1

*A?I?AAOeUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?IAI? TH??ss OAAeUeEIAE*A

A?EEE IAAe?ss ?AAI?AIA

OAeE 947.477

?IEUe AIAAeAIA EAIEIAI OA EIAI OAI?*INO?

A OE?A?INUeEIIO IAOe?IIAEUeIIIO A?Ae?IAeAEAII?

(E?IAOeUe O?O – II*AOIE OO NO.)

07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

*a?i?aoe? – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?iii?euenueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao?

?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aeaen??aaoeue Ieeiea Ie?iiiae/,

Oa?iii?euenueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee

oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea,

aeaeai ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iiai? ? iia?oiuei?

?noi??? oa iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy ?noi???.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ieoaeeeia Iaaei Aaneeueiae/,

*a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? TH??y Oaaeueeiae/a

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eaiiaee Aiaaeai Aeieo?iae/,

Oa?iii?euenueea aeaaeai?y ia?iaeiiai

ainiiaea?noaa.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia
O?aiea,

eaoaae?a iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie,
i. Euea?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 19 ” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 76.051.03 o *a?i?aaoeueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? TH??y Oaaeueeiae/a (274012, i.
*a?i?aoe?, aoe. Eaoaae?aeueia, 2, 14-e ei?ion).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
*a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? TH??y Oaaeueeiae/a (i.
*a?i?aoe?, aoe. Ean? Oe?a?iee, 23).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “ 18 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ea?ii A.E.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. A oiiaao iaoe?iiaeueiiai
eoeueoo?ii-aea?aeaaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, yea ia?aaeeaa? Oe?a?ia ia
no/aniiio aoai?, oai?aoe/iiai oa i?aeoe/iiai ae??oaiiy iio?aao? i?iaeaia
a?aeiiaeaiiy oa iiaa?iaiiy ia?iaeia? eiai aaaaoia?eiai? eoeueoo?ii?
niaaeueie. O oeueiio eiioaeno? iaaeiaaeeiaei ? aaeeeee ?ioa?an aei
oe?a?inueeiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy e?ioey O?O – ii/aoeo OO no. – aiioe,
aaiaoe/ii iaea?eueo nii??aeiaii? c iaoe?iiaeueiei ?aianainii iaoiai
/ano.

Oni?oia ?ica’ycaiiy neeaaeieo i?iaeai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
oa ?icaith a?o/eciyii? eoeueoo?e, ooaa?aeaeaiiy aeooiaiino? e
iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? a no/anieo oiiaao ?icaeoeo Oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae iiaeeeaa ca oiiae iiaa?iaiiy ?c caaoooy nioaiue ?iai aeaeaoieo
ae?y/?a aeooiaii? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, oai?/a niaaeueia yeeo iaaoaa?
nueiaiaei? iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy.

C-iii?ae aecia/ieo iinoaoae iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo e?ioey O?O – ii/aoeo OO
no., ?iaia eio?eo aoee i?ae noai?ith caai?iiith ca /an?a oioae?oa?iiai
?aaeeio, /e ia iaenoa?aii?oa e iaeiine?aeiai?oa aeei??ithaaee c?
na?aeiiino? e iai’yo? oe?a?ioe?a ?i’y Aiaaeaia Eaieiai. Nueiaiaei? oea
?i’y, i?ney a?eueo ye i?anoie?oiueiai caiia/oaaiiy, iiaa?iooa ia?iaeia?
Oe?a?ie.

Aiaaeai Neeueaano?iae/ Eaieee (1872–1941) oiniaeth? niaith iiaee oei
oe?a?ioey-iao??ioa, ui noi?ioaaany o Aaee/ei? a e?ioe? O?O – ia ii/aoeo
OO no. Ae?yeuei?noue oa oai?/?noue A.Eaieiai noaiiaeyoue aaaeeeao aiioo
a ?ioaeaeooaeueiiio, iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiio oa aea?aeaaiiio ?icaeoeo
Oe?a?ie ia ia?aeii? noie?oue. Aieath aeie?, a caiaeii /a?ac iie?oe/i?
ianoaaeie eiio aeiaaeiny i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai /ano aeeoe ? i?aoethaaoe
aeaeaei a?ae ??aeii? caie? – o E?aeia?, A?aei?, Aa?e?i?… Aea oe?
iai?ino? ianoaaeie ia ia?aoeiaeeee A.Eaieiio noaoe iaeiei ?c
iaeaeaeaoi?oeo ae?y/?a iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, i?ia?aeiei
?aeaieiaii oe?a?inueei? niai?iino?: o neeaaeieo oiiaao ianooio ia
iaoe?iiaeueio eoeueoo?o ? aeooiai?noue oe?a?inoaa c aieo iieuenueeiai oa
?in?enueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oia?i?cio A.Eaieee i?iiaaoaaa oe?a?inueeo
iaoe?iiaeueio ?aeath, oi?ioaaa iaoe?iiaeueio na?aeii?noue oe?ieiai
caaaeo oe?a?ioe?a. C’ynoaaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie ia? iacaia?a/ia ye
iaoeiai-i?ciaaaeueia, oae ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

Aiaaeai Eaieee iaeaaeeoue aei oeo a?iiaaeyi, ye? nai?i caoe?eaaeaiiyi
ni?aaaie a?iiaaenueei-noni?eueiiai oa iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy
Oe?a?ie oa iinayoith nai?o nee ooaa?aeaeaiith oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea? aeathoue iieiae?e ? noa?o?e aaia?aoe?? iaee?auee
i?eeeaae, aei yeiai ?aeaaeo iiaeiai i?aaiooe eiaeiee oe?a?iaoeue. Oiio
aiae?c aieeao A.Eaieiai ia iaoe?iiaeueia naiiona?aeiieaiiy oe?ieeo ian
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa oa iiaeeaeaiiy ?ioaa?aoe?? Oe?a?ie o na?oiaee
eoeueoo?iee i?ioean, inieneaiiy eiai i?noey a iaoe?iiaeueii-aeooiai?e
?noi??? Oe?a?ie ? aeooaeueiei.

Aiae?coth/e no/aniee noai ?noi?e/ii? iaoee a Oe?a?i?, ia?ii aeciaoe, ui,
iacaaaeath/e ia iaai? aeinyaiaiiy inoaiiueiai /ano, eaieiciaanoai oa
eiai neeaaeiaa – aeine?aeaeaiiy i?noey e ?ie? A.Eaieiai a aeooiai?e
?noi??? Oe?a?ie – o?eueee aeeoee iica ii/aoeiao noaae?th. Aein? iaia
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo iaoeiai-?noi?e/ieo i?aoeue ocaaaeueithth/iai
oa?aeoa?o, a yeeo ae aoei cae?eniaia niaoe?aeueia eiiieaenia
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeooy oa ae?yeueiino? A.Eaieiai o eiioaeno?
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy e?ioey O?O – ii/aoeo OO no.
A aeaaeai?/iiio ieai? aeooaeuei?noue oaie ?iaioe i?iaeeeoiaaia
iaaaeueiith iio?aaith noai?aiiy oe?e?nii? iaoeiai? a?ia?ao?? A.Eaieiai
oa iaiao?aei?noth anaa?/iiai aiae?co oe?a?inueeiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo.

Iaioaaiiy a Oe?a?i? oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio, yeee iaeeaa a?o/eciyiei
?noi?eeai oaao ia ia’?eoeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaii? oaie oa caai?iiea
aeinooi aei aaaeeeaeo eaieiciaa/eo iaoa??ae?a a oe?a?inueeeo a?o?aao,
i?eaaei aei iacaaeia?eueiiai noaio iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee icia/aii? i?iaeaie.
Oiio aaaaeaiiy a iaoeiaee ia?a aaeeeiai eiiieaeno a?o?aieo aeaea?ae, ui
aeicaieythoue ii-iiaiio iiaeeaeoeny ia iiae?? ieioeiai, ia?ainieneeoe
iiia?aaei? ioe?iee, iiaa?iooe ?c caaoooy aeanyoee oaeo?a, coiiaeth?
iniaeeao aeooaeuei?noue aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, ?c aeuaaeeeaaeaiiai aeieeaa?, ui iaoeiaa inieneaiiy
iinoaaeaii? i?iaeaie ? aaaeeeaei ? aeooaeueiei caaaeaiiyi oe?a?inueei?
?noi??ia?ao??. Aeey eiai ?ica’ycaiiy iieeeeaia aeaia aeena?oaoe?y.

Ia’?eoii iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeeooy ? ??ciia?/ia ae?yeuei?noue
A.N.Eaieiai /a?ac i?ecio oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ia
ceai? O?O – OO noie?oue, a i?aaeiaoii aea/aiiy noaea ?ieue A.Eaieiai oa
eiai aaaaoia?aiii? oai?/ino? o i?ioean? iaoe?iiaeueiiai
eoeueoo?ii-aea?aeaaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Aieiaio
oaaao i?eae?eaii ci?noo, oi?iai ? iai?yiai oe??? ae?yeueiino?.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/ai? ?ieaie
aeeooy oa ae?yeueiino? A.N.Eaieiai (1872–1941). Iaeiae aeey oiai, uia
c’ynoaaoe ia?aaeoiiae aeoiaeo oe??? iinoao? ia a?aio oiai/aniiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai oa a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, aeine?aeaeaiiy yeeo ? iaiao?aeiei aeey
anaa?/iiai aena?oeaiiy i?iaeaie, aeiaaeiny aaeaoeny aei aiae?co iiae?e,
ui a?aeaoaaeenue o noni?eueiiio aeeoo? Aaee/eie, ii/eiath/e c O?O
noie?ooy.

