I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

IAOe?IIAEUeIA A??IE*A AEAAeAI?ss OE?A?IE

OAeE 553.31+553.061.17.001+551.71+552.1

I?E?INUeEA Ieueaa A?eoi??aia

?IEUe AEAEO?E*IEO IIE?A

O OI?IOAAII? ?OAeIEO ?IAeIAEU

(ia i?eeeaae? cae?ci?oaeieo oi?iaoe?e aeieaia??th)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue:

04.00.11 — “Aaieia?y iaoaeaaeo ? iaiaoaeaaeo ei?enieo eiiaeei”

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a aaieia?/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee

1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeuei?e a??ie/?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
aoae?aieoeoaa oaoo ? i?aecaiieo nii?oae

Iaoe?iiaeueii? a??ie/i? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie (i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee)

NIAIE?A

Aaea??e A?eoi?iae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? aaieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e caaaeueii? ? ?aa?iiaeueii? aaieia??

Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.?.O?aiea

NEAI?IIIA

Aeueaa?o Ieaen?eiae/

aeieoi? aaieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

eaoaae?e aaieia?? ? ?ica?aeee ?iaeiaeu ei?enieo eiiaeei

E?eai??cueeiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

EAOAEAIAOeUe

Aiaoie?e ?aaiiae/

aeieoi? aaieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

aaieia?? ? ?ica?aeee ?iaeiaeu ei?enieo eiiaeei

Aeiiaanueeiai a??ie/i-iaoaeo?a?eiiai ?inoeoooo

(i.Ae/aanuee)

AI?IAEE

Aiaoie?e Oaaei?iae/

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo i?ia?aeueieo ?ano?n?a Aea?aeeiiaaieia??,

a?aeae?e aeaai?iaeieo iaoae?a (i.N?ioa?iiieue)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny « 18 » eenoiiaaea 1999 ?.

i 14 aiae. ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee Ae 08.080.05 i?e
Iaoe?iiaeuei?e a??ie/?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith : 49027, i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, i?. E.Ia?ena,19,

oae.( 0562) 47-24-11

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueii?
a??ie/i? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie

ca aae?anith: 49027, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, i?. E.Ia?ena,19,

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee « 14 » aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee Ae 08. 080.05,

eaiaeeaeao aaieiae/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio A.E.Eiciaee.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Noai ? aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa i?enay/aia
ieoaiiyi aea/aiiy aaiaceno cae?ci?oaeieo oi?iaoe?e aeieaia??th (COAe),
?iaeiaeua yeeo i?noyoue aei 80% na?oiaeo ?ano?n?a cae?cieo ?oae.
I?iieneiaa cia/aiiy ?o aeiyoeiai aaeeea aiane?aeie eiioeaio?aoe??
caian?a o cia/ieo ? oi?eaeueieo ?iaeiaeuao, aeniei? yeino? oa eaaeiai
caaaa/aiiy ?oae, eiiiaeoiiai ?icoaooaaiiy ?iaeiaeu o aeaeyae? aaeeeeo
?aeii?a ? a?aaionueeeo cae?ci?oaeieo aanaei?a. ?noi??y i?iieneiaiai
aeei?enoaiiy ?iaeiaeu COAe ia?aoiao? iiiaae 100 ?ie?a, ? yeui ?ai?oa
?ic?iaeyeeny eeoa aaaao? cae?ci? ?oaee, oi ca inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy
iai?oeany iiaee aoai — caeo/aiiy aei aenieoaoaoe?? ?iaeiaeu
aaaeeicaaaa/oaaieo a?aeieo ?oae. Caiane oaeeo ?oae a Oe?a?i? aeoaea
aaeee?, a ?o ?ici?uaiiy aeicaiey? caaacia/eoe ??aiii??iee ?iciiae?e
aeaea?ae ne?iaeie uiaei oeaio??a iaoaeo?a??. Cae?ci?oaei? eiioeaio?aoe,
ye? ae?iaeythoueny caaaa-/oaaeueieie eiia?iaoaie E?eaaano, — iaeia c
iniiaieo aeaea?ae aaethoieo iaaeoiaeaeaiue a Oe?a?io. C ?iaeiaeuaie COAe
iia’ycaiee ? i?aeaeuaiee ai?no ?ioeo ei?enieo eiiiiiaio?a, ye? ?ai?oa ia
?icaeyaeaeeny ye aeaea?aea ne?iaeie c i?e/ei iecueei? eiioeaio?aoe??.
Oae, o cae?cenoeo eaa?oeeoao A?eica?nueeiai cae?ci?oaeiiai ?iaeiaeua
aeyaeai? i?aeaeuai? eiioeaio?aoe?? aea-ai?iaeieo ? ??aee?nieo aeaiaio?a.
Ia?o? ?oaeii?iyaeaiiy cieioa, a?aee?eo? a Oe?a?i?, i?inoi?iai oyae?thoue
aei No?nueei? oa *i?oiieeoeueei? caeaiieai’yieo no?oeoo? —
iaeanoae ?icaeoeo COAe.

Iaoeiaa cia/aiiy COAe ia iinooia?oueny i?aeoe/iiio. A ?o aaieia?/i?e
?noi??? caeeaaeaii aaaaoi ieoaiue aeieaia??enueeiai ?icaeoeo Caie?:
aaiethoe?y aoiinoa?e e a?ae?inoa?e, inia-eeaino? i?ioean?a ?io?oceaiiai
oa aooceaiiai iaaiaoecio, aea?o?thaaiiy, inaaeiiaeiie/aiiy,
iaoaii?o?cio, oaeoii?ee ? o.i. Oi?ioaaiiy ?iaeiaeu COAe a?aeae?eaia a?ae
ian cia/iei /aniaei a?ae??ceii, ui oo?oaeith? ae??oaiiy ieoaiue
aaiaceno, ine?eueee a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo iaoai?noe/ia ia?aianaiiy
no/aniiai aaieia?/iiai noaio a aeieaia??e iaaei?aaaeaia. Ca iiiaae i?ae
noie?oith ?noi??th ?icaeoeo aaieia?? cae?ci?oaeieo ooai?aiue a onueiio
na?o? iaeiie/aiee aaee/aciee oaeoe/iee ? aenia?eiaioaeueiee iaoa??ae,
aeneiaeai? iae??ciiiai?oi?o? oi/ee ci?o ia iioiaeaeaiiy COAe. Aea,
iacaaaeath/e ia oea, ieoaiiy aaiaceno ?iaeiaeu COAe aei
nueiaiaei?oiueiai aeiy caeeoa?oueny aeeneon?eiei. O oeueiio ieai?
iieaciaa aaaaoioiiia iiiia?ao?y «Cae?ci?oaei? oi?iaoe?? aeieaia??th
?a?iiaenueei? /anoeie N?N?», aeaeaia iai?ee?ioe? 80-eo ?ie?a ?
a?aeia?aaeath/a ??ci? iiaeyaee ye ia ie?ai? ieoaiiy aaiaceno ?iaeiaeu
COAe, oae ? ia anth i?iaeaio a oe?eiio.

A Oe?a?i? iaeiie/aiee oi?eaeueiee aaieia?/iee iieueiaee iaoa??ae,
cae?eniaiee cia/iee ianya aenia?eiaioaeueieo ? oai?aoe/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue. Aiae?c oe??? aace aeaieo iieacaa, ui iaea?eueo
?ic?iaeaiith e caniiaaiith ia aaee/aciiio oaeoe/iiio iaoa??ae? ia? aooe
ia?aeiii- inaaeiaa a?iioaca. A ?? ?aieao aeae?eythoueny e?oieia?/i?,
oaeoii?/i?, ee?iaoe/i? oa ?i. iiaeae?. I?e/iio eiaeia c ieo ae??oo?
o?eueee nai? eiie?aoi? aaieia?/i? i?iaeaie. Oae, iai?eeeaae, e?oieia?/i?
a iniiaiiio ?icaeyaeathoue o?ceei-o?i?/i? oiiae aea?o?thaaiiy, ia?aiino,
a?aeeeaaeaiiy, ae?aaaiaco, iaoaii?o?cio cae?cenoi-e?aiaienoiai inaaeo,
oaeoii?/i? — iaeaioaeoii?/i? oiiae oi?ioaaiiy aanaeio, ?icaeoie
?ic?eaieo e neeaae/anoeo aeaoi?iaoe?e oa ?i. I?ioa, iacaaaeath/e ia
??ciiiai?ooy iaaaaeaieo aeine?aeieeaie /eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia
oi?ioaaiiy COAe, iiaeea aeeeeea? oa ianoaaeia, ui c ?oiueiai /enea aoee
i?aeoe/ii onoiai? aeaeo?e/i? iiey. Caiiaieoe oeae i?iione ? iieeeeaia
aeaia ?iaioa.

?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, iaaaaeai? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?,
io?eiai? i?ae /an aeeiiaiiy aea?aeathaeaeaoieo IAe? o I?iaeaiiee
iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e eaai?aoi??? ?1 (IIAeE 1) IAA Oe?a?ie a?aeiia?aeii
aei Eii?aeeiaoe?eiiai ieaio I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe ? 35 «Aeine?aeaeaiiy oa
iaoeiaee i?iaiic caeiiii??iinoae ?ici?uaiiy oa oi?ioaaiiy ?iaeiaeu
ei?enieo eiiaeei Oe?a?ie». Oaie ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, a yeeo
o yeino? iaoeiaiai ea??aieea e a?aeiia?aeaeueiiai aeeiiaaoey a?aea
o/anoue aaoi?, a?aeiia?aeathoue i??i?eoaoiei iai?yieai ?icaeoeo iaoee e
oaoi?ee, noaaeai? aenia?oiith ?aaeith ii aaieia?? I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie ? caoaa?aeaeai? iaeacaie ii Iaoe?iiaeuei?e a??ie/?e aeaaeai??
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa e caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoa — ioe?ieoe ??aaiue aeaeo?e/iiai
iiey, ui aeieea? a eaa?oeai?uoth/eo ii?iaeao (cae?cenoi-e?aiaienoiio
inaae?) i?ae /an aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue, ? iaa?oiooaaoe eiai ?ieue ia
eiaeiiio aoai? oi?ioaaiiy COAe.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ae??oai? oae? caaea/?:

1. Anoaiiaeaii i?inoi?ia? aca?iia?aeiineie i?ae ??ciiiai?oieie oeiaie
COAe ? aeeaeiieie ?iceiiaie ia Oe?a?inueeiio ueo? e EIA. Iaa?oioiaaia
?ieue aeeaeiieo ?iceii?a ye aeaea?ae aiiiae?e o?ce/ieo iie?a.

2. ?ic?iaeai? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae?: iaoai?ci?a aaia?aoe??
aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a o ?acoeueoao? i?iyao i’?ciaoaeoo; ooai?aiiy iiaeo
i?ia?aeueieo oac.

3. Cae?eniaii eiiieaen aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo
aea/aiith oa?iiaeaeo?e/iiai aieeao ia aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue, neeaae,
oaenoo?ii-no?oeoo?ia? iniaeeaino? aeayeeo i?ia?ae?a ? a??nueeeo ii??ae.

4. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?aooie?a ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ni?anoaaeai? c a?aeiieie aaieiai-aaio?ce/ieie aeaieie ii
neeaaeo, aoaeia?, oaeoii?oe? e iaoaii?o?cio COAe.

Iniiaia ?aeay ?iaioe iia’ycaia c ?ice?eooyi ?ie? aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a ye
iaeiiai c iniiaieo /eiiee?a, ui aa?ooue o/anoue a ooai?aii?
cae?ci?oaeieo oi?iaoe?e aeieaia??th.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoiaee/io iniiao neeaaea? eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae,
ui aeeth/a? aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy a?aeiii? aaieiai-aaio?ce/ii?
?ioi?iaoe?? c i?iaeaie; o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy; i?iaaaeaiiy
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ii aea/aiith aieeao oa?iiaeaeo?e/ieo
iie?a ia i?ia?aee ? a??nuee? ii?iaee; ni?anoaaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aenia?eiaio?a ?c aaieiai-aaio?ce/ieie aeaieie ii neeaaeo, aoaeia? e
iaoaii?o?cio CAeO.

Iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, ye? caoeuathoueny a aeena?oaoe??:

1. O ?acoeueoao? aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue, ui oi?iothoueny i?ae /an
caeeaaeaiiy e aeoea?caoe?? aeeaeiieo ?iceii?a, o cae?cenoi-e?aiaieno?e
ii?iae? (inaae?) ca ?aooiie ?icaeoeo i’?ciaoaeoo aeieeathoue aeaeo?e/i?
no?oie, aaee/eia yeeo aeinoaoiy aeey ?i?oe?thaaiiy a i?e o?ceei-o?i?/ieo
i?ioean?a.

2. O?eueee i?ae /an eiiieaenii? ae?? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey e oaiia?aoo?e a
i?ia?aeao ? a??nueeeo ii?iaeao (yoia, neaea?eo, neaea?eoie?o,
neaea?iieaceo) niinoa??aa?oueny no?eaeiiiae?aiee oa?aeoa? ca?eueoaiiy
aeaeo?e/ii? i?ia?aeiino?, iaoiiaeaiee niiioaiiei ooai?aiiyi iiaeo
aeaeo?ii?ia?aeieo oac. A ?acoeueoao? aieeao oa?iiaeaeo?e/ieo iie?a iiaia
aeenioe?aoe?y neaea?eoo, iaeiiai c ia?aeiieo i?ia?ae?a COAe,
caaa?oo?oueny i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 700-800E, ui ia 100-150 a?aaeon?a ieae/a,
i?ae i?e i?inoiio iaa??aaii?. Iia? i?ia?aeuei? oace oi?iothoue
nioaano?noue (/a?aoaaiiy ?oaeieo ? ia?oaeieo i?ia?ae?a), i???ioiaaio
ia?aeaeueii no?oiia?, ui i?ioiaeeoue.

3. Oae? i?ioeane, ye ae?aaaiac, ai?aaiac ? iaoaii?o?ci cae?ci?oaeieo
oi?iaoe?e aeieaia??th, iaoiiaeai? aieeaii /ioe?ueio /eiiee?a:
oaiia?aoo?e, oeneo, oeth?ae?a ? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. I?e/iio aieiaio
?ieue, i?e an?o ?ioeo ??aieo oiiaao, iiaea aeeiioaaoe aoaeue-yeee ?c
ia?a?aoiaaieo /eiiee?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

1. Aia?oa ia i?aenoaa? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy i?iaaaeai?
?ic?aooiee ??ai?a aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a, ui aeieeathoue o a??nueeeo
eaa?oeai?uoth/eo ii?iaeao (cae?cenoi-e?aiaienoiio inaae?) a ?acoeueoao?
?icaeoeo a ieo i’?ciaoaeoo.

2. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeyaeaia iiaa ?ai?oa iaa?aeiia yaeua
no?eaeiiiae?aiiai ciaioaiiy aeaeo?e/iiai iii?o a??nueeeo ii??ae ?
i?ia?ae?a i?ae /an eiiieaenii? ae?? oaiia?aoo?e e aeaeo?e/iiai iiey.

3. Ia i?aenoaa? eaaioiai-iaoai?/ieo caeiiii??iinoae, e?iaoe/ieo
iniaeeainoae ? i?ia?aeia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii o?ce/iee
iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy aeaeo?ii?ia?aeieo oa??a, iia’ycaiee c ooai?aiiyi o
i?ia?aeao ? a??nueeeo ii?iaeao iiaeo oac (iaaaai?oo, iaaiaoeoo,
iaaiac?ioa?eoo, aaiaoeoo, a?ao?oo). Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue oi?ioaaiiy
oa??a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aiiiaeueii aenieith aeaeo?e/iith
i?ia?aei?noth a caii?e ei??.

4. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iiaia aeenioe?aoe?y neaea?eoo, iaeiiai c ia?aeiieo
i?ia?ae?a COAe, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy iaaaai?oo, aaiaoeoo,
a?ao?oo i?ae /an oa?iiaeaeo?e/ii? ia?iaee, a?aeaoaa?oueny ia 100-150
a?aaeon?a ieae/a, i?ae i?e i?inoiio iaa??aaii?. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo
oaiia?aoo?a iiaii? aeenioe?aoe?? caeaaeeoue a?ae iai?oaeaiino?
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey, oaeaeeino? iaa??aaiiy, o?i?/iiai neeaaeo, e?eueeino?
aeii?oie ? ?oiuei? aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino?, oaenoo?ii-no?oeoo?iaeo
iniaeeainoae aeine?aeaeoaaieo c?ace?a.

5. O ?acoeueoao? oa?iiaeaeo?e/ii? ia?iaee iia? i?ia?aeuei? oace
oi?iothoue nioaanoo oaenoo?o, aiaeia?/io o?e, ui niinoa??aa?oueny a
cae?cenoeo eaa?oeeoao.

6. Aeae?eaii /aoaa?oee /eiiee iaoaii?o?cio COAe — aeaeo?e/ia iiea.
Anoaiiaeai? aca?iica’ycie ? aca?iicoiiaeai?noue /ioe?ueio /eiiee?a.
Aecia/aia ?ieue aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a ia aoaiao ae?aaaiaco, ai?aaiaco e
iaoaii?o?cio cae?cenoi-e?aiaienoeo ii??ae. ?ic?iaeaii o?ceei-o?i?/iee
iaoai?ci ?oeiaoe?? eaa?oeo a eaa?oeaaeo oa?ao i?e iaoaii?oiaaii?e
iaoaniiaoe/i?e onaaeoe?. Cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoai?ci aeiiiaith? a?aeiio
iaoaii?oiaaiii-a?ia?aaiio iiaeaeue ooai?aiiy aaaaoeo cae?cieo ?oae
naenaaainueeiai oa ia?oio?aaainueeiai oei?a.

Iaoeiaa cia/aiiy ?iaioe — ia i?aenoaa? oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?aooie?a,
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? aiae?co a?aeiieo aaieiai-aaio?ce/ieo
aeaieo aeae?eaii /aoaa?oee /eiiee iaoaii?o?cio cae?ci?oaeieo oi?iaoe?e
aeieaia??th — aeaeo?e/ia iiea.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

1. O?ceei-o?i?/io ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th iaea?aeaa aaioaeoii?/iee e?eoa??e
iiooe?a aaaaoeo cae?cieo ?oae naenaaainueeiai oa ia?oio?aaainueeiai
oei?a. ?ai?oa ia i?aenoaa? oeueiai e?eoa??th aoei aeae?eaii /ioe?e
ia?niaeoeaieo ae?eyiee a E?eai??cueei-E?aiai/ooeuee?e ? A?eica?nuee?e
no?oeoo?ii-oaoe?aeueieo ciiao.

2. Ea?oa aeeaeiieo ?iceii?a Aei?i?ianueei-Aeiiaoeueei? caiaaeeie,
neeaaeaia ca aaio?ce/ieie ceiieaie ianooaao 1:200000, 1:500000,
ia?aaeaia e oni?oii aeei?enoiao?oueny ye oaeoii?/ia iniiaa aeey iiooe?a
iaeiaiie?ooaeieo ii?ooaiue ia aoa?eueieo ?iaeiaeuao Aeiiaano, i?i ui
na?ae/eoue aeo cai?iaaaeaeaiiy.

Iaa?oioiaai?noue iaoeiaeo iiceoe?e aaco?oueny ia no/anieo iieiaeaiiyo e
caeiiii??iinoyo eaaioiai-iaoai?/ii? oai??? e?iaoeee ooai?aiiy iiaeo oac
? anoaiiaeaieo o?ce/ieo aoaeoao, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue yaeua
no?eaeiiiae?aiiai ca?eueoaiiy aeaeo?ii?ia?ae-iino? aeayeeo ae?aeaeo?ee?a
— i?ia?ae?a ? a??nueeeo ii??ae i?ae /an eiiieaenii? ae?? oaiia?aoo?e ?
neaaeiai aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. Aiie no?iai a?aoiaioiaai? e i?aeoaa?aeaeai?
aaeeeei ianyaii aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, io?eiaieo ca aeiiiiiaith
no/anieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a.

