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IIIINOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE

A?iieoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao

?i. I.?. Ie?iaiaa

OAeE: 618.5-089.888.61-002.3-085.849.19/615.9.034.8]-084

IE*EE AIAe??E C?IIA?EIAE*

?IEUe AeAOIENEEAOe?? OA EACA?IOA?AI?? A EIIIEAENI?E I?IO?EAEOEOe?
AI?EII-CAIAEUeIEO ONEEAAeIAIUe EANA?NUeEIAI ?ICOEIO O II?IAe?EUe A?OIE
?ECEEO

14.01.01 – aeooa?noai ? a?iaeieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

A?iieoey – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?iii?euenuee?e aea?aeaai?e iaaee/i?e aeaaeai??

?i. ?.ss. Ai?aa/aanueeiai IIC Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oi?eue Noaoai
Aieiaeeie?iae/, Oa?iii?euenueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y ?i. ?.ss.
Ai?aa/aanueeiai IIC Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeooa?noaa oa
a?iaeieia?? iaaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

– aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iaci?/oe Ai?en Oaaei?iae/,
A?iieoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.?. Ie?iaiaa IIC
Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia?? ?1;

– aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ia?e?i Eaii?ae Ai?eniae/,
Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Aeaieea Aaeeoeueeiai
IIC Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia??.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo iaae?ao???, aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia?? AII
Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?eaiiy iaoieia?? aaa?oieo oa iieia?a, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “_30” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?ieo i 12 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 05.600.01 i?e A?iieoeueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. I.?. Ie?iaiaa IIC Oe?a?ie ca
aae?anith: 21000, Oe?a?ia, i. A?iieoey, aoe. Ie?iaiaa, 56.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? A?iieoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.?. Ie?iaiaa (21000, Oe?a?ia,
i. A?iieoey, aoe. Ie?iaiaa, 56).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “19” aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 05.600.01
Iieeaeueei I.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Anooi. Ca aeaieie ca?oa?aeii? noaoenoeee /anoioa iia?aoe??
eana?nueeiai ?icoeio (IE?) c?inea a on?o e?a?iao na?oo. O NOA oa Eaiaae?
ca inoaii? ?iee a?aenioie aeiaaee?a aaaeii?iaeueiiai ?iaei?ic??oaiiy
ca?eueoeany a i’youe ?ac?a (c 5 aei 25 %), a, neaaeiii, a A?aceei? oa
Eoa? eiaei? o?ao? iieiae cae?i/othoueny IE? (Cox S., Gilstrap ?., 1989;
Peterson C., Medchill M., Cordon D., 1996; Evaldson G.R., 1995). O
e?a?iao Cao?aeii? ?a?iie oeae iieaciee noaiiaeoue 16-18 %, a Oe?a?i?
ca aeaieie noaoenoe/ieo ca?o?a I?i?noa?noaa ioi?iie caei?ia’y – 8 %
(Aaioeeianeee A., 1998; Cieuenueeee N.ss., A?oaiiiia A.N., 1998).
Iaeiae, iaeii/anii ci caieueoaiiyi /anoioe IE? caaino?eeeny ieoaiiy,
iia’ycai? c iiaeaeuaiiyi aaciaee aeey ii?iaeieue (Oainoee I.I., Iaci?/oe
A.O., AEo/aiei I.A., 1998). Ianaiia?aae aeeeeeathoue na?eicia
caiaiiei?iiy ai?eii-caiaeuei? oneeaaeiaiiy (ACO) iineyiia?aoeieiiai
ia?iiaeo. Ca ?nioth/eie aeaieie a?ae 6-11 % aei 25-30 % iia?aoeaieo
iieia?a noi?iaiaeaeothoueny ACO, a o a?oii iaoei?ioie c aenieei
iioaeoeieiei ?eceeii oeae iieaciee iiaea aeinyaiooe 60 – 80 % (Ea?eiia
A.E., Oiaeaeaaaa N.O., 1991; Hamadeh G., Dedmon C., Mozley P.D., 1995;
Hsu C.D., Witter F.R., 1995). Ca iia?aeiieaiiyi A.I. Ieeiiiaa (1991) ia
aeieth IE? i?eiaaea? 80 % an?o ?ioaeoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue a aeooa?nuee?e
i?aeoeoe?. Aiie caeeoathoueny iaeii?th c iniiaieo i?e/ei iaoa?einueei?
nia?oiinoi oa ?iaae?aeecaoe?? iieiaeeo ae?iie (Aieaea I.A., 1998). E??i
oiai, iio??aii a?aoiaoaaoe a?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe eieae?ciaaieo oa
aaia?ae?ciaaieo oi?i ACO i?ney IE?, eio?? nooo?ai aieeaathoue ia
i?aoeacaeaoi?noue ae?iie ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai a?eo (aeniaaeeeaee a?eue,
?iceaaee iaino?oaeueiiai oeeeeo, cieaeaiiy naenoaeueii? ooieoe??,
iie?aea?a?y, aaaaoiiaa?ioe/i? ii?ooaiiy, inoaiii?ic oiui) (Aaeiae/aiei
TH.I. ? ni?aaao., 1996).