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? o i?iaaaeaii? eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeooy ? ae?yeueiino? A.N.Eaieiai o eiioaeno? oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai eoeueoo?ii-aea?aeaaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy e?ioey O?O –
ii/aoeo OO no., o c’ynoaaii? ?ie? e cia/aiiy A.Eaieiai a ?noi???
a?o/eciyii? eoeueoo?e, o ?ice?eoo? iaeoe?ii?oeo aeaiaio?a aaaaoi?
aeooiaii? niaaeueie ae?y/a. Aeena?oaio ia noaaeea ia?aae niaith iaoe
?icaeyiooe an? aniaeoe aaaaoia?aiii? ae?yeueiino? A.Eaieiai, a
neiioeaio?oaaea oaaao ia ae??oaii? oaeeo aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue:
noai?eoe anaa?/iee iaoeiai-aeaaeai?/iee e noni?eueiee ii?o?ao a?aeiiiai
ae?y/a oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai eoeueoo?ii-aea?aeaaiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy; c?oeioaaoe onoaeai? ?aeaieia?/i? noa?aioeie, ca?eueieoe
ia?ac A.Eaieiai a?ae an?eyeeo iie?oe/ieo y?eee?a, i/enoeoe eiai a?ae
canoa??eeo ioe?iie ? oia?aaeaeaieo i?aeoiae?a; i?inoaaeeoe i?ioean
oi?ioaaiiy oa aaiethoe?? iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/ieo iiaeyae?a A.Eaieiai;
?ice?eoe eiai ?ieue o i?ioean? c?inoaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo; i?iaiae?coaaoe aieea A.Eaieiai ia eiai
no/aniee?a, ia oiae?oi? iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ia ?
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ia aeeooy oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa; i?iaiae?coaaoe
oai?/o oa iaoeiao ae?yeuei?noue A.Eaieiai, ni?yiiaaio ia ?icaeoie
oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?; aeine?aeeoe iniiai? iai?yiee
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oiuei? oa noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? A.Eaieiai;
aeine?aeeoe eiai i?noea o eiioaeno? oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo aca?iei
e?ioey O?O – ii/aoeo OO no.; ?ice?eoe ?ieue A.Eaieiai o iiaeeaeaii?
?ioaa?aoe?? Oe?a?ie o na?oiaee eoeueoo?iee i?ioean.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? noaee i?eioeeie ia’?eoeaiino?,
ieth?ae?cio oa ?noi?ecio, i?e ?ica’ycaii? aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue
aeei?enoaii ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iee, nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee,
i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee iaoiaee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa?: o noai?aii? eiiieaeniiai
iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaaoia?aiii? ae?yeueiino? A.Eaieiai o
eiioaeno? oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy e?ioey O?O –
ii/aoeo OO no.; o aeine?aeaeaii? i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy oa aaiethoe??
iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/ieo iiaeyae?a A.Eaieiai; o aaaaeaii? aia?oa aei
iaoeiaiai ia?ao cia/ii? e?eueeino? a?o?aieo aeaea?ae, ui
aeicaieythoue aeinoia??ii ?aeiino?othaaoe iaa?aeii? aein? noi??iee
aeeooy oa ae?yeueiino? A.Eaieiai; aeena?oaoe?y aaoi?a noaiiaeoue iaaiee
aianie o aaaeeeao ni?aao noai?aiiy iaoeiai? a?ia?ao?? A.Eaieiai.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny oei, ui ?? iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee, a oaeiae c?a?aiee iaoa??ae iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? i?e i?aeaioiaoe? ocaaaeueithth/eo oa niaoe?aeueieo i?aoeue
i?i aeeooy oa ae?yeuei?noue A.N.Eaieiai, c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, c ?noi???
oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e, i?e i?iaaaeaii? i?aeoe/ieo oa nai?ia?nueeeo
caiyoue, niaoeeo?n?a, eaeoe?eii? ?iaioe na?aae oe?ieiai caaaeo,
noai?aii? iocaeieo aeniiceoe?e.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoee
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a aeiiia?aeyo ia i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo:
“Oe?a?inueea ai?a?aoe?y a ?noi??? oa e?oa?aoo??” (Oa?iii?eue, 1996),
“Aea?aeaaioai?aiiy a Oe?a?i? oa Oeaio?aeueii-No?aei?e ?a?ii?: ?noi??y ?
no/ani?noue” (Eooeuee–Caoo?oe?, 1997), “I?iaeaie o?ainoi?iaoe?? a
aoiai?oa?i?e, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e oa iaoeiai-ina?oi?e noa?ao”
(Oa?iii?eue, 1997), “Oai?/?noue A.Eaieiai a eiioaeno? ?a?iiaenueei?
eoeueoo?e OO no.” (Oa?iii?eue, 1997), “Oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? a?aeiineie
a OO no.: aea?aeaai?noue, noni?euenoai, eoeueoo?a” (Oa?iii?eue, 1999);
ia anaoe?a?inueeeo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo: “?aeay
iaoe?iiaeueii? oea?eae a Oe?a?i?” (Oa?iii?eue, 1997), “Ae?y/? iaoee ?
ienoaoeoaa ??aeiiai e?ath o ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
eoeueoo?e” (??aia, 1998) oa ?i.; ia ui??/ieo ?aa?iiaeueieo
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo “Iiaa?iaiiy Aiaaeaia Eaieiai Oe?a?i?”
(Oa?iii?eue, 1995–1996; Aa?aaeaie, 1996; E?iaoeueoe?, 1997).

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia oaia ?
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea.

No?oeoo?ii aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a (179 noi??iie), nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (25 noi??iie, 371
iaeiaioaaiiy).

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaai? aeooaeuei?noue oaie, o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee, aecia/ai?
iaoa e caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?aaeiao, ia’?eo ? iaoiaeieia?/ia
iniiaa ?iaioe, iieacai? iaoeiaa iiaecia, i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ? ai?iaaoe?y
aeena?oaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – “?noi??ia?ao?y oaie oa aiae?c aeaea?aeueii? aace
aeine?aeaeaiiy” – iiaeaii ?noi??ia?ao?/iee iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e oa
ioa?aeoa?eciaaii aeaea?aea, ye? aaoi? aeei?enoaa aeey aeeiiaiiy
iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue.

Oaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia aoea a ?noi??ia?ao?? aaciina?aaei?i ia’?eoii
aea/aiiy. Iaaiith i??ith aiia i?aaenoaaeaia o ca?oa?aei?e, ?aaeyinuee?e
oa no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e e?oa?aoo??.

Aea/aiiy oai?/ino? A.Eaieiai ii/aeiny ia ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy, a?ae?aco
i?ney aeoiaeo a na?o ia?oeo ca??ie eiai oai??a, ye? i?eoeeueii ioe?ieee
e?eoeee – E.Oo?aaoeueeee, ?.O?aiei oa ?i. Iaeiae caiaeii I.?aoai, a ca
iei N.?o?aiia, aiae?coth/e e??eeo Eaieiai, ioa?aeoa?ecoaaee ?? aaoi?a ye
iiaoa “aaciaae??”, “niiiei?a” oa “eaieiai aacneeey”, noai?eaoe
nai???aeia ee?oa, ui ai?iaeiaae aaaaoueio ?ie?a c’yaeyeiny ii?yae c
?iaiai A.Eaieiai. Ia?aeeaaeaoeuee?e ae?yeueiino? A.Eaieiai oiai /ano
i?enay/ai? ?aoeaic?? ?.O?aiea oa iieuenueeeo e?eoee?a
A.Aaeeiaea-N?aeeaoeueeiai, ss.Aeaiyi/oea.

O eiioaeno? aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaeeeee ?ioa?an noaiiaeoue na??y
tha?eaeieo ioae?eaoe?e i?i A.Eaieiai, ui c’yaeeenue ia na?o ca eiai
aeeooy. C iaaiaee 50-e?ooy a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy A.Eaieiai ia noi??ieao
“Naiaiaee” (NOA) iioae?eiaaii noaoo? E.Oeaaaeuenueeiai oa A.-O.Aooeuee?.
O Aa?e?i? i?ae ?aaeaeoe??th C.Eocae? aeeoea tha?eaeia ca??ea “Cieioa
Eeia”. A?ia?ao?/iee ia?en C.Eocae? iiaeia aaaaeaoe ia?oith ni?iaith
iaoeiai? a?ia?ao?? Eaieiai a?ae ia?iaeaeaiiy aei 1923 ?. Aaeeeee ?ioa?an
noaiiaeyoue noaoo?-“i?enayoe” E.O?eeueianueeiai oa I.Eooeueeiai.
A.N?iiae/ o ia?aaeiia? aei “Ienaiue” tha?ey?a, i?iaiae?coaaaoe iiaoe/io
niaaeueio ieooey, iacaaa A.Eaieiai oeiiaei “eoeueoo?ieeii”, “iaai?aith”
iaoo?ith.

?c iaaiaee 60-e?ooy A.Eaieiai ?aaeaeoe?y aeo?iaeo “Aecaiie” (Euea?a)
i?enayoeea tha?ey?o iai’yoia /enei, aea iioae?eoaaea a??o? aei oe???
aeaoe e iaoeia? noaoo?. Na?aae inoaii?o aeae?eeii i?ea?iaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy A.?aoe/a oa I.Eicaea, eio?? aia?oa aeoeaiooaaee oaaao ia
iaoe?ioa??i?e ?ie? niaaeueie A.Eaieiai ye ieooey oa a/aiiai.

Aei tha?eath aoee i?eo?i/ai? noaoo? I.?oaeieoeueeiai, I.Noaiiyea,
C.Eocae?, ?i. Ienueiaiieoeueeiio aei?iaeo A.Eaieiai i?enayoea
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?.-TH.Iaeainueeee.

Aeo?ae c-i?ae ia?a A.Eaieiai i?iciaiai ?noi?e/iiai oeeeeo i?i aaoueiaia
?.Iacaio aeeeeeaa ioae?eaoe?th ?yaeo noaoae, a yeeo aeine?aeieee –
?.Aoiaea, I.?oaeieoeueeee, I.Caec?oianueeee – iaiaaaeeny i?iaiae?coaaoe
i?e/eie caa?iaiiy ieooey aei oe??? neeaaeii? iinoao? a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie.

Oe?ieee iio?e noaoae I.Eicaea, ?.Eoi/einueeiai, Ae.Ai?iyoeaae/a,
I.Eoceea, E.Eooe?aa, ye? o?aaiaioa?ii ioiieththoue ieoaiiy ??ciia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino? A.Eaieiai, c’yaeany, aieiaiei /eiii, o Aaee/ei? i?ioyaii
e?eueeio ?ie?a i?ney nia?o? A.Eaieiai. Ca ?aaeaeoe??th
?.-TH.Iaeainueeiai o 1943 ?. aeeoia “Ca??iee o iioaio iai’yo? iiaoa”, a
yeiio oii?yaeiee iiaeaa ?yae ioae?oeenoe/ieo noaoae, ui noinothoueny
i?iaeaiaoeee aeena?oaoe??. Ianaiia?aae, aa?oi iacaaoe ?iaioe I.Eenyea,
I.Aieoaoey, A.Aei?ioaiea, eio?? c’ynoaaee e?aaei A.Eaieiai –
oe?a?inueeiai a?iiaaeyieia.

O “?aaeyinueeee” ia??iae oai?e aeaeaoiiai ae?y/a oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aoee i?aeaeai? aino??e e?eoeoe? aai ?o
i?inoi caiia/oaaee. Noaooy A.Aea?aeaa?ia, a ye?e e?eoee caeioaaoea
aaoi?a “Iacaie” o “aieiaie/iio iaoe?iiae?ci?”, iieeaea ii/aoie caai?ii?
ae?oeoaaoe oai?e ieooey. Ia noi??ieao aioeeeeiiaae?e, aeiouaieo o
1940–1988 ??., ?i’y A.Eaieiai yeui ? caaaeoaaee, oi iaiaei?iii a
ioi/aii? icia/aiue “iaoe?iiae?noe/iee” ? “ao?aeoaciee” oa ?aeaioe/ieo.
Aeiyoeii aoea eeoa noaooy TH.Aieea, iioae?eiaaia a ieoiiaaiiio
a?oea??aoeyie Oa?eia?, o eio??e aaoi? aeaa aenieo ioe?ieo iaoe?ioa??i?e
aaaaoia?aii?e ae?yeueiino? A.N.Eaieiai.

Ca oiia, eiee a ?aaeyinuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? ?i’y A.Eaieiai oa eiai
niaaeueio i?aeaeaaaee ?aeaieia?/iei oaa?oaaiiyi, oeaio? eaieiciaa/eo
aeine?aeaeaiue ia?ai?noeany a oe?a?inueeo ae?anii?o.

Na?aae i?aoeue, iaienaieo o I?ia//ei? a 50–60-? ??., aaeeeee ?ioa?an
noaiiaeoue e?oa?aoo?iciaa/a aeine?aeaeaiiy I.Eeeieoeia, a yeiio a/aiee
aeia?a oeai?noue aeniiae?a i?i “iaai?a?noue” iiac?e ieooey. Oe?eaaeie ?
oaeiae ?ica?aeee i.?.E?ueinueeiai, I.N. oa N.Oaoa, no/aniee?a A.Eaieiai.

Oi?iaeiaae 60–90-o ??. ianenoaiaoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?i A.Eaieiai
c’yaeeenue o ae?anii?? NOA ? Eaiaaee, caeaa?eueoiai, aiie aoee
i?eo?i/ai? aei tha?ea?a ae?y/a. Na?aae ieo aa?oi iacaaoe ?ioi?iaoe?ei?
?ica?aeee A.Aacooea, I.Aa?anaae/, I.Ia?ai/oea, ?.Caaaaeiae/a oa ss?a
Neaaooe/a, eio?? i?aee?aneeee ?ieue A.Eaieiai o oi?ioaaii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? oe?a?ioe?a.

