2

Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie

?inoeooo aeiiii?ee

Iaiaeeao?a A?eoi? Iiaeyiiae/

OAeE 330.59

??aaiue aeeooy ianaeaiiy

oa iaoai?cie eiai ?aaoethaaiiy

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.09.01-Aeaiia?ao?y, aeiiii?ea i?aoe?, nioe?aeueia
aeiiii?ea ? iie?oeea

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aiaeiy Aeai’yi Iao?iae/,

?inoeooo aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo aeiiii?ee i?aoe?

? caeiyoino? ianaeaiiy

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aiiaea? ?ioa?ia Ean’yi?aia,

Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee aeiiii?/iee

?inoeooo I?i?noa?noaa aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo i?iaeai i?aoe?, iie?oeee

aeioiae?a ? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

E?aaiiaa Aeea Ia?eai?aia,

?aaea ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee

Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo ethaenueeiai ?icaeoeo;

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Eieio Aiaoie?e Ieoaeeiae/,

Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

a.i. i?ioani?a eaoaae?e aeiiii?ee i?aoe?.I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa -Ee?anueeee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (eaoaae?a aeiiii?/ii? oai???).

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “11” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 14-00 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.150.02 ii caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a (eaiaeeaeaoa) iaoe
a ?inoeooo? aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252011, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Iaiana Ie?iiai, 26.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo aeiiii?ee
IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “10 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

Noaoaiei A.N.1. Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. O eiiieaen? neeaaeieo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai Oe?a?ie, ui aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycai? c
o?ainoi?iaoe??th ?? aeiiii?ee ia ?eieiaeo canaaeao, aeiyoeiai aaaeeeaa
?ieue iaeaaeeoue ??aith aeeooy ianaeaiiy ye iniiae
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa. Ianaiia?aae, oea
coiiaeaii iino?eiei i?aaiaiiyi ethaeae aei caaacia/aiiy ye?nii aeuiai
??aiy caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?.

sse aeiiii?/ia eaoaai??y ”??aaiue aeeooy” iaeaaeeoue aei /enea
iaeneeaaei?oeo nenoaiieo iiiyoue. Aeiyoeiai aaaeeeaa ?ieue oe???
eaoaai??? o ?eieia?e aeiiii?oe? coiiaeaia oei, ui aiia ia? iaeii/anii oa
??aiioe?iii aeeiioaaoe ieceo ooieoe?e, iia’ycaieo ?c aea/aiiyi
a?aeoai?aiiy oiia aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? oa iioeaaoe?eiiai niiioeaiiy
ianaeaiiy aei ye?niiai iiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?e niiaeeaaiiy.

Eiaeia nenoaia ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia? iniaeea?, i?eoaiaii? naia ?e
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee, i?aai?caoe?eii-?icii?yae/ee oa i?aaiaee
iaoai?cie ?aaoethaaiiy ??aiy aeeooy. Ia?ao?ae a?ae oeaio?ae?ciaaii?,
ieaiiai-aee?aeoeaii? aeiiii?ee aei nenoaie, caniiaaii? ia e?aa?aeueieo
?eieiaeo canaaeao, iio?aao? aeiei??iiiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy ?nioth/eo oa
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?eioeeiiai iiaeo iaoai?ci?a ?aaoethaaiiy aeeoo?aiai
??aiy ianaeaiiy. Naia ia oeueiio iai?yi? iiaiith i??ith iiaeooue aooe
?aae?ciaai? ia?aaaae ?eieiai? iiaeae? aeiiii?ee uiaei ?? iioaioe?eieo
iiaeeeainoae aeeiai?/iiai i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy.

Aeiaiaeeoueny eiinoaooaaoe, ui ia nueiaiaei? ieoaiiy ?aoi?ioaaiiy
no?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo, ui a?aeiinyoueny aei nenoaie ??aiy aeeooy
ianaeaiiy cae?enith?oueny aac iaeaaeiiai iaoeiai-iaoiaeieia?/iiai
caaacia/aiiy. Aiane?aeie oeueiai i?aeoe/ii ia a?aeaoeiny /?oeiai
?iciaaeoaaiiy aea?aeaaieo ? ?eieiai-?aaoeyoeaieo ooieoe?e caaacia/aiiy
iioei?caoe?? ia?aiao??a ??aiy aeeooy ??cieo noni?eueieo a?oi ? ianaeaiiy
a oe?eiio. Ia a?aei?aoeueiaai? oaeiae ? iia? i?aeoiaee oa iaoai?cie
cae?eniaiiy ?aaoethaaiiy ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy. Iniaeeai oea
noino?oueny caoiae?a uiaei iaae?eiiai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
iaeicaaacia/aieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy.

Iaeia c oa?aeoa?ieo iniaeeainoae ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo a Oe?a?i? iieyaa?
o oiio, ui a i?ioean? e?aa?ae?caoe?? aeiiii?/ieo oa nioe?aeueieo
a?aeiinei aea?aeaaa ia?anoaea cae?enithaaoe aaniethoia ?aaoethaaiiy
aeinyaiaiiy eiie?aoieo ia?aiao??a ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy, o oie /an ye
?eieia? ?aaoeyoi?e ua ia cai?aoethaaee ia iiaio neeo. Ia i?aeoeoe?
cai?noue ieaiiai-aee?aeoeaii? iiaeae? aeiiii?/iiai oa i?aai?caoe?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy ??aiy aeeooy ae?? iica?eieiaa, aia?oi-e?aa?aeueia iiaeaeue.
Aiane?aeie oeueiai, i?ioeane o noa?? ?aaoethaaiiy ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy
iaaoee ae?ae iaaacia/iiai, noeo?eii-aacnenoaiiiai oa?aeoa?o.
Aeaoi?iaoe??, ye? iathoue i?noea o noa?? aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy
nueiaiaei? aaea iano?eueee ianooaai? ? aeeaeii?, ui iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe
cai?oaiiy i?ioeano a?aeoai?aiiy ethaenueeiai iioaioe?aeo, aeaa?aaeaoe?th
iniiaii? i?iaeoeoeaii? neee noni?euenoaa ? iaaacia/io aeanoaa?e?caoe?th
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? ianoaiiaee a aea?aeaa?.

Aiae?c eiiieaeno i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo ?c aeeoa?aioe?aoe??th ? ?iciiae?eii
aeioiae?a i?ae ??cieie aa?noaaie ianaeaiiy, iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee ?
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy aoaeoeaieo ?aaoethth/eo caoiae?a uiaei iaiaaeaiiy
i?ioean?a nioe?aeueii? ia?a?iae?caoe?? ? aeiiii?/ii? “o?i?caoe??” iiaeia
a?aeianoe aei iaea?eueo neeaaeieo oa eiioe?eoii-eie?c?eieo i?iaeai, ui
iaia’yceiai iathoue ae??ooaaoenue ia canaaeao aeaaaeaii? ocaiaeaeaiino?
?ioa?an?a ??cieo noni?eueieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy. A?aenooi?noue a Oe?a?i?
ia neeaaeiiio aoai? noni?eueii? o?ainoi?iaoe??
eiioeaiooaeueii-oe?e?nieo, nenoaiii-caaeainiaaieo oa iaoiaeieia?/ii
iaa?oioiaaieo iaoai?ci?a ?aaoethaaiiy aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy o
ii?aeiaii? c aeeaieith aeiiii?/iith e?ecith, coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue
eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie ? ??cei iineeth? ??
aeooaeuei?noue.

Nooi?iue aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie. Iaoiaeieia?/i?, iaoiaee/i? oa
i?eeeaaei? ieoaiiy aaaaoianiaeoii? i?iaeaie ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy oa
eiai ?aaoethaaiiy aoee ? caeeoathoueny ia’?eoii iino?eieo iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue. ??ci? aniaeoe i?iaeaie aeeoo?aiai ??aiy aeine?aeaeoaaee
a/ai? Oe?a?ie: Aaceethe A.A., Aaiaeo? N.?., Aiaeiy Ae.I., Aiiaea? ?.E.,
Aoaooeueeee I.A., Aanaiia N.N., Aiea?aeaiei ?.O., E??’yi O.I., Eicae
A.?., Eieio A.I., E?aaiiaa A.I., Eoe?iia ?.?., Ianoa?aiei A.I., Iia?eia
A.I., Ii?e??iei A.A., Iaee?i TH.?., Ianoaaa? A.E., ?aaaiei A.I.,Na?iei
TH.?., *ooii A.A. oa ?io?. Ie?ai? ieoaiiy nioe?aeueiiai noaio,
?ioeyoe?eieo i?ioean?a oa ??aiy aeeooy ??cieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy
aeeeaaeaii a ioae?eaoe?yo Ai?iaethea A.I., Aaeoey A.I., Eaanithea A.?.,
Iaeaeueiiiaa A.N., Ie?iaeeiaa N.?., I?ieiie ?.A., Oiainueeiai I.I.,
*a?iyea A.E., Oaiioueei E.I., Oooiaa ?.I. oa ?ioeo a/aieo.

I?iaeaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo aniaeo?a aeeoo?aiai
??aiy ianaeaiiy i?enay/ai? oaeiae ?iaioe a/aieo e?a?i NIAe — Aaaee?ia
E.?., Aiaeiaa A.I., Aaie?ia A.I., Eaiono?ia ?.?., Ea?ioo?ia Ae.I.,
Eie?ia TH.?., Eioaee?ia A.?., Eoe?eiaa A.A., Iaea?a A.O., ?aeoeeia
A.ss., ??iaoaanueei? I.I., Na?e?nyia A.N., sseiae?aa ?.A. oa ?ioeo. O
?iaioao cacia/aieo a/aieo aeine?aeaeothoueny oai?aoe/i? i?iaeaie ??aiy
aeeooy ianaeaiiy oa iaaaoeai? i?ioeane, ui iathoue i?noea o oe?e noa??,
?icaeyaeathoueny ie?ai? aniaeoe ?aoi?ioaaiiy ae?th/eo iaoai?ci?a
?aaoethaaiiy aeeoo?aiai ??aiy. I?e oeueiio aeniiaee uiaei i?e/ei, ye?
coiiaeee aeaoi?iaoe?th o noa?? caaacia/aiiy ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy oa
iai?yie iiaeieaiiy iaeiie/aieo noia?a/iinoae, ia eeoa a?ae??ciythoueny
iaiaeii??aei?noth noaeaeaiue, a ia??aeei a?aecia/athoueny ? iiey?i?noth.

Aaaiiee aianie aei ?ic?iaee ie?aieo i?iaeai aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy
oa iaoai?ci?a eiai ?aaoethaaiiy cae?enieee aeiiii?noe aeaeaeiai
ca?oa?aeaey — Aeueaa?o I., Aaeueoea?iae/ E., Aaea?aeo Aeae.E., Aa?oaa?a
O., Ai?aeii Ae., Aaeaa?aen ?., A?oa?ae E., Eaein Aeae.I., Eaiioue?a A.,
E?ooea? E., Iaea?aai? Ae., Iae-Eeaeaiae Ae., Ia?oaee A., Ianeii I.O.,
Iaaa?i O., Naioaeuenii I., Naeaiai Ae., Oaio A., Oaaeio?? O., Ooiaoa? ?.
oa ?io?. Ocaaaeueithth/e i?aeoeeo aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo oa
i?aeoe/ieo ieoaiue ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy oa iaoai?ci?a eiai
?aaoethaaiiy, cacia/ai? aaoi?e ?iaeyoue ??ciiieaiia? noaeaeaiiy oa
ioe?iee, c /iai aeieeaa? iai?eeiyoi?noue aaccanoa?aaeiiai eii?thaaiiy
a?o/eciyiith i?aeoeeith ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo. ?oi? aeniiaee ia iiaeia
?icaeyaeaoe ye oi?aa?naeuei? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iaa?oue aeey e?a?i, ui
iathoue ?icaeiaio ?eieiao aeiiii?eo. E??i oiai, ye i?aaeei, o ?iaioao
oeeo aaoi??a ia a?aeia?aaeaii niaoeeo?ee e?a?i, ui iathoue ia?ao?aeio
aeiiii?eo ? aei oiai ae ia?aaoaathoue o e?eciaiio noai?.

Ioaea, ?nio? iaaaeueia iaiao?aei?noue i?iaeiaaeeoe nenoaii?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ye oai?aoe/ieo, oae ? i?eeeaaeieo aniaeo?a ??aiy aeeooy
ianaeaiiy oa eiiieaeno iaoai?ci?a eiai ?aaoethaaiiy. I?e oeueiio
i?iaeaie ??aiy aeeooy iathoue ?icaeyaeaoenue o eiioaeno? niaoeeo?/ieo
a?o/eciyieo iniaeeainoae ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo oa no/anieo na?oiaeo
oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo nenoaie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei.

Ca’ycie oaie c iaoeiaeie ?iaioaie. Oaia aeena?oaoe?? o?nii iia’ycaia c
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieie ?iaioaie, ui i?iaiaeeeenue o 1995-1999 ??. ca
o/anoth aaoi?a a ?inoeooo? aeiiii?ee Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe
Oe?a?ie ca?aeii c Eii?aeeiaoe?eiei ieaiii iaeaaaeeea?oeo iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, a naia: “Iioeaaoe?y aoaeoeaii? i?aoe? a nenoai?
oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei” (oeo? oaie ?01940010476), “?aaoethaaiiy
caeiyoino? ianaeaiiy ? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe a i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie” (oeo?
oaie ?0198U001456), “Oi?a?aaeueii-aeiiii?/i? ca’ycee Oe?a?ie c ?in??th:
oaiaeaioe?? ? oeyoe ?icaeoeo” (oeo? oaie ?0199U00412).