1. Anoaiiaeaiiy i?inoi?iaeo aca?iica’yce?a i?ae COAe ? aeeaeiieie
?iceiiaie. Iaa?oiooaaiiy aeeaeiieo ?iceii?a ye iaeiiai c i?e?iaeieo
aeaea?ae aiiiae?e o?ce/ieo iie?a.

2. Noai?aiiy i?ia?aeia?/ieo ? aeaeo?e/ieo iiaeaeae aeey ?ic?aooie?a
??ai?a iie?a, ui aeieeathoue i?ae /an ?icaeoeo i’?ciaoaeoo a a??nueeeo
eaa?oeai?uoth/eo ii?iaeao.

3. I?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue eiiieaeniiai aieeao
oa?iiaeaeo?e/ieo iie?a ia i?ia?aee e a??nuee? ii?iaee.

4. Noai?aiiy o?ce/ii? iiaeae? oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo oac ?c aenieith
aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noth ? ?eaeo?iiii-i?ia?aeieo oa??a: o c?aceao i?ia?ae?a
? a??nueeeo ii??ae; o ciiao aiiiaeueii? aeaeo?e/ii? i?ia?aeiino? a
caii?e ei??.

5. Iaa?oiooaaiiy ?ie? /aoaa?oiai /eiieea iaoaii?o?cio COAe — aeaeo?e/ieo
iie?a, a oaeiae aca?iicoiiaeaiino? e aca?iica’yceo an?o /ioe?ueio
/eiiee?a iaoaii?o?cio.

6. Iniiai? aeniiaee i?i ?ieue aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a o oi?ioaaii?
cae?ci?oaeieo oi?iaoe?e aeieaia??th oa aaaaoeo cae?cieo ?oae.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, iaoeia? e i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe
aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??: «I?iaeaie
aaieia?/ii? iaoee oa ina?oe a Oe?a?i?» (Euea?a, 1995); i?aeia?iaeieo
eiioa?aioe?yo: «Caeiiii??iino? aaiethoe?? caiii? ei?e»
(Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a,1996), «Aeeaeiia aoaeiaa e?oinoa?e oa iao?aaeeoe?eia
aeei?enoaiiy iaae?» (Ee?a, 1996), «I?iaeaie eiiieaeniiai inai?iiy iaae?»
(Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998), «Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie aaieia?? oa
?aoe?iiaeueiiai i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy» (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999), ia
ia?oeo iaoeiaeo /eoaiiyo ?i.aeaae.Eaca?aiea «I?iaeaie ?aa?iiaeueii?
i?ia?aeia??» (Euea?a, 1997).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a 2
iiiia?ao?yo, 20 noaooyo o iaoeiaeo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo, 20 oacao
aeiiia?aeae ia eiioa?aioe?yo — onueiai a 42 iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo

No?oeoo?a e ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, ia?ae?eo iineeaiue c 166 iaeiaioaaiue ia 16
noi??ieao, i?noeoue 204 noi??iee iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, 62 iaethiee ia 36
noi??ieao, 11 oaaeeoeue ia 4 noi??ieao, caaaeueiei ianyaii 260 noi??iie
? 3 aeiaeaoee ia 15 noi??ieao.

Aaoi? aeneiaeth? ue?o aaey/i?noue: iaoeiaiio eiinoeueoaioo ae.o.i.,
n.i.n. A.A.Niaie?ao ca /eneaii? eiinoeueoaoe?? oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe??;
ae.a.i., i?io. I.Ae.Aeiaeaoeo ca i?aeo?eieo aaoi?a ia an?o aoaiao ?iaioe
iaae aeena?oaoe??th; ae.a.i., /e.-ei?. IAI Oe?a?ie E.O.Oyie?io-ia?oiio
a/eoaeth; ae.a.i., i?io. A.I.E?aa/aieo ca e?eoe/i? caoaaaeaiiy e
ii?aaee; e.o.i., i?ia?ae.iaoeiaiio ni?a?ia?oieeo IIAeE-1 A.A.*i?iath ca
aeiiiiiao a ?ic?aooieao; A.?.Aaiioeueeiio, TH.O.Oiiaieo, Ae.N.I?ea?ai?
ca aeoeaio o/anoue o i?ia?aeia?/ieo ? ?aioaaii-no?oeoo?ieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo; e.a.i. A.I.Noiaan ca iaaeai? aaieiai-aaio?ce/i?
iaoa??aee; ?iaeaia?ia? I.I.Aauaieo — ca o/anoue a aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo; A.A.Iioaiei, E.A.Iaoeue/ainuee?e, I.I.Aeia?aiei,
A.?.Ee?e/aiei — ca ae?oaeith aeiiiiiao ? i?aeo?eieo.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

?icae?e 1. No/aniee noai oyaeaiue i?i aaiacen cae?ci?oaeieo oi?iaoe?e
aeieaia??th.

I?iaeaia ooai?aiiy aeieaia??enueeeo cae?cenoeo eaa?oeeo?a ? iia’ycaieo
?c ieie aaaaoeo cae?cieo ?oae, ui iaiaeii?aciai aoea oaiith iaaiai?aiiy,
i?iaeiaaeo? caeeoaoeny aeooaeueiith. Ia?o? cia/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aaieia?/ii? aoaeiae aeieaia??enueeeo cae?ci?oaeieo aanaei?a iaoi? e?a?ie
iia’ycai? c ?iaiaie I.I.I’yoieoeueeiai, I.?.Na?oaeuenueeiai,
?.?.Oaiaoa?a. Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie oai??y ooai?aiiy COAe iaea?aeaea a
?iaioao ss.I.Aaeaaoeaaa, I.I.Ieaenaiea, I.I.Naiaiaiea, I.I.No?aoiaa,
TH.I.Iaeueieea, A.I.E?aa/aiea, E.ss.Oiaetho, Ae.I.Eoeeea,
?.ss.Aaeaaoeaaa, A.?.Eaey?aa, ?.I.Uiaieaaa oa ?i. I?ioa, iacaaaeath/e ia
cia/io e?euee?noue ioae?eaoe?e, aeioaia? iaia? ocae/a?iiai iiaeyaeo ia
o?eueee ia aaiacen cae?cenoeo eaa?oeeoia ? aaaaoeo cae?cieo ?oae, aea e
ia eeaneo?eaoe?th oa /ania? aca?iia?aeiineie ??cieo oei?a COAe. O
?icae?e? iieacaii, ui iaea?eueo a?aoiaioiaaiith iinoa? eeaneo?eaoe?y
A.I.E?aa/aiea ? ss.I.Aaeaaoeaaa, a iniia? yei? eaaeeoue iiae?e
no?aoeoi?iieo COAe ia aea? a?oie: neiaaiaoe/i? oi?iaoe?? a?aeieo ?oae ?
ai?aaiaoe/i? oi?iaoe?? aaaaoeo ?oae. Na?aae neiaaiaoe/ieo cae?ciiinieo
oi?iaoe?e, o naith /a?ao, aeae?eythoueny ca iniaeeainoyie ooai?aiiy
aoeeaiiaaii?, aoeea-iiaaiii-inaaeia? e inaaeia? oi?iaoe??. ?nioth/?
oyaeaiiy i?i aaiacen iiaeia ?icaeoe ia o?e aaeee? a?oie a?iioac:
ia?aeiii-inaaeia?; ia?aeiii-iaaiaoiaaii? ? aoeeaiiaaii?;
iaoaii?oi-aaiii-a?ae?ioa?iaeueii-iaoaniiaoe/i?. Iaea?eueoa na?eicii
iaa?oioiaaieie e ?ic?iaeaieie aaaaeathoueny a?iioace ia?aeiii-inaaeiaiai
iioiaeaeaiiy, ye? i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny aaee/aciei oaeoe/iei iaoa??aeii.
O ?aieao oeueiai iai?yieo a?aeie?aieth?oueny ?yae iiaeaeae
aeieaia-??enueeiai cae?ciiaeiie/aiiy, eiaeia c yeeo aaco?oueny ia
?icaeoeia? iaeiiai aai aeae?eueeio aniaeo?a i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy COAe.
Oae, a iaeieo aeaoaeueii ?icaeyaeathoueny oiiae inaaeaeaiiy cae?ca e
e?aiiacaio (oaiiaaiia, aaaii?eoiaa, a?iaaiia, oioio?i?/ia e ?i.) ?
i?aeoe/ii ia i?eae?ey?oueny oaaaa oaeoii?oe? aanaei?a naaeeiaioaoe??. A
?ioeo i?e aeinoaoiuei neeaaeieo iaeaioaeoii?/ieo iiaoaeiaao ia
a?aoiao?oueny ?a/iaeiiee neeaae, oaenoo?ii-no?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino?
cae?ci?oaeieo oiau. Aiae?c iiaeaeae aeieaia??enueeiai cae?ciiaeiie/aiiy
iieacaa, ui iaea?eueo i?eaaaeeaith, c iiaeyaeo aaoi?a, ia? aooe
aaaii?eoiaa iiaeaeue inaaeaeaiiy cae?ca o oi?i? ea?aiiaoo e e?aiiacaio o
aeaeyae? nee?eao?a iao??th oa eae?th. Iath/e ?yae ia?aaaa, aiia ia
iaea?aeaea oe?ieiai aeciaiiy, ine?eueee ia a?aeii? o?ceei-o?i?/i? oiiae
ia?aoai?aiiy neaea?eoo a iaaiaoeo ? aaiaoeo a oiiaao caeaiineaioeaai?
oaoe?? ?aa?iiaeueiiai iaoaii?o?cio. Aiae?c iniaeeainoae neeaaeo, aoaeiae
??cieo oei?a COAe ? o oe?eiio i?iaeaie ooai?aiiy neiaaiaoe/ieo oi?iaoe?e
aeicaieythoue ae?eoe oaeeo aeniiae?a:

1. Ia no/aniiio aoai? ia ?nio? ?aeeii? iiaeae?, yea a caaeiaieueiyea
aaiaoe/iei iniaeeainoyi on?o cae?ci?oaeieo oi?iaoe?e aeieaia??th.

2. Niinoa??aa?oueny /?oea a?aeiniaeai?noue e?oieia?/ieo iiaeaeae a?ae
oaeoii?/ieo. O e?oieia?/ieo iiaeaeyo ae??oothoueny ieoaiiy aeaea?ae,
oeyo?a ? oiia i?a?aoe?? cae?ca oa e?aiiacaio, /eiiee?a ?oiueiai
inaaeaeaiiy, ae?aaaiaco e iaoaii?o?cio cae?cenoi-e?aiaienoiai inaaeo,
iaeaioaeoii?/i? oiiae iaeiie/aiiy i?eeiathoueny o aeaeyae? iinooeao?a —
niie?eiee oaeoii?/iee ?aaeei oaeueoiai? ciie, aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee
oaeoii?/iee ?oo a i?iaeiao ? o.ae. O oaeoii?/ieo iiaeaeyo aeaoaeueii
?ic?iaeai? iaeaioaeoii?/i? oiiae iaeiie/aiiy e ianooiiiai ia?aoai?aiiy
cae?cenoi-e?aiaienoeo inaae?a, aea i?aeoe/ii ia i?eae?ey?oueny oaaaa
iniiaiei i?iaeaiai e?oieia?/ieo a?iioac.

3. O ?icaeoeo oaeoii?/ieo oyaeaiue niinoa??aa?oueny oaea caeiiii??i?noue
— iinooiiaee ia?ao?ae a?ae iiaeyae?a ia ?iceiie, ye ia no?oeoo?e, ui
aa?ooue o/anoue o?eueee o oi?ioaaii? oaeoii?/iiai ieaio ?iaeiaeu, aei
oi/ee ci?o i?i i?inoi?iaee ? aaiaoe/iee aca?iica’ycie ?iceii?a ? COAe.

4. I?e iaaiai?aii? i?e/ei oi?ioaaiiy COAe o aeiaei?e iiaeae? ia
?icaeyaeathoueny o?ce/i? iiey, cie?aia, aeaeo?e/i?, oi/a oe?eeii
i/aaeaeii, ui aiie ia iiaee ia aieeaaoe ia ooai?aiiy oaeeo i?ia?ae?a ye
neaea?eo, iaaiaoeo, aaiaoeo ? ?i.

Na?aae ai?aaiaoe/ieo oi?iaoe?e iaea?eueoo oaaao i?eaa?oathoue aaaao?
cae?ci? ?oaee naenaaainueeiai ? ia?oio?aaainueeiai oei?a, ui
neeaaeathoue iniiaio iano an?o cae?ci?oaeieo ?iaeiaeu E?eai??cueeiai
aanaeio. O ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? aeai? i?i neeaae ? aoaeiao ?iaeiaeu
aaaaoeo cae?cieo ?oae. Iei? a ?acoeueoao? aea/aiiy ?o aaieia?/ieo
iniaeeainoae aenoiooi o?e a?oie aaiaoe/ieo a?iioac: a?ae?ioa?iaeuei?,
a?ia?aaii? oa iaoaii?oiaaiii-a?ia?aaii?. A?iioace ia?-oeo aeaio
iai?yie?a iiyniththoue ooai?aiiy aaaaoeo ?oae yeeiinue iaeiei i?ioeanii.
Iaea?eueo a?aoiaioiaaiith aeaeyaea? iaoaii?oiaaiii-a?ia?aaiia a?iioaca,
o ye?e iaa?oioiao?oueny aeai-noaae?eia caaaa/aiiy cae?cenoeo eaa?oeeo?a:
oi?ioaaiiy ia ia?o?e noaae?? iaoaii?o?/ieo aaaa-oeo ?oae, a iio?i
ia?aoai?aiiy ?o ia noaae?? a?ia?aaiaco aei no/aniiai aeaeyaeo. I?ioa
aaoi?e oe??? a?iioace ?ioa?i?aoothoue on? oe? i?ioeane c iiceoe?e
eeane/ii i?inoeo o?i?/ieo ?aaeoe?e ieenethaaiiy, ui noai?th? iaai?
o?oaeiiu? i?e iiyniaii? ?ic/eiaiiy e ia?aiino aaee/acieo ian e?aiiacaio
i?e caaaa/aii? cae?cenoeo eaa?oeeo?a. Aecia/iei e?ieii aia?aae o
i?ciaii? aaiaceno aaaaoeo ?oae noaee aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
i?iaaaeai? E.A.I?iaeia?iei ? A.A.Ai?enaieii. ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaio?a
iieacaee, ui ciie ieenethaaiiy ? iieeaaee aaaa-oeo ia?oeoiaeo ?oae
iiaeooue aooe iaoiiaeai? aeaeo?io?i?/ieie yaeuaie. I?ioa i?e oeueiio
caeeoa?oueny ia cian?i c?icoi?eei ieoaiiy uiaei aeaea?ae aeaeo?e/ii?
aia?a??.

Aiae?c iaeyaeo aaiaoe/ieo a?iioac ooai?aiiy COAe aeicaiey? c?iaeoe
aeniiaie, ui ia nueiaiaei? cai?iiiiiaai?, iaaooue, on? iaea?eueo
eiia??i? iiaeae? oi?ioaaiiy aeieaia??enueeeo cae?cenoeo eaa?oeeo?a ?
iia’ycaieo ?c ieie aaaaoeo cae?cieo ?oae. Iaoii?noue noa? c?icoi?eei, ui
aeey ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie iaiao?aei? ye ye?nii iiaee i?aeo?ae, oae ? iia?
iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaai? iiaeeeaino? a ooi/iaii? aaiaceno COAe
iiaeooue aooe caeeaaeai? a ia’?aeiaii? e?oieia?/ii? ? oaeoii?/ii?
iiaeaeae ia aac? iiaeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo. Ia?oith eaieith a
oaeiio ia’?aeiaii? aoee aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaaaeai? aaoi?ii ?ai?o. Oae,
aeei?enoiaoth/e iniiai? iieiaeaiiy iiai? ?ioaoe?eii? a?iioace
no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy E.O.Oyie?ia, aeyaeai? i?inoi?ia? ? /ania?
aca?iica’ycee ??ciiiai?oieo oei?a COAe ?c aeeaeiieie ?iceiiaie.
Anoaiiaeaia i?yia caeaaei?noue i?ae ianyaaie cae?ciiaeiie/aiiy,
?ici??aie iaeanoae ?icaeoeo iniiaieo ? oeueo?ainiiaieo ii??ae ? ?aiaaie
?iceii?a. Aeae?eaii aaioaeoii?/iee iiooeiaee e?eoa??e ia aaaao? cae?ci?
?oaee naenaaainueeiai e ia?oio?aaainueeiai oeio, nooue yeiai iieyaa? a
ianooiiiio. Noiaiiiiae?ai? iieeaaee aaaaoeo cae?cieo ?oae ia
Oe?a?inueeiio ueo? i?inoi?iai oyae?thoue aei cia/ieo ?aa?iiaeueieo
?iceii?a c aceiooii 17i , ?icoaoiaothoueny o aoceao ia?aoe-iaiiy
oe?ioieo ? ia?eae?iiaeueieo ?iceii?a aenieeo ii?yaee?a c ieanoaie
cae?cenoeo eaa?-oeeo?a e?eai??cueei? oa a?eica?nueei? oi?iaoe?e ?
eiio?ieththoueny i?i?ioiaie iaai?oiiai iiey. Aeyaeaiee aaioaeoii?/iee
iiooeiaee e?eoa??e ia iaea?aeaa na?eicii? aaieia?/ii? aai
o?ceei-o?i?/ii? ?ioai?aoaoe??, ine?eueee ia c?icoi?eei caeeoaeiny
ieoaiiy i?i aieea ?iceii?a ia caaaa/aiiy cae?cenoeo eaa?oeeo?a o ia??iae
oi?ioaaiiy cae?cieo ?oae.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy iaeyaeo aaiaoe/ieo a?iioac ? aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo
aaoi?ii, aeicaieeei aeneiaeoe i?eiouaiiy, ui aeeaeii? ?iceiie ia iiiaio
?o caeeaaeaiiy aai aeoea?caoe?e iathoue aooe iiooaeieie aeaea?aeaie
aeaeo?e/ii? aia?a??, eio?a ia iiaea ia aieeaaoe ia ooai?aiiy COAe. O
oeueiio ca’yceo noi?ioeueiaaia iniiaia iaoa ?iaioe — ioe?ieoe o/anoue
aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a ia ??cieo aoaiao oi?ioaaiiy ?iaeiaeu cae?cenoeo
eaa?oeeo?a ? aaaaoeo cae?cieo ?oae.

?icae?e 2. Aeeaeii? ?iceiie — i?e?iaei? aeaea?aea aiiiae?e o?ce/ieo
iie?a.