I?aoey A.Eaaa “Aiaaeai Eaieee. AEeooy ? oai?/?noue” noaea ia?oith
iiiia?ao??th i?i ae?y/a. Aaoi? aeei?enoaa iaioa?e naiiai A.Eaieiai,
aeieoiaioe ?c n?iaeiiai a?o?ao ieooey, iaeiae i?iaeaiaoeea caeeoeeanue
o?aaeeoe?eiith.

Ia ii/aoeo 90-o ??. ?ioa?an aei iinoao? A.Eaieiai na?aae oe?a?inueei?
ae?anii?e iineeeany. O ia?aaeiia? I.Ai?aa/a aei ia?aae?oeo “Ia/a?eo
?noi??? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e” A.Eaieiai ?icaeyiooa
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue a/aiiai. Aeiiia?ae?
I.ssai?nueei?-Eiia/ oa A.Noaaaeuenueei? ia iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? a
Oi?iioi (1992) noaee iiaei e?ieii o aeine?aeaeaii? niaaeueie ieooey.

Aaaiiee aianie o Eaie?aio – /ioe?e ca??ieee noaoae, aeieoiaio?a ?
oioia?ao?/ieo iaeyae?a i?ae iacaith “Iiaa?iaiiy Oe?a?i? Aiaaeaia
Eaieiai”. O oeeo oiiao ieai?iiee ae?y/a ae-? ?.Niee (NOA) c?a?aa
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?i A.Eaieiai a?ae 1922 ?. aei iei?oi?o aei?a.

E??i eaieiciaanoaa a ae?anii?? oa Oe?a?i? aa?oi aeae?eeoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy aei?iaeo oeueiai ae?y/a, ye? cae?enieee a/ai? Iieueu?.
Iacaaaeath/e ia aieea ?aaeyinueei? oioae?oa?ii? nenoaie, aiie
caa?oaeenue aei niaaeueie A.Eaieiai.

?c na?aaeeie 60-o ??. iinoaoue A.Eaieiai – o eie? iaoeiaeo caoe?eaaeaiue
I.Nea?oeueeiai, aaoi?a aeieoi?nueei? i?aoe? “A.Eaieee – ?aiiy
oai?/?noue”. Aeine?aeaeaiiy a/aiiai “Aiaaeai Eaieee: aeeooy ?
oai?/?noue” aeeoei ae?oeii eeoa o 1993 ?. a Oe?a?i?. Aei i?iaeaie
“Eaieee ? iieyee” caa?oaeeny I.sseoaaoeue, A.Iie?ee, C.Nieae.

I?ney i?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie o ?icaeoeo ?noi??ia?ao??
i?iaeaie ?icii/aany iaeiia?oee ia??iae, iicia/aiee oai?/ith ni?ai?aoeath
iieuenueeeo oa oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo. Iieuenueea Aeaaeai?y Iaoe o E?aeia?
a 1991 ?. aeaoooaaea c iaaiaee 50-e?ooy a?ae aeiy nia?o? A.Eaieiai
iaoeiao nan?th c ianooiiei aeaeaiiyi i?aoeue o/aniee?a, o yeeo eaeaoueny
i?i oai?/?noue ieooey.

Ci?ia iie?oe/ieo ianoaaei a?aee?eea a Oe?a?i? oe?ie? iiaeeeaino? aeey
aea/aiiy ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy e?ioey O?O
– ii/aoeo OO no. Ii/eiath/e c 1988 ?., ?i’y A.Eaieiai oa eiai aei?iaie
ye ienueiaiieea i?eaa?ioee oaaao oe?a?inueeeo e?oa?aoo?iciaaoe?a
O.Iia?aaaiieea, I.AEoeeinueeiai, ?.Eiceinueeiai oa ?i., caaaeuei? noaoo?
yeeo i?i Eaieiai c’yaeeenue ia noi??ieao i?ane. I?e aiae?c? iiac??
aeine?aeieee ia noaaeee ae?aci? aeoeaioe ia a?iiaaenueei-iao??ioe/ieo oa
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo iioeaao o oai?/ino? A.Eaieiai. Aeo?ae ae?oeii
?noi?e/ii? i?ice ienueiaiieea coiiaea e?eoe/iee aiae?c oe??? niaaeueie
ae?y/a o i?aoeyo ?.Aieioea oa I.Nea?oeueeiai.

Aaeeeo oaaao niaaeuei? A.Eaieiai i?eae?eea e?oa?aoo?iciaaaoeue
I.?eueieoeueeee, oii?yaeiee oa aaoi? ia?aaeiia aei ia?oeo aeaeaiue
oai??a ieooey a Oe?a?i?. ?.Ai?aeo, ?.Ei?eoeo oa A.Ea/eaio iaeaaeaoue
caaaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeooy e oai?/ino? ae?y/a. Aaaiiei ? aianie o
Eaie?aio O.Iia?aaaiieea, aaoi?a iaoeiaeo ?ica?aeie “Aiaaeai Eaieee”,
“I?ni? a?ao?a Eaieeo”. Ie?ai? aniaeoe ae?yeueiino? A.Eaieiai
aeine?aeaeoaaee N.Oea/ia ? O.Naaa?ithe. O?einionuee? iiaeyaee ieooey
?icaeyioee I.Caethaianueeee oa A.Oaiaeaea.

Aaaeeeaei aoaiii o aea/aii? aeeooy e ae?yeueiino? A.Eaieiai ne?ae
aaaaeaoe iaoeia? eiioa?aioe?? o Oa?iiiie? oa ?aaii-O?aie?anueeo c
iaaiaee 120-??//y ae?y/a c ianooiiei aeaeaiiyi i?aoeue ?o o/aniee?a.
Caaaeueiee iaeyae iia?aeiieaiue na?ae/eoue, ui oaaao aeine?aeiee?a
iaea?eueoa i?eoyao? ienueiaiieoeueeee aei?iaie A.Eaieiai.

O 1997 ?. A.Nieieiaa caoenoeea aeena?oaoe?th ia oaio
“Iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/ia ? caaaeueiiethaenueea a ?noi?e/iiio ?iiai?
A.Eaieiai “Iacaia”. O aeine?aeaeaii? i?iaiae?ciaaii oeae oa?? o
eiioaeno? na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e ? ienoaoeoaa.

E?oa?aoo?iciaa/? noaoo? ?.A?ii’yea, O.Iia?aaaiieea, A.Iia?aaaiieea,
O.Eeoaeiaiei aoee i?eo?i/ai? aei 125-e?ooy a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy
A.Eaieiai. Ainaie 1997 ?. a Oa?iiiie? e Ee?a? a?aeaoeeny iaoeia?
eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai? tha?eath. Iaoa??aee oa?iii?euenueei?
eiioa?aioe?? aeaeai? ae?oeii. Iaeyae aeiiia?aeae na?ae/eoue, ui aeoiea
aeine?aeieea caa?oa?oueny aei oe?oiai eiea i?iaeai ii??aiyii c
iiia?aaei?ie eiioa?aioe?yie, iaeiae aeii?ioth/ei caeeoa?oueny
e?oa?aoo?iciaa/ee aniaeo.

Caaaeii, eaieiciaanoai a Oe?a?i? iei?, ye oaea aoei a?aecia/aii, aeeoei
iica ii/aoeiao noaae?th, aiii noaiiaeoue cia/io e?euee?noue iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue oa e?eoe/ieo noaoae, aaoi?e yeeo aiae?cothoue ianaiia?aae
oai?/?noue A.Eaieiai. Iaeiae a?aenooi?noue a?oioiaii? ocaaaeueithth/i?
i?aoe?, ui aena?oethaaea a aeeooy oa aaaaoia?aiio ae?yeuei?noue
A.N.Eaieiai, eiai i?noea oa ?ieue o aeooiai?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, iaoiiaeea
aea?? oaie aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeena?oaoe?y iie?a?oueny ia oe?ieee ianea iioae?eiaaieo oa
iaiioae?eiaaieo iaoa??ae?a, ye? oiiaii iiaeia ca?oioaaoe oaeei /eiii:
aaoia?ia?ao?/i? ?iaioe A.Eaieiai (aaoia?ia?ao??, niiaaaee); eiai
iaoeia?, iaoeiai-iiioey?i? i?aoe?; ioae?oeenoe/i? noaoo? A.Eaieiai;
ienueiaiieoeueea oai?/?noue A.Eaieiai; i?iiiae A.Eaieiai; eenoe;
ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy; niiaaaee no/aniee?a A.Eaieiai; ae?eiaiae/?
iaoa??aee aea?aeaaieo, iie?oe/ieo oa eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o ?inoeoooe?e
oiui.

Iniiaio a?oio aeaea?ae noaiiaeyoue aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee, ye? aaoi?
aeena?oaoe?? caeaa?eueoiai aia?oa aaiaeeoue o oe?ieee ia?a. Aiie
caa??aathoueny a a?o?aao ? a?ae?ioaeao Oe?a?ie oa Iieueu?: o A?aeae?e?
?oeiien?a ?inoeoooo e?oa?aoo?e ?i.O.Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie (i.Ee?a);
Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio ?noi?e/iiio a?o?a? Oe?a?ie (i.Euea?a);
Oeaio?aeuei?e iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? ?i.A.Noaoaieea IAI Oe?a?ie
(i.Euea?a); Aea?aeaaieo a?o?aao Oa?iii?euenueei? oa Euea?anueei?
iaeanoae; A?ae?ioaoe? Iieuenueei? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe o E?aeia?; A?ae?ioaoe?
e A?o?a? ssaaeeiinueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo (i.E?ae?a, Iieueua). Iaeei ?c
aaciaeo aeaea?aeueieo aeie?a ?iaioe neeaee iaoa??aee, ui caa??aathoueny
o iocayo A.Eaieiai ia Oa?iii?ee?. Aei ?iaioe caeo/aii aeieoiaioe c
?iaeeiieo a?o?a?a Niee?a (i.*eeaai, NOA) oa A?iueeianueeeo (i.E?ae?a).

Aei iaeaaaeeea?oeo aeaea?ae iaiao?aeii a?aeianoe eenoe. Eeoa iacia/ia
/anoeia ai?noiey??th, aeei?enoaiiai o aeena?oaoe??, ? iioae?eiaaiith.
Cie?aia, aeaeaii ie?ai? eenoe A.Eaieiai aei A.Aiaothea,
E.Nooaeeinueeiai, I.Eoeue/eoeueei?, A.N?iiae/a, I.Eioethaeinueeiai,
A.AEoea, A.Uo?aoa, A.Eioioeueeiai, A.Noaoaieea. Aei ?iaioe caeo/aii
eenoe aei A.Eaieiai, ye? iioae?eoaaa ?.Niee.

Aaoi? aeena?oaoe?? oe?iei aaiaeeoue aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao iaiioae?eiaaiee
ai?noiey??e A.N.Eaieiai, i?aaenoaaeaiee o ?iaio? a?o?aieie iaoa??aeaie c
iniaenoeo oiiae?a oe?a?inueeeo oa iieuenueeeo eoeueoo?ii-a?iiaaenueeeo
ae?y/?a, ?c yeeie A.Eaieee i?aeo?eioaaa ae?eia? oa iniaeno? noinoiee.
Eenoe A.Eaieiai caa??aathoueny o A?aeae?e? ?oeiien?a ?inoeoooo
e?oa?aoo?e ?i.O.Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie (O.47. “A.Aeiiaieoeueeee”, O.78.
“?.Eaaeoeueeee”, O.61. “A.Eoee/”, O.59. “I.Iaeiaae”), o Oeaio?aeueiiio
aea?aeaaiiio ?noi?e/iiio a?o?a? Oe?a?ie (O.381. “ss.Aanieianueeee”,
O.663. “I.Iaaeee”, O.376. “E.Ne?ooaiue”, O.362. “E.Nooaeeinueeee”, ?i.),
o A?aeae?e? ?oeiien?a Oeaio?aeueii? iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee ?i.A.Noaoaieea
IAI Oe?a?ie (OO.391–392, 1655–1659, 3611. “Aa?a?inuee?”, O.34.
“A.Aiaothe”, OO.66, 103. “I.Iaeiaae”, O.70. “?.-TH.Iaeainueeee”, O.535.
“A.Uo?ao”, OO.3, 27. “I.E?/o?a”, O.9. “A.Noaoaiee”), o A?aeae?e?
?oeiien?a A?ae?ioaee ssaaeeiinueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo (OO.8569, 8619, 8642,
8691, 8678, 8692. “W.Orkan”, O.171. “J.Vagholz”). A a?o?a? ?iaeeie
A?iueeianueeeo (i.E?ae?a) i?noyoueny eenoe A.Eaieiai aei
I.Eaca?-A?iueeianueei?.