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
nenoaiia iaoeiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai ??aiy aeeooy ? eiai aeeiai?ee c
o?aooaaiiyi aeiiii?/iiai noaio e?a?ie oa niaoeeo?ee i?ioean?a
noni?eueii? o?ainoi?iaoe??, ? ia oe?e iniia? ?ic?iaea iaoiaee/ieo ?
i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia aaeineiiaeaiiy oeyoii
?aoi?ioaaiiy iaoai?ci?a noni?eueiiai ?aaoethaaiiy eiie?aoieo no?oeoo?ieo
neeaaeiaeo, oa?aeoa?enoee oa ia?aiao??a aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie.

Aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe coiiaeei iaiao?aei?noue iinoaiiaee oa ?ica’ycaiiy
eiiieaeno caaaeaiue:

— ia iniia? e?eoe/ii? ioe?iee oai?aoe/ieo iiaeyae?a oa i?aeoiae?a
iaa?oiooaaoe oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aecia/aiiy eaoaai???
“??aaiue aeeooy”, ?ice?eoe ?? neeaaeia? oa oa?aeoa?
aioo??oiuei-nenoaiii? aca?iiae?? c oaeeie eaoaai??yie, ye “niin?a
aeeooy”, “ye?noue aeeooy”, “oiiae aeeooy”, “aa?o?noue aeeooy”,
“niiaeea/ee iiieo”, “i??a niiaeeaaiiy”, “i??a caaeiaieaiiy aeeoo?aeo
iio?aa”, “aeia?iaoo”;

— aecia/eoe iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee uiaei ?ic?iaee ?icai?iooi?
eeaneo?eaoe?? ye?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee, e?euee?nieo ia?aiao??a ?
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo ii?iaoea?a ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy;

— ?ic?iaeoe eiioeaiooaeuei? i?aeoiaee uiaei ioe?iee
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? nooiino? noaio iaeicaaacia/aiino? ye iaeiiai c
aaaeeeaeo i?iya?a aeeoo?aiai ??aiy, ?ice?eoe iaoiaeieia?th aecia/aiiy
aa?o?nieo ?iaeeeaoi??a aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ianaeaiiy ca aeeaeiith noaio
iaeicaaacia/aiino? oa oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe oae? iiiyooy ye
“a?aei?noue”, “ceeaei?” ? “iaaea o?c?ieia?/iiai aeaeeaaiiy”;

— aeeiiaoe iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?aeoiae?a uiaei aecia/aiiy
aa?o?nieo ia?aiao??a ?aiaeoaaiiy ianaeaiiy ca noaiii iaoa??aeueii? oa
iaeiiai? caaacia/aiino? ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy i?i?iaeueiiai niiaeea/iai
athaeaeaoo ? nenoaie ?iaeaen?a aa?oino? aeeooy;

— aeine?aeeoe iniaeeaino? noaio ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie a oiiaao
aeiiii?/ii? e?ece, aecia/eoe iane?aeee aeano?oeoeaiiai aieeao ?ioeyoe??
oa ?ioeo e?eciaeo /eiiee?a ia eiai iieacieee ? oa?aeoa?enoeee, a oaeiae
?ice?eoe iniaeeaino? ae?? nioe?aeueieo eiiiainaoi??a oa eaoaioieo
iaoai?ci?a aaeueioaaiiy iioe?aiiy a?aeiino? a oiiaao e?eciai? ?eieiai?
eii’thieoo?e;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe iniaeeaino? i?ioeano ia?a?iae?caoe?? ianaeaiiy o
a?o/eciyieo oiiaao, iaa?oiooaaoe iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee eeaneo?eaoe??
?nioth/eo i?iya?a ia?a?iaeueiiai ? iie?ia?a?iaeueiiai noai?a oa
aecia/eoe nioe?aeueiee noaoon iaiia?a?iae?a; ioe?ieoe cai?ioiee aieea
i?ioean?a ia?a?iae?caoe?? ianaeaiiy ia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io oa
iie?oe/io noaa?euei?noue noni?euenoaa, iaa?oiooaaoe iaiao?aei?noue
i?enei?aiiai oi?ioaaiiy iiaeae? nioe?aeueii-?ioaa?iaaiiai noni?euenoaa;

— i?iaanoe oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy iaiao?aeiino?
iineeaiiy ?ie? aea?aeaae a i?ioean? ?aaoethaaiiy oa iioei?caoe??
oa?aeoa?enoee ? ia?aiao??a aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy a oiiaao ?eieiai?
o?ainoi?iaoe??, aecia/eoe no?oeoo?i? aeaiaioe ? iaoai?cie ?aaoethaaiiy
??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy, ?ic?iaeoe i?iiiceoe?? uiaei eiioeaiooaeueieo
iai?yi?a ?aoi?ioaaiiy oeeo iaoai?ci?a c o?aooaaiiyi na?oiaiai aeina?aeo
? iniaeeainoae ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo, a oaeiae ?ice?eoe iaea?eueo
ia?niaeoeai? oeyoe caaacia/aiiy ?o aoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy;

— aecia/eoe iniaeeaino? aca?iiaieeao e?aaeeoii-?iaanoeoe?eiiai iaoai?cio
oa ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy, i?iaiae?coaaoe oeyoe aaeineiiaeaiiy
iaoai?ci?a caeo/aiiy a iaoe?iiaeueia ainiiaea?noai o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a
ianaeaiiy ye no?aoaa?/iiai ?iaanoeoe?eiiai aeaea?aea ? aaaeeeai? oiiae
iiaeaeueoiai c?inoaiiy aeeoo?aiai ??aiy;

— ocaaaeueieoe ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae ?icaeoeo, iai?yi?a ?aoi?ioaaiiy oa
ooieoe?iiaeueii? iioei?caoe?? iaoai?ci?a aca?iiae?? ?eieiaiai ?
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy, ia?aaeon?i oaeeo,
ye iiaeaoeiai-?iciiae?eue/iai, eiinthia?ecio, iaiaaeaiiy
ia?a?iae?caoe??, anoaiiaeaiiy i?i?iaeueii? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe,
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ? nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy, nei?i/aiiy i?euea ?
e?ea?aeaoe?? i?ea?ea?a oiui.

I?aaeiao ? ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
noeoii?noue aeiiii?/ieo, nioe?aeueieo, i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo a?aeiinei
? i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaeo ca’yce?a, ui oi?iothoue no?oeoo?i? neeaaeia?
??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy oa iaoai?cie eiai ?aaoethaaiiy. Ia’?eoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, eiai ie?ai? nioe?aeuei? a?oie ?
aa?noae, a oaeiae noni?euei? ?inoeoooe ? noa’?eoe ainiiaea?thaaiiy
??cieo oi?i aeaniino? c i?eoaiaiieie ?i nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie oa
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeie oi?iaie aieeao ia aeeoo?aee ??aaiue ianaeaiiy.

Oai?aoe/i? e iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoiaeieia?/ieie
canaaeaie i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ooiaeaiaioaeuei? iieiaeaiiy
aeiiii?/ii? iaoee, e?eoe/ia inieneaiiy oa neioac eiioeaioe?e ?
iieiaeaiue iaea?eueo aeciaieo oe?e no/anii? aeiiii?/ii? iaoee, ui
noinothoueny i?aaeiaoo aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?aoe? a/aieo aeiiii?no?a ?
nioe?ieia?a, caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe, o?yaeia? ??oaiiy ? iinoaiiae,
i?aeaaeocaa? iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??. Oai?aoe/iith iniiaith
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ae?aeaeoe/iee iaoiae i?ciaiiy aca?iiiia’ycaieo
i?ioean?a, ui aecia/athoue ??aaiue aeeooy ianaeaiiy oa nenoaiiee
i?aeo?ae aei aiae?co iaoai?ci?a eiai ?aaoethaaiiy. Aeei?enoiaoaaeenue
oaeiae no/ani? caaaeueiiiaoeia? ? niaoeeo?/i? iaoiaee:
ii??aiyeueii-aeiiii?/iiai, aeiiii?ei-noaoenoe/iiai, nioe?ieia?/iiai
aiae?co, aano?aeoii-eia?/iee, no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee,
eiiieaenii-oe?eueiaee, i?ia?aioaaiiy, eeaneo?eaoe??, aenia?oieo ioe?iie
? ooieoe?iiaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy.

?ioi?iaoe?eia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?ioi?iaoe?eiith aacith i?aeaioiaee
aeena?oaoe?? neoaoaaee noaoenoe/i? aeai? Aea?aeeiinoaoo Oe?a?ie, I?io?io
Oe?a?ie, I?iaeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noaa i?aoe? ? nioe?aeueii?
iie?oeee Oe?a?ie, Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie, Oaaea?aoe?? i?ioni?eie
Oe?a?ie, I?aai?caoe?? Ia’?aeiaieo Iaoe?e, I?aeia?iaeii? I?aai?caoe??
I?aoe?, iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo i?aai?caoe?e Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe, ui iaea?aeai?
aaoi?ii ? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, iieyaathoue a ?ic?iaoe?
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae aiae?co ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy oa
iaa?oiooaaii? i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy,
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?, aai aeiei??iiiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy iaoai?ci?a eiai
?aaoethaaiiy a oiiaao noni?eueii? o?ainoi?iaoe??. Iaoeiaa iiaecia
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

1) ?ic?iaeaii oai?aoe/i? i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy eaoaai??? “??aaiue
aeeooy” ianaeaiiy oa ?? i?noey a nenoai? no/anieo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei; ?ice?eoi oa?aeoa? aca?iica’yceo
iniiaieo nenoaiiooai?thth/eo aeaiaio?a aeeoo?aiai ??aiy, oaeeo ye
“ye?noue aeeooy”, “aeia?iaoo”, “oiiae aeeooy”, “aa?o?noue aeeooy”, “i??a
niiaeeaaiiy”, “i??a caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa”;

2) aeae?eaii i’youe ??ai?a ???a?o?/ii? i?aeii?yaeeiaaiino? aeaiaio?a
eaoaai??? “aeeoo?a? iio?aae”: aaniethoiee, ae?eniee, ?aaeueiee,
ieaoini?iiiaeiee, iaaaeueiee oa ?ice?eoa aeiiii?/ia nooi?noue oeeo
iiiyoue;

3) cai?iiiiiaaii ?icai?iooo eeaneo?eaoe?th e?euee?nieo oa ye?nieo
iieaciee?a aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy ca o?noueia ?ioaa?iaaieie a?oiaie;
cae?eniaii nenoaiaoecaoe?th nioe?aeueieo ii?iaoea?a ca ?oi?i
ooieoe?iiaeueiei i?ecia/aiiyi, iai?yiaie nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo ?
nooiaiai ioiieaiiy nioe?aeueieo yaeu;

4) oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii ci?no iiiyoue, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue noai
iaeicaaacia/aiino? oaeeo ye “a?aei?noue”, “ceeaei?” ? “o?c?ieia?/ia
aeaeeaaiiy”; ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy aaciaeo aa?o?nieo
?iaeeeaoi??a aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ianaeaiiy ca aeeaeiith iaaeiniiaeeaaiiy
iaoa??aeueieo aeaa oa iineoa a?aeiinii i?i?iaeueii aeinoaoi?o iio?aa
a?aeoai?aiiy;

5) aecia/aii eiioeaiooaeueii iia? i?aeoiaee ?aiaeoaaiiy ianaeaiiy ca
noaiii iaoa??aeueii? caaacia/aiino? ?c canoinoaaiiyi oeaee, ianooaaii
yei? ? aaee/eia aa?oino? i?i?iaeueiiai niiaeea/iai athaeaeaoo; aeae?eaii
n?i iniiaieo ye?nii a?aei?iieo ca ??aiai caaacia/aiiy caaeiaieaiiy
iio?aa cii niiaeeaaiiy ? a?aeiia?aeieo ?i a?oi ianaeaiiy: iaaeaaaao?,
aaaao?, caiiaei?, caaacia/ai?, a?aei?, ceeaeaii?, iaaeceeaeaii?;

6) i?iaiae?ciaaii iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino? noaio aeeoo?aiai
??aiy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie a oiiaao aeiiii?/ii? e?ece, ?ice?eoi oa?aeoa?
aeano?oeoeaiiai aieeao ?ioeyoe?? oa ?ioeo e?eciaeo /eiiee?a ia iieacieee
caaacia/aiiy aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? a?iiaaeyi;

7) aecia/aii nioe?aeuei? eiiiainaoi?e ? eaoaioi? iaoai?cie aaeueioaaiiy
iioe?aiiy a?aeiino? ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie a oiiaao e?eciai? ?eieiai?
eii’thieoo?e oa ?ice?eo? niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? ?oiuei? ae??;

8) ?ice?eoi aenia?oii-aiae?oe/io ioe?ieo ianya?a “o?iueiai?” aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie oa i?iaiae?ciaaii oa?aeoa? aieeao “o?iueiaeo” aeioiae?a ?
iaoi?iaeueii? caeiyoino? ia ??aaiue aeeooy ? i?ioeane iaeiiaiai
?icoa?oaaiiy ianaeaiiy;