Iniaeeai? aino?ioe i?iaeaia ACO ioa?ia??th iaaoaa? oaia?, eiee iioiia
?aaeoeai?noue ii?iaeieue cieaeaia, a oe?iea e, ia?iaeei, ia?aoeiiiaeueia
aeei?enoaiy aioeaiioeeia i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeieeiaiiy ?acenoaioieo
ainiioaeueieo ooaiia iie?ii?aaiiciia i ii?ooaiiy ii?iaeueiiai aiioeaiico
a aeiiie o iiney?iaeiaiio ia?iiaei. E??i oiai iio??aii caoaaaeeoe, ui
c?inea /anoea iaoe??ioie, ye? o?aaeeoe?eii iaeaaeaoue aei a?oie ?eceeo
uiaei aeieeiaiiy ACO (Litta P., 1995; Ia?e?i E.A., Ie?iaiaa A.?.,
Oea/aiei N.E., 1996; Aiaeeaanueea I.A., Eai?inueeee A.A., AEoe N.?.,
1998; I?ioeaiei I.I., Iaci?/oe A.O., 1999).

Ioaea, aeniea /anoioa ACO eana?nueeiai ?icoeio, aaeeeee a?aenioie ?o
eaoaeueieo aene?ae?a, iaaeinoaoiy aoaeoeai?noue a?eueoino?
cai?iiiiiaaieo i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a coiiaeththoue iino?eio
caoe?eaaeai?noue iaoeiaoe?a oe??th i?iaeaiith. Caaaeath/e ia ?? aaeeeo
iaaee/io oa nioe?aeueio cia/ou?noue, aiia iaaoaa? aea?aeaaii? aaae.

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Na?aae iniiaieo iai?yie?a i?io?eaeoeee
?ioaeoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue eana?nueeiai ?icoeio ?ioiio?iiia oa?ai?y
iaa?oioiaaii caeia? iaeia c iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?noeue. ?? e?ioeaaith
iaoith ? iiaeoethaaiiy aaeaeaaoieo ?ioiieo ?aaeoe?e o a?aeiia?aeue ia
?ioaeoe?eio aa?an?th. Iaeiae ia??aeei i/?eoaai? ?acoeueoaoe ??ciyoueny c
?aaeueieie. I/aaeaeii i?e/eiith oeueiai ? ?yae iaeaea iaae??oaieo
ieoaiue.

Ianaiia?aae, ia anoaiiaeai? e?ioeaa? ia’?eoeai? e?eoa??? ?ioiiao?o/aiiy.
Iaia? ?aeiino? oao?aoe?a o iiaeyaeao ia iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aei
aeai?o ?ioiio?iiiiai na?aaeieea. E??i oiai, a i?aeoe/i?e iaaeeoeei?
?niothoue o?oaeiiu? c i?iaaaeaiiyi ?ioiiiai eiio?ieth aoaeoeaiino?
oa?ai??.

A?aeoae, oea na?ae/eoue i?i aeooaeuei?noue ?ic?iaee aeueoa?iaoeaiiai
iai?yieo ?ioiiiai ao?o/aiiy – aeno?a?ioiii? oa?ai??. Aiia, c iaeiiai
aieo, ia?aaeaa/a? canoinoaaiiy eiiieaeno caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia
onoiaiiy i?e/ei ?ioiiaeao?oeeoo oeyoii ei?aeoe?? i?e?iioi/aiiy
?ioiieiiiaoaioieo ee?oei, c ?ioiai – ei?aeoe?th ?io?aoeaethey?iiai
aiiainoaco. O oeueiio eiioaeno? iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei aa/eoueny
iaeo?ae?caoe?y aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe?? (A?) ye aeiaie? aaaiiiai
?ioiiaeai?aneaiiai /eiieea.

Ae??oaiiy oeueiai caaaeaiiy iia’ycothoue ?c canoinoaaiiyi
?io?aei?ii?aeueii? aeaoieneeaoe?? oa aia?a?? iioe/iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy.
Inoaiiy aaea caeiaoea nai? aeciaiiy ? ana oe?oa aeei?enoiao?oueny o
i?aeoe/i?e iaaeeoeei? (Oieeue N.A., O?ai/oe A.TH., Ieoaeeaiei A. O. e
ae?., 1993, Oi?eue N.A., 1994, Ia?e?i E.A., Oaoiaa I.A., Eoieiaoeue
I.A., 1998). Iiaeeeaino? ?io?aei?ii?aeueii? aeaoieneeaoe?? ii?aoeueiaai?
a ee?i?oe? iiaa?oiaai. Oea coiiaeaii oei, ui ua ia aeinoaoiuei aea/aia
oa?iaeieia?y aioa?ini?aaio?a (AN), ye ? ia ?ic?iaeaia a iiai?e i???
e?eoaaeueia oaeoeea iaeo?ae?caoe?? aiaeioieneeico. Ia?oi/a?aia?e
iaoeia?e ?ic?iaoe? iiaeii? i?aeeyaaoe ieoaiiy aieeao aioa?ini?aaio?a ia
?ioiiee aiiainoac, aca?iiae?y ?o c ?ioeie ?ioiio?iiieie na?aaeieeaie,
iiaeeeaino? iioaioe?thaaiiy ?o ae??.