?ai?oa i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye iaaieiooaaeiny aeua, aeicaieeee
anoaiiaeoe ?aa?i-iaeuei? i?inoi?ia? oa /ania? aca?iica’ycee oei?a COAe
?c aeeaeiieie ?iceiiaie aecia/aieo aceioo?a i?inoyaaiue. Aeey ?icaeoeo
oeeo oyaeaiue i?iaaaeaia aea/aiiy eieaeueieo i?inoi?iaeo caeiiii??iinoae
?ici?uaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo oei?a COAe ia Oe?a?inueeiio ueo? ? EIA.
?aeaieia?/iith iniiaith aeey aecia/aiiy oeeo caeiiii??iinoae noaa
i?eioeei oniaaeeiaaiiai ?icaeoeo I.N.Oaonueeiai e A.A.Iaeaa. I?ae
eieaeueieie caeiiii??iinoyie i?eioneathoueny i?inoi?ia? aca?iica’ycee
i?ae ?ici?uaiiyi cae?ci?oaeieo oiau ? ?iceiiaie ??ciiiai?oieo
i?inoyaaiue, anoaiiaeai? ii aaieiai-aaio?ce/iei aeaiei ianooaao 1:200000
? a?eueoa. Aeey aeyaeaiiy oeeo caeiiii??iinoae i?iaaaeai? o?e?acia?
iacaeaaei? aei??e aceioo?a i?inoyaaiue ? aeiaaeei i?yiie?i?eieo ae?eyiie
ieano?a cae?cenoeo eaa?oeeo?a ? noi?iiaai? aea? aea??ee. Ia?oa — aeey
ieano?a cae?cenoeo eaa?oeeo?a OU ianyaii 1200 iaeeieoeue, ae?oaa — aeey
EIA ianyaii 600 iaeeieoeue. O?aoy ? /aoaa?oa aea??ee io?eiai? i?e
aei??ao aceioo?a i?inoyaaiue ?iaeeeaoi??a ?iceii?a ia OU ? EIA, ianyaaie
a?aeiia?aeii — 1260 ? 550 iaeeieoeue. Ia i?aenoaa? ?acoeueoao?a
noaoenoe/iiai ii?aoethaaiiy 4 aea??ie iiaoaeiaai? a?noia?aie, aiae?c
yeeo na?ae/eoue i?i aeecuee?noue aceioo?a i?inoyaaiiy i?yiie?i?eieo
ae?eyiie ieano?a cae?cenoeo eaa?oeeo?a ? ?iaeeeaoi??a ?iceiiieo no?oeoo?
ia OU ? EIA.

Iiae?ai? caeiiii??iino?, iaiaaii, ia aeiaaeeia?. Iiaeia cai?iiiioaaoe
o?e aa??aioe ?oiuei? ?ioa?i?aoaoe??. Ia?oee aa??aio — COAe oi?ioaaeeny
ia iaaeao aeie?a, ?icae?eaieo aeeaeiieie ?iceiiaie. ? a oeueiio aeiaaeeo
?ieue ?iceii?a iieyaaea a noai?aii? aanaei?a iaeiie/aiiy COAe; o/ano? a
i?ioeanao aeaioaeaoe?? ? naaeeiaioaoe?? ca ?aooiie oaeoii?/ieo
ei-eeaaeueieo ?oo?a. Ae?oaee aa??aio — ca?a aceioo?a i?inoyaaiiy ieano?a
cae?cenoeo eaa?oeeo?a ? ?iaeeeaoi??a ?iceiiieo no?oeoo? na?ae/aoue i?i
?aeeiee iai?yiie iiey oaeoii?/ieo iai?oa o iiiaio i?ioean?a
ia?aoai?thaaiiy COAe ? oi?ioaaiiy ?iceii?a. ?ioeie neiaaie, iiey
oaeoii?/ieo iai?oa i?e ooai?aii? neeaae/anoino? iaoaii?o?/ieo oiau COAe
? ?ic?ea?a aoee iaeiaeiaeie ii iai?yieo. ?, ia?aoo?, o?ao?e aa??aio —
noi?uaiiy ia?oeo aeaio i?eiouaiue. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo ?iceiie iiaeii?
a?aoe o/anoue ia an?o aoaiao oi?ioaaiiy COAe. I?e/iio ia eiaeiiio aoai?
iaea?eueo yne?aai aoaeooue i?iyaeyoeny iaai? iciaee aai aeanoeaino?
aeeaeiieo ?iceii?a.

O eeane/iiio aa??aio? i?ae aeeaeiieie ?iceiiaie ?icoi?thoue i?ioyaei?,
aeieaiaeeao/?, aeo?eiai? ii i?inoyaaiith ?ic?eai? no?oeoo?e, ye?
?icae?eythoue aeiee caiii? ei?e ??ci? ca ?noi???th ?icaeoeo, neeaaeo
ii??ae, no/ani?e no?oeoo??. Aeeaeiiee ?iceii ? iaeanoth (ciiith)
?ic?yaeee iaoai?/ieo iai?oa. Inoaii? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye
aenia?eiaioaeuei?, oae ? iieueia?, iieacaee, ui aei i?eaaaeaiiai aeua
aecia/aiiy iaiao?aeii aeiaeaoe ?yae ?noioieo iciae. Oae, aeeaeii?
?iceiie — ia’?ii? aaieia?/i? no?oeoo?e, o yeeo iaea?eueo aeoeaii
i?io?eathoue o?ceei-o?i?/i? i?ioeane ia?aoai?aiiy a??nueeeo ii??ae ?
i?ia?ae?a. Aeaea?aeaie aia?a?? aeey ieo iiaeooue neoaeeoe i?e?iaei?
aeaeo?e/i? iiey, ui aeieeathoue o i?ae /an caeeaaeaiiy aai aeoe-a?caoe?e
?iceii?a. Iai?yiei i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi aeieeiaiiy aeaeo?iiaai?oieo iie?a o
ciiao aeeaeiieo ?iceii?a iathoue aooe ianooii? aeai?:

1. Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ae /an iaoai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
e ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e a??nueeeo ii??ae a?aeaoaa?oueny ?ic?ea aaeeei?
e?eueeino? o?i?/ieo ca’yce?a, ?ii?caoe?y aoii?a, ooai?aiiy
oaa?aeio?eueii? aia?aaoe/ii? ieacie.

I?ioeane ?aa?iiaeueiiai ?icneaioethaaiiy, eaoaeeaco, cieiaiiy,
?icae??aiaiiy a ciiao aeeaeiieo ?iceii?a aaia?othoue aeaeo?e/i? iiey
iai?oaeai?noth 2· 10 -3 A/i.

Cnoa aeie?a ii ?iceiiao noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aeae?eaiiyi aia?a??
(2,2-6,3)(107Aeae/??e ia 100 ei aeiaaeeie ?iceiio. Aei 70% oe???
iaoai?/ii? aia?a?? ia?aoiaeeoue o oaieiao e aeaeo?iiaai?oio.

80% aoiinoa?ieo na?o?iue no?iai eieae?cothoueny a ciiao oeaio?aeueieo
cnoa?a aeeaeiieo ?iceii?a o ia??iaee ?o aeoea?caoe?e.

Aiae?c iaoa??ae?a ii aeiaiaiio oiaeo aaiiaai?oieo aa??aoe?e ca 40 ?ie?a
o ??ciiiai?oieo oi/eao Caie? aeicaieea i?eionoeoe oaeoii?/io i?e?iaeo
iioiaeaeaiiy i?e?iaeieo aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a ? iia’ycaieo ?c ieie
aaiiaai?oieo aa??aoe?e.

Oeae ia?ae?e iiaeia i?iaeiaaeeoe, i?ioa, iacaaaeath/e ia ??ci? iineeaiiy
ia iiaeeea?noue aeieeiaiiy aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a o ciiao aeeaeiieo ?iceii?a,
/eneiaeo cia/aiue ??ai?a iie?a aeioaia? io?eiaii ia aoei. Neeaaei?noue,
iaiaaii, iieyaaea a noai?aii? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?, ui
caaeiaieueiyea a neeaaeo, oaenoo?ii-no?oeoo?iei iniaeeainoyi ??cieo
oei?a a??nueeeo ii??ae, caniaai ?o iaaaioaaeaiey ? o.i.

Aiae?coth/e a?aeii? oaeoe, aeneiaeaii i?eiouaiiy, ui i?ae ae??th
aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue o ciiao aeeaeiieo ?iceii?a aeaeo?e/i? iiey
iiaeooue aeieeaoe a ?acoeueoao? ?icaeoeo i’?ciaoaeoo, cnoaieo
aeaoi?iaoe?e, o??ueiiooai?aiiy.

I?iiiio?oueny ianooiia o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue. Iaoae o
eiiaeainiaaiiio ae?aeaeo?e/iiio na?aaeiaeu? ?ici?uai? ae?aieaiiy
i?ia?ae?a-i’?ciaeaeo?ee?a (eaa?oe, oo?iae?i, oeeieiaa iaiaiea e ?i.). Ia
?a/iaeio ae?thoue noeneoaaeuei? oa cnoai? iai?oae. O ?acoeueoao? ae??
cacia/aieo aeua iaaaioaaeaiue na?aaeiaeua iaaoaa? ??aiiaaaeiiai noaio ca
?aooiie i?oaeii? aai ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??, i?ioa noiniaii ae??
ciai?oi?o nee aiia noa? ia??aiiaaaeiith ye aeaeo?e/ia nenoaia, ine?eueee
a ?acoeueoao? i?yiiai i’?ciaoaeoo ia iiaa?oi? ca?ai
i?ia?aea-i’?ciaeaeo?eea aeieeathoue iiey?ecaoe?ei? ca?yaee. Acyaoe a
yeino? i?ia?aea-i’?ciaeaeo?eea eaa?oe (iaea?eueo iioe?aiee i?ia?ae o
COAe ? a caii?e ei?? a oe?eiio), ?icaeyiaii oiiae, ca yeeo na?aaeiaeua
iaae?a? aeaeo?iiaeo?aeueiiai noaio. Aoaeue-yeee o?aaiaio a??nueei?
ii?iaee iiaeia oyaeoe o aeaeyae? aeaeo?e/iiai eaioethaa, aea
eiiaeainaoi?e — ca?ia eaa?oeo; i?ia?aee-ae?aeaeo?eee — aenieiiii?
iii?e; i?ia?aee c iecueeei iii?ii, iaaea ca?ai, ?ic/eie, oeth?aee —
i?ia?aeieee. A?acoeueoao? aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue ia a?aiyo e?enoaea
eaa?oeo aeieeathoue aeaeo?e/i? ca?yaee. ?ic?aooiee iieacothoue, ui i?e
oeneia? ia ieae/a 108 ( 109 Ia, ni?yiiaaiiio ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii aei a?aiae
e?enoaea eaa?oeo oiaueiith 10-3 i, ia ?o iiaa?oi? noai?th?oueny ??cieoey
iioaioe?ae?a 0.2 eA, a u?euei?noue ca?yae?a aeinyaa? 10-6 — 10-4 Ee/i.
I?e ae?? cnoaieo aeaoi?iaoe?e aeieea? u?euei?noue ca?yae?a, iaioa
i?eaaaeaii? a 2,7 ?aca, ine?eueee cnoai? iai?oae a oeueiio aeiaaeeo
ni?yiiaai? ia ii ii?iae? aei a?aiae e?enoaea.

?icaeyiaii i?ioean ?ic?yaeo ie?aiiai ca?ia eaa?oeo (eiiaeainaoi?a)
e??cue aenieii?ia?aeia na?aaeiaeua, yea eiai i?noeoue. Caeaaei?noue
no?oio ?ic?yaeo a?ae /ano a oaeiio eaioethaia? caieno?oueny oi?ioeith:

(1)

aea : Q — ca?yae ia iaeeaaeeieao eiiaeainaoi?a, ? = R · C , R —
ii?? iaaaioaaeaiiy, C — ?ii?noue eiiaeainaoi?a.

O i’?ciaeaeo?eea ciai?oiueiai iiey iaia?, eiai iiey?ecaoe?y — iane?aeie
iaoai?/iiai aieeao, ? a oeueiio aeiaaeeo

(2)

aea: S — ieiua iiey?ecaoe??, V — iai?oaa ia a?aiyo.

Iaoae ieiua a?aiae ca?ia eaa?oeo aei??aith? 10 -6i2, o oeueiio
aeiaaeeo N= 8 ·10 -14 O, oiae? /an ca?yaeaeaiiy eiiaeainaoi?a (ca?ia
eaa?oeo) neeaaea 8 · 10 -1 n.

?iaeoa eaaeo/e, /an aeaeo?e/ii? ?aeaenaoe?? aeoaea iaeee ? ?aae?caoe?y
iaaaaeaii? noaie a i?e?iae? iaeieiia??ia. Aiia iiaea iaoe i?noea eeoa
i?e ?ic?yaeoe? aaeeeeo neoi/aiue i’?ciaeaeo?e/ieo e?enoae?a.

sseui i?eionoeoe, ui iaoai?/i? iai?oae ii?iaeaeo? noi?iii? ciai?oi?
aeaea?aei aeaeo?e/ii? aia?a??, i?aeeeth/aia ia?aeaeueii eiiaeainaoi?o
(ca?io eaa?oeo), oi a oeueiio aeiaaeeo no?oi o ?ic?yaeiiio eaioethc?
aoaea aecia/aoeny:

(3)

q- ieoo?aa cia/aiiy ca?yaeo ia eiiaeainaoi??; d11 — i’?ciaeaeo?e/iee
iiaeoeue.

, ??aiyiiy (3) caieoaii o aeaeyae?:

(4)

Caaaeueia ?ica’ycaiiy oaeiai iaiaeii??aeiiai aeeoa?aioe?eiiai ??aiyiiy
(4) ia?oiai ii?yaeeo c iino?eieie eiao?oe??ioaie ia? aeaeyae:

(5)

(6)

. sseui /an iaaaioaaeaiiy t>>RC, oi a i?ioean? eiai no?oi oaeaeei
noaa?e?co?oueny ? noa? ??aiei I=a. Sd11.

O oeueiio aeiaaeeo eiiaeainaoi? i?aeoe/ii ia ca?yaeaea?oueny, oiio ui
aeanoeaee /an eiai ?ic?yaeaeaiiy iaaaaaoi iaioee aeanoeaiai /ano
ca?yaeaeaiiy. Oiio e?enoaee eaa?oeo iiaeooue aaia?oaaoe aeaeo?e/iee
no?oi aae aei oene?a, aeecueeeo ca aaee/eiith aeeiai?/i?e iaae?
i?oeiino? ?a/iaeie. ?ioeie neiaaie, aeaeo?e/iee i?ia?e eaa?oeo ia
a?aeaoaeaoueny, oiio ui ii?? iaaaioaaeaiiy R ooioo?oueny N.

Iaoae /an iaaaioaaeaiiy aei iaeneiaeueii? iai?oae ? 1max = t0 , RC << t0. Oiae? (7) *an anoaiiaeaiiy iaoai?/ii? ??aiiaaae e?enoaea aei??aith? tono ~ h/Cca, aea h -oiaueia e?enoaea, Nca - oaeaee?noue caoeo. Oiio t0 ~ 0,1 ni/(2· 105ni/n)~0,5· 10-6n. sseui caaeaoeny ae?enieie ia?aiao?aie aaieia?/iiai na?aaeiaeua, oi aeyaey?oueny, ui i?e aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiiyo a 5· 109 Ia iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy no?oio a ?ic?yaeiiio eaioethaia? eaa?oeo c ieiuath a?aiae 10-6 i 2 ? oiaueiith 10-3 i neeaaeaoeia 0.24A. O i?e?iae? oenee oaeiai ?ici??o iiaeooue aeieeaoe i?e oi?ioaaii? oaea?ieo oaeeue o ?acoeueoao? ?ic?yaeaeaiiy iaoai?/ieo iai?oa ia iiiaio caeeaaeaiiy aai aeoea?caoe?? ?iceii?a. I?ioa a ?aaeuei?e aaieia?/i?e neooaoe?? iaaaioaaeaiiy ci?ith?oueny c /anii ca caeiiii ( =a· sin(u· t), ? oiae? f(t)=a · u ·cos(u · t). ?ioaa?ae o ae?ac? (5) oyaeii o aeaeyae? (8) aea: Re -ae?enia /anoeia cia/aiiy eiiieaeniiai ?ioaa?aea. Ca?aene (9) O oeueiio aeiaaeeo no?oi e??cue ii?? R aei??aith? (10) Aeine?aeeii ??aiyiiy (10) ca oaeeo oiia: iaoae oa?aeoa?iee /an ?ic?yaeaeaiiy eiiaeainaoi?a cia/ii iaioee ia??iaeo /ano iaaaioaaeaiiy RNc<< T, e??i oiai, o?eaae?noue ae?? iaaaioaaeaiiy t0 << T, a oaeiae t0 > RC. Oe? oiiae i?eaeecii a?aeiia?aeathoue ?icaeyioo?e aeua caaea/?. O
oeueiio aeiaaeeo ni?aaaaeeeaa iaaeeaeaiiy cos ? t0~1, sin u t0~ u t0,
exp(-t0/RC)~0

Oiio

(11)

Oiae?, a· u = o1 iao/ti, a ae?ace (11) ? (7) ni?aiaaeathoue.

sseui /an aieeao aaeeeee (t >> RC), oi o?ao?e aeiaeaiie o (10) iiaeia ia
a?aoe aei oaaae. Ona?aaeieaoe ca /anii io?eiaiee ae?ac, ciaeaeaii, ui I
= 0, oiio ui nis (·t = sin (·t = 0. Oea icia/a?, ui no?oi, yeee i?io?ea?
ca iaeei i?aia??iae, aei??aith? no?oiia? a ?ioiio iai?aia??iae?, aea
iai?yiee ?o i?ioeeaaei?.

Oiio na?aaei? cia/aiiy ca iiaiee ia??iae aei??aith? ioeth. Ca?aene
ciaeaeaii na?aaei? cia/aiiy eaaae?aoa no?oio:

(12)

Ooo A = Sa/RC. Oiio ui cis2 (u· t) = sin2 (u· t) = 1/2, cis (?· t) sin
(u· t) = 0, oiae?:

(13)

Ae?ac (13) aei??aith? ioeth i?e ? =0 ? c?inoa? i?e (( ( ,
ni?yiiaoth/enue aei

I2 = A2 (RC)2

Oaeei /eiii, /ei aeua /anoioa ciai?oiueiai aieeao, oei a?eueoa
na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/ia cia/aiiy no?oio. Aeniea ?ioaineai?noue c?inoaiiy
no?oio niinoa??aa?oueny i?e ca?eueoaii? ?, yeui RC — aeoaea iaei [(1/RC)
>> ?], o i?ioeeaaeiiio aeiaaeeo oaii c?inoaiiy I2 iacia/iee.

I?aeaiaey/e i?aenoiie oai?aoe/iiio iiaeaethaaiith, iaiao?aeii c?iaeoe
oae? aeniiaee:

1. I?e aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiiyo ia ieae/a 5(108Ia ca ?aooiie ?icaeoeo
i’?ciaoaeoo a eaa?oeai?uoth/eo ii?iaeao, ia a?aiyo iaeiiai ca?ia eaa?oeo
a caeaaeiino? a?ae eiai ?ici???a aeieea? ??cieoey iioaioe?ae?a 0,26 —
26eA.

2. Aeaeo?e/iee no?oi o ?ic?yaeiiio eaioethaia? ca?ia eaa?oeo aoaea iaoe
i?noea o?eueee ca aieeao aeeiai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, i?eeeaaeaiiai
i?ioyaii 5· 10-6n. O i?ioeeaaeiiio aeiaaeeo ca?ii eaa?oeo i?aeoe/ii ia
?ic?yaeaea?oueny, ine?eueee oa?aeoa?iee /an eiai ?ic?yaeaeaiiy iaaaaaoi
iaioee a?ae /ano ca?yaeaeaiiy.

3. Aeeiai?/i? iaaaioaaeaiiy 5· 109Ia i?ioyaii iacia/iiai i?ii?aeeo /ano
iiaeooue aooe ?aae?ciaai? a i?e?iaeieo oiiaao o ?acoeueoao?
i?ioiaeaeaiiy oaea?ieo oaeeue, ui noi?iaiaeaeothoue aeoea?caoe?th e
ooai?aiiy ?iceiiieo no?oeoo?, i?ae /an caieao?on?a ? aoeeai?/ieo
aeaa?aeaiue. ?ic?aooiee iieacothoue, ui a oeueiio aeiaaeeo a ?ic?yaeiiio
eaioethaia? o?eueee iaeiiai ca?ia eaa?oeo aeieeathoue no?oie ia ieae/a
0,2-0,3A.