Iniaeeaa i?noea caeiathoue aeieoiaioe e iaoa??aee oiai/anieo
oe?a?inueeeo iaoeiaeo, eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o oa noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo
i?aai?caoe?e, ?aaeaeoe?e oa aeaeaaieoeoa, c yeeie ni?ai?aoethaaa ae?y/.
O A?aeae?e? ?oeiien?a ?inoeoooo e?oa?aoo?e ?i.O.Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie
aaoia?aoe A.Eaieiai caa??aathoueny o oiiae? “Iaoeiaa Oiaa?enoai
?i.O.Oaa/aiea o Eueaia?” (O.64); o Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio
?noi?e/iiio a?o?a? Oe?a?ie oea ca??ee: “Caaaeueii-oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?ia
?aaea” (O.391); “Iaoeiaa Oiaa?enoai ?i.O.Oaa/aiea o Eueaia?” (O.309);
“Oiaa?enoai “I?ina?oa” o Eueaia?” (O.348) ?i. O ?iaio? aeei?enoaii
iaoa??aee c oiiaeo “Euea?anueeee ei?ie?anueeee oi?aa?neoao” (O.26)
Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao Euea?anueei? iaeano?. O oiiae? “Aa?a?inuee?”
(OO.5117–5163) A?aeae?eo ?oeiien?a Oeaio?aeueii? iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee
?i.A.Noaoaieea IAI Oe?a?ie i?noyoueny iaeia?aeii? oaeoe i?i iie?oe/io
ae?yeuei?noue A.Eaieiai o ?iaio? “O?enoeyinueei-Noni?eueiiai Nithco”.

I?e iaienaii? aeena?oaoe?? oaeiae aeei?enoaii iaoa??aee c iniaenoeo
iaiie i?ioani?a A.Eaieiai, ui caa??aathoueny a A?o?a? ssaaeeiinueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo (OO.S ?? 619; Ae XII, XV), aea i?noyoueny aaoia?ia?ao??
A.Eaieiai, eeno?aee, cayae, oa?aeoa?enoeee ia i?io. A.Eaieiai oiui.

Aeaea?aeueio iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy nooo?ai aeiiiaieea ca??ea iaoa??ae?a
c a?o?ao ?iaeeie Eaieeo, ye? ?.Niee ia?aaeaa aeey iocath Aiaaeaia
Eaieiai o i.Aa?aaeaie Oa?iii?euenueei? iaeano?. Ooo caa??aathoueny
aaoia?aoe ieooey, a?aiioe, eenoe, n?iaei? ?ae?ea?? ?iaeeie Eaieeo oa ?i.

I?e iaienaii? aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoaii niiaaaee A.Eaieiai “Eacea iieiai
aeeooy”, a oaeiae eiai iaioa?i? noaoo?. Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aii? oaie noaee niiaaaee no/aniee?a A.Eaieiai –
TH.Aaieea-Aa?acianueeiai, Ae.-E.?aaioe?aa, I.Ea?iainueeiai, I.Eeeieoeia,
I.Ei?/aea-Ai?iaeenueeiai, I.Eocae?, ?.Eoi/einueeiai, A.E?oea, E.Eaieiai,
ss.Ieoaeue/eoeia, A.Inoai’thea, I.ssai?nueei?-Eiia/, ?i. I?e
ii?aoethaaii? oeeo iaoa??ae?a aoee a?aoiaai? i?e/eie oa ianoaaeie ?o
iaienaiiy ? ioae?eaoe??, aaoi?nueeee noa’?eoea?ci o ioe?ithaaii? in?a oa
iiae?e.

O aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? oaeiae aoee aeei?enoaii caienai? eiai
aaoi?ii niiaaaee ae-?a ?. Nieea (NOA) oa i?io. A.A?iueeianueeiai
(Iieueua), ye? aeecueei ciaee A.Eaieiai o 30–40-o ??.

Oe?iiei aeaea?aeii noaea a?ae?ia?ao?y niaaeueie A.Eaieiai, yeo neeaee
C.Eocaey, A.Eaa, ?.-TH.Iaeainueeee oa ?i. Aei aeaea?aeueii? aace ?iaioe
aa?eoea ia??iaeeea oiai /ano (“A?noiee Nithca Aecaieaiiy Oe?a?ie”
(A?aeaiue), “Ae?ei” (Euea?a), “E?oa?aoo?ii-Iaoeiaee A?noiee” (Euea?a),
“E?oiien” (Aa?e?i), “Iiaee /an” (Euea?a), “E?ae?anuee? A?no?”, “?oneai”
(Euea?a), “Oe?a?inueea Neiai” (Aa?e?i), “?wiat S?owia?ski” (??ae?a),
?i.).

Ioaea, iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui oi/ ia an? aeaea?aea ? ??aiicia/ieie, ?o
noeoii?noue ?iaeoue aeaea?aeueio aaco aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?eeii
aeinoia??iith ? aeinoaoiueith aeey aeeiiaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? – “Iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/i? iiaeyaee Aiaaeaia
Eaieiai” – ia oii? oe?a?inueeiai noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy
aeine?aeaeaii i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy oa aaiethoe??
iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/iiai na?oiaeyaeo A.Eaieiai. Ooo, cie?aia,
ioa?aeoa?eciaaii ?noi?e/ii-iie?oe/i? oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ianoaaeie
o Aaee/ei?, ui ia?aaeoaaee aeoiaeo A.Eaieiai ia a?aio
iaoe?iiaeueii-iie?oe/ii? aeoiee Oe?a?ie; i?aee?aneaii ?ieue
a?aei-eaoieeoeueeiai aeooiaainoaa o iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?ae?iaeaeaii?
e?ioey O?O – ii/aoeo OO no. Aeaoaeueii ?icaeyiooi iniiai? aoaie o
?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/iiai na?oiaeyaeo A.Eaieiai, c’yniaaii
iniiai? oaeoe, ui aieeioee ia oeae i?ioean.

Aiae?c aaoia?ia?ao?/ii? niaaeueie A.Eaieiai, niiaaae?a no/aniee?a
aeicaieea aeae?eeoe o i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy eiai noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo
iiaeyae?a aaaeeeaee aoai, ui ioiiea aeeoy/?, a?iiac?ei? oa
nooaeaionuee? ?iee ae?y/a (1872–1895 ??.). Aieiaiei oaeoi?ii aieeao ia
oeae i?ioean aoei ?iaeeiia ioi/aiiy – a?aei-eaoieeoeueea aeooiaainoai,
eio?a aeoiaaei a thiiai Aiaaeaia iiaaao aei oe?a?inueei? oeny/ie?oiuei?
?noi???, eoeueoo?e, iiae, a??e e oea?eae. Aaciina?aaei?e aieea ia
oi?ioaaiiy noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo iiceoe?e ieooey iaei eiai iaa/aiiy o
Aa?aaeainuee?e a?iiac??, A?aeainueeiio oa Euea?anueeiio oi?aa?neoaoao.
Aaaaoi cia/eei aeey e?enoae?caoe?? ?aeaeieo ia?aeiiaiue A.Eaieiai eiai
ciaeiinoai o nooaeaionuee? ?iee c ei?eoayie oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e
?.O?aieii, I.A?ooaanueeei, N.E?ooaeueieoeueeith oa ?i. Oey ieayaea
oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe?? noi?ioaaea eiai iaoe?iiaeueiee na?oiaeyae,
?icoe?eea noa?o oai?/eo caaeoi?a.

Aaaeeeaith a?oith o ?icaeoeo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo iiaeyae?a A.Eaieiai
noaa ia?a?cae ae?y/a o 1899 ?. aei E?aeiaa, aea a?i i?eeo/eany aei
iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae ca oe?a?inueeo ?aeath, i?iaieioaii? a i?ia?aiao
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e Aaee/eie oiai /ano.

Iie?oe/i? iiaeyaee A.Eaieiai ia?aaoaaee o i?yiiio ca’yceo c oiae?oi?ie
?aae?yie aiioe. Ia ii/aoeo OO no. A.Eaieee aaa/aa iaeaooi? Oe?a?ie o
nithc? c eiinoeoooe?eiith Aano?i-Oai?nueeith ?iia???th. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
?noi??? oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeeo aca?iei ia?aeiiaei ae?y/a o
aacia?niaeoeaiino? ni?a?nioaaiiy Oe?a?ie ? ?in?? a iaei?e aea?aeaa?;
ca?aene eiai aeniiaie i?i i???ioaoe?th ia Cao?ae, ia cao?aeio eoeueoo?o.
I?iaieineaoe ?aeath aeooiaii? naiiaooiino? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo,
A.Eaieee aeoeaii aenooiea i?ioe iineio?euenoaa. Iaoith ieooey aoei
iicaaaeoe iaoe?th eiiieaeno iaioiaa?oino?. E?ieii o oeueiio iai?yieo a?i
aaaaeaa iioe?aiiy ina?oe, iiioey?ecaoe?th eoeueoo?ieo caeiaooe?a oa
a?aeiiaeaiiy ?noi?e/ii? iai’yo? ia?iaeo. A.Eaieee ?icoi?a, ui ?aeeii
iiaeeeaee oeyo aei aeanii? aea?aeaaiino? eaaeeoue /a?ac
eoeueoo?ii-aeooiaia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy.

A?oith o ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/ieo iiaeyae?a A.Eaieiai noaei
eiai ciaeiinoai c A.Eeieinueeei, i?ia?aei? ?aea? eio?iai iin?ee aecia/ia
i?noea o nenoai? na?oiaa/aiiy A.Eaieiai. A?i oi?iaeiaae aaaaoueio ?ie?a
i?aeo?eioaaa o?ni? ca’ycee c i?aaenoaaieeaie ??cieo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e –
?aaeeeaeaie A.Noaoaieeii, I.Eooeueeei, E.O?eeueianueeei;
iaoe?iiae-aeaiie?aoaie ?.O?aieii, I.A?ooaanueeei, ?.Iao?ooaae/ai,
E.Eaaeoeueeei; ?aeaieiaaie oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiae?cio I.I?oiianueeei oa
Ae.Aeiioeiaei, – c eio?eie eiai ia’?aeioaaei aaaeaiiy i?aoethaaoe aeey
iaoe?iiaeueii? ni?aae.

Iaei??th c oa?aeoa?ieo ?en na?oiaeyaeo A.Eaieiai aoea
“iaaeia?o?ei?noue”. Iaeiae caeeaeaiiy c I.Aa?a?inueeei ? E.Nooaeeinueeei
oa o?ni? ca’ycee c eea?eeaeueii-eiina?aaoeaieie eieaie coiiaeee anooi
ae?y/a o 1912 ?. aei “O?enoeyinueei-Noni?eueiiai Nithco”, ia?o?? i?aaiai
iai?yieo. ?acii ?c oei A.Eaieee i?eiee ia iaiaaeoaaany aocueeiia?o?eieie
?ioa?anaie, i?iaieineaoe: “ss ia a?aeeacoth naiei? o/ano? oai, aea
oiaeeoue i ni?aao ia?iaeio, i ?aeath oe?a?inueeo, eio?i? y ? aaconeiaiei
i?eoeeueieeii”.