9) iieacaii iniaeeaino? i?ioeano ia?a?iae?caoe?? ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie,
?ic?iaeaii iia? iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aei ioe?iee i?iya?a
ia?a?iae?caoe?? ? eeaneo?eaoe?? ia?a?iaeueiiai noaio ??cieo a?oi
ianaeaiiy ca ??aiai aeioiae?a, niiniaii aeeooy, nioe?aeueiei noaoonii oa
aeaii-o?c?ieia?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie; noi?ioeueiaaii aecia/aiiy ?
?ice?eoa nooi?noue iiiyoue: “aiaea?eean”, “iaoia?e”, “ethiiaie”,
“iie?ia?a?iaeueiee noai”;

10) i?iaaaeaii ioe?ieo cai?ioiiai aieeao i?ioean?a ia?a?iae?caoe??
ianaeaiiy ia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io oa iie?oe/io noaa?euei?noue
noni?euenoaa; aecia/aii iiiyooy oa iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue
i?enei?aiiai oi?ioaaiiy iiaeae? nioe?aeueii-?ioaa?iaaiiai noni?euenoaa;

11) c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo oai?aoe/ii
iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue iineeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai aieeao ia i?ioeane
?aaoethaaiiy oa iioei?caoe?? oa?aeoa?enoee ? ia?aiao??a aeeoo?aiai ??aiy
ianaeaiiy; ?ic?iaeai? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei ?aoi?ioaaiiy iaea?eueo aaaiieo
iaoai?ci?a ?aaoethaaiiy ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi caniae oa
eiie?aoi? aaaeae? caaacia/aiiy ?oiueiai aoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy;

12) i?iaiae?ciaaii noai o?neaeueii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie oa ?? aieea ia
??aaiue aeeooy ianaeaiiy; cai?iiiiiaaii eiie?aoi? iaoai?cie a?aeiiaeaiiy
i?eioeeio nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino? o iiaeaoeiai-?iciiae?eue/?e
iie?oeoe? aea?aeaae a no/anieo oiiaao; ?ic?iaeaii i?aeoe/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei caaacia/aiiy ?aae?caoe?? i?eioeeio ?ioeyoe?eii?
iaeo?aeueiino? a iaoai?ci? ni?aaeyiiy iiaeaoeo ia aeioiaee o?ce/ieo
in?a;

13) i?iaaaeaii ye?nio ioe?ieo eiinthia?ecio ye nioe?aeueiiai yaeua oa
aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio; oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue eiai
?icaeoeo ye aaaeeeai? neeaaeiai? caaacia/aiiy ye?nieo noaiaea?o?a
aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy, ?ice?eo? iai?yie oa ?ic?iaeai?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy ae??aino? aeiiii?ei-i?aaiaeo ?
noni?eueii-i?aai?caoe?eieo iaoai?ci?a caoenoo i?aa niiaeeaa/?a ia aoai?
?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe??;

14) cai?iiiiiaaii eiioeaiooaeuei? i?aeoiaee uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy
ii?yaeeo aecia/aiiy oa caoaa?aeaeaiiy i?i?iaeueieo nioe?aeueieo aa?aio?e
? caaacia/aiiy ?aae?caoe?? ?oiuei? ?aaoethth/i? nioe?aeueii? ooieoe??;
iaaeai? iaa?oioiaai? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aoaeoeaieo
iaoai?ci?a iii’yeoaiiy iane?aee?a iaaacia/ii? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii?
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ianaeaiiy, ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
oa iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy i?i?iaeueii? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe;

15) noi?ioeueiaaii oai?aoe/i? i?aeoiaee uiaei ?aoi?ioaaiiy ?nioth/i?
nenoaie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo eiiiainaoe?e ? aa?aio?e oa ?ic?iaeaii
i?iiiceoe??, ni?yiiaai? ia iaiaaeaiiy i?euea oa e?ea?aeaoe?th ?nioth/i?
nenoaie i?ea?ea?a ye aaaeeeai? oiiae ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo;

16) aecia/aii ia?aiao?e canoinoaaiiy aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo
o?iainiai-i?aaiaeo iaoai?ci?a a?aeiiaeaiiy ciaoe?iaieo ?ioeyoe??th
caiuaaeaeaiue ianaeaiiy caeaaeii a?ae aeaii-o?c?ieia?/iiai ?
aeiiii?/iiai noaio;

17) ?ice?eoi oa?aeoa? aca?iica’yceo e?aaeeoii-?iaanoeoe?eiiai iaoai?cio
c iieacieeaie aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy, ?ic?iaeaii iai?yie aoaeoeaiiai
aeei?enoaiiy caiuaaeaeaiue ianaeaiiy ye no?aoaa?/iiai aeaea?aea
?iaanooaaiiy a?o/eciyii? aeiiii?ee, aeeeaaeaii i?iiiceoe?? uiaei
aeoea?caoe?? caeo/aiiy o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a ianaeaiiy a ia?iaeia
ainiiaea?noai ye aaaeeeai? oiiae iiaeaeueoiai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie ? c?inoaiiy aeeoo?aiai ??aiy.

A?aei?ii?noue iaea?aeaieo iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a a?ae ?nioth/eo
iaoiaeieia?/ieo ? iaoiaee/ieo i?aeoiae?a ? ?ic?iaie iieyaa? o
eiiieaeniiio ae??oaii? caaaeaiue uiaei iioei?caoe?? ?aaoethaaiiy ??aiy
aeeooy ianaeaiiy ia iniia? oi?ioaaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo aeiiii?/ieo,
nioe?aeueieo ? i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo iaoai?ci?a ia aea?aeaaiiio ??ai?
oa ?o aca?iica’yceo ? aca?iiae?? c iaoai?ciii ?eieiaiai
naii?aaoethaaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o oiio, ui
iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeeeaaeai? aaoi?ii o aeena?oaoe??, aeiaaaeai?
aei ??aiy iaoiaee/ieo ?ic?iaie oa i?eeeaaeieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e. Aiie
i?ecia/ai? aeey aeei?enoaiiy i?e ii?aoethaaii? i?ia?ai
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie, aeey i?aeaioiaee i?iaeo?a
caeiiiaeaa/eo ? ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a c ieoaiue ?aoi?ioaaiiy iaoai?ci?a
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy aeioiae?a, nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo oa nioe?aeueiiai
caaacia/aiiy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, ?ic?iaee iaoai?ci?a ?aae?caoe?? iniiaieo
iai?yi?a nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee ia o?eaaeo ia?niaeoeao, oaeineiiaeaiiy
neeaaeiaeo oe?eueiaeo i?ia?ai caaacia/aiiy oeea?e?ciaaiiai aeeoo?aiai
??aiy.

Iaoeia? ?ic?iaee aaoi?a aeei?enoiaothoueny i?aaiaie caeiiiaeaa/i? ?
aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee Oe?a?ie, a?iiaaenueeeie oa ?ioeie i?aai?caoe?yie, a
oaeiae o iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio i?ioean? a ?inoeooo? aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie
? Iaoeiai-aiae?oe/iiio oi?aae?ii? Nae?aoa??aoo Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie.
Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny a?aeiia?aeieie eenoaie (aeia?aeeaie), cie?aia,
Aea?aeaaiiai eii?oaoo noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie — a?ae 27.11.98 ?01/1-05/60 ?
a?ae 26.03.99 ?16-29/11; Eii?oaoo c ieoaiue o?iain?a ? aaie?anueei?
ae?yeueiino? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie — a?ae 21.04.99 ?06-10/273;
Eii?oaoo c ieoaiue nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee oa i?aoe? — a?ae 22.04.99
?06-3/12-470; I?i?noa?noaa i?aoe? ? nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee — a?ae
23.04.99 ?IO-1421; ?aaee Oaaea?aoe?? i?ioni?eie Oe?a?ie — a?ae 26.04.99
?03-44-770.

Ai?iaaoe?y oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa??aee
i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeai? a i?iaeoao caeiiiaeaa/eo
aeo?a, iaoiaee/ieo ?ic?iaeao, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo ? i?iiiceoe?yo, aeeeaaeai?
o iiiia?ao?yo, a?ioo?ao, noaooyo, iaoeiai-aiae?oe/ieo aeiiia?aeyo.

Iniiai? oai?aoe/i? ? i?aeoe/i? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia aeaaiaaeoeyoe i?aeia?iaeieo ? a?o/eciyieo
eiioa?aioe?yo, ia?aaeao, nai?ia?ao, cie?aia: iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie o?oaeicaa?aaeaiiy ? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee” (i. Ee?a, a?oaeaiue 1992
?.); Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Nioe?aeueiee
caoeno ianaeaiiy a oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie” (i. Ee?a,
o?aaaiue 1993 ?.); I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Nioe?aeueia iie?oeea a
ia??iae ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe??” (i. Neii’?, o?aaaiue 1994 ?.);
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “?aoi?ia o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? nenoaie
ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee” (i. Eooeuee, o?aaaiue 1997 ?.); Iaoe?iiaeueiiio
nai?ia?? “Aei?? oa oeyoe iiaeieaiiy a?aeiino? a Oe?a?i?” (i. Ee?a,
aeiaoaiue 1998 ?.); I?aeia?iaeiiio nai?ia?? “?ieue ia?eaiaionueeeo
neoaea o aeaiie?aoe/iiio ooieoe?iioaaii? caeiiiaeaa/eo i?aai?a aeaaee
”(i. Aooa?ano, o?aaaiue 1998 ?.); I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “50-??//y
Caaaeueii? aeaeea?aoe?? i?aa ethaeeie” (i. Ee?a, a?oaeaiue 1998 ?.);
I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Ao?aoe noni?euenoaa a?ae
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy oa?eo?a, eaio, iiaeaoe?a, noaneae?e oa e?oeaic?e” (i.
Ee?a, ea?oaiue 1999 ?.).

?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ai?iaiaai? ia can?aeaiiyo “e?oaeeo
noie?a”, i?aai?ciaaieo Oaaea?aoe??th i?ioni?eie Oe?a?ie o 1993-1998 ??.,
I?i?noa?noaii i?aoe? oa nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee o 1992-1998 ??.,
can?aeaiiyo ?aaee nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa o 1992-1994 ??.

Iaoiaeieia?/i? iieiaeaiiy, ui i?noyoueny o aeena?oaoe??, aeei?enoai? i?e
i?aeaioiaoe? Eiioeaioe?? nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie,
Eiioeaioe?? iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee, Iniiaieo iai?yi?a nioe?aeueii?
iie?oeee ia 1997-2000 ?iee, ?yaeo i?iaeo?a caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a, o oiio
/ene? Caeii?a Oe?a?ie “I?i iaaeo iaeicaaacia/aiino?”, “I?i iieaoo
i?aoe?”, “I?i i?ioni?eee”, ”I?i nioe?aeueia ia?oia?noai”.

Ie?ai? iaoiaeieia?/i? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy o
1993-1998 ??. aoee ioi?ieai? o aeaeyae? aeiiia?aeieo caienie ?
i?iiiceoe?e aeey Oaaea?aoe?? i?ioni?eie Oe?a?ie ? aeei?enoai? ??
aia?aoii o i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino?, cie?aia i?e i?aeaioiaoe? i?iaeo?a
Aaia?aeueieo oa?eoieo oaiae, ?ic?iaoe? ii?iaoeaii-iaoiaeieia?/ieo
iaoa??ae?a, ui i?noeee ieoaiiy aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeia?aaeai? o i?eeeaaeieo
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?iaioao, i?aaenoaaeaieo Aea?aeaaiiio eii?oaoo
noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie oa I?i?noa?noao i?aoe? ? nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee
Oe?a?ie, cie?aia, o “Iaoiaeeoe? aecia/aiiy ?aaeueii? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe”;
“I?iiiceoe?yo aaeineiiaeaiiy noaoenoe/ieo i?aeoiae?a uiaei aecia/aiiy
??aiy na?aaeiueiaeooiaeo noeoiieo aeioiae?a ianaeaiiy”; “?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo
uiaei aecia/aiiy ?aaeueieo ianooaa?a ia?a?iciiae?eo aeioiae?a ianaeaiiy
?c a?aooaaiiyi i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a “o?iueiaiio” naeoi??
aeiiii?ee”.