4. sseui aeeiai?/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy ci?ith?oueny c /anii ia ca e?i?eiei
((=a·t), a ca neioni?aeaeueiei((=a(sin(w·t)) caeiiii, oi oiae?
na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/ia cia/aiiy no?oio a ?ic?yaeiiio eaioethaia? ca?ia
eaa?oeo ca ?ioeo ??aieo oiia aoaea caeaaeaoe a?ae /anoioe ciai?oiueiai
aieeao.

5. I’?ciaeaeo?e/iee aoaeo ? ?ioaa?aeueiei, oiio ??aaiue eiai a
a??nueeiio ianea? aoaea aecia/aoeny e?euee?noth ? ?ici??ii ca?ai eaa?oeo
aai ?ioeo i?ia?ae?a i’?ciaeaeo?ee?a.

Iai?yiei i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/iiio iiaeaethaaiith iathoue
aooe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e?iaeiiai ?iioeueniiai aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai iiey
Caie? (I?AIIC), i?iaaaeai? ia aoa?eueieo ?iaeiaeuao Aeiiaano.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaee, ui iaeiaiie?ooaei? ii?ooaiiy
o?enothoueny iaaaoeaieie aiiiae?yie i?e?iaeieo aeaeo?iiaai?oieo iie?a ia
iiaa?oi? e o a??ie/eo ae?iaeao, a ciie iai?oaeaiiai noaio a??nueeeo
ii??ae — iiceoeaieie. Ni?anoaaeaiiy ea?o ?ic?eaieo ii?ooaiue, neeaaeaieo
ca aeaieie ao?iaeo ? a??ie/ii?io?aeieoeueeeo ?ia?o, ? oaeoii?/ieo noai
ca iaoa??aeaie ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? I?AIIC iieacaei 90% ca?a ?acoeueoao?a.
A?eueoa oiai, i?e iaeeaaeaii? oeeo ea?o ia oaeoii?/io noaio aeeaeiieo
?iceii?a AeAeA, iiaoaeiaaio aaoi?ii, aeyaeeany oaea caeiiii??i?noue —
?ic?eai? ii?ooaiiy a inaaeiaiio /ioe? Aeiiaano i?inoi?iai oyae?thoue aei
cii aeeaeiieo ?iceii?a, iane?aeoth/e ?o i?inoyaaiiy. Aeae?eai?
caeaaeiino?, iaaii, aecia/athoue oniaaeeiaai?noue ?icaeoeo
iaeiaiie?ooaeii? oaeoii?ee ea?aiiiaeo a?aeeeaaeaiue a?ae aeeaeiieo
?iceii?a ooiaeaiaioo.

I?e?iaei? ?iioeueni? aeaeo?iiaai?oi? iiey Caie? a oeueiio aeiaaeeo
iathoue aooe ?iaeeeaoi?aie ?ic?eaieo ii?ooaiue ye o ea?aiiiaeo
a?aeeeaaeaiiyo, oae ? o ooiaeaiaio? e iaoiiaeai? oaeoii?/ieie
i?ioeanaie, ui i?io?eathoue ? ca?ac o oeeo aeaio no?oeoo?ieo iiaa?oao.

?icae?e 3. Aieea oa?iiaeaeo?e/ieo iie?a ia neeaae, oaenoo?ii-no?oeoo?i?
iniaeeaino? i?ia?ae?a ? a??nueeeo ii??ae.

Ia nueiaiaei? ?niothoue i?eioeeiia? ?ica?aeiino? a aeoieao uiaei
o?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a, a?aeiia?aeaeueieo ca iaoaii?o?/i? ia?aoai?aiiy a
i?ia?aeao ? a??nueeeo ii?iaeao. C iaeiiai aieo — oyaeaiiy, caniiaai? ia
o?ce/ieo aenia?eiaioao ?c ?a/iaeiaie a iaeano? aenieeo oene?a ?
oaiia?aoo? , a oaeiae oa?iiaeeiai?/i? ?ic?aooiee, ia i?aeeyaathoue
noii?ao, aea, c ?ioiai, — ?nio? ?yae oai?aoe/ieo ia?aaeoiia, ye?
na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui ?ieue aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a o ?i?oe?thaaii? oa
ia?aa?ao o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue iiaea aooe aeoaea ?noioiith, a
?iiae? e i?aaaethth/ith. Ine?eueee a aaieia?/ieo i?ioeanao oene ?
oaiia?aoo?a iiaeooue aooe iino?eieie ia aaeeeeo ieiuao aeinoaoiuei
aeiaai, oi aeoaea aeoeaiei aia?aaoe/iei aeaea?aeii, yea aeaiaeeoue
o?ce/io nenoaio c? noaoe?iia?iiai noaio iathoue noaoe aeaeo?e/i? iiey.
Aiae?c /eneaiieo ioae?eaoe?e iieacaa, ui aieea aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a ia
o?ceei-o?i?/i? i?ioeane, ye? i?ioiaeyoue o a??nueeeo ii?iaeao ?
i?ia?aeao, aenia?eiaioaeueii ia aea/aany. Iiae?aia neooaoe?y
iiynith?oueny ieceith i?e/ei. Ii-ia?oa, ae?y neaaeeo aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a
aaaaea?oueny iaaoaeoeaiith ? iaeicia/ouith. Ia?aaeaa/a?oueny, ui aieea
?o i?aeoe/ii ia iicia/a?oueny ia o?ce/i?e nenoai? a oe?eiio ? ia ??
ie?aieo aeaiaioao. Ii-ae?oaa, aaaaoueio aaioaaeaoue ianooaae
aaieia?/iiai /ano, i?ioyaii yeiai i?ioiaeyoue o?ceei-o?i?/i? i?ioeane a
i?ia?aeao ? a??nueeeo ii?iaeao.

O ?icae?e? iaaiaeeoueny aiae?c a?aeiieo aeaieo i?i ci?io o?ce/ieo
aeanoeainoae, neeaaeo, oaenoo?ii — no?oeoo?ieo iniaeeainoae i?ia?ae?a ?
a??nueeeo ii??ae i?ae aieeaii oaiia?aoo?e ? oeneo. Iieacaii, ui iiae?ai?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?enay/ai? aea/aiith aieeao
aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a ia i?ia?aee ? a??nuee? ii?iaee, ia aeeiioaaeenue.

Aa?o/e aei oaaae an? ia?a?aoiaai? aeua i??eoaaiiy ? oai?aoe/i?
?ic?aooiee, iaaaaeai? a ?icae?e? 2, aaoi?ii cae?eniai? aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy c aea/aiiy eiiieaeniiai aieeao oaieiaeo ? aeaeo?e/ieo
iie?a ia o?i?/iee neeaae, no?oeoo?o, oaenoo?o i?ia?ae?a ? a??nueeeo
ii??ae.

Noaia i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a oaea. Aeine?aeaeoaaiee c?acie
anoaiiaethaaany o oeaio? oeee?iae?e/iiai ei?iono c iaa??aaeueiei
aeaiaioii ? caoeneaany c aie?a no?eaeiyie — aeaeo?iaeaie. Aeey noai?aiiy
iaae?eiiai eiioaeoo i?ae c?aceaie e aeaeo?iaeaie ?ici?uaeany i?aeia
oieueaa oiaueiith 0,5 ii, ui i?eoeneaeany coneeeyi 15 -20 ea. O iaeiiio
c aeaeo?iae?a, aeeiiaiiio c inueiaith ii?iaeieiith, ?ici?uaeany
ieaoeii-?iae??aa oa?iiia?a, a?aea?aaeoei-aaia c oi/i?noth +5(. Iai?oaa,
yea aeieeaea ia e?ioeyo oa?iiia?e, aei??thaaeanue aieueoiao?ii. Aeey
i?iioneaiiy no?oio e??cue c?acie aeei?enoiaoaaeiny aeaea?aei aeeaeaiiy
iino?eiiai no?oio, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai anoaiiaethaaany ?aaeei
noaa?e?caoe?? ca no?oiii (J=299m) aai ca iai?oaith (Umax = 299A).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny ia c?aceao, ae??caieo ?c ea?i?a aai aeie?a
a??nueeeo ii??ae o aeaeyae? ia?aeaeai?iaae?a ?c aeiaaith noi?iiith aei
20 ii, ei?ioeith — 10 ii. Oaeee ?ici?? aeae?aany c o?aooaaiiyi
iiaeeeainoae onoaiiaee e iniiaii? aeiiae, yea noaaeoueny aei c?ace?a,
i?e aei??thaaii? aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? i?ia?ae?a ? a??nueeeo ii??ae —
c?acie a??nueei? ii?iaee iiaeiai a aeae?eueea ?ac?a ia?aaeuoaaoe ?ici??e
ca?ai, ine?eueee a i?ioeeaaeiiio aeiaaeeo a?i ia iiaea aaaaeaoeny
i?aaenoaaieoeueeei /a?ac i?aaaethth/o ?ieue ie?aieo i?ia?ae?a aai
?oiueiai aeiaaeeiaiai niieo/aiiy, a oaeiae iaiaeii??aeiino? no?oeoo?e.

Aenia?eiaioe cae?enithaaeeny a oaeeo iiaeeo?eaoe?yo: i?inoa iaa??aaiiy
c?acea (aac i?iioneaiiy no?oio) aei 900E; iaeii?aciaa iaa??aaiiy c
iaeii/aniei i?iioneaiiyi no?oio e ioieiaeaeaiiy c? no?oiii; aaaaoi?aciaa
(iaeneiaeueii aei 4 ?ac?a) iaa??aaiiy c iaeii/aniei i?iioneaiiyi no?oio
e ioieiaeaeaiiy c? no?oiii; iaa??aaiiy ? iaeii/ania i?iioneaiiy no?oio,
aeo?eiea c? no?oiii i?e aecia/ai?e oaiia?aoo?? i?ioyaii 1-3 aiaeei, a
iio?i ioieiaeaeaiiy c? no?oiii.

Oa?iiaeaeo?e/i?e ia?iaoe? aoee i?aeaeai? yoie c ?iaeiaeu I?aaeaiia
(Eai/aoea) ? Na?aaeiueiai Iiaoaeaey; neaea?eoe Aeaia?anueeiai ?iaeiaeua
(O?ae); neaea?eoie?oe — A?eica?nueeiai ?iaeiaeua OU; cae?ceno? eaa?oeeoe
i’yoiai cae?cenoiai ai?eciioo naenaaainueei? na?oe E?eai??cueeiai
cae?ci?oaeiiai aanaeio.

Ia?aae eiiieaeniith ia?iaeith o oa?iiaeaeo?e/ieo iieyo on? c?acee
i?ieoee o?i?/i? ? i?ia?aeia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, a i?ney aenia?eiaio?a
i?iaiaeeany eiiieaen o?i?/ieo, i?ia?a-eia?/ieo oa ?aioaaii-no?oeoo?iuo
aiae?c?a.

Ia?aae iaaiai?aiiyi ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaio?a iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe,
ui ia?aiao?e aeaeo?e/iiai iiey /?oei a?aeiia?aeaee ?ic?aooieiaei (aeea.
?icae. 2) ? neeaaeaee: (V(300 A/ni, J(0,3A, T(1000E).

Aiae?c io?eiaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo aeicaieea ae?eoe oaeeo
aeniiae?a:

1. An? i?ia?aee ? a??nuee? ii?iaee, ye? aoee aoee i?aeaeai? eiiieaeni?e
oa?iiaeaeo?e/i?e ia?iaoe? ( A(300 A/ni, O(1000E), caciathoue
no?eaeiiiae?aiiai ciaioaiiy aeaeo?e/iiai iii?o (oaae.1).

Oaaeeoey 1

?acoeueoaoe eiiieaenii? ia?iaee neaea?eo?a ? neaea?eoie?o?a

Iacaa,

??

c?ace?a Ia?aiao?e ia?iaee Ii/aoeiaee ii?? i?e 293E, 0i Oaiia?aoo?a
no?eaea,

Ono. , E Aeaeo?.ii?? a iiiaio no?eaea,

2,4(101

* acaeiaae oa?oaaoino?

2. Niinoa??aa?oueny caeaaei?noue i?ae oaiia?aoo?ith (One) o iiiaio
no?eaeiiiae?aiiai ciaioaiiy aeaeo?e/iiai iii?o, iai?oaeai?noth
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey (Ane) ? oaeaee?noth iaa??aaiiy. Oae, c ca?eueoaiiyi
iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey One ciaioo?oueny, a c? c?inoaiiyi
oaeaeeino? iaa??aaiiy — ca?eueoo?oueny. Aeyaeai? caeiiii??iino? aeia?a
i?i-noaaeothoueny ia i?ia?aeao ? a??nueeeo ii?iaeao, ui i?noyoue aei 5%
aeii?oie. ??no e?eueeino? aeii?oie i?ecaiaeeoue aei a?eueo neeaaeieo
caeaaeiinoae. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo One aoaea aecia/aoeny ia o?eueee Ane ?
oaeaee?noth iaa??aaiiy, aea e aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noth on?o aeii?oie, ye?
i?noeoue c?acie.

3. Ia aaee/eio One ? e?ioeaaiai iii?o c?acea cia/iee aieea /eiyoue
oaenoo?ii-no?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino?. Ca ?ioeo ??aieo oiia, c?acee, ui
iathoue nioaanoo oaenoo?o ? ai?uai? a onoaiiaeo oa?oaao?noth ia?aeaeueii
ae?? no?oio, a?ae/oaathoue no?eaeiiiae?aia iaae?iiy aeaeo?e/iiai iii?o
i?e oaiia?aoo?ao ia 50 — 70 a?aaeon?a ieae/a, i?ae o?, ye? iathoue
ianeaio oaenoo?o. Ae??aii- e oiieica?ieno? c?acee iathoue One ieae/a,
i?ae a?oaica?ieno?. *anoa ?ico??neoaaiiy, ?oeiaoe?y c?ace?a, ye?
i?aeaeaaaeenue oa?iiaeaeo?e/i?e ia?iaoe?, na?ae/aoue, iaaii, i?i
ca?eueoaiiy oia?enoino?.

4. O ?acoeueoao? eiiieaenii? oa?iiaeaeo?e/ii? ia?iaee a c?aceao
neaea?eo?a, neaea?eoie?o?a oi?iothoueny iia? aeaeo?ii?ia?aei? oace,
a?aeaoaa?oueny ci?ia ?iiii? i?ia?aeiino? ia aeaeo?iiio. Ooai?aiiy
aeaeo?ii?ia?aeieo oac (iaaaai?oo, iaaiac?ioa?eoo, aaiaoeoo, a?ao?oo)
a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e oaiia?aoo?ao ia 100-150i ieae/a ?ai?oa a?aeiieo
(oaae.1)

5. E?euee?noue ? neeaae ooai?aieo oac caeaaeaoue ia o?eueee a?ae ??aiy
oa?iiaeaeo?e/ieo iie?a, aaaeeeao ?ieue i?e oeueiio a?a? /eiiee /ano.
Cie?aia, i?ney iaeii?aciai? eiiieaenii? ia?iaee a neaea?eoie?oao
oi?io?oueny cia/ii iaioa iaaaai?oo e iaaiac?ioa?eoo, ca?ia ae??ai? e
neaaei ioi?ieai?, aaiaoeo ia ooai?th?oueny. O ?acoeueoao? aaaaoi?aciaeo
ae?e oa?iiaeaeo?e/ieie iieyie aai ia?iaoe? c aeo?eieith cae?ceno?
ea?aiiaoe oe?eeii ia?aoai?ai? aei iaaaai?oo e iaaiac?ioa?eoo,
c’yaey?oueny aaiaoeo, ca?ia iiaeo oac cia/ii a?eueo?, i?ae o ia?oiio
aeiaaeeo, aeyaey?oueny nioaano?noue — /a?aoaaiiy ?oaeieo ? ia?oaeieo
neoi/aiue. *

6. Iia? aeaeo?ii?ia?aei? oace ooai?ththoue aai ae??aiiaeenia?ni? /anoee,
aai iiaeiaaeaia ca?ii, yea oi?io? «neoi/aiiy», i???ioiaai? ia?aeaeueii
ae?? no?oio, /ei, iaaii, ? aecia/athoueny iia? oaenoo?i? iniaeeaino?
(nioaano?noue, oa?oaao?noue) ia?iaeaieo o oa?iiaeaeo?e/ieo iieyo
c?ace?a.

7. Ooai?aiiy iiaeo oac noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aeae?eaiiyi cia/ii? e?eueeino?
oaiea, oiaoi ?aaeoe?? aecioa?i?/i?.

8. I?ae /an ioieiaeaeaiiy c?acea aae aei e?iiaoii? oaiia?aoo?e i?ney
iaeii?aciai? oa?iiaeaeo?e/ii? ia?iaee aeaeo?e/iee ii?? ca?eueoo?oueny
eeoa ia 1-2 ii?yaeee, i?ney aaaaoi?aciai? aai c aeo?eieith
niinoa??aa?oueny c?inoaiiy ia 3 — 4 ii?yaeee, i?e?iaea yeiai, iiaeeeai,
iia’ycaia c iiaa?oiaaeie no?oiaie i?ia?aeiino?. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo
aeaeo?e/iee ii?? iiaea aooe coiiaeaiee caieenoeie aa?aaaoaie aaiaoeoo,
ui noi?ioaaany ca ?aooiie i?ioean?a ieenethaaiiy ia iiaa?oi? c?acea.

9. Cae?ceno? eaa?oeeoe, anoaiiaeai? nioaano?noth ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii ae??
no?oio, a?ae/oaathoue ??cea ciaioaiiy aeaeo?e/iiai iii?o a ?acoeueoao?
oa?iiaeaeo?e/ii? ia?iaee i?e oaiia?aoo?ao ia 200-300 a?aaeon?a ieae/a,
i?ae ?io? aea/ai? c?acee i?ia?ae?a ? a??nueeeo ii??ae. A aeaiiiio ?ac?
cae?ceno? ea?aiiaoe ieeneththoueny, a iaaiaoeo ia?aoiaeeoue o aaiaoeo. C
iaeiiai aieo, oea iiaea aooe iia’ycaia c ?o ieae/ei ii/aoeiaei iii?ii, c
?ioiai, — c oei, ui oea ii?iaee, o yeeo oaenoo?ii-no?oeoo?i?
iniaeeaino?, i?ia?aeueiee neeaae inoaoi/ii noi?ioaaeenue i?ae ae??th
i?ioean?a ?aa?iiaeueiiai iaoaii?o?cio.

10. O ?acoeueoao? oa?iiaeaeo?e/ii? ia?iaee c?ace?a, ai?uaieo
oa?oaao?noth ia?aeaeueii ae?? no?oio, a?aeaoaaeany ?oeiaoe?y eaa?oeo a
eaa?oeaaeo oa?ao, a a ?oaeieo -aeenioe?aoe?y neaea?eoo e neaea?iieaceoo;
iaaiaoeo ieeneyany. Ia?aaeaa/a?oueny, ui oea yaeua iia’ycaia c ?icaeoeii
iaa?iaiiai i’?ciaoaeoo ii oae?e noai?. Ii/aoeiaee aeaeo?e/iee ii??
c?ace?a, iai??thaaiee acaeiaae nioaanoino?, ia 2-3 ii?yaeee ieae/ee i?ae
aiiia?ae oa?oaaoino?. Oaeei /eiii, i?e iaeiaeiaeo ia?aiao?ao
oa?iiaeaeo?e/ii? ia?iaee a ia?oiio aeiaaeeo e??cue c?acee aoaea
i?ioiaeeoe no?oi cia/ii a?eueoi? neee, i?ae o ae?oaiio. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
i?ae non?aei?ie ?oaeieie oa?aie niieiia?/ii ?nio? ??cieoey iioaioe?ae?a,
yea i?yii i?iii?oe?eia ??cieoe? oo?eiaiue iaaiaoeoo a oeeo oa?ao.
I?ioiaeaeaiiy no?oio e??cue c?acie, i?ecaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui ??cieoey
iioaioe?ae?a ca?eueoo?oueny, a ioaea, c?inoa? ? iai?oaeai?noue iiey,
i?eeeaaeaia aei eaa?oeaaeo oa??a. ?ici?uaiee a aeaeo?e/iiio iie? e?enoae
eaa?oeo aoaea iaiaaaoeny ci?ieoe nai? e?i?ei? ?ici??e, i?e/iio ae?y
aoaeoo oei a?eueoa, /ei aeua ??cieoey iioaioe?ae?a ia a?aiyo e?enoaeo.