Iaia?aaeiaei? Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie a?aeaoany ia?aeii o iie?oe/iiio
na?oiaa/aii? A.Eaieiai – a?i oio?a aa/eoe Oe?a?io naiino?eiith niai?iith
aeaiie?aoe/iith aea?aeaaith. Oey ?aeay noaea aecia/aeueiith o iiaeyaeao
ieooey aei e?ioey eiai aeeooy. Naia A.Eaieee aoa iaeiei ?c
niiaeaeaeiee?a ?aea? oai?aiiy eaa?iio Oe?a?inueeeo N?/iaeo No??eueoe?a,
a ia?acao yeeo a?i aa/ea ai?oe?a ca aieth.

Aeaeueoei e?ieii o ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/iiai na?oiaeyaeo
A.Eaieiai noaea eiai ae?yeuei?noue ?c 1914 aei 1925 ?. a Aano??? oa
I?ia//ei?, ianaiia?aae, i?ina?oiy ?iaioa o oaai?ao aeey oe?a?inueeeo
a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo i?ae i?iaiaeii “Nithco Aecaieaiiy Oe?a?ie”. Cia/iee
aieea ia aaiethoe?th na?oiaeyaeieo iiceoe?e ieooey iaee i?aaenoaaieee
oe?a?inueeiai aaoueiainueeiai ?ooo (I.Nei?iiaaenueeee oa ?i.), c eio?eie
A.Eaieee o?nii ni?ai?aoethaaa ia ai?a?aoe??. Eiai iiaeyaee a oie
ia??iae, a?aeia?aaeai? o ioae?oeenoeoe?, na?ae/aoue i?i noi?iiaai?noue
aea?aeaaieoeueeiai na?oiaeyaeo A.Eaieiai. Aeey i?eueeii?a oe?a?inueeeo
iao??io?a noaei e?aaeii aeeooy aanei, yea i?iaieinea A.Eaieee: “AEaa,
ia aeaa, a n?yoe o?aaa!”.

O 30–40-o ??. A.Eaieee, iiaa?ioaoenue o E?ae?a, noaa iaeiei ?c
i?ia?aeieo ?aeaieia?a oe?a?inueei? niai?iino?. A?i ?icaeyaeaa iaeaooi?
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo o eiioaeno? caaaeueiiethaenueeiai iinooio. sse
naiaoi? ?a/? Iiniieeoi? A.Eaieee aenooiaa ca caa?aaeaiiy oa aeaeueoee
iinooi oe?a?inueei? aeooiaiino?, ia?aaeoiiae aea?aeaaii? iacaeaaeiino?.
Ae?y/ aaaaeaa, ui oe?a?inueea niai?ia aea?aeaaa iinoaia ia ea?o? na?oo a
iaeaooiueiio, eiee oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay noaia iaa?ae’?iiith
/anoeiith na?oiaeyaeo eiaeiiai oe?a?ioey. Na?oiaeyaei? iiceoe??
A.Eaieiai coiiaeee oa?aeoa? eiai ae?yeueiino?, yea ? yne?aaei
i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oace i?i aacnoii?aiee aeaiie?aoeci ? aoiai?ci
oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?.

O?ao?e ?icae?e – “?ieue A.Eaieiai a iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?ae?iaeaeaii?
Oe?a?ie e?ioey O?O – ii/aoeo OO noie?oue” – neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio
ia?aa?ao?a. O ia?oiio c ieo – “Ienueiaiieoeueea niaaeueia A.Eaieiai” –
i?iaiae?ciaaia oai?/a ae?yeuei?noue A.Eaieiai, ni?yiiaaia ia ?icaeoie oa
iiioey?ecaoe?th oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?; aeine?aeaeaii
nooi?iue aieeao oai?/ino? ieooey ia eiai no/aniee?a, ia oiai/ania
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ia ? a?iiaaenueea aeeooy oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa.

O ?iaio? aeiaaaeaii, ui ienueiaiieoeueea niaaeueia A.Eaieiai caeeaea
i?oei? ?aeaei? i?aeaaeeie iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo oe?a?ioe?a ie?aneaiiai
ia??iaeo. Iaoe?iiaeueii-niai?ieoeueea ?aeaieia?y ciaeoea na?e yne?aaee
aeya o a??oao A.Eaieiai ii/aoeo OO no. (“Ia Oa?ania?e iiaee?”, “Aania
ia?iae?a”, “Ne?aeaie ?ai?y”, “Eaeieoaanueeee o iaaie?”, “Ia noeeyeoa
aiec i?aii?a”, “Aeaa aieine”, oeeee? “Ia ia?a?ianao” e ?i.), i?ieiyoeo
ae?acieie iaoe?iiaeueieie i?aaiaiiyie oa aeeaieei “oe?a?inueeei”
ci?noii. Iacaieinueeee “oeeee” o iiaoe/i?e oai?/ino? ieooey noaa
nai???aeiei ia/a?eii iaeaooiuei? i?iciai? aiiia? i?i
aaoueiaia-niai?ieea. Oiae? ae c-i?ae ia?a ienueiaiieea aeeoee oeeeee
iao??ioe/ieo a??o?a i?i I.Oaoeaae/a oa O.Oaa/aiea, iaienai? c iaoith
aeaoe iieiae?e aaia?aoe?? i?eeeaae ai?oe?a ca aieth ??aeiiai ia?iaeo.

A?ae ii/aoeo Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie A.Eaieee aenooiea o iiac?? ye
iieoi’yiee ai?aoeue ca iacaeaaeio Oe?a?io. Oe?ieiai ?aciiaino na?aae
caaaeo iaaoee iao??ioe/i? oai?e “A o?ai? na.TH?a”, “Iao I?iueeii”, “Aei
??aeiiai e?ath”, “Ia o?aoue iaae??!” oa ?i. Iaa?ae’?iiith /anoeiith
iiaooo eaa?iio Oe?a?inueeeo N?/iaeo No??eueoe?a noaee i?ni? ia neiaa
A.Eaieiai (“AEo?aae?”, “Iona oay /a?aiia eaeeia”, ?i.). A??ith o
ia?aiiao oe?a?inueei? ?aea? a iaeaooiueiio i?ieiyo? a??o? A.Eaieiai
(“Aiia oai ?” oa ?i.) i?ney ii?acee iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue
ii/aoeo OO no.

O oai?/ino? ieooey ia??iaeo i?aeai?iiiai aeaaaeoeyoe??//y aieiaia
i?noea caeiyea i?ica. Iiioiaioaeueiee ?noi?e/iee ?iiai “Iacaia”
(1926–1929) noaa i?aenoieii aeoiie ieooey ye niai?ieea oa a?iiaaeyieia.
Nai?i oai?ii aaoi? i?aaioa caaeiaieueieoe iio?aao “aeoiaii? eaeoo?e”
aeey ia?iaeo, aeaoe no/anieeai i?eeeaae aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa,
?ice?eoe iniiaiee ci?no oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?. A.Eaieee
ciaethaaa ?.Iacaio ye aeina?ae/aiiai iie?oeea, ii?eoia oea?eae,
iaoeaiaoa ina?oe, iaoee e eoeueoo?e, oa, ianaiia?aae, aaoi? iieacaa
aaoueiaia ye aiaeaey oe?a?inueei? iaoe??, ai?oey ca ?? iacaeaaei?noue.
Ienueiaiiee aea?a o oai?? aeanio ?noi??inionueeo eiioeaioe?th
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, i?ioenoaaeaoe Oe?a?io oa ?in?th ye Cao?ae ?
No?ae, ye aea? i?ioeeaaei? eoeueoo?e.

Oe?a?inueea a?iiaaeyinoai i?eeiyei aiiiath ?c caoiieaiiyi, ui
i?aeoaa?aeeei aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeai, ye? ii?ooea A.Eaieee. Aaoi?
“Iacaie” noaa iaeiiio-ey?i?oei oe?a?inueeei ienueiaiieeii o Aaee/ei?:
eiai oai?e /eoaee ye aanonaea?e, noaaeee ia noeai?, ia?aeeaaeaee ?ioeie
iiaaie. A.Eaieee ii/aa a?ae?a?aaaoe ?ieue iaeiiai c i?ia?aeieo
?aeaieia?a oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? o ia?o?e iieiaei? OO no.

Ienueiaiieoeueeee aei?iaie A.Eaieiai caaaeaee aoa “ia /an?”. Oiai/ani?
oe?a?inuee? aeaeaiiy oe?iei ae?oeoaaee eiai oai?e, ye? aoee aaaiiei
/eiieeii o aeoiaaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? ia?iaeo oa i?iiaaoaaii?
oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? – “Iaoeiaa ae?yeuei?noue A.Eaieiai” – aecia/ai?
?ieue oa ?noi?e/ia i?noea iaoeiaeo i?aoeue a/aiiai o ?icaeoeo
oe?a?iiciaanoaa, aeine?aeaeai? iai?yiee iaoeiai-aeaeaaie/i? ae?yeueiino?
A.Eaieiai.

sse o/aiee A.Eaieee caeeoea aaaiiee iaoeiaee aei?iaie, o yeiio cia/ia
i?noea iin?a aeaioiiiee “Ia/a?e ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e” (1909,
1912). Iaienaiee ?c aeoiaiith oa i?ciaaaeueiith iaoith, a?i oe?eaaee ye
a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?noi??inionueei? eiioeaioe?? aaoi?a, iniiao yei?
noaiiaeoue ?aeay iaoe?iiaeueii? ie?ai?oiino? e oe?eino? ia?iaeo. Aeani?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?eaaee A.Eaieiai aei aeniiaeo, ui ?icii/eiaoe
“aea?aeaaieoeueeo” ?noi??th iaeaaeeoue a?ae Ee?anueei? ?on?.
O?iiieia?/ii “Ia/a?e…” ioiiea ia??iae aei XV no. Iicaaaeaiee nooiai
aeaaeai?cio i?ae?o/iee A.Eaieiai noaa iaaecae/aeii iiioey?iei na?aae
caaaeo. I?i noni?eueio oa iaoeiao aa?o?noue ia?eno na?ae/eoue
ia?aaeaeaiiy ia?oiai oiio o 1923 ?.

Aaaiia i?noea o iaoeia?e niaaeuei? A.Eaieiai caeiyee e
iaoeiai-iiioey?i? ia?ene, iaienai? ia aeiiao /ano. C aa?oaoe?eiith
iaoith c-i?ae ia?a a/aiiai aeeoea ?ica?aeea “*ei aeeaa oe?a?inueea
e?oa?aoo?a?” (1915), ia noi??ieao yei? aaoi? iiaeaa aea?aeaaieoeueea
o?aeooaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano. C iaoith aeoiaaiiy o
caaaeo iiaaae aei iaoe?iiaeueieo i?ia?aeiee?a, aeoai?aiiy ia ??ai?
iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? ia?aco oe?a?ioey-a?iiaaeyieia A.Eaieee
iaienaa iaoeiai-iiioey?i? ia?ene “I?i aeeooy aaeeeiai iiaoa Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea” (1911), “Ia?e?yi Oaoeaae/” (1912) oa ?i. O ?iaio? aeiaaaeaii,
ui ?ioaineaia iaoeiaa i?aoey A.Eaieiai ye ?aaeaeoi?a-oaenoieiaa o 20-o
??. (c?aaeaaoaaa 62 oiie oe?a?inueei? eeaneee) aoea i???ioiaaia ia
caaeiaieaiiy iio?aae oe?a?inueeiai /eoa/a a oe?a?inuee?e eieaeoe?. Aiia
noaea aaaiiei /eiieeii o i?ioean? eiinie?aeaoe?? oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa.