Ioae?eaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? o 2 iaeiiin?aieo
oa a ?icae?eao 2 eieaeoeaieo iiiia?ao?e, 1 eieaeoeai?e a?ioo??, 14
noaooyo o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao oa 2 noaooyo o ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
caaaeueiei ianyaii 55,67 ae.a., c yeeo aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue 44,35 ae.a., a
oaeiae o 4 iaoeiaeo aeiiia?aeyo, aeaieioaieo ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo.
?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeiae ciaeoee
a?aeia?aaeaiiy o 6 iaoeiai-aiae?oe/ieo aeiiia?aeyo (caaaeueiei ianyaii
6,9 ae.a.), i?aeaioiaeaieo iaeiiin?aii i?ioyaii 1996-1998 ??. ?
iioe?aieo Nae?aoa??aoii Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie na?aae ia?iaeieo
aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 457
noi??ieao eiii’thoa?iiai oaenoo ? neeaaea?oueny c anooio, ainueie
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, aeeth/a? 31 oaaeeoeth, 26 ?enoie?a, 8 aeiaeaoe?a,
nienie e?oa?aoo?e c 223 a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo aeaea?ae.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe:

Anooi

?icae?e 1. Ieoaiiy iaoiaeieia?? iaoeiaiai aiae?co eaoaai??? “??aaiue
aeeooy”. 1.1. Aaiethoe?y iaoeiaeo iiaeyae?a ia ??aaiue aeeooy ianaeaiiy:
iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e. 1.2. I?noea eaoaai??? “??aaiue aeeooy” a nenoai?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei. 1.3. Eaoaai??? nenoaie ??aaiue aeeooy
ianaeaiiy oa oa?aeoa? ?o aioo??oi?o aca?iica’yce?a. Aeniiaee aei
?icae?eo 1.

?icae?e 2. Oai?aoe/i? ieoaiiy ioe?iee e?euee?nieo ? ye?nieo ia?aiao??a
aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy. 2.1. Iniiai? iieacieee oa ii?iaoeae ??aiy
aeeooy ianaeaiiy. 2.2. Iaoiaeieia?/i? i?iaeaie aecia/aiiy aaciaeo
?iaeeeaoi??a aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ianaeaiiy ca aeeaeiith iaeicaaacia/aiino?.
2.3. Ioe?iea aa?o?nieo ia?aiao??a ?aiaeoaaiiy ianaeaiiy ca noaiii
iaoa??aeueii? caaacia/aiino?. Aeniiaee aei ?icae?eo 2.

?icae?e 3. Iniaeeaino? caeaaeiino? aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie
a?ae noaio aeiiii?ee a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae. 3.1. Aeeiai?ea
iae?iaeiiii?/ieo i?iii?oe?e oa ioe?iea noaio ae?iaieoeoaa noni?eueiiai
i?iaeoeoo a e?eciaeo oiiaao. 3.2. Aeano?oeoeaiee aieea ?ioeyoe?? oa
?ioeo e?eciaeo /eiiee?a ia ??aaiue aeeooy ianaeaiiy. 3.3. Nioe?aeuei?
eiiiainaoi?e oa eaoaioi? iaoai?cie aaeueioaaiiy iioe?aiiy a?aeiino?.
Aeniiaee aei ?icae?eo 3.

?icae?e 4. Ia?a?iae?caoe?y ianaeaiiy a oiiaao aeiiii?/ii? e?ece oa ??
aieea ia noai nioe?aeueii? noaa?eueiino? aea?aeaae. 4.1. Iniaeeaino?
i?ioeano ooai?aiiy ia?a?iaeueieo a?oi ianaeaiiy oa aecia/aiiy ?oiueiai
nioe?aeueiiai noaoono. 4.2. Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? /eiieee
ia?a?iae?caoe?? ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie. 4.3. Cai?ioiee aieea i?ioean?a
ia?a?iae?caoe?? ianaeaiiy ia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io oa iie?oe/io
noaa?euei?noue noni?euenoaa. Aeniiaee aei ?icae?eo 4.

?icae?e 5. Oeyoe ?aoi?ioaaiiy iaoai?ci?a iiiaeaoeoaaiiy aeioiae?a
a?iiaaeyi. 5.1. ?aae?caoe?y i?eioeei?a nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino? oa
?ioeyoe?eii? iaeo?aeueiino? o iiaeaoeia?e iie?oeoe? aea?aeaae. 5.2.
Iniiai? i?iyae iineeaiiy o?neaeueiiai oeneo oa eiai iaaaoeaiee aieea ia
aeeiai?eo ?aaeueieo aeioiae?a ianaeaiiy. 5.3. Iai?yie a?aeiiaeaiiy
i?eioeeio nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino? o iiaeaoeiai-?iciiae?eue/?e
iie?oeoe? aea?aeaae a no/anieo oiiaao. Aeniiaee aei ?icae?eo 5.

?icae?e 6. Eiinthia?eci oa iai?yie ?icaoaeiae aeiiii?/ieo oa
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo iaoai?ci?a eiai caaacia/aiiy. 6.1. ?icaeoie
eiinthia?ecio ye aoaeoeaii? nenoaie caaacia/aiiy c?inoaiiy aeeoo?aiai
??aiy a ?eieiaeo oiiaao. 6.2. Aeina?ae oi?ioaaiiy oa aaeineiiaeaiiy
iniiaieo iaoai?ci?a eiinthia?ecio a e?a?iao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee oa
iiaeeea?noue eiai canoinoaaiiy o a?o/eciyi?e i?aeoeoe?. 6.3. Noai ?
iai?yie ?icaeoeo eiinthia?ecio a Oe?a?i? oa i?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy
ae??aino? eiai no?oeoo?ieo iaoai?ci?a. Aeniiaee aei ?icae?eo 6.

?icae?e 7. Iai?yie aaeineiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee aeioiae?a oa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aoaeoeaieo iaoai?ci?a iii’yeoaiiy iane?aee?a
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ianaeaiiy. 7.1. ?aoi?ioaaiiy
iaoai?ci?a nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo iaeicaaacia/aieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy.
7.2. I?iaeaie ?eieiaiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoai eiiiainaoe?e, aa?aio?e ?
i?euea, oa e?ea?aeaoe?? i?ea?ea?a. 7.3. Iaoai?cie ?aaoethaaiiy
i?i?iaeueii? ca?ieaoe a nenoai? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy.
Aeniiaee aei ?icae?eo 7.

?icae?e 8. Iniaeeaino? aca?iiaieeao e?aaeeoii-?iaanoeoe?eiiai iaoai?cio
oa aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy. 8.1. Caiuaaeaeaiiy ianaeaiiy ye
no?aoaa?/ia aeaea?aei ?iaanooaaiiy a?o/eciyii? aeiiii?ee. 8.2.
O?iainiai-i?aaia? aniaeoe a?aeiiaeaiiy ciaoe?iaieo ?ioeyoe??th
caiuaaeaeaiue ianaeaiiy. 8.3. I?iaeaie aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a
caeo/aiiy o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a ianaeaiiy a ia?iaeia ainiiaea?noai
Oe?a?ie. Aeniiaee aei ?icae?eo 8.

Aeniiaee. Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e. Aeiaeaoee.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – “Ieoaiiy iaoiaeieia?? iaoeiaiai aiae?co eaoaai???
“??aaiue aeeooy” ia iniia? ?ao?iniaeoeaiiai aiae?co iieacaii aaiethoe?th
iaoeiaeo iiaeyae?a ia ??aaiue aeeooy ianaeaiiy, aecia/aii i?noea
eaoaai??? “??aaiue aeeooy” o aeine?aeaeaii? nenoaie
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, ?ice?eoi ci?no ? oa?aeoa? aca?iiae??
?? aioo??oiuei-nenoaiieo aeaiaio?a.

“??aaiue aeeooy” ? neeaaeiith oa nenoaiiith nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iith
eaoaai???th. Aiia a?aeia?aaeo? noeoii?noue a?aeiinei oa oiia, ui
aecia/athoue aeeooy, i?aoeth, iiaoo, o?ce/iee oa
?ioaeaeooaeueii-eoeueoo?iee ?icaeoie ethaeae. “??aaiue aeeooy”
oa?aeoa?eco? aeinyaiooo ia iaaiee i?ii?aeie /ano a noni?euenoa? nooi?iue
caaeiaieaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo iio?aa ianaeaiiy (ia eeoa o?ce/ieo, a e
nioe?aeueieo, ?ioaeaeooaeueieo, aeooiaieo, iie?oe/ieo), aeeth/ath/e
?aaeuei? aeiiii?/i? aeaea?aea oa nioe?aeueii-i?aaia? aa?aio??
caaacia/aiiy oiia aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ianaeaiiy.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeena?oaioii iaa?oioiaaii /?oea ?iciaaeoaaiiy
noeoiiino? a?aeiinei oa iieaciee?a ia o?, ui aioo??oiuei oi?iothoue ?
aecia/athoue “??aaiue aeeooy”, ? o?, ui eiai o?eueee coiiaeththoue ? ye?
ia’?eoeaii aeeth/ai? aei neeaaeo oaeeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei, ye? iathoue a?eueo oe?iea ci?noiaia iaiiaiaiiy ? aeuee
nenoaiii-???a?o?/iee noaoon. O aeine?aeaeaii? nenoaie
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei eaoaai??y “??aaiue aeeooy” ianaeaiiy
i?aeii?yaeeiaaia ia?aeiiei ae?iaie/ei a?aeiineiai. Ianaiia?aae aeeoo?aee
??aaiue ianaeaiiy caeaaeeoue a?ae niiniao ae?iaieoeoaa (oa?aeoa?o
a?aeiinei aeaniino?, ??aiy ?icaeoeo iaoa??aeueii? aace ae?iaieoeoaa ?
noni?eueii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?) oa niiniao aeeooy (noeoiiino?
caaaeueieo i?iya?a aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeae, ui aecia/aeueiei /eiii
aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy a noni?euenoa? ni?eueii? aeii?iaioe ?o
aeeoo?aeo oa iioeaaoe?eieo onoaiiaie).

Iaeii/anii eaoaai??y “??aaiue aeeooy” yaey? niaith nenoaiiooai?thth/o
eaoaai??th. Ci?noiaii aiia ? a?eueo oe?ieith, i?ae eaoaai??? “aeia?iaoo”
? “ye?noue aeeooy”. sse neioacoth/a eaoaai??y aiia aeeth/a?
iaaaoeaii-??aiaa? i?iyae aeeooy ethaeeie, ye “iaeicaaacia/ai?noue”,
“a?aei?noue”, “ceeaei?” ? “o?c?ieia?/ia aeaeeaaiiy”, ui a?ae??ciythoueny
aeeaeiith iaaeiniiaeeaaiiy iniaith iaoa??aeueieo aeaa oa iineoa o
ii??aiyii? c i?i?iaeueii aeinoaoi?ie iio?aaaie a?aeoai?aiiy oiia ??
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?. O no?oeoo?i?e i?aeii?yaeeiaaiino? eaoaai??? “??aaiue
aeeooy” ia?aaoaathoue ? oae? eaoaai???, ye “iio?aae”, “i??a
niiaeeaaiiy”, “niiaeea/ee iiieo”, “aa?o?noue aeeooy”, “oiiae aeeooy”,
“??aaiue iaaeiniiaeeaaiiy ” ? “i??a caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa”.

Aea? iniiai? neeaaeia? aeeoo?aiai ??aiy — aeiiii?/ia ? nioe?aeueia —
coiiaeththoue aeaa i?aeoiaee aei aiae?co oe??? eaoaai???. A aeiiii?/iiio
eiioaeno? aeine?aeaeaiiy eaoaai??? “??aaiue aeeooy” ?icaeyaea?oueny c
iiceoe?e ae?iaieoeoaa oiiaeo aeeoo?aeo cania?a o eiie?aoieo oiiaao. Ooo
ia?aaaaeii ioe?iththoueny ianyae ae?iaeaieo niiaeea/eo oiaa??a ? iineoa,
?o no?oeoo?a, niiniae ?iciiae?eo ?acoeueoao?a noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa
oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino? i?ae ??cieie aa?noaaie
ianaeaiiy oa ie?aieie iniaaie, aecia/a?oueny aieea aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ia
i?ioeane ae?iaie/iai ? aeaiia?ao?/iiai a?aeoai?aiiy, a oaeiae
aoaeoeai?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo ?inoeooo?a, a?aeiia?aeaeueieo
ca ae?iaieoeoai ? ?iciiae?e ?ano?n?a niiaeeaaiiy o aea?aeaa?. O
nioe?aeueiiio ieai? aeeoo?aee ??aaiue aiae?co?oueny ia?aaaaeii ye
ia’?eo, ui aecia/a? noaiiaeua ethaeae o nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e
no?oeoo?? noni?euenoaa ? iaea?eueo iiaii oa?aeoa?eco? ianooaae
?icoa?oaaiiy ianaeaiiy ca ??aiai aeioiae?a ? iaeiiaiai noaio, yeei
aecia/a?oueny nioe?aeueiee noaoon iniae aai iaaii? a?oie ethaeae.

“??aaiue aeeooy” ? aaaaoi??aiaaith eaoaai???th, o no?oeoo?? yei? iiaeia
aeae?eeoe o?e iniiaieo ??ai?: 1) ?ioaa?iaaiee; 2)
nioe?aeueii-aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee; 3) iniaenoi ia?nii?o?eiaaiee (aai
n?iaeiee). Oiaoi oey eaoaai??y iiaea a?aeiia?aeii oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe aai
noeoiiee aeeoo?aee ??aaiue ianaeaiiy e?a?ie, aai ??aaiue aeeooy iaaieo
noni?eueieo eean?a, nioe?aeueieo a?oi /e ie?aieo (neaae?ii
ia?a?iaeueieo) aa?noa ianaeaiiy, aai ??aaiue aeeooy eiie?aoii acyoi?
iniae /e n?i’?. O noeoiiino? an?o eiai i?iya?a ??aaiue aeeooy aeeiio?
ooieoe?th aaciaiai ?iaeeeaoi?a, yeei iiaea aooe ioe?iaia aoaeoeai?noue
?aae?caoe?? aea?aeaaith nioe?aeueieo caoiae?a oa a?aeiia?aeieo
aeiiii?/ieo iaoai?ci?a, ui ?aaoeththoue oa caaacia/othoue nioe?aeueii
ni?aaaaeeea? aai aioaaii?noe/i? oi?ie ? iaoiaee ?iciiae?eo aeeoo?aeo
aeaa i?ae /eaiaie noni?euenoaa.