O i?aeoe/i?e iaaeeoeei? a?aenooi?e /?oeee eaai?aoi?iee eiio?ieue
aoaeoeaiino? aeaoieneeaoe??. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aai aei iaaeinoaoiueiai
“i/euaiiy” i?aai?cio, ui ?iaeoue iaaoaeoeaieie aaeeaai? caoiaee, aai ae,
iaaiaee, iaaei??ia aoa?aioia oa?ai?y noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ii?ooaiiyi
?iiiiai aaeaino oa ?ioeie ?iceaaeaie aiiainoaco. Ia’?eoeai? e?eoa???
aea?aaeaioiino? aeaoieneeaoe?eii? oa?ai?? o ii?iae?eue a?oie ?eceeo, ui
ia?aianee IE?, aeioaia? ia anoaiiaeai? ?, a?aeiia?aeii, ia
aeei?enoiaothoueny. Caeeoathoueny iaeaea ia aea/aieie ?ioiiiiaeoethth/?
aniaeoe ae?? aeaoieneeaoe?eieo caoiae?a o ii?iae?eue, ui ia?aianee IE?.

Aioa?ini?aoe?y oa eaca?ioa?ai?y iathoue ??ci? oeyoe ?aae?caoe??
?ioiiiiaeoethth/iai aieeao, ui oaae aeicaiey? i?iaiicoaaoe iineeaiiy
?ioiio?iiii? ae?? i?e ?o ii?aeiaiiio canoinoaaii?. I?ioa ?noeii?noue
oeueiai i?eiouaiiy o ii?iae?eue a?oie ?eceeo, eio?? ia?aianee IE? a
ee?i?/ieo oiiaao ua ia aea/aeany.

Ia iniia? oeueiai, anoaiiaeaii iio?aao eiiieaeniiai aea/aiiy ci?i
?ioiiiai noaoono ii?iae?eue caeaaeii a?ae aeeaeie A? aeey
aeaoaeuei?oiai iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaiai i?aeoiaeo aei i?io?eaeoeee ACO
eana?nueeiai ?icoeio ?c canoinoaaiiyi aioa?ini?aoe?? oa eaca?ioa?ai??.

A?aoiaoth/e aeooaeueiinoue i?iaeaie, ?? i?aeoe/io, iaoeiao i nioeiaeueio
aaaii?noue, o oe?e ?iaioi iinoaaeaia iaoa: i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue
iaoiaaiaoe/ieo i?ia?ai caiia?aaiiy ai?eii-caiaeueieo oneeaaeiaiue
eana?nueeiai ?icoeio o ii?iae?eue a?oie ?eceeo oeyoii ei?aeoe?? ?ioiii?
?acenoaioiino? no/anieie iaoiaeaie oa?ai?? – aioa?ini?aoe??th oa
eaca?iei ii?ii?iaiiyi.

O ca’yceo c oeei aoee iinoaaeaii oaei caaaeaiiy:

1. O ii?iaeieue a?oie ?eceeo, ye? ia?aianee IE?, aeine?aeeoe ciiie
iioiiiai noaoono, a?iioaoe/ii iia’ycai? c aiaeiaaiiith ?ioieneeaoe??th.

2. Aea/eoe ee?i?/io, ?ioiieia?/io oa aeaoieneeaoe?eio aoaeoeai?noue
canoinoaaiiy aioa?ini?aoe?? a eiiieaeniie i?ioieaeoeoei ACO
eana?nueeiai ?icoeio o ii?iaeieue a?oie ?eceeo.

3. Aeyaeoe aieea eaca?ioa?ai?? ia iieacieee ?ioi?oaoo oa aiaeiaaiii?
?ioieneeaoe?? o ii?iae?eue a?oie ?eceeo.

4. Aea/eoe aeioeieueiinoue eiiaiiiaaiiai canoinoaaiiy aioa?ini?aoe?? oa
eaca?ioa?aii? c iaoith caiia?aaiiy ACO o ii?iaeieue a?oie ?eceeo.