Ca aecia/i? caneoae ia iea? oe?a?inueei? iaoee A.Eaieee aoa o 30-o ??.
a?aecia/aiee ii/anieie caaiiyie i?ia?aeieo iaoeiaeo onoaiia oiai /ano:
ae?eniee /eai Iaoeiaiai Oiaa?enoaa ?i.O.Oaa/aiea o Eueaia?,
Iaaecae/aeiee /eai Oe?a?inueeiai Iaoeiaiai ?inoeoooo a Aa?e?i?, i?ioani?
Oe?a?inueeiai Iaoeiaiai ?inoeoooo o Aa?oaa?, ii/aniee aeieoi?
Oe?a?inueeiai A?eueiiai Oi?aa?neoaoo a I?ac?, aeaaeai?e Ee?anueei?
Iiaeeyinueei-Iacaieinueei? Aeaaeai?? o Aa?oaa?.

O o?aoueiio ia?aa?ao? – “Eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oiy oa a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ia
ae?yeuei?noue A.Eaieiai” – i?iaiae?ciaai? oaiaeaioe?? oa iniaeeaino?
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oiuei? oa a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino?
A.Eaieiai, ?? iniiai? iai?yiee e oa?aeoa?i? ?ene.

O eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oi?e i?aoe? A.Eaieee aa/ea iniiao, yea ia’?aeioaaea
oe?a?ioe?a iica iie?oeeith. Iniaeeao oaaao a?i i?eae?eea ni?ai?aoe? c
Oiaa?enoaii “I?ina?oa” o Eueaia?. sse ienueiaiiee ? a/aiee a?i
ni?a?ia?oie/aa ?c iao??iith “I?ina?oith” o aeaeaii? iiioey?ieo oa
iaoeiai-iiioey?ieo eieaeie aeey oe?ieiai caaaeo. I?ioyaii aaaaoueio
?ie?a eaeaiaea?? “I?ina?oe” ae?oeoaaee iiac?th oa i?ico ieooey, a ie?ai?
eiai oai?e Oiaa?enoai aeaeaei aeaniei eiooii, ui ni?e/eieei i?aeianaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? /eoa/?a. ssne?aaith noi??ieith a ?noi???
“I?ina?oe” caienaia ae?yeuei?noue A.Eaieiai o e?ae?anuee?e o?e??
i?aai?caoe??.

Aiaaeai Eaieee ni?ai?aoethaaa oaeiae ?c “??aeiith Oeieith” oa
aeo?iaeaie aeey ae?oae ia iea? aeaeaiiy aeeoy/i? e?oa?aoo?e, /eoaiie oa
aoeaa??a, ona?aeiiethth/e ?o ?ieue o aeoiaaii? iaeaooi?o iao??io?a. Ca
aecia/i? caneoae aeey oe?a?inueei? ina?oe oa eoeueoo?e ae?y/ aoa ia?aiee
o 1925 ?. ii/aniei /eaiii Oiaa?enoa “I?ina?oa” oa “??aeia Oeiea”.

A?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ia ae?yeuei?noue A.Eaieiai ye i?iiiaoey oa
ioae?oeenoa a?ae?a?aea iaoe?ioa??io ?ieue ia ii/aoeo OO no. sse
i?iiiaaoeue oa aeaeeaiaoi? A.Eaieee aenooiaa o aaaaoueio i?noao Aaee/eie
(Euea?a, Oa?iii?eue, ?i.), eoaee eiai cai?iooaaee aeey o/ano? o
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ii?acao c iaaiaee tha?ea?a O.Oaa/aiea, I.Oaoeaae/a,
?.O?aiea, ?.Iacaie oa ?i. Iiioey?i?noth ei?enooaaeeny aenooie ae?y/a
ia?aae oe?a?inueeith ai?a?aoe??th o A?aei?, Aa?e?i?, a oaai?ao aeey
oe?a?inueeeo iieiiaieo. Iiaa?ioaoenue ?c aeaiaiiy, A.Eaieee noaa iaeiei
c iaea?aeii?oeo i?iiiaoe?a oiai /ano, “iaea?eueo iiioey?iith iinoaooth
ia aaeeoeueeiio ??oio?” (I. Ea?iainueeee).

Oi?iaeiaae aeeooy A.Eaieee aeoeaii aeiienoaaa aei aaaaoueio aeaeaiue o
Aaee/ei? oa ca ei?aeiiii: ye ioae?oeeno a?i ni?ai?aoethaaa ?c /aniienaie
“?oneai”, “E?oa?aoo?ii-Iaoeiaee A?noiee”, “?wiat S?owianski”, “A?noiee
Nithca Aecaieaiiy Oe?a?ie”, “Oeyo”, “Oe?a?inueea Neiai”, “E?oiien”,
“E?ae?anuee? A?no?” oa ?i., ye? ae?oeoaaee eiai noaoo? ia iie?oe/i? oa
eoeueoo?ieia?/i? oaie. O ioae?oeenoeoe? i?iyaeany oaeaio A.Eaieiai ye
“a?aceeaiai noni?eueieea” (A.Aacooei). A?i ye iaeei ?c aecia/ieo ae?y/?a
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aoa aieiaith Oiaa?enoaa
Ienueiaiiee?a ? AEo?iae?no?a ?i.?.O?aiea o Eueaia?.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e – “A.Eaieee oa eiai ?ieue o iiaeeaeaii? ?ioaa?aoe??
Oe?a?ie o na?oiaee eoeueoo?iee i?ioean” – neeaaea?oueny c aeaio
ia?aa?ao?a. O ia?oiio c ieo – “Iinoaoue A.Eaieiai o eiioaeno?
oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo aca?iei ia ia?aeii? O?O – OO noie?oue” –
?icaeyiooa o/anoue A.Eaieiai o iaeaaiaeaeaii? oe?a?inueei-iieuenueei?
ni?ai?aoe? ai?iaeiaae 1899–1914 oa 1926–1941 ??., i?iaiae?ciaai? iniiai?
iai?yiee e oa?aeoa?i? ?ene eiai iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii? oa
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? na?aae iieye?a.

Iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeee eiioe?eo o Aaee/ei? iaaaoeaii iicia/eany ia
a?aeiineiao aeaio ia?iae?a, iaeiae aoee e aeiaaeee ie?aeii? ni?ai?aoe?
ia iea? i?aeiaoe?iiaeueiiai ii?icoi?iiy. Ia ia?aeii? O?O – OO no.
A.Eaieee a?ae?a?aa ?ieue “aiaanaaei?a” oe?a?inoaa o Iieueu?, aenooieaoe
ca iaeaaiaeaeaiiy aca?iei ia canaaeao oiea?aioiino? oa aa?iii?eiiai
ni?aaeeooy.

E?ae?a – iie?oe/iee ina?aaeie iieuenueeeo eiina?aaoeaieo oa?oiiaaiue
(noaiue/ee?a ? e?aa?ae-aeaiie?ao?a) oa oeaio? iieuenueei? iaoee e
ienoaoeoaa – a?ae?a?aa aaaiio ?ieue o noaiiaeaii? A.Eaieiai ye
a?iiaaenueei-eoeueoo?iiai ae?y/a. C aa?aniy 1899 ?. A.Eaieee i?aoethaaa
ooo ye eaeoi? oe?a?inueei? iiae a ssaaeeiinueeiio oi?aa?neoao?, ?acii ?c
oei aeeeaaeaa o e?ae?anueeeo a?iiac?yo. Iacaaaeath/e ia a?ae??aai?noue
a?ae ??aeii? caie?, ae?y/ ia ao?aoea ca’yce?a c Oe?a?iith – noaa
oeaio?aeueiith iinoaooth oe?a?inueei? e?ae?anueei? a?iiaaee. A.Eaieee
a?aa aeoeaio o/anoue o ae?yeueiino? i?noeaai? o?e?? Oiaa?enoaa
“I?ina?oa”, ai?iaeiaae aaaaoueio ?ie?a aeeiioth/e iaia’ycee canooiieea
aieiae o?e??. Caaaeyee eiai ?i?oe?aoeai?e ae?yeueiino? (aa/i?e, oi?,
eaeoe??) “I?ina?oa” o E?aeia? noaea aeooiaiei oeaio?ii oe?a?inueei?
eieii??.

Ae?i Eaieeo, iaeaooiaaiee a oe?a?inueeiio noee?, aoa “iacith
oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e ia /oaeeiiiio ionoa?eu?” (I.Aieoaaoeue). Ooo
ainothaaee ae?y/? oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e (I.Eioethaeinueeee, A.Noaoaiee,
I.Eiaeeyinueea, I.Eooeueeee, I.Aie/oe, ?.Naaa?ei, I.Iiaae?anueeee,
I.Eo?eean, ?i.) oa iie?oeee (I.Aa?a?inueeee, E.Nooaeeinueeee,
I.A?ooaanueeee, E.O?eeueianueeee, ?i.), /enaeueia oe?a?inueea
e?ae?anueea a?iiaaea. Ainoyie “aiaanaaee” aoee e iieyee: e?oa?aoi?e
ao?oo “Iieiaea Iieueua”, ooaeiaeieee, i?ioani?e Aeaaeai?? ienoaoeoa,
aeeeaaea/? ssaaeeiinueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Oaeei /eiii, ae?y/ aenooiaa
iineii oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? a Iieueu?, a iieuenueei? – a Oe?a?i?.

ssne?aaith noi??ieith ia iea? iieuenueei-oe?a?inueei? ni?ai?aoe? noaea
o/anoue A.Eaieiai o ?iaio? e?ae?anueeiai “Neia’yinueeiai Eeoao”
(1901–1906 ??.) ? eiai ae?oeiaaiiai i?aaio – i?ny/ieea “?wiat
S?owianski” (?aaeaaoaaa ?icae?ee “?onueea o?ii?ea” oa “Iaeyae ?onueei?
i?ane”, aenooiea ye ioae?oeeno. O aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiae?ciaaii ci?no eiai
noaoae “Iaoeiaa oiaa?enoai ?i.O.Oaa/aiea o Eueaia?”, “C ?onueeeo i?aoeue
oa caoiae?a”, “Ia?ane?aeoaaiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae. Oeac 1876 ?ieo”,
“?onuee? a?aeeoiiy c-ca ei?aeiio”, “Oe?a?inueea a?/a a Iaoa?ao?c?”, “Ui
?iaeoue Oe?a?ia?”, “?oneie a Aeoi?”). O 1907 ?. ae?y/, /a?ac
?aeaeii-iie?oe/i? ?icoiaeaeaiiy c ?aaeaeoe??th i?ny/ieea, a?ae?eoia a?ae
?iaioe a Eeoa? e /aniien?.

I?iaeiaaeaiiyi iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeiai ae?aeiao noaea o?nia ni?ai?aoey
A.Eaieiai c A.Eeieinueeei o ?aae?caoe?? ?aea? iiaa?iaiiy aei oe?a?inoaa
niieueuaii? oeyooe. O 1909 ?. inoaii?e canioaaa c oe??th iaoith /aniien
“Przegl?d Krajowy”, ia noi??ieao yeiai ia??iaee/ii ae?oeoaaa
ioae?oeenoe/i? oa eoeueoo?ieia?/i? i?aoe? A.Eaieiai, eiai iiaoe/i?
oai?e. Oe?a?inueei-iieuenueea ni?a?ia?oieoeoai o aaeoc? e?oa?aoo?e oa
aeaeaaie/i? ae?yeueiino? cana?ae/eee eiioaeoe A.Eaieiai c iieuenueeei
ienueiaiieeii A.I?eaiii (O.Ni?a/einueeei). ?acoeueoaoii ?o ni?ai?aoe?
noaei aeaeaiiy ia?aeeaae?a iiaae oe?a?inueeeo ieooe?a “M?oda Ukraina”
(1907).