Eaoaai??y “??aaiue aeeooy” ? a?aeiiniith, ine?eueee caeaaeeoue ia
o?eueee a?ae ??aiy ?aaeueieo aeioiae?a oa ianya?a oaeoe/iiai niiaeeaaiiy
ianaeaiiyi iaoa??aeueieo ? aeooiaieo aeaa ? iineoa, a e a?ae ??aiy
?icaeiaiino? a noni?euenoa? ?ioaa?iaaieo iio?aa o ??ciiiai?oieo
aeeoo?aeo aeaaao. C oi/ee ci?o ?aae?caoe?? oe?eae aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
ne?ae aeae?eeoe aea? iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino?, ui i?eoaiaii?
aeiiii?/iiio ci?noo eaoaai??? “??aaiue aeeooy” ianaeaiiy. Ii-ia?oa, aiia
oa?aeoa?eco? caaaeueio nooi?iue aeinyaiooiai aeia?iaooo, eiai e?euee?ni?
? ye?ni? neeaaeia?. Oiaoi o eiaeiee eiie?aoiee iiiaio aeinyaiooiio
??aith aeeooy a?aeiia?aea? iaaia no?oeoo?a i?aaeiao?a niiaeeaaiiy oa
iineoa, ui caaacia/othoue caaeiaieaiiy ?nioth/eo iio?aa. Ii-ae?oaa,
aeinyaiooee ??aaiue aeeooy ianaeaiiy oa?aeoa?eco? a?aeiia?aeio
aeiiii?/io aeeoa?aioe?aoe??th noni?eueieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy ca ??aiai
aeioiae?a oa caiuaaeaeaiue, aeeoeiaeie oiiaaie oa noaiii iaeiiai?
caaacia/aiino?, ?ioeie iieacieeaie ??aiy aeeooy, a oaeiae ca iiaiioith
caaeiaieaiiy c?inoath/eo iaoa??aeueieo oa aeooiaieo iio?aa.

Aaaeeeaith noaeaoaai???th eaoaai??? “??aaiue aeeooy” ianaeaiiy ?
“iio?aae”. Oey noaeaoaai??y ia? neeaaeio aioo??oith no?oeoo?o, aei yei?
aoiaeyoue: 1) aaniethoi? iio?aae — iio?aae, ye? ? aano?aeoieie a?aeiinii
eiie?aoieo niiaeea/eo aa?oinoae ? yaeythoue niaith ?aeaaeueiee,
aioo??oiuei niiioeath/ee iioea aei niiaeeaaiiy. Oea aeuee ???a?o?/iee
??aaiue, ui aecia/a? caaaeuei? iio?aae ethaeae o ?ae?, iaeyc?, aeeoe?,
aeooiaiiio ?icaeoeo, ?ioi?iaoe??, caniaao ia?anoaaiiy, oiiaao ?ae?aaoe??
oiui, ye? iino?eii ?niothoue a ?noi??? ethaenoaa ? ? iiooaeiei noeioeii
aei ?icaeoeo noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa; 2) ae?eni? iio?aae —
a?aeia?aaeathoue ia’?eoeaii ona?aeiieaio iio?aao ethaeeie o eiie?aoieo
niiaeea/eo aeaaao, iaiao?aeieo aeey a?aeoai?aiiy ?? aeeooy; 3) ?aaeuei?
iio?aae — iio?aae, ye? o eiaeio eiie?aoio ieoue iiaeooue aooe
caaeiaieai? iayaieie iiaeeeainoyie ae?iaieoeoaa oa ?nioth/eie
nioe?aeueieie oiiaaie. Naia oe? iio?aae oi?iothoue ?aaeueiee ianya
iaiao?aeiiai i?iaeoeoo ? aecia/athoue ?aaeueio aa?o?noue a?aeoai?aiiy
ianaeaiiy e?a?ie; 4) ieaoini?iiiaei? iio?aae — iio?aae, ye? a ?eieiaeo
oiiaao iiaeooue aooe ?aaeueii caaeiaieai? ia eeoa iaaieie ianyaaie
i?iiiceoe?? oiaa??a ? iineoa, a ? caaacia/othoueny a?aeiia?aeiei
a?ioiaei iie?eooyi; 5) iaaaeuei? iio?aae ? iaeieae/ei ???a?o?/iei ??aiai
o nenoai? iio?aa ? aecia/athoueny ianyaii cania?a ?nioaaiiy, ui
caaacia/o? o?c?ieia?/ia aeaeeaaiiy ethaeeie.

Aaoi? /?oei aecia/a? eaoaai??th “iio?aae” ? eaoaai??th “iiieo” ye
?eieiao oi?io ciai?oiueiai a?aeaeca?eaeaiiy iio?aa. Ca nai?i ci?noii
eaoaai??y “iiieo” yaey? niaith oaeo iio?aao, ui iaia’yceiai ia? aooe
caaacia/aia iaiao?aeiei a?ioiaei aea?aaeaioii ? ?aae?ciaaia o ?eieiaiio
iai?i?. Aiane?aeie iaaii? ?eieiai? eii’thieoo?e iiieo iiaea aooe aai
caaeiaieaiei, aai iacaaeiaieaiei. I?ae oe?iith aeeoo?aeo aeaa,
aeioiaeaie ? iaaaeuei?noth caaeiaieaiiy aeeoo?aeo iio?aa ?nio? aei?noeee
i?yiee ca’ycie. ?acii c oei, i?e ia?nii?o?eaoe?? iiieoo aeena?oaio
aeae?ey? oae? oaeoi?e, ye /an, i?noea ?aae?caoe??, a?oio ianaeaiiy,
aeeiai?eo noa??iiy /e iiieiaeaeaiiy ianaeaiiy, n?iaeiee noai, neeaae
n?i’?, cae/a? oa o?aaeeoe??, iiaeo ? ?aeeaio, eiioi?i?ci ? aeeiai?eo
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy o iiaoo ye?nii iiaeo aeeoo?aeo aeaa oiui. Iiieo ia iiaea
a?aeia?aceoe an??? aaie ??ciiiai?oieo iio?aa iniaenoino?. A?i ia
ni?aiaaea? c iio?aaaie i? o /an?, i? ca ??aiai. C iiiaioo aeieeiaiiy
iio?aae aei ?? ia?aoai?aiiy ia ?aaeueiee niiaeea/ee iiieo ?ieiee
i?ioiaeeoue cia/iee ia??iae, iaiao?aeiee aeey oi?ioaaiiy noa’?eoii
iio??aii? ieaoini?iiiaeiino? oeyoii caiuaaeaeaiiy /anoeie aaeiaiai
iniaenoiai aeioiaeo. Oiio iiieoo iaea?eueoa a?aeiia?aea? aecia/aiiy eiai
ye “ieaoini?iiiaeii? iio?aae”.

Niiaeeaaiiy iaeiiai?oa oa?aeoa?eco? eiai i??a, ui aenooia?
aaciina?aaeiueith oa?aeoa?enoeeith iiaiioe oa yeino? caaeiaieaiiy
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iio?aa. I??a ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai niiaeeaaiiy ? i??a
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iio?aa ? iaeiiii?yaeeiaeie ? o?nii aca?iiiia’ycaieie
eaoaai??yie nenoaie “??aaiue aeeooy”. Iio?aaa — oea iioaioe?ae
niiaeeaaiiy, a niiaeeaaiiy — i?ioean caaeiaieaiiy iio?aae. I??a
niiaeeaaiiy iia’yco? ?aaeueiee noai ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iio?aa c iniiaiei
aeaea?aeii ?o caaeiaieaiiy — ??aiai iniaenoiai aeioiaeo iniae (n?i’?).

Ae?oaee ?icae?e — “Oai?aoe/i? ieoaiiy ioe?iee e?euee?nieo ? ye?nieo
ia?aiao??a aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy” i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith
oai?aoe/ieo ieoaiue aecia/aiiy oa ioe?iee e?euee?nieo ? ye?nieo
iieaciee?a aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy oa ?o ?icai?ioo?e eeaneo?eaoe??,
?icaeyaeo iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?aeoiae?a aecia/aiiy aaciaeo ?iaeeeaoi??a
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ianaeaiiy ca ??aiai oa aeeaeiith iaeicaaacia/aiino?, a
oaeiae aecia/aiith aa?o?nieo ia?aiao??a ?aiaeoaaiiy ianaeaiiy ca noaiii
? ??aiai ?aaeueii? iaoa??aeueii? caaacia/aiino?. O aeena?oaoe??
aeiaaaeaii, ui nai???aei?noue eaoaai??? “??aaiue aeeooy” iieyaa?
ia?aaeon?i o oiio, ui aiia ia iiaea aooe a?aeia?aaeaia iaeiei aai
iaa?oue e?eueeiia iieacieeaie. Aeey oeueiai aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaaia
oe?e?nia nenoaia e?euee?nieo ? ye?nieo iieaciee?a, ui a?aeoai?th?
?icai?iooo ? anaa?/io ioe?ieo neeaaeii? aioo??oiuei? no?oeoo?e
“aeeoo?aiai ??aiy” ianaeaiiy.

Iaea?eueo iiaii nenoaia iieaciee?a ??aiy aeeooy iiaea aooe i?aaenoaaeaia
ianooiieie o?noueia a?oiaie: 1) ?ioaa?aeuei? iieacieee, ye?
a?aeaeca?eaeththoue aeinyaiooee ??aaiue ?aaeueieo aeioiae?a oa iaeiiai?
caaacia/aiino? ianaeaiiy (aaee/eia iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeioiaeo aai aaeiaiai
aioo??oiueiai i?iaeoeoo ia aeooo ianaeaiiy; na?aaei?e ??aaiue ca?ia?oii?
ieaoe a ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa? oa ie?aieo aaeocyo; ianyae
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaaaonoaa ia aeooo ianaeaiiy oa ieoiia aaaa o iueiio
iniaenoiai iaeia; ianyae caiuaaeaeaiue oa no?aoiaeo aiane?a); 2)
iieacieee niiaeeaaiiy ianaeaiiyi iaoa??aeueieo aeaa, eoeueoo?ieo ?
iiaooiaeo iineoa (ianyae ? no?oeoo?a niiaeeaaiiy i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a;
??aaiue caaacia/aiino? iaeyaii ? acoooyi; ianyae niiaeeaaiiy
iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?aaeiao?a eoeueoo?ii-iiaooiaiai i?ecia/aiiy oa oiaa??a
aeiaaino?ieiaiai ei?enooaaiiy; ??aaiue iiaooiaiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy; noai
caaacia/aiiy iineoaaie oi?a?ae? ? a?iiaaenueeiai oa?/oaaiiy; ??aaiue
o?ainii?oiiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy ? ca’yceo; ye?noue aeeoeiaeo oiia oa
eiioiaeueieo iineoa); 3) iieacieee, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue ??aaiue
caaacia/aiiy i?aoethth/eo iaeaaeieie oiiaaie, iaiao?aeieie o ae?iaie/iio
i?ioean? (??aaiue caeiyoino?; o?eaae?noue ?iai/iai /ano; ?ioaineai?noue
oa i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe?; noai ioi?iie oa aaciaee i?aoe?; iaae?ei?noue
nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy i?aoethth/eo; noai eoeueoo?e
ae?iaieoeoaa oa eiai oaoi?/ia iniauaiiy); 4) iieacieee, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue noai caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa ianaeaiiy o noa?ao o?ce/iiai,
aeooiaiiai ? nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo (oiiae ? ??aaiue iaaee/iiai
ianeoaiaoaaiiy; ??aaiue ina?oe; caaacia/ai?noue eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?ie oa
?ioeie anoaoe/ieie onoaiiaaie; caaacia/ai?noue iio?aa o noa?? o?ce/ii?
eoeueoo?e ? nii?oo); 5) iieacieee, ye? aecia/athoue ye?ni?
oa?aeoa?enoeee aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy (noai caei?ia’y oa na?aaeiy
o?eaae?noue aeeooy; o?eaae?noue aeoeaiiai o?oaeiaiai aeiaaie?ooy;
aaee/eia a?eueiiai /ano ? iiaeeeaino? eiai ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy;); 6) iieacieee, ui ?ice?eaathoue ??aaiue ?nioth/eo
noni?eueii-i?aaiaeo aa?aio?e, ye? ia? ianaeaiiy e?a?ie, a oaeiae
iaae?ei?noue caaacia/aiiy iie?oe/ieo naiaiae a?iiaaeyiai o noni?euenoa?.