11. ?ic?aooiee iieacaee, ui aia?a?y aeoeaaoe?? no?oiiiin??a ia iiiaio
no?eaeiii-ae?aiiai ciaioaiiy aeaeo?e/iiai iii?o i?aaia aei
iace?i/aiiino?, ioaea aeiaeiee ?c a?aeiieo

* Iao?ia?ao?/iee aiae?c aeeiiaii ?acii ?c A.?. Aaiioeueeei.

aeeooc?eieo iaoai?ci?a oi?ioaaiiy aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? a i?ia?aeao ?
a??nueeeo ii?iaeao ia i?aeoiaeeoue. Oaeei /eiii, iaiao?aeia caeo/aiiy
e?iaoe/ii? iiaeae? ooai?aiiy aeaeo?ii?i-a?aeieo oa??a.

Aiae?c aeine?aeaeoaaieo caeiiii??iinoae ? ?acoeueoao?a eiiieaeno
i?ia?aeia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui a i?aeoacieo iaaeao
c?ace?a a??nueeeo ii??ae ? a i?aeca?iiaeo iaaeao i?ia?ae?a oi?iothoueny
iia? i?ia?aeuei? oace c aenieith aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noth. O a??nueeeo
ii?iaeao, ui neeaaeathoueny c ??ciiiai?oieo i?ia?aeueieo oac, oia? ?
o??uei, ia?aianaiiy aeaeo?e/iiai ca?yaeo aoaea cae?enithaaoeny, a
iniiaiiio, ii iaaeao oac, a a i?ia?aeao-ae?aeaeo?eeao — ii iaaeao ca?ai,
oiaoi ii ia?ao?aei?e cii? i?ae aeaiia ??cieie i?ia?aeaie (o a??nueeeo
ii?iaeao) aai i?ae iiaa?oiyie aeaio ca?ai iaeiiai i?ia?aeo (o
i?ia?aeao). Ooiaeaiaioaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ia?oiai oa?o aoii?a iiaa?oi?
i?ia?aeueii? oace — iacaaa?oai?noue ca’yce?a, oiio aoiiai ciaoiaeeoeny a
?aaoey?ieo aoceao ?ao?oee aia?aaoe/ii iaaea?aeii — aiie caeeoathoue nai?
i?noey, ?ao?oea ia iiaa?oi? ?aeaeno?, oiaoi ?aeiino?oth?oueny,
ca/?iath/e aeaa — o?e aoiiieo oa?a, ui eaaeaoue ieae/a. O ca’yceo c oeei
iiaa?oiy ciaoiaeeoueny a oeoeiio noai?, yeee i?eionea? iayai?noue o
nenoai? “iiaa?oiy — /anoee ia?ao?aeii? ciie” ??ciiai ?iaeo ia?ai?uaiue.
Aeaeo?e/ia iiea noa? ia?aiao?ii, ui ii?ooo? ??aiiaaao a nenoai? aoii?a ?
a oeeo oiiaao nenoaia i?aaia aei oaeiai noaio, eiee aoaeo ciai?oiuei
cao?thth/i? ae?? iiey neaaoa?. Oaeei /eiii, c iaeiiai aieo, oaiia?aoo?a
ni?ey? oa?i?/iiio ?iceeaaeaiith aeo?aeii? i?ia?aeueii? oace ?
ca?eueoaiith /enea ?ooeeaeo eiiiiiaio?a o nenoai?, a c ?ioiai, —
aeaeo?e/ia iiea noeioeth? ooai?aiiy aeaeo?ii?ia?aeieo oac, iaiaaath/enue
i?e oeueiio noi?ioaaoe iaeei?iooee oeyo ?c i?i?iaeueiei aeaeo?e/iei
iii?ii.

I?ae /an c?inoaiiy oaiia?aoo?e ? aieeaia? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey aeayei?
iino?eii? aaee/eie aeieea? neooaoe?y, ca yei? cieaeaiiy iii?o c?acea ia
aeae?eueea ii?yaee?a ?a?no?o?oueny o aeaeyae? no?eaea. Oea yaeua
coiiaeaia eaaeiiiiae?aiei oa?aeoa?ii iiyae iin??a aeaeo?e/iiai ca?yaeo
aai ooai?aiiyi nooe?eueiiai oa?o, yeee neeaaea?oueny c iiai?
i?ia?aeueii? oace c aenieith aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noth. ??cea ci?ia
aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaaeiaei cia/aiiyi oaiia?aoo?e
One.

Ioieiaeaeaiiy c iaeii/aniei aieeaii aeaeo?e/iiai iiey i?ecaiaeeoue aei
i?e?iaeiiai ciaioaiiy aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? c?ace?a o oe?eiio, ine?eueee
eiioeaio?aoe?y iin??a ca?yaeo i?e cieaeaii? oaiia?aoo?e ciaioo?oueny.
No?eaie, yeee i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy iii?o aei cia/aiiy, yea
a?aeiia?aea? i?inoiio iaa??aaiith i?e oae?e aea oaiia?aoo??,
niinoa??aa?oueny o?eueee a oiio aeiaaeeo, eiee a?aeeeth/a?oueny
aeaeo?e/iee no?oi. Ioaea, aeioe ino??aoe? iiaeo oac ii?aeiothoueny iaeei
c iaeiei ca aeiiiiiaith ?ii?a, aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue aa?oi
oa?aeoa-?ecoaaoe ye ianoaa?eueio.

Oeyo, yeee i?ioiaeeoue aeaeo?e/iee no?oi ii i?aeca?iiaeo ? i?aeoacieo
iaaeao, nii/aoeo ia? aeaeyae eaiaii? e?i??, a iaaeae? a i?ioean?
?icaeoeo o?i?/ieo ?aaeoe?e o ia?ao?aeieo ciiao noa? ei?iooei, i?aaio/e
aei i?yii? e?i??. Ia?aaeaa/a?oueny, ui iiae?aiee iaoai?ci aea? ?noioiee
aianie a ooai?aiiy nioaanoino? cae?cenoeo eaa?oeeo?a.

?icae?e 4. O?ceei-o?i?/iee iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy iiai? oace i?e aieeaia?
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ? oaiia?aoo?e.

O i?e?iaeiiio i?ia?aeiooai?aii? e??i oeneo, oaiia?aoo?e oa oeth?ae?a
aeoeaio ?ieue a?athoue aeaeo?e/i? iiey. A?ae oiai, yeee ?c oeeo /eiiee?a
ca ?ioeo ??aieo oiia ia? noaoe i?aaaethth/ei, aoaeooue caeaaeaoe oiiae
?aae?caoe?? iaoai?cio ?inoo, o?ceei-o?i?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ia?aeo,
o?i?/ia niaoe?ae?caoe?y aeeth/aiue ? o.ae. O ?acoeueoao? ci?ie oeneo,
oaiia?aoo?e aai iai?oaeaiino? ciai?oiueiai aeaeo?e/iiai iiey nenoaia
“i?ia?ae-ai?uoth/a na?aaeiaeua” ia?aoiaeeoue o oeoeee noai,
ci?iththoueny aia?aaoe/i? ia?aiao?e iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeo, ??
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee iie?ea. A aeaiiiio aeiaaeeo aoiie
iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a, /anoee, aaeni?aiaai? iiaa?oiath i?ia?aeo, ?
eiiiiiaioe oeth?aeo anooiathoue i?ae niaith a aeoeai? o?ceei-o?i?/i?
aca?iiae??. ?i?oe?thaaiiy aeoeaiiai ianiia?aiino /anoie ia iiaa?oi?
i?ia?aeo iiaea aooe iaoiiaeaia iiey?eciaaieie ca?yaeaie e aaeni?aiaaieie
?iiaie i?ae /an aieeao ia i?ia?ae aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. Aeania iiea
i?ia?aeo, yea aeieea? o ?acoeueoao? iiey?ecaoe??, ia? neeueiee aieea ia
ci?io iioaioe?eii? aia?a?? aoii?a ? iieaeoe, ui aeeooiaeothoue ia
iiaa?oi?. Oey aia?a?y iiaeaeth?oueny a?aeiia?aeii aei eieaeueii?
e?eaecie iiaa?oi?. Ia neeueii aee?eaeaieo ae?eyieao iiaa?oi? aeieeathoue
i?ioeane ianiia?aiino ?a/iaeie, ye? iaiaaathoueny iaaeaoe iiaa?oi?
??aiiaaaeii? oi?ie. O?i?/iee noai iiaa?oi?, aeae o?ce/iiai aieeao
(oaiia?aoo?a, oene, aeaeo?e/ia e iaai?oia iiey), oaciaee noai ?
eiiiiiaioiee neeaae ?a/iaeie (oeth?aeo), ui eiioaeoo? c iiaa?oiath,
aecia/athoue iai?yiie o?ceei-o?i?/ieo iiaa?oiaaeo i?ioean?a. sseui
i?eionoeoe, ui o?ce/i? aieeae, oaciaee noai ? eiiiiiaioiee neeaae
oeth?aeo iino?ei?, oi ia ea?oeio o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue aoaeooue
aaciina?aaeiuei aieeaaoe oa?aeoa?enoeee ooieoe?iiaeueiiai iie?eao
iiaa?oi?. Oiaoi, iiaa?o-iy — i?aeeiaeia aai i???iooth/a iniiaa, yea
aecia/a? ??no o??? aai ?ioi? oace.

O?i?/i? ?aaeoe?? a i?aeca?iiaeo iaaeao iiaeooue i?io?eaoe ca noaiith
aca?iiae?? o?i?/iiai ca’yceo c oi/eiaei ca?yaeii. ?icaeyiaii oe?
i?ioeane ia i?eeeaae? aeenioe?aoe?? neaea?eoo. Ine?eueee neaea?eo ?
ae?aeaeo?eeii, oi i?e ae?? ciai?oiueiai aeaeo?e/iiai iiey iiaa?oiy
iaaoaa? ca?yaeo. A?aeiia?aeii, iieaeoee NI2 (i?iaeoeo aeenioe?aoe??
neaea?eoo), ciaoiaey/enue o cii?, iaiaaeai?e ca?yaeaeaieie iiaa?oiyie
oaa?aei? oace, ia??iaee/ii iio?aieythoue o iiea ca?yae?a. *anoioa
ni?aoaea??a iieaeoe NI2 c iiaa?oiaaeie ?iiaie c?inoa? c? ca?eueoaiiyi
oaiia?aoo?e iaa??aaiiy. Eiaeai aeo ni?aoaea?o i?ecaiaeeoue aei
aeenioe?aoe?? o?i?/iiai ca’yceo NI2 ia aoaeaoeue ? eenaiue.

Aeey oai?aoe/ii? ioe?iee a??ia?aeii? iiaeae? o?ceei-o?i?/ieo i?ioean?a
aoea ?icaeyiooa eaaioiai-iaoai?/ia caaea/a, o ye?e ia ie?aii ia?aiee
o?i?/iee ca’ycie ae?? aeayea cao?aiiy. O ?acoeueoao? ?ic?aooie?a
io?eiai? /enaeuei? cia/aiiy aeaeo?iiieo noai?a iieaeoee NI2, ye
iacao?aieo, oae ? i?ae ae??th iiaa?oiaaeo ca?yae?a.

Cie?aia, i?i?ioi aia?a?? NI2 a?aeiia?aea? ??aiiaaaei?e a?aenoai? ( R )
i?ae aoiiaie, a ??cieoey aia?a?e i?e R ( ( aei??aith? aia?a??
aeenioe?aoe?? iieaeoee iniiaiiai noaio. Eiee iieaeoee NI2
iaaeeaeathoueny aei ca?yaeo, ?ici?uaiiio ia iiaa?oi? oaa?aei? oace,
niinoa??aa?oueny iinooiiaa “?icioooaaiiy” o?i?/iiai ca’yceo aei iiiaioo
?? aeenioe?aoe?? .A i?enooiino? ca?yaeo (?iia) ca?eueoothoueny
??aiiaaaei? noaie ? ciaioo?oueny aia?a?y o?i?/iiai ca’yceo iieaeoee,
nooi?iue no?eeino? yei? caeaaeeoue oaeiae ? a?ae ?ici??o ca?yaeo (aai
u?eueiino? ca?yae?a ia iiaa?oi?).

C? ci?iith aaee/eie ca?yaeo a a?eueoo noi?iio ?icioooth/a ae?y ia
o?i?/iee ca’ycie c?inoa?. ?ioeie neiaaie, iieaeoea aeenioe?th? c
a?eueoith a??ia?aei?noth (ca ?ioeo ??aieo oiia), yeui iio?aiey? a iiea
?iia, ui ia? a?eueoee ca?yae. A??ia?aei?noue caeeaeaiiy iieaeoe NI2 c
ca?yaeaie ia a?aenoai?, i?e yeeo a?aeaoaa?oueny aeenioe?aoe?y c?inoa? c?
ca?eueoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e, a oie aea /an ia?inoa? oaeaee?noue
?iceeaaeaiiy neaea?eoo ? a?aeiia?aeii e?euee?noue eiiiiiaio?a, ui
ooai?ththoueny i?e oeueiio. Ca?yaeaeai? eiiiiiaioe aoaeooue
aaeni?aoaaoeny iiaa?oiath e o oaeee niin?a caaaeueia u?euei?noue ca?yaeo
aoaea aeuith. Ine?eueee ia nenoaio aieeaathoue aeaa ia?aiao?e —
oaiia?aoo?a , ui ca?eueoo?oueny, ? aeaeo?e/ia iiea, aaee/eia yeiai
iino?eia, oi iaiaaii, ui u?euei?noue ca?yaeo aeinyaia aeayeiai
iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiiy a?aeiia?aeii aei aaee/eie E.

E?iaoeea oi?ioaaiiy iiai? oace ?icaeyaea?oueny ia i?eeeaae? iiaeae?
ooai?aiiy a?ao?oo i?e aeenioe?aoe?? NI2 ? NI. O i?aeca?iiaiio i?inoi??,
iaiaaeaiiio ca?yaeaeaieie iiaa?oiyie, ?c i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e
ca?eueoo?oueny eiioeaio?aoe?y iieaeoe NI ? NI2. I?e iaci?ii?e aaee/ei?
iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ca ?aooiie ?ii?a, ui iaaeoiaeyoue,
c?inoa? u?euei?noue iiaa?oiaaeo ca?yae?a ? aeey ca?iaeaeaiiy ? ?inoo
a?ao?oo c aoaeaoeth aeenioe?thth/eo iieaeoe NI ? NI2 iaiao?aei? oae?
aieiai? oiiae:

1. Aeo?aeiee noai aoaeaoeaaiai aaco ia? aooe iaoanoaa?eueiei aai oeoeei
? ciaoiaeeoeny aeaeaei a?ae oa?iiaeeiai?/ii? ??aiiaaae.

2. E?ioeaaee noai iiaeiai aooe “caii?iaeaiei”, i?ii?aeiei noaiii oaeiae
aeaeaeei a?ae oa?iiaeeiai?/ii? ??aiiaaae.

3. Aia?a?y aeoeaaoe?? (G ii ii?yaeeo aaee/ei a?aeiia?aea? oiia? (G/eO((

4. Noaoe?iia?ia oaeaee?noue ooai?aiiy ca?iaee?a ia anoaiiaeth?oueny;
ca?iaeeiooai?aiiy ? iiaeaeueoee ?o ??no iiaeooue aooe ?icae?eai? ye
?noioii ie?ai? i?ioeane.

C i?iaeiaaeaiiyi iaa??aaiiy a i?aeca?iia?e cii? iaiaei?iii ianoa?
ia?aiane/aiiy eiiiiiaio?a (aoaeaoeth) ? ca ?aooiie ci?i ia?aiao??a
(oeoeooaoe?? u?eueiino? e aia?a??) aeieea? iiaa oaca (a?ao?o). Oaeiai
oeio ia?aoai?aiiy ye “aoaeaoeaaee aac — oaa?aea aoaeaoeaaa oaca”
iaeaaeaoue aei e?iaoe/ieo i?ioean?a, oiaoi a?aeaeaeaieo a?ae ??aiiaaae.
Aeey iiai? oace, ui ooai?th?oueny, oa?aeoa?ii oa, ui aiia iiaea aooe
aii?oiith aai i?e?ie?enoae?/iith, ?ici??e e?enoae?o?a aeineoue a?ae/ooii
caeaaeaoue a?ae ia?aiao??a i?ioeano ?, ia?aoo?, oa, ui no?oeoo?e, ye?
oi?iothoueny — noeeuei? aei ?aeaenaoe?? i?e ianooiieo ia?iaeao.

Aeyaeai? i?ney oa?iiaeaeo?e/ii? ia?iaee iia? i?ia?aeuei? oace, ui
ooai?ththoue oa?e aeniei? aeaeo?e/ii? i?ia?aeiino?, iaaii, iathoue
i?e?iaei? aiaeiae. Oae, o 60-o? ?iee i?ney aia-e?co aeaieo
iaai?oii-aa??aoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui i?iaiaeeeeny a oeaio??
?in?enueei? ieaooi?-ie, aoee aeyaeai? oa?e aiiiaeueii aeniei?
aeaeo?e/ii? i?ia?aeiino? ia aeeaeiao a?ae 20 aei 100 ei.

Ca?ac ia oa?eoi??? NIAe aeae?eaii aeecueei 100 iiae?aieo aaeeeeo ?
a?aeiinii iaaaee/eeo aeaeo?ii?ia?aeieo oa??a, ?icoaoiaaieo o ?aeiiao ?c
??ciiiai?oiith aaieia?/iith no?oeoo?ith. Aiae?coth/e aeai?, iaaaaeai? ii
oaeeo oa?ao, iiaeia c?iaeoe ianooii? aeniiaee. Aiie i?inoaaeothoueny ca
aeaieie ciiaeoaaiue, ii/eiath/e c 20 ei ? aeeaoa, oiaoi ?icoaoiaai? a
caii?e ei?? ? aa?oi?e iaio??, ia iiaa?oi? aei iaeieo oa??a i?inoi?iai
oyae?thoue aiiiae?? oaieiaiai no?oio, ?ioei aeanoea? iecuee? cia/aiiy
aaioa?i?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee. Oa?e i?aeaeuaii? aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino?
niinoa??aathoueny ye o oaeoii?/ii aeoeaieo ?aeiiao, oae ? ia ieaooi?iao,
? ?o in? ia?aeaeuei? ciiai aeeaeiieo ?iceii?a, /e i?inoyaaiith e?oiieo
neeaae/anoeo no?oeoo?.