O 1926 ?. A.Eaieee i/ieea eaoaae?o oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e a
ssaaeeiinueeiio oi?aa?neoao?. sse aeeeaaea/ i?aaioa yeiaee?aua
i?aeaiooaaoe oe?a?inueeo iieiaeue aei iaeaooiuei? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei?
oa iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aoe? ia aaouee?auei?. Eaeoe?? A.Eaieiai
i?eaa?oaee oaaao iaeoe?oiai caaaeo ye oe?a?ioe?a, oae ? iieye?a. Ae?y/
a?aa aeoeaio o/anoue a i?aai?caoe?? oa ae?yeueiino? o 30–40-o ??.
nooaeaionueeeo oiaa?enoa E?aeiaa, Aa?oaae.

I?ioani? ssaaeeiinueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ii?aeiaa aeeeaaeaoeueeo ?iaioo c
o/anoth o ae?yeueiino? iaoeiaeo onoaiia Iieueu?: Oe?a?inueeiai Iaoeiaiai
?inoeoooo (Aa?oaaa), E?ae?anueeiai a?aeae?eo Oiaa?enoaa No?aeii? ?a?iie
? Aeecueeiai Noiaeo, Iieuenueei? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe (E?ae?a), ?inoeoooo
aeine?aeaeaiue Noiaeo (Aa?oaaa), Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo No?aeii?
?a?iie (A?eueii) oa ?i. I?i oe?ie? ca’ycee A.Eaieiai c iieuenueeeie
iaoeiaeie oa a?iiaaenueeeie i?aai?caoe?yie na?ae/eee eiai aca?ieie c
E?oa?aoo?iei oiaa?enoaii ?i.A.I?oeeaae/a, Iieuenueeei o?eieia?/iei
oiaa?enoaii, Iieuenueeei ?noi?e/iei oiaa?enoaii, Eieii iieii?no?a,
Aeaaeai?/iei eieii “Kresowe” ?i. O 30-o ??. ae?y/ a?aa o/anoue o ?iaio?
i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo eiia?an?a neaa?no?a (Aa?e?i, I?aaa, Aa?oaaa,
?i.), aea ?ai?acaiooaaa oe?a?inueeee iaoeiaee na?o. Aeiaaie?oiy iaoeiaa
ae?yeuei?noue i?ioani?a ssaaeeiinueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo aoea a?aecia/aia o
1938 ?. a?iiciaith iaaeaeeth caaaeaiiai caeeaaeo.

sse ienueiaiiee, a/aiee, i?iiiaaoeue oa ioae?oeeno A.Eaieee ei?enooaaany
aaeeeei aaoi?eoaoii na?aae iieye?a. Ca aecia/i? caneoae ia iea?
oe?a?inueei-iieuenueei? ni?ai?aoe? ae?y/ aoa ?iaiiaaiee o 1938 ?.
naiaoi?ii ?a/? Iiniieeoi?. Eiai ia?eaiaionueea ae?yeuei?noue aoea
ni?yiiaaia ia caoeno ?ioa?an?a oe?a?inueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa, i?i ui
na?ae/eea, cie?aia, i?iiiaa “Aaeeea o?aaeeoe?y oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ia
aeanoue eiio caaeiooe”.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? – “A.Eaieee ye iiioey?ecaoi? oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e
o na?o?” – i?iaiae?ciaai? iniiai? iai?yiee oa ci?no iiioey?ecaoi?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? A.Eaieiai, c’yniaaii eiai aianie o ni?aao ?ioaineaiiai
aeeth/aiiy oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e aei na?oiaiai eoeueoo?iiai i?ioeano.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeaia ia?aeeaaeaoeueea ae?yeuei?noue ieooey,
ianaiia?aae, c oe?a?inueei? iiae ia iieuenueeo. O aei?iaeo ae?y/a aaaiia
i?noea iin?ee aeineiiae? ia?aeeaaee iieuenueeith iiaith “Neiaa i iieeo
?ai?aa?i”, oai??a I.Eioethaeinueeiai, O.Oaa/aiea, I.Eiaeeyinueei?,
I.Eoe?oa, ?.O?aiea, I.?eeuenueeiai oa ?i., aeiouai? ie?aieie aeaeaiiyie,
iioae?eiaai? ia noi??ieao aioieia?e oa ia??iaeeee. O aeai?? oaiaoeee
aeaeaiue ae?acii aeaeii aaaeaiiy ia?aeeaaea/a /a?ac oai?e e?aueo ieooe?a
iciaeiieoe /eoa/a c aeooiaiith eoeueoo?ith oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, ui
a?ae??ciyeany a?ae ?ioeo iaoe?iiaeueieo ni?eueiinoae.

Iiioey?ecaoe?? eoeueoo?ieo caeiaooe?a oe?a?inoaa ni?eyea iaoeiaa
ae?yeuei?noue A.Eaieiai. “Zarys literatury ukrai?skiej” (1930) a/aiiai,
ui noaa ia?oei i?ae?o/ieeii c ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e, a?aee?ea
aeey iieuenueeiai /eoa/a e?au? caeiaooee oe?a?inueeiai ienueiainoaa o
eiioaeno? eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano. A.Eaieee aoa aaoi?ii iecee
eoeueoo?ieia?/ieo noaoae, iioae?eiaaieo ia noi??ieao aeaeaiue a ?a?ii?
oa Aia?eoe?, a yeeo i?aee?aneea ?a?iiaenueeee oa?aeoa? oai?/ino?
oe?a?inueeeo ieooe?a. ?ioaineaiiio aeeth/aiith oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e
aei na?oiaiai eoeueoo?iiai i?ioeano ni?eyee oe?a?inueeiiiai? ia?aeeaaee
oa iaoeia? nooae?? A.Eaieiai e?aueo caeiaooe?a e?oa?aoo? na?oo.

Aeniea ooaeiaeiy aa?o?noue ? cia/ei?noue ?aeaeiiai ci?noo oai??a
A.Eaieiai ye “i?aaenoaaieea oe?a?inueei? /ano?” (A.-O.Aooeuee?)
i?eaa?ioee oaaao ia?aeeaaea/?a iieuenueeith, /anueeith, i?iaoeueeith,
na?ai-oi?aaonueeith, oai?nueeith, aiae?enueeith, ii?ooaaeuenueeith
iiaaie. ?i’y ieooey oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaia ia noi??ieao aeaeaiue
oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e a Aia?eoe?. Ca e?euee?noth iioae?eiaaieo oai??a
ca iaaeaie Oe?a?ie A.Eaieee iinooia?oueny eeoa ia?aae O.Oaa/aieii oa
?.O?aieii.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiaii ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Aiie caiaeyoueny aei oaeeo iieiaeaiue.

Aiaaeai Eaieee – i?aaenoaaiee iiai? aaia?aoe?? oe?a?inueeeo
iaoe?iiaeueieo i?ia?aeiee?a, yea aeeoea ia ?noi?e/io a?aio a e?ioe? O?O
– ia ii/aoeo OO no. ?aea?, ye? A.Eaieee ooaa?aeaeoaaa oi?iaeiaae aeeooy:
– i?iaieioaiiy oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? iacaeaaeiino?, – ?icoi?iiy ye
?aeeiiiiaeeeaiai oeyoo aei aeanii? aea?aeaaiino? /a?ac
eoeueoo?ii-aeooiaia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, – oe?iea aa/aiiy
caaaeueiioe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei, –
?a?iiecaoe?y oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, – noaee canaae/eie o eiai
??ciia?/i?e ae?yeueiino?.

Aaaaoia?aiia ae?yeuei?noue A.Eaieiai ye ienueiaiieea, a/aiiai,
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oiueiai oa a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiai ae?y/a aoea
ni?yiiaaia ia ooaa?aeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea? o na?aeiiino?
oe?a?ioe?a, o yeeo a?i oio?a aa/eoe, ianaiia?aae, iao??io?a-niai?iee?a,
ai?aeeo oeny/ie?oi?ie iaaooeaie oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e oa aioiaeo
ai?ioeny ca aea?aeaaio naiino?ei?noue Oe?a?ie, ye caii?oee aeaeueoiai
caaaa/aiiy aeooiaii? nea?aieoe? oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? o iaeaooiueiio.
Ae?yeuei?noue A.Eaieiai noaea aaaiiei /eiieeii o i?ioean? eiinie?aeaoe??
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa.

?ai?acaiooth/e ia?aae na?oii oe?a?inueeee ia?iae, eiai eoeueoo?o e
iaoeo, A.Eaieee aenooiea ye iin?e iaoe?iiaeueieo oa ?ae?a?eieo
o?aaeeoe?e, oe?a?inueeeo cae/a?a ? oe?a?inueeiai aeooo. O neeaaeieo
oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo aca?ieiao e?ioey O?O – ii/aoeo OO no. ae?y/
a?ae?a?aa ?ieue “aiaanaaei?a” oe?a?inoaa o Iieueu?, aenooieaoe ca
iaeaaiaeaeaiiy oeeo aca?iei ia canaaeao oiea?aioiino? oa aa?iii?eiiai
ni?aaeeooy. I?ia?aeia ?aeay iiioey?ecaoi?nueei? ae?yeueiino? A.Eaieiai –
aeiaanoe, ui oe?a?inueeee ia?iae noai?ea oe?iiino?, eio?? caaacia/eee
eiio ii/ania i?noea a caaaeueiineia’yinueeiio oa na?oiaiio eoeueoo?iiio
i?ioean?.

Ae?y/ ni?aaea cia/iee aieea ia ?icaeoie oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai oa noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy, oei naiei
a?ae?a?aa aaaiio ?ieue o naiiooaa?aeaeaii? oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? oa
noai?aii? ia?aaeoiia aea?aeaaiino? e niai?iino? Oe?a?ie.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1.Aiaaeai Eaieee o aeooiaiiio a?ae?iaeaeaii? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. –
Oa?iii?eue: Ca?o/, 1999. – 144 n.

2.Aiaaeai Eaieee ? Oe?a?inueea Iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay // Iaoeia? caienee
Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y:
?noi??y. – Aei.VI. – Oa?iii?eue, 1997. – N.211–215.

3.Aiaaeai Eaieee ? “Neia’yinueeee Eeoa” o E?aeia? // Iaoeia? caienee
Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea. Na??y: ?noi??y. – Aei.VII. – Oa?iii?eue, 1998. –
N.187–193.

4.Aiaaeai Eaieee a aeooiai?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie (?noi??ia?ao?/iee iaeyae)
// Iaoeia? caienee Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea. Na??y: ?noi??y. – Aei.VII?. –
Oa?iii?eue, 1999. – N.198–205.

5.Iaoeiaa ae?yeuei?noue Aiaaeaia Eaieiai // Iaoeia? caienee
Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea. Na??y: ?noi??y. – Aei.?O. – Oa?iii?eue, 1999. –
N.20-25.

6.Aiaaeai Eaieee a aeooiai?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie. – Aeaeaa ae-? ?iiai Niee.
– *eeaai, Oa?iii?eue, 1996. – 56 n.

7.A.Eaieee a aeooiai?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie // Oe?a?ia ? na?o. ?noi??y:
ieioea ? no/ani?noue. Oaiaoe/iee ca??iee i?aoeue nooaeaio?a ? ani??aio?a
?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
?inoeoooo. – Oa?iii?eue, 1995. – N.92–95.

8.Aiaaeai Eaieee ? Oe?a?ia // Oe?a?ia ia oeyoo aei iacaeaaeiino? ?
aeaiie?ao??. Oaiaoe/iee ca??iee i?aoeue aeeeaaea/?a, nooaeaio?a ?
ani??aio?a ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo. – Oa?iii?eue, 1996. – N.113–115.

9.Aiaaeai Eaieee ye iiioey?ecaoi? oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e o Iieueu?
(ia?aeeaaeaoeueea ae?yeuei?noue ieooey) // Slavica Tarnopolensia. –
Oa?iii?eue, 1996. – *.3. – N.47–53.

10.Iieuenueeee aiein i?i Aiaaeaia Eaieiai (oai?/?noue A.Eaieiai a
ioe?ioe? I.sseoaoey) // Studia Methodologica. – Oa?iii?eue, 1997. –
Aei.3. – N.121–122.