5. ?ic?iaeoe i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiae?a
ianoaaeaiiy ii?iae?eue oa i?io?eaeoeee ACO eana?nueeiai ?icoeio.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? o?aaiaioii ieaiiai? iaoeiai? ?iaioe eaoaae?e aeooa?noaa
oa a?iaeieia?? Oa?iii?euenueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? ?i.
?.ss. Ai?aa/aanueeiai “Canoinoaaiiy aioa?ini?aaio?a, ?ioiiiiaeoeyoi??a
oa aaiaoii?ioaeoi??a o aeooa?noa?, a?iaeieia?? oa aiaeie?eii?e
o??o?a??”.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe. O aeena?oaoei? ?aae?ciaaiee ia i?aeoeoe? iiaee
iaoiaeieiai/iee iiaeo?ae aei i?iaeaie iiaeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiinoi
i?ioieaeoeee ACO eana?nueeiai ?icoeio o ii?iaeieue a?oie ?eceeo, yeee
aaco?oueny ia eiia?iiaaiiio canoinoaaii? ?ioiio?iiieo cania?a ??cii?
ni?yiiaaiino?.

Aia?oa:

– ia iiaenoaai aiaeico eioa?aoo?ieo iiaiaeiieaiue oa aeaniiai aeinaiaeo
(o ni?aaaoi?noa?) nenoaiaoeciaaii iiai iaoiaee aeiaaiinoeee AI, yei
aeeeaaeaii a iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoeiyo “Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy
aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe?? i?aai?cio”;

– o ii?iaeieue, ui ia?aianee IE?, o aeeiaiioei i?ney?iaeiaiai ia??iaeo
i?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia aeineiaeaeaiiy iieacieeia AI. Oea aeaei ciiao
aeyaeoe o iaoe??ioie c oaeoi?aie ?eceeo iaaeinoaoith ni?iiiaeiinoue
aeaoieneeaoe?eieo nenoai i?aaiicio;

– o i?iiia?iaaieo ii?iaeieue c a?oie ?eceeo aea/aii caeaaei?noue
iioiii? aiaeiiaiaei i?aaiicio aiae aeeaeie aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe??;

– cai?iiiiiaaii i?iaiicoaaoe ACO eana?nueeiai ?icoeio ca iieacieeaie
aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe?? a iaeaeeae/iio i?neyiia?aoeieiiio ia?iiaei;

– aeey ii?iae?eue c a?oie ?eceeo canoiniaaii iiaeai? aioa?ini?aaioia in
vitro;

– ?ic?iaeaiee i iaoiaaiaoe/ii iaa?oioiaaiee eiiieaenieie
aeineiaeaeaiiyie aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe?? oa iioiiiai noaoono
aoaeoeaiee iaoiae i?ioieaeoeee ACO eana?nueeiai ?icoeio o ii?iaeieue c
a?oie ?eceeo, a yeiio ii?yae ?c o?aaeeoe?eiith oa?aii?th canoiniaaii
aioa?ini?aoeith o ii?aeiaiii c eaca?iei ii?ii?iaiiyi ia?aaeiuei?
/a?aaii? no?iee. O ni?aaaoi?noa? c Oi?eai N.A. caiaoaioiaaii aeiao?ae
“Niin?a i?io?eaeoeee ai?eii-caiaeueieo oneeaaeiaiue eana?nueeiai
?icoeio” (cayaea ? 99042451 a?ae 29.04.1999 ?., iiceoeaia ??oaiiy a?ae
11.06.1999 ?.);

– anoaiiaeaii, ui aeinoaoiy aeaoieneeaoeieia oa?aiiy aioa?ini?aaioii
“Ea?aia?o” iioaioeith? ?ioiiiiaeoethth/o aeith eaca?a o ii?iaeieue c
oaeoi?aie ?eceeo aeieeiaiiy ACO eana?nueeiai ?icoeio.

?yae noi?ioeueiaaieo o ?iaio? eiioeaioe?e iiaea ?icoe?ithaaoeny ye
oai?aoe/ia iniiaa aeey iiaoaeiae aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo i?ia?ai i?io?eaeoeee
oa e?eoaaiiy ACO eana?nueeiai ?icoeio. Iien iaoieia?/ieo yaeu o
aeeiai?oe? ioa?ia??th iaa?oioiao? aeioe?euei?noue iiaeaeueoi? iaoeiai?
?ic?iaee iaaeeeaiaioicii? ei?aeoe?? ii?ooaiue aiiainoaco o ii?iae?eue
a?oie ?eceeo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe aecia/a?oueny ?ic?iaeith oaeineiiaeaii?
i?ia?aie ae?aaiinoeee ACO eana?nueeiai ?icoeio, eeth/iaei iiiaioii yei?
? ioe?iea A? ye ?ioiioiene/iiai /eiieea.

I?inoioa e ?ioi?iaoeai?noue cai?iiiiiaaii? ae?aaiinoe/ii? i?ia?aie
?iaeyoue ?? i?eaeaoiith aeey canoinoaaiiy ia on?o ??aiyo iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae (iiia?ia ?aeiiia e?ea?iy, oeaio?aeueia ?aeiiia e?ea?iy,
niaoe?ae?ciaaiee noaoe?iia?).