Iaei??th ?c iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?iaeai oai??? aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy ?
aecia/aiiy iieaciee?a, ui aeicaieythoue iaea?eueo aaeaeaaoii ioe?ieoe
noai iaeicaaacia/aiino?. Oeae noai aeeth/a? uiiaeiaioa o?e aioo??oiuei
ie?aneai? ??ai? iaaeiniiaeeaaiiy, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue ye?nii a?aei?ii?
oiiae noaoono aeeooy ethaeeie: ia?oee — ??aaiue a?aeiino?; ae?oaee —
??aaiue ceeaei?a; o?ao?e — ??aaiue o?c?ieia?/iiai aeaeeaaiiy
(iaaeceeaei?). Eiaeiiio c icia/aieo ??ai?a, ui aecia/athoue aeeaeio
noaio iaeicaaacia/aiino? a?aeiia?aea? na?e aeaniee ?iaeeeaoi?, yeee
e?euee?nii aecia/a? iaaeo ia?aoiaeo iaeiiai noaio ia?a?iaeueiiai
iaaeiniiaeeaaiiy aei ?ioiai. Aei oeeo iieaciee?a iaeaaeaoue:
i?i?iaeueiee niiaeea/ee athaeaeao (aai iaaea iaeicaaacia/aiino?),
i?iaeeoeiaee i?i?ioi (aai iaaea ceeaeaiiino?) ? o?c?ieia?/iee i?i?ioi
(aai iaaea o?c?ieia?/iiai aeaeeaaiiy).

O aeena?oaoe?? aeiaaaeaii, ui iioe?ai? o na?oia?e i?aeoeoe? e?eoa???
ioe?iee a?aeiino? (aaniethoiee, a?aeiiniee, no?oeoo?ii-aeo?aoiee,
noa’?eoeaiee, ?ano?niee ? nenoaiiee) ia iiaeia aaaaeaoe oi?aa?naeueieie.
?o iaiao?aeii canoiniaoaaoe a eiiieaen?, aeoiaey/e ?c niaoeeo?ee
eiie?aoii? neooaoe??, ui neeaaea?oueny a e?a?i?. Aea o a?o/eciyieo
oiiaao aeiiii?/ii? e?ece ? ianooaaiiai nei?i/aiiy ianya?a niiaeeaaiiy
cia/iith /anoeiith ianaeaiiy, i?e aiae?c? aeeaeie a?aeiino? ia?aaaaa ia?
iaaeaaaoenue aaniethoiiio iaoiaeo ?? ioe?iee. Naia a?i aeicaiey?
aaeaeaaoii iieacaoe ianooaae cieaeaiiy ?aaeueieo aeioiae?a
iaeicaaacia/aieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy oa ioe?ieoe ae?eni? ia?aiao?e
c?inoaiiy aa?oino? aeeooy.

Iaeaaaeeea?oei aaniethoii-aa?o?niei ?iaeeeaoi?ii ioe?iee aeeoo?aiai
??aiy ianaeaiiy ? i?i?iaeueiee niiaeea/ee athaeaeao (INA). A?aeiia?aeii
aei Caeiio O?N? «I?i i?i?iaeueiee niiaeea/ee athaeaeao» (1991 ?.) oeae
iieaciee ?ic?aoiaoaaany a na?aaeiueiio ia aeooo ianaeaiiy (aeey an?o
iniiaieo nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/ieo a?oi ianaeaiiy i ia iaeiiai /eaia
n?i’? c /ioe?ueio in?a) ia aac? niiaeea/eo eioee?a, aecia/aieo aeey 13
noaoaai-aieiaeo a?oi, aei neeaaeo yeeo aoiaeeei aeecueei 300 aeae?a
i?iaeiaieue/eo, iai?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a oa iineoa. Ioe?ithth/e
i?i?iaeueia niiaeeaaiiy, aeena?oaio i?iiiio? /?oei a?ae??ciyoe
i?i?iaeueia niiaeeaaiiy ia ii?iaoeaii aeinoaoiueiio ??ai? INA a?ae
nioe?aeueii aeiionoeiiai i?i?ioio niiaeeaaiiy ia ?iaii i?iaeeoeiaiai
i?i?ioio. Oe? aa?o?ni? iieacieee ca nai?i aeiiii?/iei ci?noii
oa?aeoa?ecothoue aaniethoii ??ciee noai iaeicaaacia/aiino?.

Ii?iaoeae niiaeeaaiiy aeeoo?aeo aeaa, caeeaaeai? o ?ic?aooiie aa?oino?
niiaeea/eo eioee?a INA, iiaeii? aecia/aoenue ia i?aenoaa? anaa?/ii?
aenia?oece. I?e oeueiio oao?aoe? iathoue aeoiaeeoe ia c eiie?aoieo
iiaeeeainoae aeiiii?ee, a c ia’?eoeaieo, i?i?iaeueii iaiao?aeieo
iaoa??aeueieo oa aeooiaieo iio?aa, ui caaacia/othoue ii?iaeueia (i?inoa)
a?aeoai?aiiy ethaeeie ye /eaia nioe?oio, a?aoiaoth/e ?? eiie?aoio
noaoaai-aieiao oa?aeoa?enoeeo. Oiaoi aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii iathoue
aecia/aoeny eiie?aoi? ianyae niiaeeaaiiy i?iaeiaieue/eo,
iai?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a oa iineoa, ui ? i?i?iaeueii aeinoaoi?ie: aai
aeey caaacia/aiiy ??aiy i?inoiai a?aeoai?aiiy aeeooy i ?iai/i? neee
i?aoeacaeaoii? ethaeeie; aai aeey i?aeo?eiee aeeooy ethaeeie iioeeiai
a?eo ia iaeaaeiiio nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio ??ai?; aai aeey noai?aiiy
?aoe?iiaeueieo oiia aeey caaacia/aiiy iiaiioe?iiiai o?c?ieia?/iiai ?
?icoiiaiai ?icaeoeo aeeoeie /e i?aee?oea (o oeueiio aeiaaeeo iathoue
a?aoiaoaaoenue aeiiii?/i? oiiae ?icoe?aiiai a?aeoai?aiiy cacia/aiiai
eiioeiaaioo ianaeaiiy). O oie aea /an aaee/eia aa?oino? INA aeicaiey?
iaae?eii aecia/eoe iaaeo ia?aoiaeo na?aaeiueiai ?iaiy caaacia/aiino? aei
noaio iaeicaaacia/aiino?. Oiaoi a?aei?noue ii/eia?oueny ieae/a o???
iaae? caaeiaieaiiy iniaenoeo ?aaeueieo iio?aa, eiee ethaeeia ciooaia
aeeoe ca oiia c?inoath/iai iaaeiniiaeeaaiiy iaeiaiao?aei?oeo aeeoo?aeo
aeaa oa iineoa a?aeiinii naiai ii?iaoeaii aecia/aiiai oa
iiiiiaeueii-aeinoaoiueiai niiaeea/iai eioeea.

Ia’?eoeaia ioe?iea iieaciee?a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue noai
iaeicaaacia/aiino? oa ?? aeeaeio, aea? iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe aa?o?ni?
iieacieee, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue na?aaei?e ??aaiue aeeooy, oa iieacieee,
ye? aecia/athoue noai aeniei? oa iaaeaeniei? iaoa??aeueii?
caaacia/aiino?. Aeena?oaio aaaaea?, ui iniaeeai aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy INA
iieyaa? o iiaeeeaino? eiai aeei?enoaiiy ye oi?aa?naeueiiai ianooaao,
canoiniaoth/e yeee iiaeia i?iaanoe ioe?ieo aa?o?nieo e?eoa???a
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ianaeaiiy ca ??aiai ?aaeueieo aeioiae?a ? niiaeeaaiiy,
ui a?aeia?aaea? noaia 1.

Noaia 1

10.0iaaeaaaao?noai ?iceio?Iaaeaenieee ??aaiue niiaeeaaiiyINA

3.0aaaao?noai aaaaonoaaAenieee ??aaiue niiaeeaaiiyINA

2.0caiiaei?

??aaiue ?aoe?iiaeueiiai niiaeeaaiiynoai caiiaeiino?

Na?aaei?e ??aaiueINA

1.0caaacia/ai?noai aeinoaoeoniiaeeaaiiyINAiaaea iaeicaaacia/aiino?
(aaee/eia aa?oino? INA)

0.4a?aei?

iaaea ceeaeaiiino? (i?iaeeoeiaee i?i?ioi)noai a?aeiino?

Iecueeee ??aaiue INAceeaeaii?noai ceeaei?aniiaeeaaiiy

(iaeicaaacia/ai?noue)0.05

iaaea o?c?ieia?/iiai aeaeeaaiiy (o?c?ieia?/iee
i?i?ioi)INAiaaeceeaeaii?Iaaaaeaia noaia aeicaiey? ia iniia?
ni?anoaaeaiiy aaee/eie iaaeoiaeaeaiiy iioi/ieo noeoiieo aeioiae?a n?i’?
(iniae) aecia/eoe iniiai? ia?aiao?e ?iciaaeoaaiiy ??ai?a noaio
iaoa??aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy ? ca oe??th iciaeith i?iaanoe /?oea
?aiaeoaaiiy ianaeaiiy e?a?ie ca a?oiaie, ui iathoue iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?i?
??ai? iioi/iiai niiaeeaaiiy. Noaia iaea?eueo iiaii a?aoiao? iniiai?
??ai? ? ciie noaio caaacia/aiino? iniae (n?i’?). Aiia ca aeiiiiiaith INA
/?oei aecia/a? aa?o?ni? ia?aiao?e, ui iathoue aooe iieeaaeai? a iniiao
?iciaaeoaaiiy o??? /e ?ioi? ye?nii a?aei?iii? ciie niiaeeaaiiy aai oeo
cii, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue aeeaeio noaio iaaeiniiaeeaaiiy ia?a?iaeueieo
aa?noa ianaeaiiy.

sse?ni? ??ai? niiaeeaaiiy oa a?aeiia?aei? ?i aa?o?ni? iaae? ia?aoiaeo
noaio iaoa??aeueii? caaacia/aiino? aecia/athoueny o noai?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyie aaee/eie na?aaeiueiaeooiaiai noeoiiiai i?ny/iiai
aeioiaeo (ui ? iniiaiei iioaioe?eiei aeaea?aeii caaacia/aiiy
a?aeiia?aeiiai aeeoo?aiai ??aiy n?i’? /e iniae), aei aaee/eie aa?oino?
INA, aecia/aii? ia eiie?aoiee i?ii?aeie /ano, aeoiaey/e c ?iaeaeno
c?inoaiiy aa?oino? aeeooy ianaeaiiy e?a?ie.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — “Iniaeeaino? caeaaeiino? aeeoo?aiai ??aiy
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie a?ae noaio aeiiii?ee a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae” i?iaaaeaii
aiae?c oaiaeaioe?e oa oa?aeoa?o caeaaeiino? aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy
a?ae noaio aeiiii?ee a oiiaao ?? e?eciai? noaaiaoe??, ?ice?eoi iane?aeee
aeano?oeoeaiiai aieeao ?ioeyoe?? oa ?ioeo e?eciaeo /eiiee?a ia noai
??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie oa oa?aeoa? ae?? nioe?aeueieo
eiiiainaoi??a ? iaoai?ci?a eaoaioiiai aaeueioaaiiy iioe?aiiy a?aeiino? a
oiiaao ?nioth/i? ?eieiai? eii’thieoo?e, c’yniaaii oa?aeoa? aieeao
“o?iueiaiai” ?iciiae?eo aeioiae?a ia iieacieee aeeoo?aiai ??aiy
ianaeaiiy ? iaeiiaa ?icoa?oaaiiy. Aecia/aeueiei /eiieeii, ui aieeaa? ia
??aaiue aeeooy ianaeaiiy ? aeiiii?/ia neooaoe?y, ui neeaaea?oueny a
e?a?i? o eiie?aoiee ia??iae. ?? nenoaiiee aiae?c aeicaiey? c?icoi?oe
?aaeueio ianooaai?noue iae?iaeiiii?/ieo aeeni?iii?oe?e, ui aeieeee
aiane?aeie a?ia??ioeyoe?eieo iio?yn?iue, ? ye?, a oiiaao e?eciai?
noaaiaoe?? aeiiii?ee i?ecaaee aei cia/ieo ao?ao aeeoo?aiai ??aiy
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie.

Aeena?oaioii aeiaaaeaii, ui aeano?oeoeaiee aieea ?ioeyoe?? ia aeiiii?eo
iia’ycaiee ia?aaeon?i ?c oei, ui aiia ?oeio? iniiai? eiio?ieuei?
?iaeeeaoi?e, eaia? aa?o?ni? i?iii?oe?? ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, niioai?th?
aaco, ia ye?e cae?eniththoueny ?ic?aooiee iaeaaaeeea?oeo
iae?iaeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a a?ioiaiai ainiiaea?noaa e?a?ie. ?ioeyoe?y
ooo/ii aaia?o? ? iiaeeaeth? iaaea?aaeaioiee oa?aeoa? aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei, ?iaeoue ?o aeene?ei?iaoe?eii-aeenia?eoaoieie, ui iniaeeai
iicia/a?oueny ia noa?? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ? aeeoo?aiai
??aiy ianaeaiiy.