E.I. ?eainueeei aoea aenoiooa a?iioaca, a?aeiia?aeii aei yei? i?e?iaea
aeaeo?ii?ia?aeieo oa??a iiynithaaeany oi?ioaaiiyi iane??cii? ie?aeiai?
no?oeoo?e a ii/aoeiaee iiiaio ieaaeaiiy a??nueei? ii?iaee. A?iioaca
aacoaaeany ia aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaiiio oaeo? cieaeaiiy ia
aeae?eueea nioaiue a?aaeon?a oaiia?aoo?e ieaaeaiiy a??nueei? ii?iaee a
i?enooiino? aiaee. I?ioa, ye iieacothoue ??ci? iiaeae? ?iciiae?eo
oaiia?aoo?e, /anoeiaa ieaaeaiiy ii??ae iiaea niinoa??aaoeny, ii/eiath/e
c aeeaeie 130 ei (iiaia iane/aiiy aiaeith) ? 160 ei (/anoeiaa iane/aiiy
aiaeith). O aeiaaeeo nooi? iaio?? ieaaeaiiy ii??ae ia oaeeo aeeaeiao ia
a?aeaoaa?oueny a aeiaei?e ?c iaaaaeaieo iiaeaeae. Oaeei /eiii, a?iioaca
E.I. ?eainueeiai, iaaii, iiaea aooe ae?eniith o?eueee aeey oaeoii?/ii
aeoeaieo iaeanoae, aea aaioa?i?/iee a?aae??io aeinoaoiuei aenieee ?
oiiae aeey ooai?aiiy ?icieaao c’yaeythoueny ia a?aeiinii iaaaeeeeo
aeeaeiao.

ssni?noue o ieoaiiy iioiaeaeaiiy oa??a aeniei? aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino?
aiinyoue aeai? aeeaeiieo aeaeo?iiaai?oieo ciiaeoaaiue ia Aaeo?enueeiio
ueo?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeniea i?ia?aei?noue iaoiiaeaia i?enooi?noth a
oa?ao a?ao?oo e noeueo?ae?a. Noeueo?aee, iiaeai? o aeaeyae? ?cieueiaaieo
ca?ai, iacaaaeath/e ia ?oi?e cia/iee ai?no, ia a?athoue iii?oii? ?ie? a
i?ia?aeiino? oa?o. Iecueeee ii?? oa??a niinoa??aa?oueny o?eueee oai, aea
i?enooiy nenoaia i?e?ineii?/ii oiieeo aeo?eiaieo ii i?inoyaaiith aieieii
? eoni/ie a?ao?oo, ui neeaaeathoue ?aeeiee i?ia?aeiee, aai i?e iayaiino?
ae??aiiaeenia?niiai a?ao?oo, ui cae?enith? ca’ycie i?ae ca?iaie
noeueo?ae?a.

E??i oiai, anoaiiaeaiee oaeo ciaioaiiy aeaeo?e/iiai iii?o a??nueeeo
ii??ae ?c ca?eueoaiiyi nooiaiy iaoaii?o?cio, oiaoi ii?iaee aio?aie?oiai?
oa a?aioe?oiai? oaoe?e iaoaii?o?cio iathoue aeuo aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue a
ii??aiyii? c caeaiineaioeaaith. C?inoaiiy i?ia?aei?no? iiynith?oueny
a?eueo aenieei nooiaiai a?ao?o?caoe?? ?a/iaeie.

Ocaaaeueithth/e ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaio?a ? aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo
ia Aaeo?enueeiio ueo?, iiaeia cai?iiiioaaoe ianooiiee iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy
a i?e?iae? cii aiiiaeueii? aeaeo?e/ii? i?ia?aeiino?. Aaaaea?oueny, ui
oae? ciie oi?iothoueny i?e ii??aiyii iaaaeeeeo oaiia?aoo?ao o
?acoeueoao? aieeao ia a??nueeo ii?iaeo aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a. Aia?aaoe/ieie
aeaea?aeaie, iaea??ia?aei?oa, iathoue aooe aeeaeii? ?iceiie i?ae /an
ooai?aiiy e aeoea?caoe?e, ine?eueee in? oa??a (nioa), ye cacia/aeiny
aeua, ia?aeaeuei? aai ca?aathoueny c ciiaie aeeaeiieo ?iceii?a /e oi
inyie oaeoii?/ii aeoeaieo no?oeoo? aeaiiai ?aeiio. Iaaaaeaii i?eeeaaee.
Ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie a?aeiii aeae?eueea oaeeo cii. Iaea?eueo cia/ia ?
aeaoaeueii aea/aia — E??iaia?aaenueea a ?iaoei-?iaoeaoeuee?e
no?oeoo?ii-oaoe?aeuei?e cii?, aiia aeoeaii ?icaeaaeany a a?oa? ?
ieaeiueiio i?ioa?ici?. I?ioyaei?noue ?? ia iaio 2000 ei, aeeaeia ia
a?eueo 35 ei, a?nue ciie ia?aeaeueia E??iaia?aaenueeiio aeeaeiiiio
?iceiio. Iaeneiaeueiee oaieiaee no?oi o oeaio?? aiiiaeueii? ciie ia aeua
na?aaei?o cia/aiue oaieiaiai no?oio ia OU. Ae?oaa ciia c aiiiaeueiith
aeaeo?e/iith i?ia?aei?noth i?ieyaa? acaeiaae on??? Ea?iaonueei?
neeaae/anoi? iaeano?; aeeaeia aei ?? aa?oiueiai e?ath — 20 ei;
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeoaea aenieei aaioa?i?/iei a?aae??ioii, i?e/iio ??cea
ciaioaiiy cia/aiue oaieiaiai no?oio niinoa??aa?oueny a ?aeii? Cao?aeieo
? No?aeieo Ea?iao i?e ia?aoiae? a?ae aioo??oiuei? iaeano? aei
ciai?oiuei?. Ciia i?aeaeuaii? aeaeo?e/ii? i?ia?aeiino? iaeaaeeoue aei
?aa?iio, oaeoii?/iee ?icaeoie yeiai i?ioiaeea o iacici?-eaeiici?.

C iiceoe?? cai?iiiiiaaii? a?iioace iiaeia neeanoe oaeo noaio ooai?aiiy
E??iaia?aaenue-ei? oa Ea?iaonueei? aiiiaeueieo cii. Oa?e i?aeaeuaii?
aeaeo?e/ii? i?ia?aeiino? ia?oi? ciie aoee noi?iiaai? a i?ioa?ici?, o
ia??iae aeoeaiiai oaeoii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ieaeiueiai no?oeoo?iiai iiaa?oo
Oe?a?inueeiai ueoa. Ca?ac oea a?aeiinii noaa?eueia ae?eyiea caiii? ei?e,
aea niinoa??aathoueny iecuee? oaieia? iioiee, a i?e?iaei? aeaeo?e/i?
iiey ni?iiiaei? i?e aeineoue iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao i?aeo?eioaaoe aenieo
i?ia?aei?noue oa?o. O Ea?iaonuee?e cii?, iaiaaii, e aeioaia? eaea
oi?ioaaiiy oa??a, oiio ooo ? niinoa??aathoueny aiiiaeueii aenie?
cia/aiiy aaioa?i?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee.

?icae?e 5. ?ieue aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a o oi?ioaaii? cae?ci?oaeieo oi?iaoe?e
aeieaia??th.

Aiae?c aaiaoe/ieo a?iioac COAe, iaaaaeaiee o ia?oiio ?icae?e?, iieacaa,
ui inaaeaeaiiy cae?ca o oi?i? ea?aiiao?a aeey a?oaenueeeo oi?iaoe?e,
aecia?oueny a?eueo?noth aeine?aeiee?a. Aeey ieaeiueii?ioa?icienueeeo
aaaaea?oueny e?auei inaaeaeaiiy cae?ca o aeaeyae? a?ae?iieeno, ??aeoa
ea?aiiao?a. Iaei??th c i?e/ei, ii ye?e neaea?eo a?aeoeeyany ye iniiaiee
ia?aeiiee i?ia?ae ieaeiueii?ioa?icienueeeo COAe, aoea iayni?noue oiia
ieenethaaiiy neaea?eoo aei iaaiaoeoo aai aaiaoeoo a oiiaao
caeaiineaioeaai? oaoe?? ?aa?iiaeueiiai iaoaii?o?cio. Oaiia?aoo?a oaoe??
ia ia?aaeuo? 800 E, a ii/aoie aeenioe?aoe?? neaea?eoo aei iaaiaoeoo ?
aaiaoeoo a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e oaiia?aoo?ao iiiaae 750 E. Aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy c eiiieaeniiai ia?ia?oeo i?ia?ae?a ? a??nueeeo ii??ae o
oa?iiaeaeo?e/ieo iieyo iieacaee, ui a oeueiio aeiaaeeo oaiia?aoo?a
iiaii? aeenioe?aoe?? neaea?eoo cieaeo?oueny ia 100-150 a?aaeon?a, oiaoi
oe?eeii a?aeiia?aea? oaiia?aoo?iiio ?ioa?aaeo caeaiineaioeaai? oaoe??.
Aeoiaey/e c oeeo ia?aaeoiia, ? c iaeyaeo ia iiceoeai? noi?iie a?iioace,
ca iniiao aoea i?eeiyoa aaaii?eoiaa iiaeaeue inaaeaeaiiy cae?ca o oi?i?
ea?aiiaoo ? eaa?oeo o aeaeyae? iaaaaee?oo (nee?eao?a eae?th ? iao??th).

Aaaii?eoiaa inaaeaeaiiy cae?cenoi-e?aiaienoeo oiau i?ioiaeeei o
caieiooeo aanaeiao, ye? iiaee noi?ioaaoeny ca ?aooiie niaaeieo
aa?oeeaeueieo ?oo?a ie?aieo aeie?a ii ?iceiiao. O oaeiio aanaei?
a?aeaoaaeiny iiiioiiia inaaeaeaiiy a iniiaiiio cae?cenoeo ea?aiiao?a ?
nee?eaoo iao??th, o i?aeii?yaeeiaai?e e?eueeino? a?aeeeaaeaeeny
ea?aiiaoe eaeueoe?th ? iaai?th, a?ae?iieenee cae?ca, i?uaii-aeeienoee
iaoa??ae. Aaea ia ii/aoeiaeo noaae?yo ae?aaaiaco a?aeaoaaeiny
ou?eueiaiiy inaaeo, eiai aeaa?ae?aoaoe?y ? aeaea?aiiaoecaoe?y, ui
aeiaaathoue cia/ieo aeo?ao aia?a??. Aaaaea?oueny, ui iaeiei ?c aeaea?ae
aia?a?? aoee aeaeo?e/i? iiey, ye? aeieeee a ?acoeueoao? ?icaeoeo
i’?ciaoaeoo, o??ueiiooai?aiiy a eaa?oeai?uoth/eo a??nueeeo ii?iaeao
(i?aenoeeath/eo ? ai?uoth/eo COAe) i?ae /an ooai?aiiy aai aeoea?caoe?e
aeeaeiieo ?iceii?a.

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy N.A.?iiaiianueeiai caeiiii??iinoae
ia?aiino oaiea ? aieiae a eai?ey?ii-ii?enoeo na?aaeiaeuao i?e ?o
oa?i?/i?e ia?iaoe? c iaeeaaeaiei aeaeo?e/iei iieai aeicaieeee c’ynoaaoe,
ui i?ioyaii aeoaea ei?ioeiai i?ii?aeeo /ano oaiia?aoo?a a na?aaeiaeu?
anoaiiaeth?oueny c iino?eiei a?aeiinii iaaaeeeei a?aae??ioii.
I?ia??aaiiy eai?ey?ii-ii?enoiai o?ea i?ioiaeeoue ??aiii??ii c
iaeiaeiaith oaeaee?noth ii anueiio ia’?io. I?e oeueiio a?aeaoaa?oueny
aacoieiiee a?aeo?e iaaeeeoe?a aieiae ? oaiea a iaaeieeoi?e i?ino??.
Aenoooaaiiy oaeeo na?aaeiaeu cae?i/o?oueny oaa?ae?iiyi iaoa??aeo, ia
ia?o?e noaae?? yeiai eaea ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? oeaio??a
e?enoae?caoe??, a a?aae??ioia aeaeo?iiaai?oia iiea ia?aoeiaeaea? iiya?
iai?oa c?iuaiiy.

C iaeyaeo ia ?acoeueoaoe oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue ? aeai?, iaaaaeai? a
o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeaii? ?iaioe, iiaeia i?eionoeoeny oaei? noaie
ae?aaaiaco ? ai?aaiaco iaaiaeiaiiai cae?cenoi-e?aiaienoiai inaaeo. O
ia??iae aeoea?caoe?? aeeaeiieo ?iceii?a (iai?eeeaae,
E?eai??cueei-E?aiai/ooeueeiai) cae?cenoi-e?aiaienoee inaae caciaaaa
aieeao oaieiaeo ? aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a. Ca ?aooiie oeueiai a
cae?cenoi-e?aiaienoiio inaae? /anoee ieeno ? caeeno cae?ca, a?eueo-iaio
??aiii??ii ?icn?yi? ii ia’?io, iiaeii? aeyaeyoe oa?aeoa?i?
oa?iiaaiaoeeai aeanoeaino?. Oae?e ia??aiiaaaei?e o o?i?/iiio a?aeiioaii?
nenoai?, ye cae?cenoi-e?aiaienoee inaae, aeinoaoiuei, iaaii, iaaaee/eiai
oa?iiaeaeo?e/iiai “iiooiaoo”, aeey oiai, uia o iueiio ii/aee aeoeaii
?icaeaaoeny ??ciiiai?oi? o?i?/i? ?aaeoe??. Nenoaia iiaeiia aooe
naii?aaoethth/ith, ine?eueee i?ioiaeyoue ye aecioa?i?/i?, oae ?
aiaeioa?i?/i? ?aaeoe??, oiaoi aia?a?y iaei??? aeo?a/a?oueny ia
i?aeo?eieo ?ioi?. Ia?aoai?aiiy a inaaeo aoaeooue a?aeaoaaoeny aeioe,
iiee a?i ia noaia aeaeo?io?i?/ii ??aiiaaaeiei. I?ia??aaiiy nenoaie
iiaeiia noai?thaaoe iaaaee/e? a?aae??ioe oaiia?aoo?e e aieiae ia
eiioaeo? c ai?noeaoeie ?o ii?iaeaie, ? yeui aiie o??ueioaao?, oi aiaea c
?ic/eiaieie a i?e eiiiiiaioaie aoaea iaaeoiaeeoe i?ae ae??th aa?i- ?
oa?iiaeeooc?? a iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua. ?ioeie neiaaie, oa?iiaeaeo?e/i?
iiey “aenooothoue» cae?cenoi-e?aiaienoee inaae, a ?acii ?c aieiaith
aeiinyoueny ? eaaei?ic/eii? aeaiaioe, o oiio /ene? ? aeii?oee.

Cai?iiiiiaaia noaia aeinoaoiuei i?inoi iiynith? caeiiii??i?noue,
anoaiiaeaio ia Oe?a?inueeiio ueo?. Nooue ?? iieyaa? inue o /iio.
Nooi?iue a?ae?aoaoe?? ? caaaa/aiiy E2I ii??ae ooiaeaiaioo iniaeeai
cia/ia a?ey aaeeeeo neieeeii???a ?c iiooaeieie oiauaie COAe.
A?ae?aoaoe?y ooiaeaiaioo iioe?th?oueny ia aaeeeo a?aenoaiue a?ae
cia/iiai neieeeii??y (aei 10 ei ? a?eueoa), caoooath/e c a?aeaeaeaiiyi
a?ae iueiai. C iiceoe?? o/ano? oa?iiaeaeo?e/ieo iie?a o i?ioeanao
ae?aaaiaco iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui iaea?eueo neaai cae??ieai? ?iie eae?th,
iao??th ? aeii?oie c iniioe/iith aieiaith aoaeooue iaaeoiaeeoe a ii?iaee
ooiaeaiaioo. ? a oeueiio ca’yceo noa? c?icoi?ei? caeaaei?noue ianya?a
cae?ciiaeiie/aiiy a?ae ?aiao ?iceii?a, iaaaaeaia a ia?oiio ?icae?e?.
Ae?enii, /ei a?eueoee ?iceii, oei cia/i?o? ii caianao ?iaeiaeua COAe
i?eeo/ai? aei iueiai, a cia/eoue ? a?eueoo e?euee?noue aieiae aiie
i?noeee nii/aoeo. E??i oiai, ?aia ?iceiio aoaea aecia/aoe ??aaiue
aeaeo?iiaai?oieo iie?a ? ?ici??e ciie o??ueioaaoino? ii??ae ooiaeaiaioo.

O ?icae?e? iaaaaeaiee aiae?c iiaeyae?a ia i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy
?aa?iiaeueiiai iaoaii?o?cio. Iieacaii, ui a aeaiee /an aeii?iothoue aeaa
iai?yiee a oai??? iaoaii?o?cio. Ia?oee — iniiaiei /eiieeii ?icaeyaea?
oaiia?aoo?o, ae?oaee — cia/io ?ieue a?aeaiaeeoue oeth?aeai.
Aaaaea?oueny, ui ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ii
oa?iiaeaeo?e/i?e ia?iaoe? i?ia?ae?a ? a??nueeeo ii??ae aeicaieythoue
aeae?eeoe /aoaa?oee /eiiee ?aa?iiaeueiiai iaoaii?o?cio — aeaeo?e/i?
iiey. Aeiaeaoeiaei na?ae/aiiyi ia ei?enoue oaeiai aeniiaeo iiaeooue
neoaoaaoe a?aeii? aaieiai-aaio?ce/i? aeai?. Oa?e aiiiaeueii? aeaeo?e/ii?
i?ia?aeiino? ia ieaooi?iao i?inoi?iai oyae?thoue aei iaeanoae ?icaeoeo
iaoaii?o?/ieo ii??ae. Anoaiiaeaii i?yio caeaaei?noue i?ae
iaiaai?/ai?noth, aeaeo?e/iith i?ia?aei?noth ? nooiaiai ?aa?iiaeueiiai
iaoaii?o?cio aeey ii??ae No?aeii-?a?iiaenueei? ieaooi?ie. Aeyaeaii
oaiaeaioe?th aei ciaioaiiy iaiaai?/aiino? c? ciaioaiiyi a?eo
iaoaii?o?/ieo ii??ae ia Oe?a?inueeiio ueo?. Oa?i- ? oa??iaai?oi?
i?ia?aee ?icoaoiaothoueny acaeiaae oa?oaaoino? iaoaii?o?/ieo oiau, /ei ?
aecia/a?oueny i???iooaaiiy aaeoi??a caeeoeiai? iaiaai?/aiino? ii
?oiueiio i?inoyaaiith. Anoaiiaeaii ?iceeae aaeoi??a caeeoeiai?
iaiaai?/aiino? ii aaee/ei? ? iai?yieo ia ?oaeieo ?iaeiaeuao.

C iiceoe?e o/ano? aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a o i?ioeanao iaoaii?o?cio COAe iiaeia
iiynieoe oae? caeiiii??iino?:

1. Aeyaeaii cai?ioith caeaaei?noue i?ae ?ici??aie, iane/ai?noth
cae?ci?oaeieie ooai?aiiyie ?iaeiaeu COAe ? nooiaiai ?oiueiai
iaoaii?o?cio, oiaoi /ei a?eueoa ?iaeiaeua ? cia/ei?oee ai?no ?oaeieo
eiiiiiaio?a o iueiio, oei ieae/ee ??aaiue eiai iaoaii?o?cio. Oae, aeey
cae?cenoi-e?aiaienoi-neaioeaaeo ? cae?cenoi-e?aiaienoi-iaoaaaceoiaeo
oi?iaoe?e, ?iaeiaeua yeeo i?noyoue cia/i? caiane, oa?aeoa?iee
iaoaii?o?ci caeaiineaioeaai? oaoe??, ??aeoa ai?aeio-aioeaie?oiai?. Aeey
ae??aieo ?iaeiaeu ?aiiueia?oaenueeeo oi?iaoe?e aeanoeaee iaoaii?o?ci aae
aei a?aioe?oiai? oaoe??. Oey caeaaei?noue aeyaey?oueny ia o?eueee ia OU,
aea ? ia EIA. C iaeyaeo ia ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
?e iiaeia aeaoe oaea oeoia/aiiy: /ei aeua iane/ai?noue ?ic??co
cae?ci?oaeieie ooai?aiiyie ? a?eueoa ?iaeiaeua ii caianao, oei ieae/eie
aoaeooue ia?aiao?e oa?iiaeaeo?e/ieo iie?a, i?e yeeo ianooia? iiiaio
oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo aeaeo?ii?ia?aeieo oac ? oaenoo?ii-no?oeoo?ieo
iniaeeainoae. Oeeie ae i?e/eiaie, iaiaaii, iiaeia iiynieoe a?aeii?
aaieia?/i? oaeoe i?i i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iaoaii?-o?cio a?ae
i?iaeoeoeaii? /anoeie ?ic??co aei ai?uoth/eo ii??ae. Aeiaeaoeiaei
/eiieeii, ui aieeaa? ia oaiia?aoo?o iaoaii?o?cio CAeO, ia? aooe
oaeaee?noue i?ia??ao cae?cenoi-e?aiaienoiai inaaeo. Aeey
?aiiueia?oaenueei? aiioe aeanoea? a?eueo aenie? aaioa?i?/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee, ca?aene, ca ?ioeo ??aieo oiia, oaeaee?noue iaa??aaiiy
aeey iaeaeaai?oeo COAe aoaea aeuith, i?ae aeey iieiaeeo (?acoeueoaoe
aenia?eiaio?a iieacaee iaa?iaiee aca?iica’ycie i?ae oaeaee?noth
iaa??aaiiy oa One ).

2. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy c aaaaoi?aciai? ia?iaee i?ia?ae?a ?
a??nueeeo ii??ae o oa?iiaeaeo?e/ieo iieyo aeicaieythoue, iaaooue,
a?aeiia?noe ia caieoaiiy i?i i?e/eie ?aa?aneaiiai iaoaii?o?cio. Oae,
«ia?oa oa?iiaeaeo?e/ia ia?iaea» iiaea a?aeiia?aeaoe i?ia?aneai?e noaae??
iaoaii?o?cio, i?e ianooiieo «ia?iaeao» oaiia?aoo?a iaoaii?o?cio iiaeiia
aooe ieae/ith, ine?eueee a ii?iaeao aaea iiai?noth aai /anoeiai
noi?iiaai? iia? i?ia?aeuei? oace ? oaenoo?ii-no?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino?.

3. Ca?eueoaiiy /anoee nee?eao?a cae?ca a ii??aiyii? c iaaiaoeoii ?
aaiaoeoii, ia?oa?iiy nioaanoino? i?e ia?aoiae? a?ae iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo
COAe aei a?eueo aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo c iiceoe?e o/ano? aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a
iiaeia iiynieoe a oaeee niin?a. I?e oaiia?aoo?ao iiiaae 700E a
i?enooiino? aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a ii/eia?oueny aeaeo?ie?c eaa?oeo, i?ae /an
yeiai e?aii?e ni?iiiaeiee a?aeaeaaaoe nai? aeaeo?iie , o ?acoeueoao?
/iai a?aeaoaa?oueny ?oeiaoe?y ca?ai eaa?oeo. E?aii?e ooai?th? c’?aeiaiiy
c cae?cii, a?aeiiaethth/e eiai aei aeaiaaeaioii? oi?ie c ooai-?aiiyi
neeaaeieo nee?eao?a.

4. Aeioaia? aoee a?aeii? aea? a?iioace ooai?aiiy Nnaia o iaoaii?o?/ieo
oiauao COAe: a?iaaiia e aa?iaaiia, ui ia? ia oaac? caaaa/aiiy ii??ae
a?ao?oii ca ?aooiie aoaeaaiaeiaaeo niieoe, ye? iaaeoiaeyoue ?c iaio??.
Cai?iiiiiaaia ua iaeia — a?eueiee aoaeaoeue (a?ao?o) — i?iaeoeo
aeenioe?aoe?? neaea?eoo a oa?iiaeaeo?e/ieo iieyo. A?iioaca
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny eaaioiai-iaoai?/ieie ?ic?aooieaie, iaaaaeaieie a
/aoaa?oiio ?icae?e?, ? i?ia?aeia?/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie.

5. Ai?aaiaoe/i? aaaao? cae?ci? ?oaee naenaaainueeiai oa
ia?oio?aaainueeiai oei?a i?inoi?iai oyae?thoue aei i?oiaiiaeueii?
nenoaie ?iceii?a, iaeiieiaeoi? ca /anii caeeaaeaiiy (aeoea?caoe??) ia
Oe?a?inueeiio ueo?. C oe??th nenoaiith ?iceii?a iia’ycaia aeieeiaiiy
aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a, ?ieue yeeo i?e oi?ioaaii? noiaiiiiae?aieo iieeaae?a
aaaaoeo cae?cieo ?oae caiaeeoueny aei ianooiiiai. Ia aoaiao
iaoaii?oiaaiii? iaoaniiaoe/ii? onaaeee a oiiaao ni?yiiaaiiai
ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii oa?oaaoino? no?ano a cae?cenoeo eaa?oeeoao i?ae ae??th
aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a a?aeaoaaany ?icaeoie cai?ioiueiai i’?ciaoaeoo, ca
?aooiie /iai ca?ia eaa?oeo a eaa?oeaaeo oa?ao ?oeioaaeeny. Oeae iaoai?ci
aeiiiaith? a?aeiio iiaeaeue ?oeiaoe?? eaa?oeo /a?ac iaiaeii??aei?noue
i?oaeieo (i?oei?nieo) aeanoeainoae iaaiaoeoo ? eaa?oeo. Ia aoaiao
a?ia?aaiii? noaae?? i?e?iaei? aeaeo?e/i? iiey aoee ciai?oi?ie
aeaea?aeaie aeeaeaiiy aeey ?icaeoeo aeaeo?io?i?/ieo i?ioean?a o
aaeueaai?/ieo nenoaiao.

AENIIAIE

Aeena?oaoe?y — cae?i/aia iaoeiai-aeine?aeia ?iaioa, o ye?e aeaia
oai?aoe/ia e aenia?eiaioaeueia iaa?oiooaaiiy aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a, ye
/aoaa?oiai /eiieea iaoaii?o?cio cae?ci?oaeieo oi?iaoe?e aeieaia??th.
?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny a?aeiieie aaieiai-aaio?ce/ieie aeaieie.

Iniiai? iaoeia? ? i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iieyaathoue a ianooiiiio:

1. Aiae?c i?iaeaie iieacaa, ui i?e ?icaeyae? aaiaceno ??cieo oei?a COAe
ia a?aoiao?oueny aeaeo?e/ia iiea, ye iaeei ?c /eiiee?a, ui ia?
i?eioeeiiaa cia/aiiy i?e oi?ioaaii? a??nueeeo ii??ae, ui neeaaeathoueny
c aeaeo?ii?ia?aeieo i?ia?ae?a, ? i?ia?ae?a-i’?ciaeaeo?ee?a. A?aeii?
aaieiai-aaio?ce/i? oaeoe na?ae/aoue, ui iniiaieie aeaea?aeaie
aeaeo?e/ii? aia?a?? a caii?e ei?? iiaeooue aooe aeeaeii? ?iceiie i?ae
/an ?o oi?ioaaiiy aai aeoea?caoe??. C o?aooaaiiyi oeueiai i?eiouaiiy
aoee neeaaeai? i?ia?aeia?/i? e aea?aaeaioi? ?i aeaeo?e/i? iiaeae?
aaieia?/iiai na?aaeiaeua. ?ic?aooiee iieacaee, ui a ?acoeueoao?
aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue ia ieae/a 5(108 Ia a na?aaeiaeuao, ui
i?noyoue i?ia?aee-i’?ciaeaeo?eee, aeieeathoue aeaeo?e/i? no?oie,
ni?iiiaei? ?i?oe?thaaoe o?ceei-o?i?/i? i?ioeane a a??nueeeo ii?iaeao.
Iayai?noue oaeeo no?oi?a o aeieaia??? i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aeaieie ii
caeeoeia?e iaiaai?/aiino? iaoaii?o?/ieo ii??ae. Aea/aiiy ae iai?oaeaiiai
noaio a??nueeeo ianea?a ia aoa?eueieo ?iaeiaeuao AeAeA iieacaei, ui ? a
no/ani? aaieia?/i? aiioe aiii o?eno?oueny ia iiaa?oi? e o ae?iaeao
aiiiae?yie i?e?iaeieo aeaeo?iiaai?oieo iie?a Caie?.

2. Aacoth/enue ia anoaiiaeaieo ?ai?oa i?inoi?iaeo aca?iica’yceao COAe ?c
aeeaeiieie ?iceiiaie, aeei?enoiaoth/e ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo
?ic?aooie?a ??ai?a aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a, i?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy c aea/aiiy aieeao oa?iiaeaeo?e/ieo iie?a ia i?ia?aee ?
a??nuee? ii?iaee. Aaeeeee ianya aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
iieacaa, ui i?ae /an oa?iiaeaeo?e/ii? ia?iaee niinoa??aa?oueny iaa?aeiia
?ai?oa yaeua — no?eaie aeaeo?e/ii? i?ia?aeiino? i?ia?ae?a ? a??nueeeo
ii??ae i?e aecia/aieo oaiia?aoo?? (One) ? iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai
iiey (Ane). ?acoeueoaoe eiiieaeno i?ia?aeia?/ieo, o?i?/ieo ?
?aioaaii-no?oeoo?ieo aiae?c?a iieacaee, ui no?eaie aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino?
iia’ycaiee ?c oi?ioaaiiyi iiaeo aeaeo?ii?ia?aeieo oac ? oac ?c ci?oaiei
oeiii i?ia?aeiino? a i?ia?aeao ? a??nueeeo ii?iaeao. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
oaiia?aoo?a no?eaea, a cia/eoue ? ooai?aiiy iiaeo oac, caeaaeeoue a?ae
iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey, oaeaeeino? iaa??aaiiy, o?i?/iiai
neeaaeo, iayaiino? aeii?oie, oaenoo?ii-no?oeoo?ieo iniaeeainoae.
Aecia/ai? caeaaeiino? i?ae One ? i?eaaaeaieie aeua /eiieeaie. I?ney
oa?iiaeaeo?e/ii? ia?iaee oi?iothoueny iia? oaenoo?ii-no?oeoo?i?
iniaeeaino?: i?aeaeuo?oueny oia?eno?noue, ooai?th?oueny
i?e?inioaano?noue — iioa?iaa /a?aoaai-iy ?oaeieo ? ia?oaeieo i?ia?ae?a.
Oae, o c?aceao neaea?eoo, iaeiiai c ia?aeiieo i?ia?ae?a COAe, iiaia
aeenioe?aoe?y aei iaaaai?oo, aaiaoeoo, a?ao?oo a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e
eiiieaeni?e ia?iaoe? ia 100-150 a?aaeon?a ieae/a, i?ae o ?acoeueoao?
i?inoiai iaa??aaiiy. A c?aceao aeieea? oa?aeoa?ia aeey cae?cenoeo
eaa?oeeo?a nioaano?noue, i???ioiaaia ia?aeaeueii ae?? no?oio. I?ae /an
oa?iiaeaeo?e/ii? ia?iaee cae?cenoeo eaa?oeeo?a, eiee c?acee
anoaiiaethaaeeny aiiia?ae nioaanoino? ae?? no?oio, ??cea cieaeaiiy
aeaeo?e/ii? i?ia?aeiino? ii/eiaeiny i?e oaiia?aoo?ao aei 400 E. sseui
ae?y no?oio aoea ia?aeaeueia nioaanoino?, oi a c?aceao cae?cenoeo
eaa?oeeo?a ?icaeaaeany i?e?ioia?eno?noue, eaa?oeaa? oa?e ?oeioaaeeny.
Ia?aaeaa/a?oueny, ui iiae?aia yaeua iiaea aooe iia’ycaia c? cai?ioi?i
i’?ciaoaeoii o eaa?oe?. I?ae /an ioieiaeaeaiiy c? no?oiii c?ace?a ??cieo
i?ia?ae?a ? a??nueeeo ii??ae aei e?iiaoii? oaiia?aoo?e aeaeo?e/iee ii??
c?ace?a ca?eueooaaany ia 1-2 ii?yaeee, aea ia aeinyaaa ia?aeiieo
cia/aiue.

3. ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeaee iiaeeea?noue
noi?ioethaaoe iiao iiaeaeue ooai?aiiy aeaeo?ii?ia?aeieo oac o
i?aeca?iiaeo ? i?aeoacieo iaaeao i?ia?ae?a ? a??nueeeo ii??ae. Iieacaii,
ui ciie aiiiaeueii aeniei? aeaeo?e/ii? i?ia?aeiino? a caii?e ei??
iia’ycai? c ?aae?caoe??th e?iaoe/ieo i?ioean?a. ? yeui ?ai?oa i?e?iaeo
oaeeo oa??a aecia/aee ye ciio /anoeiaiai ieaaeaiiy a??nueeeo ii??ae, oi
?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaee, ui aiie iiaeooue
ooai?eoeny i?e a?aeiinii iaaaeeeeo oaiia?aoo?ao ? iai?oaeaiinoyo
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey a caii?e ei??.

4. Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? a?aeiieo
aaieiai-aaio?ce/ieo aeaieo aeicaieea aeiaanoe, ui iaoaii?o?ci COAe
i?ioiaeeoue i?ae aieeaii /ioe?ueio /eiiee?a: oaiia?aoo?e, oeneo,
oeth?ae?a ? aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a. An? /ioe?e /eiieee aca?iiiia’ycai? ?
aca?iiiaoiiaeai?. Oae, oaiia?aoo?a iaoaii?o?cio aoaea caeaaeaoe a?ae
aaee/eie iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a. Ca ?ioeo ??aieo oiia, /ei aeua
iai?oaeai?noue aeaeo?e/iiai iiey, oei ieae/a oaiia?aoo?a, i?e ye?e
oi?iothoueny iia? i?ia?aeuei? oace ? oaenoo?ii-no?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino?
i?ia?ae?a ? a??nueeeo ii??ae, ui i?aeaeaeeny iaoaii?o?cio. Aeaeo?e/i?
iiey aeoea?cothoue o?ceei-o?i?/i? i?ioeane, aia?a?y yeeo, o aeiaaeeo,
yeui ?aaeoe?? aiaeioa?i?/i?, i?aeaeuo? oaiia?aoo?o iaoaii?o?cio, yeui
aecioa?i?/i? — cieaeo? ??. Oene ia o?eueee ciaioo? oaiia?aoo?o ooai?aiiy
iiaeo oac, aea ? eiio?ieth? iai?yiie ?ooo oeth?ae?a. Aei oiai ae, yeui
oeth?aee ia?ai?uothoueny c iaeanoae ?c aenieei oeneii aei cii c?
cieaeaiei oeneii, aeaeo?e/i? no?oie aoaeooue iaoe ?aa?iiaeueiee iai?yiie
ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii ae?? oeneo, a eieaeuei? ci?ie ?o i???iooaaiiy
aecia/athoueny iaiaeii??aeiinoyie aaiaeaeo?e/iiai ?ic??co. Aeaeo?e/i?
iiey aecia/athoue oaeaee?noue ? iai?yiie ia?ai?uaiiy oeth?ae?a; o naith
/a?ao ia?ai?uaiiy ?ic/ei?a noai?th? ??cieoeth iioaioe?ae?a o ??cieo
/anoeiao a??nueeiai ianeao.

5. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe o?ceei-o?i?/i?
oiiae aaaii?eoiai? iiaeae? ooai?aiiy COAe, iaei??? c ?yaeo
ia?aeiii-inaaeiaeo a?iioac. ?ai?oa oey a?iioaca aeey
ieaeiueii?ioa?icienueeeo COAe a?aeoeeyeany, ine?eueee iaa?aeii? aoee
oiiae iiaii? aeenioe?aoe?? neaea?eoo aei iaaiaoeoo ? aaiaoeoo a oiiaao
caeaiineaioeaai? oaoe?? iaoaii?o?cio. Ia eiie?aoieo aaieia?/ieo
i?eeeaaeao iieacaia ?ieue aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a o oi?ioaaii? cae?ci?oaeieo
oiau, ui i?aeaeaeeny iaoaii?o?cio ??ciiai ??aiy. Oae, aeey
?aiiuei-a?oaenueeeo oei?a COAe, yeei aeanoea? iaaaeee? ca ianyaaie
?iaeiaeua c iacia/iei ai?noii ?oaeieo i?ia?ae?a, oa?aeoa?ia a?eueoa
oaiia?aoo?a iaoaii?o?cio, i?ae aeey i?ioa?icienueeeo. Niinoa??aa?oueny
caeaaei?noue oaiia?aoo?e e aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a a?ae ?aiao aeeaeiiiai
?iceiio, o cii? yeiai ?icoaoiao?oueny ?iaeiaeua COAe. Oae aei
?aa?iiaeueieo ?iceii?a ia?oiai ii?yaeeo i?e/aoi? iaea?eueo cia/i?
?iaeiaeua c iaeieae/ei ??aiai iaoaii?o?cio. Anoaiiaeaii ca’ycie i?ae
??aiyie oa?iiaeaeo?e/ieo iie?a ? ?ici??aie ca?ai ?oaeieo i?ia?ae?a ?
eaa?oeo, nooiaiai i/euaiiy a?ae aeii?oie.

6. Ia i?aenoaa? ?ai?oa noi?ioeueiaaiiai aaioaeoii?/iiai e?eoa??th
iiooe?a noiaiiiiae?aieo iieeaae?a aaaaoeo cae?cieo ?oae naenaaainueeiai
? ia?oio?aaainueeiai oei?a ?ic?iaeaiee o?ceei-o?i?/iee iaoai?ci
?oeiaoe?? eaa?oeo a eaa?oeaaeo oa?ao oiieinioaanoeo cae?cenoeo
eaa?oeeo?a. Ia?aaeaa/a?oueny, ui ?ico??neoaaiiy eaa?oeo ooo iia’ycaia c
?icaeoeii cai?ioiueiai i’?ciaoaeoo, ui aeieea? ca ?aooiie ae??
aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a, ye? aaia?othoueny ?iceiiaie i?oiaiiaeueii? nenoaie.
Ia noaae?? a?ia?aaiaco aeaeo?e/i? iiey ni?eythoue ?icaeoeo aaeueaai?/ieo
nenoai «iaaiaoeoia? ?oaee-aeaeo?ie?o», a yeeo a?aeaoaa?oueny inoaoi/ia
oi?io-aaiiy aaaaoeo cae?cieo ?oae.

Aaaaea?oueny, ui an? iaaaaeai? aeua iniaeeaino? iaoaii?o?cio COAe, ye?
aeieeee i?ae ae??th aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a, iiaeooue aooe aeanoea? ia o?eueee
cae?ci?oaeiei ?iaeiaeuai. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy c
iaoanoaa?eueiiai ?inoo ae?aiaio?a o oa?iiaeaeo?e/ieo iieyo iieacaee
aeoeaiee ?o aieea ia o?ceei-o?i?/i? i?ioeane a i?ia?aeiooai?thth/iio
na?aaeiaeu?, a ae?aiaio — oea i?ia?ae-ae?aeaeo?ee. Neioaoe/iei
ae?aiaioai, io?eiaiei oaeei caniaii, oa?aeoa?i? aeanoeaino? ?o
i?e?iaeieo aiaeia?a: aiie iathoue oeaio?aeueiee iie?e?enoae?/iee
ca?iaeie; na?oyoueny a oeueo?ao?ieaoiaeo i?iiaiyo aeaeeoiei, aeiaoei,
aeiaoiaa?y/ei na?oeii; ?i aeanoea? aiiiaeueii aenie? cia/aiiy
ni?aa?aeiioaiue ?cioii?a aoaeaoeth uiaei a?ao?oo, ye aeaea?aea
aoaeaoeth. Ia iiaea ia aeeeeeaoe ?ioa?ano aea/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae
?iciiae?eo i?aeaeuaiiai oo?eiaiiy cieioa, ieaoeii?ae?a o cae?cenoeo
eaa?oeeoao a ca’yceo c ae??th aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a.