Aeaeaii ocaiaeaeai? c IIC Oe?a?ie iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? “Iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe?? i?aai?cio”, ye? ?ic?neai? ia
aae?ane oi?aae?iue ioi?iie caei?ia’y iaeaea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe?e oa
iaeanieo iaaee/ieo a?ae?ioae an?o iaeanoae Oe?a?ie, aeueo iaaee/ieo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, i?io?eueieo e?eoaaeueieo caeeaae?a oa i?ia?aeieo
oao?aoe?a.

A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeaii ia’?eoeai? e?eoa???
aea?aaeaioiino? aeaoieneeaoe?eii? oa?ai?? o i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae?
c iaoith i?io?eaeoeee ACO o ii?iae?eue c aenieei ?ioaeoe?eiei ?eceeii.

?ic?iaeai? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei canoinoaaiiy eiiieaenii?
i?io?eaeoeee ACO eana?nueeiai ?icoeio o ii?iae?eue a?oie ?eceeo, yea
ie??i aacenii? oa?ai?? aeeth/a? aioa?ini?aoe?th oa ii?ii?iaiiy eaca?ii
ia?aaeiuei? /a?aaii? no?iee. Canoinoaaiiy oaei? i?io?eaeoe/ii? i?ia?aie
aoaeoeaii caiia?aa? ?icaeoeo ?ioaeoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue ioa?ia??th o
oe??? eaoaai??? iaoe??ioie.

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ai?iaaaeaeaii a
e?eoaaeueii-ae?aaiinoe/iee i?ioean aeooa?nueeeo noaoe?iia??a
I?aeaiei/enueei? oeaio?aeueii? ?aeiiii? e?ea?i? (Oa?iii?euenueea
iaeanoue), i?nueeiai iieiaiaiai aoaeeieo (i. ?aaii-O?aie?anuee),
iaeaniiai ee?i?/iiai iieiaiaiai aoaeeieo (i.
Oiaeueieoeueeee).

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. On? aoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi? cae?eniea
naiino?eii, aeeth/ath/e ieaioaaiiy, iae?e, noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo oeeo?iaeo
aeaieo, aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaieo ee?i?/ieo
niinoa?aaeaiue, ?ic?iaeo iniiaieo iieiaeaiue oa aeniiae?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ye?
aeeth/ai? aei aeena?oaoe??, ii?eethaeiaii ia I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??
“Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ii?oieia??” (Oa?iii?eue, 1996), ? I?aeia?iaeiiio
eiia?an? nooaeaio?a oa iieiaeeo a/aieo (Oa?iii?eue, 1997), can?aeaii?
iaeanii? anioe?aoe?? aeooa??a-a?iaeieia?a Oa?iii?euenueei? iaeano?
(1998), ni?eueiiio can?aeaii? eaoaae? aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia??
iaaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo oa oaeoeueoaoo i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe,
oaeoeueoaonueei? o??o?a??, oaeoeueoaonueei? oa?ai??, oieoaeueii? oa?ai??
?1, oa?ai?? oaeoeueoaoo i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe, iaae?ao??? oaeoeueoaoo
i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe, ii?iaeueii? o?c?ieia?? Oa?iii?euenueei?
aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? ?i. ?.ss. Ai?aa/aanueeiai (Oa?iii?eue,
1999).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iioae?eiaai? a iaoeiaeo
aeo?iaeao – 5 noaoae, o iaoa??aeao iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e – 5, o
iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo “Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy aiaeiaaiii?
?ioieneeaoe?? i?aai?cio”.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 6
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e, yeee aeeth/a?
222 aeaea?aea. Aeeeaaeaia ia 178 noi??ieao eiii’thoa?iiai oaenoo, ?c ieo
146 noi??iie caeiathoue oaenoia? iia?aeiieaiiy, 7 – ?ethno?aoe??, 25 –
nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

?icae?e ia?oee – “Ei?aeoe?y ?iceaae?a ?ioi?oaoo ? aioeoiene/ii?
?acenoaioiino? i?aai?cio a ?aiiueiio i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? i?ney
eana?nueeiai ?icoeio” – i?enay/aiee oai?aoe/iiio aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo
iia?aeiieaiue c oaie aeena?oaoe??.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ney?iaeiaee ia??iae noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ?icaeoeii
o?aiceoi?iiai ?ioiiaeao?oeeoiiai noaio. Ia oe? iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy
?iceaaee ?ioiiiai aiiainoaco iiaeeaeththoueny ? iio?aaothoue
iaaeeeaiaioicii? ei?aeoe??.