Ianooaai?noue aeeni?iii?oe?e o ni?aa?aeiioaiiyo iniiaieo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo iae?iiieaciee?a i?ioyaii 19911998 ??. (i?ae
oaiiaie c?inoaiiy iioiaeo oa niiaeea/eo oe?i; i?ae ??aiai aeoioeueiaaii?
?ioeyoe?? oa ??aiai ?aaeueii? eoi?aaeueii? ni?iiiaeiino? aeioiae?a
ianaeaiiy; i?ae oaiiaie iaae?iiy AAI ? ??aiai ?aaeueii? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe
aai a?ioiaeie aeioiaeaie ianaeaiiy), ?ethno?othoue aeai?, iaaaaeai? o
oaaeeoe? 1.

Aiae?c aeaieo oaaeeoe? 1 iieaco?, ui yeui i?ioyaii 1991-1998 ??., AAI
nei?ioeany o 2,4 ?ace, ianya i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe?? o 2,1 ?ace,
ae?iaieoeoaa oiaa??a ia?iaeiiai niiaeeaaiiy o 3,3 ?ace, oi ?aaeueia
ca?ia?oia ieaoa iaeaea o 4 ?ace, a ?aaeuei? a?ioia? aeioiaee ianaeaiiy
o 3,7 ?aca. Cacia/ai? aeeni?iii?oe?? nooo?ai iia??oeee a?aeoai?aiiy
ianaeaiiy, iniaeeai iaeicaaacia/aieo aa?noa, caaino?eee i?iaeaio
caeiyoino?, oiui. Ca oeeo oiia noa?a nenoaia nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy
aeaa?aaeoaaea iano?eueee, ui iio?aao? oa?i?iiai? cai?ie ia aio/eo ?
aoaeoeaio a ?eieiaeo oiiaao nenoaio aae?anii? i?aeo?eiee oa caaacia/aiiy
caaeiaieaiiy aeeoo?aeo iio?aa ianaeaiiy.

Aeano?oeoeaiee aieea ?ioeyoe?? o e?ioeaaiio ?aooieo i?iyaey?oueny o
ii?ooaii? i?eioeeio nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino? a i?ioean? ?iciiae?eo
ia?aeiieo noni?eueieo aeioiae?a, iineeaii? aeene?ei?iaoe?? ?iai/i? neee
ia ?eieo i?aoe? ? iaaacia/ieo i?ioean?a ia?a?iae?caoe?? ianaeaiiy.

Oaaeeoey 1

?iaeaene iniiaieo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a o 19901998 ??.
(aei iiia?aaeiueiai ?ieo)

Iieaciee199119921993199419951996199719981998 aei 199012345678910Aaeiaee
aioo??oi?e i?iaeoeo, % 91,390,185,877,187,9 90,096,898,341,0Ianya
i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe??, %95,293,692,072,7 88 94,998,298,548,1

Ianya i?iaeoeoe?? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa (o ii??aiyiieo oe?iao 1996
?.), %86,891,7101,583,596,4 90,599,291,753,0Ae?iaieoeoai oiaa??a
ia?iaeiiai niiaeeaaiiy, %94,990,684,1 75,082,2 79,886,2
100,030,7Eai?oaeuei? aeeaaeaiiy, %92,963,189,7 77,071,4
80,092,9104,822,5?icae??aiee oiaa?iiai?io, %90,3 82,0 65,086,486,1
94,9105,994,634,1Ieaoi? iineoae, %73,4 78,077,196,767,7
85,894,295,222,3?iaeaen ?aaeueii? ca?ieaoe a ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa?, %

106,1

61,3

48,5

85,4

128,1

86,2

97,6

87,1

25,3?iaeaen ?aaeueieo a?ioiaeo aeioiae?a ianaeaiiy,
%91,571,157,984,5101,882,9106,395,327,2?iaeaen ?ioeyoe?? oe?i
niiaeea/iai ?eieo, ?ac?a3,921,0102,6 5,02,8
1,41,11,2218929,4?iaeaen iioiaeo oe?i o i?iieneiaino?,
?ac?a2,642,397,78,72,71,171,051,35421539,7

Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, neooaoe?y o noa?? oi?ioaaiiy ??aiy aeeooy iiaea
aooe ua a??oith, yeui a ia ae?yee iaai? nioe?aeuei? eiiiainaoi?e oa
eaoaioi? iaoai?cie oei/aniaiai aaeueioaaiiy i?ioean?a iioe?aiiy
a?aeiino?. Aei iaeoa?aeoa?i?oeo ?c ieo iiaeia a?aeianoe: 1) ianaeaiiy ua
o?eaaeee /an i?iaeiaaeo? niiaeeaaoe oiaa?e aeiaaino?ieiaiai ei?enooaaiiy
oa ia’?eoe iniaenoi? aeaniino?, i?eaeaai? ca /an?a, eiee ?aaeuei?
aeioiaee iaeicaaacia/aieo aoee iaaaaaoi aeueie; 2) i?iaeiaaeothoue
ooieoe?iioaaoe caeeoee oae caaieo “oiiae?a noni?eueiiai niiaeeaaiiy”,
ye? aeoeaii cai?oathoueny. Oi/a ?ic?aooiee na?ae/aoue i?i i’yoee?aoia
?aaeueia nei?i/aiiy ianya?a ??/ieo aeieao ? i?euea ia aeooo ianaeaiiy,
oeae iieaciee ia nueiaiaei? ia?aaeuo? 15 a?i. ia i?nyoeue. Naia ?c oeeo
oiiae?a iaeicaaacia/ai? aa?noae ianaeaiiy ua i?iaeiaaeothoue aaceiooiaii
io?eioaaoe iaiao?aei? iineoae, ye? iaaeathoue ?i onoaiiae nenoai ioi?iie
caei?ia’y, ina?oe, eoeueoo?e oiui, ye? oi/ ? iaaeinoaoiuei, aea ana ae
oaee o?iainothoueny ca ?aooiie athaeaeaoieo aeo?ao, ui aeae?eythoueny ia
?oi? oo?eiaiiy; 3) ao?aoa iaaeoiaeaeaiue a?ioiaeo eioo?a eiiiaino?oueny
c?inoaiiyi ianya?a oae caaii? “n??i?” aeiiii?ee (ae?yeueiino?, ui
iia’ycaia ?c aeaniei iaoo?aeueiei i?iaeoeoiaei caaacia/aiiyi ?
naiicaaacia/aiiyi ianaeaiiy iiaooiai-ainiiaea?nueeeie iineoaaie), a
oaeiae a?ioiaeie aeioiaeaie, ye? ianaeaiiy io?eio? ca ?aooiie
“o?iueiai?” ae?yeueiino?.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? — “Ia?a?iae?caoe?y ianaeaiiy a oiiaao aeiiii?/ii?
e?ece oa ?? aieea ia noai nioe?aeueii? noaa?eueiino? aea?aeaae”
i?iaiae?ciaaii aeiiii?/i? oa nioe?aeuei? /eiieee ? ?ice?eoi niaoeeo?eo
a?o/eciyieo oiia ? iaoai?ci?a oi?ioaaiiy ia?a?iaeueieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy,
aeeeaaeaii iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aei eeaneo?eaoe?? i?iya?a
ia?a?iaeueiiai ? iie?ia?a?iaeueiiai noaio iniae (a?oie ethaeae),
?ice?eoi ooieoe?iiaeuei? i?iyae cai?ioiiai aieeao i?ioean?a
ia?a?iae?caoe?? ia noai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? oa iie?oe/ii?
noaa?eueiino? aea?aeaae.

Aeena?oaioii aeiaaaeaii, ui iaea?eueo ianooaaii iciaee caiaiaaeo
noni?eueieo a?aeiinei oa a?aeiia?aeiiai iia??oaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee
aeeoo?aiai ??aiy i?iyaeythoueny o i?ioean? ia?a?iae?caoe?? ianaeaiiy.
Aiia yaey? niaith ca?eueoaiiy ye ?aaeueiiai ianyao, oae ? iineeaiiy
caaaeueiiai aieeao ia?a?iaeueieo a?oi ia aeiiii?eo ? noni?euenoai a
oe?eiio. Ca nai?i noaoonii “ia?a?iaee” — oea ethaee, ye? caeiathoue
iniaeeaa aeiiii?/ii-ia?eoa??eia aai nioe?aeueii-iiey?ia noaiiaeua o
noni?euenoa?. ?ioeie neiaaie, — oea aa?noae ianaeaiiy e?a?ie, ye?, ye
i?aaeei, ia?aaoaathoue ia aeiiii?/iiio oa nioe?aeueiiio oca?//?.

Ia?a?iaeuei?noue aecia/a?oueny oeyoii canoinoaaiiy iaaieo ii??aiyeueieo
oa?aeoa?enoee oa iieaciee?a ??aiy aeeooy, ui a?aeaeca?eaeththoue ye?ni?
iniaeeaino? oeueiai iaaeiaiai aai i?ii?aeiiai noaio ?nioaaiiy eiie?aoii?
ethaeeie, a?oie ethaeae, /e iaaii? nioe?aeueii? ni?eueiioe (aeiiii?/ii?,
nioe?aeueii-eeaniai?, aeaiia?ao?/ii?, iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii? oiui)
a?aeiinii iniiaieo ia?aiao??a aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? oeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy
e?a?ie, ye? ? aeii?ioth/eie o noni?euenoa?.

Eeaneo?eaoe?y ia?a?iaeueieo a?oi iiaea aooe i?iaaaeaia ia iniia? ?o
ia’?aeiaiiy ca iaeoa?aeoa?i?oeie aeey ieo ni?eueieie iciaeaie. Ca
a?aeiia?aeieie iciaeaie iaeii/anii? i?eiaeaaeiino? in?a aei aeaio aai
iaa?oue o?ueio oei?a ia?a?iaeueieo a?oi aiie iiaeooue aooe a?aeianai?
aei noa’?eo?a, yeei i?eoaiaiiee iie?ia?a?iaeueiee noai ?nioaaiiy.
Aeena?oaio i?iiiio? aeae?eeoe /ioe?e iniiai? iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee
aei aecia/aiiy eeaneo?eaoe?eiiai noaio ia?a?iaeueiino?: 1) ca
aeiiii?/iith iciaeith (ia?aaeon?i ??aiai noeoiieo aeioiae?a); 2) ca
iciaeaie aioenoni?eueiiai niiniao aeeooy oa i?ioei?aaieie niiniaaie
caaacia/aiiy iio?aa aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?; 3) ca iciaeaie, ye? na?ae/aoue
i?i iaaoooy iniaith iniaeeaiai noaoono “nioe?aeueiiai i?a?aioa” aai
“noni?eueiiai aeaeeanaioa”; 4) ca i?iyaaie iaaeiaeo (iiethnieo)
aeaiia?ao?/ii-o?c?ieia?/ieo iciae.

Aiae?c na?ae/eoue, ui niaoeeo?ea no/anieo i?ioean?a ia?a?iae?caoe??,
ye?e i?aeaea?oueny oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai, iieyaa? a oiio, ui ia
oca?//y nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e aeeeaea?oueny ia i?inoi iana
aeaeeaniaaieo oa ii?aeueii aeaa?aaeiaaieo aeaiaio?a, a aeineoue
neeaaeiee eiiaeiia?ao a?oi, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny ??ciiiai?oiei iaai?ii
i?eoaiaiieo naia ?i aaaeeeaeo e?euee?nieo oa ye?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee.
Ii?yae ?c o?aaeeoe?eieie ethiiai-ia?a?iaeaie o oeae nioe?aeueiee
eiiaeiia?ao aoiaeyoue oae caai? “iaiia?a?iaee”. Iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?ieie
?enaie oeeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy ? aeniea ina?/ai?noue, ?icaeiaia nenoaia
iio?aa, cia/i? nioe?aeuei? i/?eoaaiiy ? nooo?aa iie?oe/ia aeoeai?noue.
Ii?yae ?c oeeie aaciaeie noni?eueieie no?aoaie ?niothoue aaaaoi/enaeuei?
ia?ao?aei? a?oie, ui ciaoiaeyoueny ia ??cieo aoaiao ia?iaiaioiiai
i?ioeano ia?a?iae?caoe??.

