeiiiiiaa, ui aoea iaaeaia ?onueeith
I?aaineaaiith Oea?eaith a ?? o?aaeeoe?eieo oi?iao: i?ina?o? oa
iiaea?oaoaaiiyo, ui aoei aeoaea aaaeeeai ia ia?oiio aoai? aieaa?nueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, yea iaei eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeee
oa?aeoa?.

?aea? iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aeieeee a oea?eiaiiio na?aaeiaeu?
aieaa?nueeiai noni?euenoaa. I?aaineaai? oea?eae a Aieaa???, ui aoee
i?eai?/ai? oo?aoeueeeie aieiaea?yie oa a?aoeueeeie oaia??ioaie, iaee
iio?aao o canooiieoeoa? oa iaoa??aeuei?e aeiiiiic?. ?onueea I?aaineaaia
Oea?eaa acyea ia naaa ?ieue canooiieoe? aieaa?nueeeo oea?eia, ye? aoee
iniiaieie ioi?iioeyie aeooiaieo o?aaeeoe?e oa ia?iaeii? iiae. C ?in??
aeey aeiiiiiae ioaeaeaiiei oea?eaai iaaeneeaeeny ?a/? oea?eiaiiai
oa?aiiy, aiaineoaeaia? eieae, a?io?, ui icia/aei ia??eoeaio i?aeo?eieo
iaoe?iiaeueii-

11

oea?eiaii? ai?ioueae a Aieaa???. I?ney oiai, ye iiceoe?? ?in?? a ?a?ii?
noaa?aeeeeny, c 30 — ??. XIX no. aeiiiiiaa aieaa?nueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio
a?ae?iaeaeaiith eoea a?eueo i?aai?ciaaii oa a cia/i?oiio ianooaa?.
Ca?eueoeeany e iaoa??aeueia aeiiiiiaa, i?aai?coaaiiyi yei? caeiaeiny
Ainiiaea?nueea Oi?aae?iiy A?aeiinoaa I?aaineaaiiai Niia?aeoaaiiy
(Neiiaeo). Caaaeyee eiai ae?yeueiino? aieaa?nuee? oea?eae nii?yaeaeaeeny
iaiao?aeieie oea?eiaieie iaeaaeiinoyie oa a?ioeia, ia c?a?ai? a ?in??
iiaea?oaoaaiiy aoaeoaaeeny iia? oeiee ? niai?e, i?e oea?eaao
a?aee?eaaeeny o/eeeua.

Eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueea aeiiiiiaa, ui aoea iaaeaia ?onueeith
I?aaineaaiith Oea?eaith aieaa?nueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?ae?iaeaeaiith,
i?iaiae?ciaaia aaoi?ii a aeae?eueeio iai?yieao.

O XVIII no. ca aeiiiiiaith ?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae eoei
?iciianthaeaeaiiy a Aieaa??? ?onueeiai oa oe?a?inueeiai ia?acioai?/iai
ienoaoeoaa (niinoa??aaany iiaooi?e aieea ia aieaa?nueeo ?eiiia?ao?th
?eiiiienieo oe?e ?in?? ? Oe?a?ie).

Aena?oeaii cia/iee aieea ?onueei? e?oa?aoo?e ia eoeueoo?ia aeeooy
aieaa?nueeiai ia?iaeo, ia?aaaaeii oea aoea oea?eiaii-neoaeaiaa oa
iaa/aeueia e?oa?aoo?a. ?onueea I?aaineaaia Oea?eaa caeiaeany cae?aiiyi
oa ia?aneeaiiyi eiea aei Aieaa???.

A aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiae?ciaaia aeiiiiiaa ?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae
aieaa?nuee?e i?ina?o?: a oe??ieaii? ia?iaeii? ina?oe a Aieaa???
(a?aee?eooy i?aaineaaieo o/eeeu i?e iiianoe?yo, a?ioiaa i?aeo?eiea oe?e
oa ?i.); a i?aeaioiaoe? aieaa?nueei? ?ioae?aaioe??; a iaa/aii?
aieaa?nueei? iieiae? a aeooiaii-iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao ?in??.

Aaoi? iaaeaa oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?aeaieia?/i?e aeiiiiic? ?onueei? Oea?eae,
yea iieyaaea a i?aeo?eioe? i?aaineaaii? a??e o aieaa?nueeiai ia?iaeo oa
i?ioenoiyii? eaoieeoeuee?e oa i?ioanoaionuee?e i?iiaaaiae?.

Aaeeeo aeiiiiiao a ia??iae aieaa?nueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
iaaeaei Iaeanueea ianoiyoaeuenoai aieaa? (1854 – 1878 ??.), ye
i?aai?caoe?y, ui aoea canooiieoeath aieaa?nueeei oea?eaai oa o/eeeuai.
I/iethaaa ianoiyoaeuenoai a?o??ieneii Oa?niinueeee oa Oaa??enueeee
?iieaio?e.

A 50-o? ??. XIX no. i?aaenoaaieee ?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae
aenooiaee ca caa?aaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aieaa?nueei? iiae,
??aiii?aai?noue ?? c oo?aoeueeith, oa a?eueia canioaaiiy aieaa?nueeeo
o/eeeu.

A o?aoueiio ia?aa?ao? i?iaiae?ciaaia ?ieue ?in?enueei? ?iia??? oa
?onueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae a ai?iouea? aieaa? ca naiino?eio
Aieaa?nueeo Oea?eao (1853 – 1872 ??.).

Iiceoe?y ?onueei? Oea?eae o ae??oaii? a?aei-aieaa?nueeiai eiioe?eoo

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