?iceaaee iaoaaie?cio, i?eoaiaii? iinoiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iaeo, ye i?aaeei,
ni?e/eiythoue ?icaeoie aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe??. A?eueo?noue aaoi??a
noeeythoueny aei aeoiee, ui aaeioieneie ? iiooaeiei ?ioiinoi?aneaiei
oaeoi?ii. Aea/aiiy nooiaiy caeaaeiino? ii?ooaiue ?ioi?oaoo a?ae aeeaeie
A? iiaea noai?eoe iniiao aeey ?ic?iaee oaeoeee ea?iaaiiai i?aeaeuaiiy
?ioiii? ?acenoaioiino? oeyoii iiaeoeyoe?? oaeoi??a aeaoieneeaoe?? oa
aioeoiene/iiai caoenoo ee?oei.

Niaoe?aeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie onoiaiiy iinoiia?aoe?eii?
?ioiinoi?an?? aeicaieeee aeie?aieoe o i?e ia?niaeoeai? eiiiiiaioe
oa?ai??: aioa?ini?aoe?th oa eaca?ia aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Aioa?ini?aaioe
ae?i?iothoue niieoee c ?ioiinoi?aneaiei aieeaii. Eaca?ia aei?ii?ithaaiiy
ni?ey? ei?aeoe?? ?io?aoeaethey?iiai aiiainoaco. Ii?aeiaia canoinoaaiiy
aioa?ini?aoe?? oa eaca?ioa?ai?? aeicaiey? i?iaiicoaaoe iineeaiiy
?ioiio?iiiiai aieeao. I?ioa, ?aaeuei?noue oeueiai i?eiouaiiy a oiiaao
ee?i?ee noiniaii ii?iae?eue c oaeoi?aie ?eceeo, ui ia?aianee IE? ia
aea/aeany.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e, aeyaea iio?aao eiiieaeniiai aea/aiiy ci?i
?ioiiiai noaoono ii?iae?eue caeaaeii a?ae aeeaeie aiaeiaaiii?
?ioieneeaoe?? aeey iaoiaaiaoe/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaiai i?aeoiaeo aei
i?io?eaeoeee ACO eana?nueeiai ?icoeio ?c canoinoaaiiyi aioa?ini?aoe?? oa
eaca?ioa?ai??.

?icae?e ae?oaee – “Iaoa??aee ? iaoiaee i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue” –
i?enay/aiee iieno iaoiae?a oa i?aai?caoe?? aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

E??i caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo, ianoaaeaiiy ioiieei niaoe?aeuei? iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy A? oa ?ioiiiai noaoono. Aeey aecia/aiiy ??aiy A?
aeei?enoaee ae?aaiinoe/i? oanoia? ?aaeoe??, ni?yiiaai? ia aeyaeaiiy ye
?iaiy aiaeioienaii? (nia?iaoici?aeiee oano (NO) (A?aoiye A.A., Aao
I.Ae., ?iiaithe A.I., 1993), eiioeaio?aoe?y na?aaeiuei-iieaeoey?ieo
iaioeae?a (NII) (Aaa?eyeyi I.E., Eeiaoiaa A.E., 1984), eiao?oe?aio E –
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy o?aeoe?e (Ai?aeaaaa E.I., Eaaiiaa I.I., Nieiaueaaa A.E.
e ae?., 1986), oae ? aiaeioieneeico (noia?ia oiene/i?noue e?ia? oa
?ioa?noeoe?eii? ??aeeie (NOE) (Aao I.Ae., 1992), aioeoiene/ia
?acenoaioi?noue ee?oei e?ia? (A?EE) (Aao I.Ae., Aeai’yiaiei A.A.,
Aanenothe ?.?., 1993), eaeeioeeoa?iee ?iaeaen ?ioieneeaoe?? (E??)
(Eaeueo-Eaeeo ss.ss., 1947), aaiaoieia?/iee iieaciee ?ioieneeaoe?? (AI?)
(Aaneeueaa A.N., Eiia? A.E., 1983).

?ioiiee noaoon ioe?ithaaee ca aeayeeie iieacieeaie ee?oeiii? oa
aoii?aeueii? eaiie. C iaoith iiaeeeaoei? O- i A-eiioioeeoia
canoiniaoaaee iaoiae eiiaiiiaaiiai ?icaoeiooai?aiiy ca Mendes N.F. ?
ni?aaao. (1974). Noaiiioeyoeith aeoeaieo O-eiioioeeoia (Aaeo-?OE)
iiae?aoiaoaaee ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeo Smith ? ni?aaao. (1975).
Aecia/aiiy eieueeinoi oaioieiii?acenoaioieo i oaioieiii/ooeeaeo A-?OE
o ia?eoa?e/iie e?iai i?iaiaeeeiny ca iaoiaeii Limatibul S. et al.
(1978). Ae?aoiaoaaee oaioieiiiaee eiaoioei?io (niiaaiaeiioaiiy
oaioieii?acenoaioieo i oaioieii/ooeeaeo A-?OE). Eiaoioei?io
iioiinoeioethth/i? aei? oa eiao?oe??io ?ioiiiiaeoeyoe?? oa?ai??
ae?aoiaoaaee ca iaoiaeii Aiae?ae/eia I.A., ?uoe ?.N., Ainiiaea?nueeiai
?.ss. (1995). Eiioeaio?aoeith ne?iaaoeiaeo iioiiaeiaoeiiia eeania A, I
i G aecia/aee aiioiii/iei iaoiaeii ca Badin A., Ronsellet S. o
iiaeeoieaoei? Ea?nueeiai A.A. i E?aa/aiei I.I. (1971). ??aaiue
oee?eoethth/eo ?ioiieo eiiieaen?a (Oe?E) aeine?aeaeoaaee iaoiaeii
i?aoeei?oaoe?? a 10 % ?ic/ei? iie?aoeeaiae?eieth c iieaeoey?iith ianith
6 EAe (Ianyii?eiaa I.A., 1994).

Ianoaaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee ia 2, 5-6, 9-11 aeiae i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai
ia??iaeo.

Io?eiai? aeai? ii??aithaaee c ia?aiao?aie 32 ii?iae?eue,
i?neyiia?aoe?eiee ia??iae yeeo ia?aa?aaa aac oneeaaeiaiue.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?iaeaii iaoiaeii aa?iaoeieii? noaoenoeee
oeyoii ia/eneaiiy na?aaeiuei? a?eoiaoe/ii? (I) i ?? na?aaeiuei? iioeaee
(m) c o?aooaaiiyi /enea niinoa?aaeaiue. Ioeiiea aeinoiai?iinoi
cae?enithaaeany ca aeiiiiiaith e?eoa?iy Nouethaeaioa ca
iieacieeii ?. ??aaiue iaoi/iino? oa ??aaiue eiia??iino? iathoue
a?a?o?a?iee oa?aeoa?, oiio ie aecia/eee aeia??/? iaae? aeey ??aiy
iaoi/iino? 5 %, aeey ??aiy eiia??iino? ia iaioa 95 %.

C iaoith aeyaeaiiy iiaeeeai? caeaaeiinoi iiae io?eiaieie
iieacieeaie aecia/aee eiaoioei?io ei?aeyoei? (r). Noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea
oeeo?iaiai iaoa?iaeo aeeiioaaeany ca aeiiiiiaith i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai
iaoaiaoe/ieo aeaeo?iiieo oaaeeoeue c aeei?enoaiiyi eiii’thoa?a.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iiaeaii ee?i?/io oa?aeoa?enoeeo ianoaaeaieo
ii?iae?eue. Oi?ioaaiiy eiioeiaaioo ianoaaeaieo i?iaaaeaii iaoiaeii
naeaeoeaiiai iaai?o ii?iaeieue, ?ic?iaeaeaieo eana?nueeei ?icoeiii, ye?
iaee caaaeueiiaeciai? oaeoi?e ?eceeo aeieeiaiiy ioa?ia?aeueii?
?ioaeoe??: 1. I?ci?e aanoic. 2. Aiai?y aaa?oieo. 3. O?aaioiee oa?aeoa?
iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy. 4. O?eaaeee aacaiaeiee ia??iae. 5. Iayai?noue
aaeoa??aeueieo aiaieu ?ioaeoe??. 6. Caoyaei? iieiae, ye? ia?aaeoaaee
iia?aoe??. 7. III-IV nooi?iue /enoioe i?oae iaia?aaeiaei? iieia?a. 8.
Cia/ia e?euee?noue aaa?iaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue o iieiaao. 9.
Iaaeinoaoiuei a?aeiiaeaia iia?aoe?eia e?iaiao?aoa. 10. O?eaae?noue
iia?aoe?? a?eueoa 1 aiaeeie. 11. O?eaaea aei?iaeiaa aini?oae?caoe?y.
12. Caa?ica ia?a?eaaiiy aeaii? aaa?oiino?. 13. O??o?a?/ia e?eoaaiiy
?noi?ei-oea?a?eaeueii? iaaeinoaoiino?. 14. *ano? aai?oe (ieiia?euei?,
ooo/i?). 15. Iaee??iiy. 16. Aeno?aaai?oaeuei? caoai?thaaiiy (?aaiaoeci,
oeoe?iaee ae?aaao). 17. A?e aaa?oieo iaioa 20 ?ie?a.

I?iaiinoe/ii aenieee nooi?iue ?eceeo aeieeiaiiy ioa?ia?aeueii? ?ioaeoe??
aoa e?eoa???i a?aeai?o aeey ?o ee?i?ei-eaai?aoi?iiai ianoaaeaiiy.