Iiaee /eiiee iaoaii?o?cio COAe a?aee?eaa? aaeeeo iaeanoue aeey iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue. Cie?aia, iaiao?aeia i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a ii
aea/aiith noeoiiiai aieeao oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a ? aeaeo?e/ieo
iie?a ia a??nuee? ii?iaee ? ia i?aenoaa? oeueiai anoaiiaeaiiy iiaeo
oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo eiinoaio iaoaii?o?cio COAe.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe ? ua iaeei aaaeeeaee iane?aeie i?iaaaeaieo oai?aoe/ieo ?
aenia?e-iaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue — iaa?aaeiee i?aeo?ae aei
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? iaeaiiaai?oieo aeaieo. Iia’ycaia oea c oei, ui aeaeo?e/i?
no?oie iiaeooue aiineoe ?noioi? ci?ie a iai?yiee aaeoi??a ? cia/aiue
caeeoeiai? iaiaai?/aiino?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iaae?oeiaai? a
ianooiieo ?iaioao:

IAOEIA? NOAOO?, AeIIIA?Ae?, OACE AeIIIA?AeAE

I?eeineay I.A. ssaeaiey yeaeo?ecaoeee a ai?iuo ii?iaeao // Oeceea ai?iuo
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I?eeineay I.A. Aeeyiea aiaoieo aicaeaenoaee ia yeaeo?e/aneea naienoaa
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I?eeineay I.A. Oai?aoe/aneay iiaeaeue iaoaiecia aaia?aoeee yeaeo?e/aneeo
iieae i?e ?acaeoee iueaciyooaeoa a eaa?oeniaea?aeaueo ii?iaeao
//Oa?iiyeaeo?e/aneay ia?aaioea ieia?aeia e ai?iuo ii?iae. —
Aeiai?iiao?iane: ?EE IAA Oe?aeiu, 1999.- N. 10-20.

I?eeineay I.A. Eiiieaeniay ia?aaioea ieia?aeia e ai?iuo ii?iae oaieiauie
e yeaeo?e/aneeie iieyie // Oa?iiyeaeo?e/aneay ia?aaioea ieia?aeia e
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Oyieei E.O., Eaioi I.A. Nenoaiu ?aceiiia e caeiiiia?iinoe ?aciauaiey
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Eaioi I.A., AEaai?iieei A.E., Iae?eineay E.N. Nenoaiu ?aceiiia
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Aeeyiea oaiia?aoo?u e yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey ia yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoue ai?iuo
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I?eeineay I.A., Noiaan A.I. I nayce aeoaeiiuo ?aceiiia n
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I?eeineay I.A. Yeaeo?e/aneea iiey a i?ioeannao ?aaeiiaeueiiai
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I?eeineay I.A. I?e?iaea neiaa aiiiaeueii aunieie yeaeo?e/aneie
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-Aeiai?iiao?iane: ?EE IAA Oe?aeiu, 1999. — N.84-88.

I aiciiaeiinoe eiio?iey iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey
ii?iaeiiai ianneaa ii ?acoeueoaoai iaaethaeaiey AEYIIC a aa?oeeaeueiuo
ai?iuo au?aaioeao/ E.N.Aa-eue, I.A.I?eeineay, A.A.Niaieaa, A.I.Noiaan //
Na. iao/i. o?oaeia IAA Oe?aeiu ?6, o.1. — Aeiai?iiao?iane ?EE IAA
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I?eeineay I.A. Iiaia iai?aaeaiea a oai?ee iaoaii?oecia // Iaoe. A?ni.
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I?eeineay I.A. Aeoaeiiua ?aceiiu — yia?aaoe/aneea enoi/ieee a caiiie
ei?a //Na. iao/i. o?oaeia IAA Oe?aeiu ?2. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: ?EE IAA
Oe?aeiu, 1998. — N. 229-234.

Niaieaa A.A. I?eeineay I.A., *a?iae A.A. Oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue
aaia?aoeee yeaeo?e/aneeo eiioeuenia i?e aicieeiiaaiee iueyciyooaeoa a
ai?iuo ii?iaeao // Na. iao/i. o?oaeia IAA Oe?aeiu ?2. — Aeiai?iiao?iane:
?EE IAA Oe?aeiu, 1998. — N. 206-214.

I?eeineay I.A., Niaieaa A.A. Iiaue acaeyae ia oi?ie?iaaiea iiein/aoinoe
aeaeacenouo eaa?oeeoia // Na. iao/i. o?oaeia IAA Oe?aeiu ?3. —
Aeiai?iiao?iane: ?EE IAA Oe?aeiu, 1998. — N. 86-89.

I?eeineay I.A., Aauaiei A.A. I?e?iaea aicieeiiaaiey anoanoaaiiuo
yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo iieae a caiiie ei?a e eo aicaeaenoaea ia ieia?aeu e
ai?iua ii?iaeu // Iaoe. A?ni. IAA Oe?a?ie. — 1999. — ?4. –N. 57-59.

I?eeineay I.A. I ?iee yeaeo?e/aneeo iieae a i?ioeannao iaoaii?oecia
AEOAe // Aaieiai-ieia?ae. aanoi. E?eai?iae, oaoi. oi-oa. -1999. — ?3. –
N. 3-9.

Niaieaa A.A., I?eeineay I.A., *a?iae A.A. ssaeaiea nea/eiia?aciiai
oaaee/aiey yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoe ieia?aeia eeanna ea?aiiaoia i?e
aicaeaenoaee oaiia?aoo?u e yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey // Na. iao/i. o?oaeia IAA
Oe?aeiu ?2. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: ?EE IAA Oe?aeiu, 1998. — N.215-223.

I?eeineay I.A., Aeiaaie/ I.I., Aeoaeiiua ?aceiiu, iaeeiaiieeooaeiay
ia?ooaiiinoue oaieueiuo ieanoia e anoanoaaiiua yeaeo?iiaaieoiua iiey
Caiee // Na. iao/i. o?oaeia IAA Oe?aeiu ?2. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: ?EE IAA
Oe?aeiu, 1998. — N.224-228.

I?e?inueea I.A. Aei ieoaiiy a?ae?aoaoe?? ooiaeaiaioo iaeanoae ?icaeoeo
cae?cenoi-e?aiaienoeo oi?iaoe?e aeieaia??th Oe?a?inueeiai ueoa //
A?aeii. Aeaae. a??i. iaoe Oe?a?ie. -1997. -?4. -N.18-20.

I?e?inueea I.A. ?ieue ?iceii?a a ooai?aii? aaaaoeo cae?cieo ?oae
naenaaainueeiai oeio // A?aeii. Aeaae. a??i. iaoe Oe?a?ie. -1997. -?4.
-N.96-98.

Oa?aeoa? ci?ie aeaeo?e/iiai iii?o c?ace?a yoie i?e iaa??aaii? ? aieeaia?
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey / A.A.Niaie?a, I.A.I?e?inueea, A.A.*a?iae,
A.Ae.Oa?aao?a, TH.O.Oiiaiei // A?aeii. Aeaae. a??i. iaoe Oe?a?ie. –1997.
-?4. –N.24-25.

Niaie?a A.A., I?e?inueea I.A., Ianoa?aiei ?.A. No?eaeiiiae?aia ciaioaiiy
aeaeo?e/iiai iii?o c?ace?a neaea?eoo aiane?aeie aieeao oaiia?aoo?e oa
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey //A?aeii. Aeaae. a??i. iaoe Oe?a?ie. -1997. — ?4 — N.
25-27.

Ia?aaeaa/oaaiee iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy aeaeo?ii?ia?aeieo oac a a??nueeeo
ii?iaeao ? i?ia?aeao-ae?aeaeo?eeao / A.A.Niaie?a, A.A.*a?iae,
I.A.I?e?inueea, O.A.Ianoa?aiei // A?aeii. Aeaae. a??i. iaoe Oe?a?ie.
-1997. — ?4 — N.27-29.

Oyieei E.O., I?eeineay I.A. Nenoaiu ?aceiiia caiiie ei?u a ia?aciaaiee e
?aciauaiee aeaeacenoi-e?aiienouo oi?iaoeee Oe?aeineiai ueoa // Oac.
aeiee. Ananithci. nia. «Yiaeiaaiiua i?ioeannu a ciiao aeoaeiiuo
?aceiiia». — E?eoone: ECE Neae?neia ioae. AI NNN?. — 1989. — N.233-234.

I?eeineay I.A., Niaieaa A.A. Yeaeo?iiaaieoiue iaoaii?oeci a ieia?aeao //
Oac. aeiee. Iaaeaeoia?. eiio. «Caeiiiia?iinoe yaiethoeee caiiie ei?u» —
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a: N-I. ain. oi-o. — 1996. — N.280.

Niaieaa A.A., I?eeineay I.A., Oiiaiei TH.O. ssaeaiea aiiiaeueiiai
oaaee/aiey yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoe ia?acoeia yoiu // Oac. aeiee. Iaaeaeoia?.
eiio. «Caeiiiia?iinoe yaiethoeee caiiie ei?u» — Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a: N-I.
ain. oi-o. — 1996. — N.302.

I?e?inueea I.A., Niaie?a A.A, Oiiaiei TH.O. Aeaeo?io?i?/i? i?ioeane
i?ae /an ooai?aiiy aeieaia??enueeeo cae?cenoeo eaa?oeeo?a// Iaoa?.iaoe.
eiio. «I?iaeaie aaieia?/ii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?». — Euea?a: I?i?no. ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, Euea?an. aea?ae. oi-o. — 1995. — N. 80-81.

Niaie?a A.A., I?e?inueea I.A., Oiiaiei TH.O. I?i aieea iaoai?/ii?
aeoeaaoe?? oaa?aeeo o?e ia i?ioeane i?ia?aeiooai?aiiy // Iaoa?.iaoe.
eiio. «I?iaeaie aaieia?/ii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?». — Euea?a: I?i?no. ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, Euea?an. aea?ae. oi-o. — 1995. -N. 346-348.

I?e?inueea I.A. I?i iiaeeeao ?ieue aeaeo?io?i?/ieo i?ioean?a a
ooai?aii? aaaaoeo cae?cieo ?oae naenaaainueeiai oeio // Iaoa?.iaoe.
eiio. «I?iaeaie aaieia?/ii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?». — Euea?a: I?i?no. ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, Euea?an. aea?ae. oi-o. — 1995. — N.98-99.

I?eeineay I.A. Iiaue acaeyae ia oi?ie?iaaiea aeieaia?eeneeo aeaeacenouo
eaa?oeeoia // Aanoi. Ai?iiaae. oi-oa, na?. aaieiae/. -1999. — ?4. — A
ia/aoe.

I?eeineay I.A. Iiaeaeue ia?aciaaiey yeaeo?ii?iaiaeyueo oac a ai?iuo
ii?iaeao e ieia?aeao iiae aeeyieai oa?iiyeaeo?e/aneeo iieae // Iaoe.
A?ni. IAA Oe?a?ie. — 1999. — ?2. — A ia/aoe.

Niaieaa A.A. I?eeineay I.A., Aauaiei A.A. Iniaaiiinoe oa?aeoa?a
eciaiaiey yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoe neaea?eoa i?e eiiieaeniii aicaeaenoaee
oaiia?aoo?u e yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey // Ai?i. eioi?. — aiaeeo. atheeao.
IAO. — 1999. — A ia/aoe.

Niaie?a A.A., I?e?inueea I.A, Aauaiei A.A. ssaeua no?eaeiiiae?aiiai
ca?eueoaiiy aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? aeayeeo i?ia?ae?a (ia i?eeeaae?
neaea?eoo) i?e ae?? aeaeo?e/ieo oa oaieiaeo iie?a// A?ni. Aeui? oeiee —
1999. — A ia/aoe.

Niaieaa A.A., I?eeineay I.A., *a?iae A.A. Aeeyiea oaiia?aoo?u e
yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey ia ia?acoeu ieia?aeia e ai?iuo ii?iae. 2. Neaea?eo
//Ieia?ae. aeo?i. — 1999. — A ia/aoe.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a a ?iaioao, ui ioae?eoaaeeny o ni?aaaoi?noa?,
iieyaa? o ia-nooiiiio: (5,25) – anoaiiaeaiiy eieaeueieo i?inoi?iaeo
caeiiii??iinoae ?ici?uaiiy COAe oa aeeaeiieo ?iceii?a; (6,8,11) – ea?oe
nenoai ?iceii?a o oe?eiio aeey Aei?i?ianueei-Aeiiaoeueei? caiaaeeie ?
ie?aieo aoa?eueieo ?aeii?a Aeiiaano; ?ice?eooy aca?iica’yceo aeeaeiii?
oaeoii?ee ooiaeaiaioo oa /ioea, i?e?iaee aeaeo?iiaai?oieo iie?a o
ooiaeaiaio? oa /ioe?; (7,14-16,18-19,22-24,26-29) – aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ii aieeao oa?iiaeaeo?e/ieo iie?a ia i?ia?aee ? a??nuee?
ii?iaee, aaieia?/ia ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaio?a,
aaieia?/i? iiaeae?.

AIIOAOe??

I?e?inueea I.A. ?ieue aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a o oi?ioaaii? ?oaeieo ?iaeiaeu
(ia i?eeeaae? cae?ci?oaeieo oi?iaoe?e aeieaia??th). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a aaieia?/ieo iaoe ii
niaoe?aeueiino? 04.00.11 – “Aaieia?y iaoaeaaeo ? iaiaoaeaaeo ei?enieo
eiiaeei”. Iaoe?iiaeueia a??ie/a aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia anoaiiaeaiith ?ie? aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a ia ??cieo
aoaiao oi?-ioaaiiy cae?ci?oaeieo oi?iaoe?e aeieaia??th (COAe).
?ic?aooiee iieacaee, ui i?ae /an ?icaeoeo i’?ciaoaeoo o eaa?oeai?uoth/eo
a??nueeeo ii?iaeao aeieeathoue aeaeo?e/i? iiey, caeaoi? ?i?oe?th-aaoe
o?ceei-o?i?/i? i?ioeane. A ?acoeueoao? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
ii oa?iiaeaeo?e/-i?e ia?iaoe? i?ia?ae?a ? a??nueeeo ii??ae a?aee?eoa
iaa?aeiia ?ai?oa yaeua no?eaeiiiae?aiiai ?inoo aeaeo?e/ii? i?ia?aeiino?,
iia’ycaia c oi?ioaaiiyi iiaeo i?ia?aeueieo oac, ye? ooai-?ththoue
i?e?inioaano?noue, aiaeia?/io oaenoo?ai cae?cenoeo eaa?oeeo?a. Aeae?eaii
/aoaa?oee /eiiee iaoaii?o?cio COAe – aeaeo?e/i? iiey e ?ice?eoa ?o ?ieue
o oi?ioaaii? ?iaeiaeu COAe ia Oe?a?inueeiio ueo?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: cae?ci?oaei? oi?iaoe?? aeieaia??th, aeeaeii? ?iceiie,
aeaeo?e/i? iiey, iaoaii?o?ci.

Orlinskaja O.V. Role of the electrical fields in the formation of ore
deposits (on example of ferro-mineral formations of Precambrian). —
Manuscript.

Dissertation for the degree of doctor of geological sciences on
speciality 04.00.11-«Geology of metal and non metal useful fossils».
National mining Academy of Ukraine. Dnipropetrovsk, 1999.

Dissertation is devoted to determination . Of part electrical fields on
different stages of formations of ferro-mineral formations of
Precambrian. Calculations showed that under develop-ment of piezoeffect
in quarter-contents mountain races electrical fields airside that able
to initia-lize physical-chemical processes.

As a result of experimental researching of thermo-electrical of minerals
and mountain races phenomenon of boundance increase electrical
conduction unknown before was inrented.

This phenomenon is connected with formation of new mineral phases that
formed mickrostripeness that analogous to structures of ferruginous
quartzite. The fourth factor of metamorphism of ferro-metal formation of
electrical field was ginned out and it was showed their role at
formation fields of ferro-mineral fields on Ukrainian shield.

Key words: ferro-metal formation of Precambrian, deep breaks, electrical
fields, meta-morphism.

I?eeineay I.A. ?ieue yeaeo?e/aneeo iieae a oi?ie?iaaiee ?oaeiuo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee (ia i?eia?a aeaeaci?oaeiuo oi?iaoeee aeieaia?ey). –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a aaieiae/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 04.00.11 – “Aaieiaey iaoaeee/aneeo e iaiaoaeee/aneeo
iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo”. Iaoeeiiaeueiay ai?iay aeaaeaiey Oe?aeiu.
Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia onoaiiaeaieth ?iee yeaeo?e/aneeo iieae ia
?acee/iuo yoaiao ia?aciaaiey aeaeaci?oaeiuo oi?iaoeee aeieaia?ey
(AEOAe). A aeenna?oaoeee ia iniiaaiee oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneiai
iiaeaee?iaaiey i?iaaaeaiu ?an/aou o?iaiae yeaeo?e/aneeo iieae,
aicieeathueo a ?acoeueoaoa ?acaeoey iueaciyooaeoa a eaa?oeniaea?aeaueo
ii?iaeao i?e ia?aciaaiee eee aeoeaecaoeee aeoaeiiuo ?aceiiia.
Iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai yoiio neoaeao aiiiaeee anoanoaaiiuo yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo
iieae ia oaieueiuo ianoi?iaeaeaieyo Aeiiaanna, oeene?othueo ?ac?uaiua
ia?ooaiey a ea?aiia, eioi?ua i?ino?ainoaaiii niaiaaeatho n ciiaie
aeoaeiiuo ?aceiiia. A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiiiai eiiieaena
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee ii oa?iiyeaeo?e/aneie ia?aaioea
ieia?aeia e ai?iuo ii?iae (yoia, neaea?eo, neaea?eoieeo, aeaeacenoue
eaa?oeeo) onoaiiaeaii iiaia iaecaanoiia ?aiaa yaeaiea nea/eiia?aciiai
?inoa yeaeo?e/aneie i?iaiaeeiinoe, naycaiiia n oi?ie?iaaieai iiauo
ieia?aeueiuo oac, iaeaaeathueo yeaeo?iiiui oeiii i?iaiaeeiinoe. Iiaua
oacu ia?acothony i?e oaiia?aoo?ao ia 100-150 a?aaeonia ieaea, /ai a
?acoeueoaoa i?inoiai iaa?aaa. I?e yoii a ia?acoeao oi?ie?othony iiaua
oaenoo?ii-no?oeoo?iua iniaaiiinoe – iiein/aoinoue, aiaeiae/iay
iaaethaeaaiie a aeaeacenouo eaa?oeeoao. Ia iniiaaiee
eaaioiai-iaoaie/aneeo caeiiiia?iinoae i?aaeeiaeaia eeiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue
ia?aciaaiey ieia?aeueiuo oac. Niiinoaaeaiea ?acoeueoaoia yenia?eiaioia e
ecaanoiuo aaieiai-aaioece/aneeo iniaaiiinoae AEOAe iicaieeei
ii?aaeaeeoue ?ieue yeaeo?e/aneeo iieae ia yoaiao aeeaaaiaca, yieaaiaca,
iaoaii?oecia ianoi?iaeaeaiee aeaeacenouo eaa?oeeoia e a oi?ie?iaaiee
caeaaeae aiaaouo aeaeaciuo ?oae naenaaaineiai e ia?aiiaeneiai oeiia.
Iainiiaai /aoaa?oue oaeoi? iaoaii?oecia AEOAe – yeaeo?e/aneea iiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeaeaci?oaeiua oi?iaoeee aeieaia?ey, aeoaeiiua ?aceiiu,
yeaeo?e/aneea iiey, iaoaii?oeci.

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