11.Aiaaeai Eaieee o eiioaeno? oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo a?aeiinei //
Oe?a?inueea ai?a?aoe?y a ?noi??? oa e?oa?aoo??. Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? (18–20 aa?aniy 1996 ?.). – Oa?iii?eue, 1996. –
N.119–125.

12.Aiaaeai Eaieee ? a?aei-eaoieeoeueea eea?eeaeueia ioi/aiiy // ?aeay
iaoe?iiaeueii? oea?eae a Oe?a?i?. Iaoa??aee Anaoe?a?inueei?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? (17–18 aeiaoiy 1997 ?.). – Oa?iii?eue,
1997. – N.60–65.

13.Aiaaeai Eaieee – i?ioani? ssaaeeiinueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo // Oai?/?noue
A.Eaieiai a eiioaeno? ?a?iiaenueei? eoeueoo?e OO noie?ooy. Iaoa??aee
Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/aii? 125-??//th a?ae aeiy
ia?iaeaeaiiy ienueiaiieea. / Ca ?aae. i?io. I.I.Oea/oea. – Oa?iii?eue:
OAeIO, 1998. – N.119–124.

14.I?aoi?nueea ienoaoeoai Aiaaeaia Eaieiai // Oai?/?noue A.Eaieiai a
eiioaeno? ?a?iiaenueei? eoeueoo?e OO noie?ooy. Iaoa??aee Anaoe?a?inueei?
iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/aii? 125-??//th a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy
ienueiaiieea. / Ca ?aae. i?io. I.I.Oea/oea. – Oa?iii?eue: OAeIO, 1998. –
N.347–352.

15.Aiaaeai Eaieee ye iiioey?ecaoi? oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e o Iieueu? //
Oe?a?inueei-Iieuenueeee neiiic?oi “I?iaeaie o?ainoi?iaoe?? a
aoiai?oa?i?e, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e oa iaoeiai-ina?oi?e noa?ao”. Ca.
oac. (16–20 /a?aiy 1997 ?.). – Oa?iii?eue, 1997. – N.38.

16.Iaoeiaee aei?iaie Aiaaeaia Eaieiai ye oaiiiai oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy e?ioey O?O – ii/aoeo OO no. //
Ae?y/? iaoee ? ienoaoeoaa ??aeiiai e?ath o ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e. Ca. iaoa??ae?a ? oac iaoeiai?
eiioa?aioe?? (29–30 aa?aniy 1998 ?.). – ??aia, 1998. – N.138–140.

17.Niai?ieoeuee? ia?aeiiaiiy Aiaaeaia Eaieiai // Oa?iii?eey’97.
?aa?iiaeueiee ??/iee. – Oa?iii?eue: Ca?o/, 1997. – N.295–297.

A?eee I.?. ?ieue Aiaaeaia Eaieiai oa eiai oai?/ino? a oe?a?inueeiio
iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?ae?iaeaeaii? (e?iaoeue O?O – ii/aoie OO no.). –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. – *a?i?aaoeueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? TH??y Oaaeueeiae/a, *a?i?aoe?, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? cae?eniaii eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeooy e
ae?yeueiino? A.N.Eaieiai /a?ac i?ecio oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?.
Aieiaio oaaao i?eae?eaii ci?noo, oi?iai ? iai?yieai oe??? ae?yeueiino?.
?icaeyiooi i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy oa aaiethoe?? iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/ieo
iiaeyae?a ae?y/a. I?iaiae?ciaaia ?ieue eiai ienueiaiieoeueei?, iaoeiai?,
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oiuei? oa a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? a
oe?a?inueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?ae?iaeaeaii? e?ioey O?O – ii/aoeo OO
no., o i?aeianaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.
Aeine?aeaeaii iinoaoue ae?y/a o eiioaeno? oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo
aca?iei, a oaeiae cia/aiiy A.Eaieiai o iiioey?ecaoe?? oe?a?inueei?
eoeueoo?e na?aae ?ioeo ia?iae?a. Anoaiiaeaii i?noea A.Eaieiai a ?noi???
a?o/eciyii? eoeueoo?e.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: A.N.Eaieee, oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay,
iaoe?iiaeueia na?aeii?noue, Aaee/eia, iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy,
?ioaa?aoe?y, eoeueoo?iee i?ioean.

Aeeue I.E. ?ieue Aiaaeaia Eaieiai e aai oai?/anoaa a oe?aeineii
iaoeeiiaeueiii aic?iaeaeaiee (eiiaoe OIX – ia/aei OO aa.). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 – enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. – *a?iiaeoeeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eiaie TH?ey Oaaeueeiae/a, *a?iiaoeu, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee inouanoaeaii eiiieaeniia enneaaeiaaiea aeecie e
aeayoaeueiinoe A.N.Eaieiai neaicue i?ecio oe?aeineie iaoeeiiaeueiie
eaeae. Aeaaiia aieiaiea oaeaeaii niaea?aeaieth, oi?iai e iai?aaeaieyi
yoie aeayoaeueiinoe. ?anniio?aii i?ioeann noaiiaeaiey e yaiethoeee
iaoeeiiaeueii-iao?eioe/aneeo acaeyaeia aeayoaey. I?iaiaeece?iaaia ?ieue
aai ienaoaeueneie, iao/iie, eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueneie e
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a oe?aeineii iaoeeiiaeueiii
aic?iaeaeaiee eiioea XIX – ia/aea OO aa., a iiauoaiee iaoeeiiaeueiiai
niciaiey oe?aeineiai ia?iaea. Enneaaeiaaia oeao?a aeayoaey a eiioaenoa
oe?aeinei-iieueneeo acaeiiioiioaiee, a oaeaea cia/aiea A.Eaieiai a
iiioey?ecaoeee oe?aeineie eoeueoo?u n?aaee ae?oaeo ia?iaeia. Onoaiiaeaii
ianoi A.N.Eaieiai a enoi?ee ioa/anoaaiiie eoeueoo?u.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: A.N.Eaieee, oe?aeineay iaoeeiiaeueiay eaeay,
iaoeeiiaeueiia niciaiea, Aaeeoeey, iaoeeiiaeueiia aic?iaeaeaiea,
eioaa?aoeey, eoeueoo?iue i?ioeann.

Bilyk N.I. Bohdan Lepkyi’s role and his creative work in the Ukrainian
National Revival (the end of XIX – the beginning of the XX cent.). –
Manuscript.

The dissertation for the Candidate Degree in History, Speciality
07.00.01 – History of Ukraine. – Chernivtsy Yu.Fedkovych State
University, Chernivtsi, 1999.

The dissertation contains an integrated investigation on the live and
work of Bohdan Lepkyi performed in the light of the Ukrainian national
idea. The main attention has been dedicated to the content, forms and
trends of this work.

A systematic research of interrelated problems of the overall topic –
the historiography of the topic and an overview of the bibliography
sources; national and patriotic viewpoints of B.Lepkyi; the role of a
leader in the Ukrainian national, cultural and statehood revival of the
later XIX and early XX centuries; B.Lepkyi’s involvement in deepening
integration of Ukraine in the global cultural process – has been done on
the basis of critical analysis of Ukrainian and foreign bibliography, as
well as through introducing new sources of bibliography to the
sicentific forum.

The historiography of the topic has been analyzed in the dissertation.
The author has proved that the given topic has not been touched upon
earlier. The work is based on a wide range of documents from Kyiv,
L’viv, Krakow and Berezhany (Ukraine) archives that so far have not been
introduced to the scientific arena. Some published documents, memoirs,
and newspaper materials have been utilized in the work.

The proces of maturing and evolution of national and patriotic
viewpoints of the figure have been analyzed against the background of
Ukrainian social and cultural life. The main milestones of the process,
and main events influencing it have been found. It has been proved that
the political viewpoints of B.Lepkyi were closely linked to the
realities of his time. Based on the analysis of B.Lepkyi’s outlook, it
has been proved that the foundation for the latter was built upon the
idea of independent Ukrainian state. National and politicval interests
conflicting, B.Lepkyi always gave preference to the former. The idea
asserted by B.Lepkyi throughout his life – proclamation of Ukrainian
national independence, critical role of cultural and spiritual revival
in establishing the statehood, deep understanding of Ukraine-wide issues
with regard to international relations, integration of Ukrainian society
to the European context – was the keystone in his multi-directional
activities.

The writer’s, scientific, cultural and enlightment efforts of B.Lepkyi
aimed at development and dissemination of the Ukrainian national idea
have been analyzed. The influence of B.Lepkyi’s creative works on his
contemporaries, the present national, cultural and social life of the
Ukrainian sociesty has been investigated. The role of the artist in
encouraging the overall national thinking has been researched. The
dissertation touches upon his poetry, as well as the historic novel
“Mazepa”, which play the leading role in establishing the figure in the
process of national revival. It has been illustrated that the creative
work of the writer was a direct response to the national and liberation
processes taking place in Ukraine at that time, it reflected the wide
range of national feelings of the Ukrainian people.

The investigation deals with the main scientific and popular science
works on the Ukrainian literarture of the scientist. His editing and
publishing activities were also touched upon. We have also shown the
role of B.Lepkyi in the “Prosvita” and “Ridna Shkola” movements, and
pointed to the main trends of his cultural and enlightment efforts. The
role of B.Lepkyi as a publicist and orator in the creation of the nation
and in Ukrainian social and cultural movements on the verge of the
centuries has been described. It has been proved that the united Ukraine
was the key idea of the intelectual heritage of B.Lepkyi, whereas the
forging of Ukrainian state-building consciousness and the national elite
was proclaimed by him as the priority of his multi-directional efforts.
B.Lepkyi’s patriotic initiative was widely supported by the progressive
part of the Ukrainian society, while B.Lepkyi himself started to play
the role of one of the leading ideologists of Ukrainian independence at
the beginning of the XX century.

The dissertation analyzes the figure of B.Lepkyi in the context of
Ukrainian-Polish relations during the period of 1899–1914 and 1926–1941.
His role in establishing relationship between the neighbouring peoples
in the field of culture, science, education, social and political life
has been shown. An investigation has been performed on B.Lepkyi’s
participation in the activities of the Krakow “Slavic Club”, his
personal contacts with the representatives of other nationalities, his
role as a professor of Jagellonski University in continued
representation of Ukrainian studies in the world.

The main trends of B.Lepkyi’s popularization efforts aimed at
institutionalisation of the Ukrainian culture among cultures of other
peoples has been established. His Ukrainian-to-Polish translator’s
activities, works written in Polish, which carried an important national
and political mission, have also been touched upon. The role of his
works translated into foreign languages and published in Polish, Czech,
Serbian, German, English, US and Canadian publications in deepening
integration of Ukraine into the global cultural process has been
emphasized.

The work also focuses on integrated work of B.Lepkyi, which was a sound
assertion of the thesis of democracy and human character of the
Ukrainian national idea. The role of B.Lepkyi in the history of the
national culture has been established. His multi-purpose activities have
been described as a phenomenon of national revival of Galitia Ukrainians
at the beginning of the XX century, as a vivid example of further growth
of national spirit. The dissertation proves that the work of B.Lepkyi
was of an all-Ukrainian character. This figure has enjoyed influence on
the development of Ukrainian national, cultural, social and political
life and consequently played a significant role in the self-assertion
the Ukrainian nation and creation of prerequisites for the Ukrainian
statehood.

Key words: B.S.Lepkyi, Ukrainian national idea, national consciousness,
Galitia, national revival, integration, cultural process.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 06.09.1999 ?. Oi?iao 60/90/16. Iai?? ae?oe. ?1.

Ae?oe. ionao. Oiiai. a?e.1,0. Cai. ? 97.

Iaeeaae 100 i?ei.

?aaeaeoe?eii-aeaeaaie/ee a?aeae?e

Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i. Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea

i. Oa?iii?eue, aoe. I. E?eaiiina, 2 , oae. 33-50-55.

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