I?aenoioaaaoe iniiai? nea?ae oa ia’?eoeai? aeai?, aeyaeai? a
iaeaeeae/iio i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? o ii?iae?eue a?oie ?eceeo
aeieeiaiiy ACO eana?nueeiai ?icoeio, aeae?eeee o?e iniiai? ee?i?/i?
neiae?iie:

– neiae?ii ooieoe?iiaeueii? eeoeiai? iaaeinoaoiino?, ui i?iyaeyany
ao?aoith aiaoeoo, ioaeioith, noo?noth oa a??eioith a ?io?, i?eai?/aiiyi
ia?enoaeueoeee, acaeoooyi aeeaioa;

– neiae?ii aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe??, ui i?iyaeyany:

a) ooieoe?iiaeueieie ?iceaaeaie ia?aiai? ?aaoeyoe?? (a?eue aieiae,
niieea?noue, caaaeueia neaa?noue, caiaii?i/aiiy);

a) ?iceaaeaie oeaio?aeueiiai e?iaiia?ao, i?e?ioee?eoeyoe?? oa oeaieiiiai
iaoaaie?cio (ae?ioe?aiic, ae?ae?noue, ia?io?ia?noue oe??ieo iie?ea?a,
cieaeaiiy oo?ai?o oe??e, oeaiei i?aeoe??ii? iniiae, oao?ea?ae?y,
a?oa??aeueia a?ia?oaic?y, aneiao??y a?oa??aeueiiai oeneo, eieae?ciaai?
iaa?yee);

a) ii?ooaiiyi oa?ii?aaoeyoe?? (a?ia?oa?i?y);

a) aaiaoieia?/ieie c?ooaiiyie;

– aieueiaee neiae?ii, yeee i?iyaeyany aieai ii oiaeo i?neyiia?aoe?eii?
?aie, aieth/?noth i?e iaeueiaoe?? oe??? ae?eyiee.

On?o 122 ae?iie iiae?eeee ia /ioe?e a?oie ca iaoiaeii ?aiaeii?caoe??.
I?aaenoaaieee eiaeii? c a?oi io?eioaaee aacenio oa?ai?th, /e ia ?? oe?
canoiniaoaaee ia?i?aeueiee i?eeii ni?aaioo, eaca?ia ii?ii?iaiiy
i?neyiia?aoe?eii? ?aie aai ?o ii?aeiaiiy.

I?eaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe ee?i?/iiai aiae?co e?ia?, na/? oa i?ioa?iai?? a
iaoe??ioie an? /ioe?ueio a?oi na?ae/eee i?i iaaio iaeii??aei?noue ?o
neeaaeo. Oea aeicaieeei i?iaanoe eeiiiei-eaai?aoi?ia ii?iaiyiiy
aoaeoeaiinoi ?icieo iaoiaeia i?ioieaeoeee ACO eana?nueeiai ?icoeio o
oe??? eaoaai??? ae?iie.

?icae?e /aoaa?oee – “Ci?ie iieaciee?a ?ioi?oaoo oa aioeoiene/ii?
?acenoaioiino? o i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? eiio?ieueii? a?oie
ii?iae?eue” – i?noeoue i?ae?icae?ee: “??aaiue aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe??
oa iieacieee ?ioi?oaoo a iaeaeeae/iio i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? o
ii?iae?eue a?oie ?eceeo aeieeiaiiy ACO eana?nueeiai ?icoeio”,
“Aeeiai?ea iieaciee?a aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe?? oa ?ioi?oaoo ia 5-6
aeiao i?ney IE? o ii?iae?eue a?oie ?eceeo aeieeiaiiy ACO”, “??aaiue
aiaeiaaiii? ?ioieneeaoe?? oa ?ioiiee noaoon o ii?iae?eue a?oie ?eceeo
aeieeiaiiy ACO ia 9-11 aeiao i?ney IE?”.

Iiaeaii iiiia?aie iieaciee?a A? (oaae. 1) oa ?ioiiiai noaoono aeey
ii?iae?eue Oa?iii?euenueei? noaiiioeyoe??, i?neyiia?aoe?eiee ia??iae
yeeo ia?aa?aaa aac oneeaaeiaiue.

Ca iaoeie aeaieie o ii?iae?eue a?oie ?eceeo aeieeiaiiy ACO,
?ic?iaeaeaieo eana?nueeei ?icoeiii i?neyiia?aoe?eiee ia??iae
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aiaeiaaiiith ?ioieneeaoe??th. ?? iaeneiaeueia
iai?oanoaoe?y i?eiaaea? ia 2 aeiao ioa?ia??th. Ii??aiyii c ii?iaeueieie
iieacieeaie, o ii?iae?eue a?oie ?eceeo a oeae oa?i?i ioa?ia??th
oiene/i?noue e?ia?, anoaiiaeaia ca nia?iaoici?aeiei oanoii aoea iaeaea
a i?aoi?a ?ace a?eueoith, ? neeaea 9,541,59. Niaeo?ioioiiao?e/ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ne?iaaoee e?ia? aeyaeei eiioeaio?aoe?th NII ia 254 ii –
0,4880,025 oi.iae., ia 280 ii – 0,5800,038 oi.iae., ui a?aeiia?aeii ia
33,9 % oa 36,6 % a?eueoa aiaeia?/ieo iieaciee?a o caei?iaeo ii?iae?eue
(?

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