Aieiaiith oiiaith iiaeieaiiy i?ioean?a ia?a?iae?caoe?? ? c?inoaiiy ??aiy
aeeooy ianaeaiiy, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, ia? noaoe oi?ioaaiiy iiaeae?
nioe?aeueii-?ioaa?iaaiiai noni?euenoaa, yea caeaoia iioeiaeueii
ocaiaeeoe ??ci?, iaa?oue ? iiey?ii i?ioeeaaei? ?ioa?ane ie?aieo in?a oa
nioe?aeueieo a?oi, a oaeiae ni?iiiaeia noai?eoe aio/eo nenoaio
caaaeueiii?eeiyoieo noni?eueieo oe?iiinoae. Nioe?aeueia ?ioaa?aoe?y
iiaeiia noaoe iaeiei ?c aieiaieo eiiiiiaio?a nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo oa
aeinyaiaiiy ye?nii iiaiai ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy ? iiaeiia noaaeoe ca
iaoo ia eeoa c?inoaiiy ??aiy caaacia/aiino? oeo /e ?ioeo aa?noa
ianaeaiiy (ie?aieo in?a), a noai?aiiy oiia, ui ni?eythoue oi?ioaaiith
oaei? no?oeoo?e nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, yea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
ni?aaaaeeeaei a?aeiioaiiyi aei ?iaeea?ae?a, oa aa?iii?caoe?? a?aeiinei
i?ae nioe?aeueieie aa?noaaie ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ? ia oe?e iniia? noai?th?
oiiae aeinyaiaiiy caaaeueii? noni?eueii? caiaee ? ceaaiaee. Ca nai?th
noooth nioe?aeueii ?ioaa?iaaia noni?euenoai — oea noni?euenoai, ui ?nio?
aeey an?o ? aeey eiaeiiai, oea noni?euenoai, ui ia? caaacia/oaaoe
noai?aiiy oiia aeey iiaii? naii?aae?caoe?? iioaioe?eieo iiaeeeainoae
eiaeii? iniae. Oiaoi oea noni?euenoai, a yeiio iathoue aooe a?aenooi?
aoaeue-ye? oi?ie ? iaoai?cie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? aeene?ei?iaoe?? oa
iaaeaiiy ia?aaaa ? i?euea noa’?eoai oa noni?eueiei ni?eueiioai uiaei ?o
?aae?caoe??.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? — “Oeyoe ?aoi?ioaaiiy iaoai?ci?a iiiaeaoeoaaiiy
aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi” aeine?aeaeaii iaea?eueo aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
?aoi?ioaaiiy iaoai?ci?a iiiaeaoeoaaiiy aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi, iniiai?
i?iyae oa iane?aeee nioe?aeueii iaaacia/iiai iineeaiiy o?neaeueiiai
oeneo ia aeioiaee ianaeaiiy, iaa?oioiaaii iai?yie ? iaoai?cie
a?aeiiaeaiiy i?eioeeio nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino? o
iiaeaoeiai-?iciiae?eue/?e iie?oeoe? aea?aeaae a no/anieo oiiaao oa
?ic?iaeai? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei caaacia/aiiy ?aae?caoe??
oeueiai i?eioeeio.

Aoaeoeaia ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaoai?cio ni?aaeyiiy iiaeaoe?a c aeioiae?a
a?iiaaeyi aeiaaa? a?ae aea?aeaae iaeneiaeueii iiaiiai a?aooaaiiy
?aaeueieo aeiiii?/ieo iiaeeeainoae ??cieo nioe?aeueieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy,
ui ? ieaoieeaie iiaeaoe?a. Oiio, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, iniaeeaa
cia/aiiy ia? ioe?iea ?aaeueieo ianooaa?a iaeiie/aieo noia?a/iinoae oa
aecia/aiiy ? canoinoaaiiy iaea?eueo i?eeiyoieo caoiae?a uiaei ?o
iiaeieaiiy. Iiaeaoeiaa iie?oeea aea?aeaae ia? iaeneiaeueii iiaii
?aae?ciaoaaoe i?eioeeie nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino? oeyoii canoinoaaiiy
iaoai?ci?a iiaeaoeiai-?iciiae?eue/iai aieeao ia oi?ioaaiiy ?
ia?a?iciiae?e ?aaeueieo aeioiae?a ianaeaiiy.

Aeey iii’yeoaiiy aieeao ?ioeyoe?? ia ??aaiue aeeooy ianaeaiiy
?iciiae?eue/a iie?oeea aea?aeaae ia? aeei?enoiaoaaoe iaoai?ci
?iaeaenaoe??. Oiaoi o iiaeaoeia?e nenoai? aaoi? i?iiiio? caae?yoe
iaoai?ci aaoiiaoe/ii? ci?ie aaee/eie iaiiiaeaoeiaoaaiiai i?i?ioio ?
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii? oeaee noaaie iiaeaoe?a ia aeioiaee ??ciiai ??aiy. Ca
oiia a?aenooiino? oeueiai iaoai?cio aeieea? iaaacia/ia neooaoe?y, eiee
aaee/eia iaiiiaeaoeiaoaaiiai i?i?ioio aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi iionea?oueny
ieae/a ca ??aaiue, ui aecia/a? noai ceeaei?a. O oeueiio ?ac? o
iiaeaoeiaiio iie? ooai?th?oueny ciia iaaeaenieiai o?neaeueiiai oeneo ?
iiaeaoeiaee oyaa? ia?aeeaaea?oueny ia iaeicaaacia/ai? aa?noae ianaeaiiy,
a eacia ii/eia? aeeo/aoe eiooe, ye? aeey oe??? eaoaai??? ianaeaiiy ?
ae?ae aeeoo?ai iaiao?aeieie.

Aoaeoeaia ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaoai?cio ni?aaeyiiy iiaeaoe?a c aeioiae?a
a?iiaaeyi aeiaaa? a?ae aea?aeaae iaeneiaeueii iiaiiai a?aooaaiiy
?aaeueieo aeiiii?/ieo iiaeeeainoae ??cieo nioe?aeueieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy,
ui ? ieaoieeaie iiaeaoe?a. Ii?ooaiiy a i?ioean? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy i?eioeeio
nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino?, yeee iieyaa? o caaacia/aii? i?aeo?eiee
iaeicaaacia/aieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy oeyoii anoaiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii
iaa?oioiaaiiai iaiiiaeaoeiaoaaiiai i?i?ioio aeioiae?a oa canoinoaaiiy
i?ia?aneaiiai iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, a oaeiae ?aii?oaaiiy i?eioeeio
?ioeyoe?eii? iaeo?aeueiino?, yeee ciaia’yco? iaeo?ae?coaaoe o?neaeueio
caeaaei?noue aeioiaeii? aace athaeaeaoo a?ae ?ioeyoe?eieo aeaea?ae
iaaeoiaeaeaiue, ui iniaeeai iaaaoeaii iicia/a?oueny ia aeeiai?oe?
?aaeueieo aeioiae?a, oneeaaeiththoue i?ioean a?aeoai?aiiy o?oaeiaiai
iioaioe?aeo, iaiaaeothoue o?iainia? ?ano?ne i?aeaeuaiiy aeeoo?aiai ??aiy
ianaeaiiy.

Iaea?eueo iaaacia/ieie yaeuaie, ui iathoue i?noea o iiaeaoeia?e noa?? ?:
i?eaooeiaee iiaeaoie oaeoe/ii ia?aoai?eany ia iiaeaoie ia ca?ia?oio
ieaoo oeo, ooi i?aoeth? o “i?ici?iio” naeoi?? aeiiii?ee, aiaeii/an
aeineoue cia/iee ianya aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi, ye? io?eiothoueny o
“o?iueiaiio” naeoi?? iiai?noth oieea? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy; aeeiai?/ii
ia?iuo?oueny oene ia oiiae a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy c aieo iai?yieo
iiaeaoe?a, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae i?yieo a?eueoith i?eoiaai?noth ?
oiio a?eueoith nioe?aeueiith iani?aaaaeeea?noth, ine?eueee a iaeiaeia?e
i?iii?oe?? noyaothoueny c iieoioe?a aac o?aooaaiiy ??aiy
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ?oi?o iniaenoeo aeioiae?a. Aiie ? iiaeaoeaie ia a?aeieo
? nai???aeiith i?eoiaaiith i?ea?ea?th aaaaoeo.

I?iyae iineeaiiy o?neaeueiiai oeneo ia iaeicaaacia/ai? aa?noae ianaeaiiy
cana?ae/othoue iaaaeueio iaiao?aei?noue oa?i?iiaiai oi?ioaaiiy ?
caaacia/aiiy iiaeaeueoiai aoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy iecee oe?eueiaeo
iaoai?ci?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia ?aae?caoe?th i?eioeeio nioe?aeueii?
ni?aaaaeeeaino? oa ?ioeyoe?eii? iaeo?aeueiino? o noa?? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy
aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi. Ia?aaeon?i oea noino?oueny ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
aeena?oaioa uiaei iioeiaeueiiai oi?ioaaiiy aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo noaaie
oanoe?ic?yaeii? oeaee noyaiaiiy iiaeaoe?a ia aeioiaee ? iaoai?ci?a
aecia/aiiy iaiiiaeaoeiaoaaiiai i?i?ioio oa eiai ?iaeaenaoe??.

O oinoiio ?icae?e? — “Eiinthia?eci oa iai?yie ?icaoaeiae aeiiii?/ieo oa
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo iaoai?ci?a eiai caaacia/aiiy” ?icaeyiooi
oai?aoe/i? ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo eiinthia?ecio, ye aaaeeeai? neeaaeiai?
caaacia/aiiy a ?eieiaeo oiiaao iaiao?aeieo ye?nieo noaiaea?o?a
aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy, i?iaiae?ciaaii ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae
oi?ioaaiiy oa aaeineiiaeaiiy iniiaieo iaoai?ci?a eiinthia?ecio oa
iiaeeeaino? eiai canoinoaaiiy o a?o/eciyi?e i?aeoeoe?, noai ? iai?yie
?icaeoeo eiinthia?ecio a Oe?a?i?, aena?oeaii iniiai? i?iaeaie, ?ice?eoi
iai?yie oa aeeeaaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy ae??aino? eiai
no?oeoo?ieo iaoai?ci?a.

Na?aae ieoaiue aeeoo?aiai ??aiy i?iaeaia caaacia/aiiy niiaeeaaiiy
ianaeaiiyi ye?nieo aeeoo?aeo aeaa ? iaei??th c iaeaieiai?oeo ?
iaeaino??oeo. sse nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia yaeua, ui iia’ycaia ?c
aeio?eiaiiyi ye?nieo noaiaea?o?a niiaeeaaiiy, eiinthia?eci ia eeoa
a?aeaeca?eaeth? ? ia?nii?o?eo? ia`?eoeai? i?ioe??//y, ui iaieio/a
aeieeathoue o nenoai? ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, aea ? ia? caaacia/eoe
iiaeieaiiy ?o oeyoii canoinoaaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo aeiiii?/ieo oa
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo iaoai?ci?a. Ca nai?i ci?noii eiinthia?eci yaey?
niaith nenoaio noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, ui iia’ycai? c i?aai?ciaaiei ?ooii
a?iiaaeyi oa a?aeiia?aeiith ?aaoethth/ith ae?yeuei?noth aea?aeaaieo
onoaiia ? i?aai?caoe?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia caoeno ?ioa?an?a niiaeeaa/?a,
ia?aaeon?i o noa?? ?icoe?aiiy i?aa ? iineeaiiy aieeao iieoioe?a ia
ae?iaiee?a ? i?iaeaaoe?a oiaa??a (iineoa). A?i oaeiae aeeth/a?
a?aeiia?aei? aeiiii?/i? iaoai?cie oa i?aaiao nenoaio, ui ia noni?eueiiio
??ai? aa?aioo? caaacia/aiiy ?aae?caoe?? i?aaa ethaeeie niiaeeaaoe ye?ni?
aeaaa ? iineoae, ye? aiia io?eio? a i?ioean? ?eieiaiai iai?io.

Aiae?c na?oiaiai aeina?aeo na?ae/eoue, ui eiinthia?eci ? iaiao?aeiei
iaoai?ciii caoenoo aeeoo?aiai ??aiy, yeee aeei?enoiaothoue oe?ie?
aa?noae ianaeaiiy c iaoith iaaeiiouaiiy aeiaaee?a aeei?enoaiiy
i?aei?e?ioeyie iaaacia/ieo aeey niiaeeaa/?a iaoiae?a ae?iaieoeoaa ?
?aae?caoe?? iaye?nieo oiaa??a oa iineoa. Nenoaia eiinthia?ecio ia? aooe
ni?yiiaaia ia ?aae?caoe?th ainueie iniiaieo i?aa niiaeeaa/?a: i?aaa ia
ioi?iio caei?ia’y ? aaciaeo niiaeeaaiiy; i?aaa ia ioi?iio aeiiii?/ieo
?ioa?an?a; i?aaa ia iaoa??aeueio ? ii?aeueio eiiiainaoe?th ca iiianai?
caeoee (ye i?yi?, oae ? iiina?aaeeiaai?), ui caaaeai? ee??ioo aiane?aeie
aeei?enoaiiy iei iaye?nieo oiaa??a (aai niiaeeaaiiy iaye?nieo iineoa);
i?aaa ia iaeneiaeueii iiaio oa i?aaaeeao ?ioi?iaoe?th uiaei ?aaeueii?
niiaeea/i? yeino? oiaa??a (iineoa) oa a?aeiia?aeio ? iaiao?aeio aeey
ee??ioa o cacia/aiiio aeiaaeeo ina?oo; i?aaa aooe aeneooaiei; i?aaa ia
caaeiaieaiiy aaciaeo iio?aa; i?aaa ia aea??; i?aaa ia caei?iaa
aeiae?eey.

Ieoaiiyi eiinthia?ecio a Oe?a?i? aei inoaiiueiai /ano ia i?eae?eyeanue
iaeaaeia oaaaa. Ia nueiaiaei? i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi? iaoeia? ?ic?iaee ?c
oeueiai ieoaiiy, niinoa??aa?oueny iaaeinoaoiy a?aaoeueiaai?noue
caeiiiaeaanoaii o??? noa?e, ui caaacia/o? caoeno i?aa a?o/eciyiiai
niiaeeaa/a, a oaeiae neaae?noue naiiai ?ooo niiaeeaa/?a oa ?o neaaea
i?aai?ciaai?noue. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei aaceiio?ieueiino? oa eiia?oe?eii?
anaaeicaieaiino? ? aacea?iino? ianoie?iieo i?aei?e?ioe?a, ii?ooo? i?aaa
niiaeeaa/?a ? oeiaeeoue ?oi?i ?ioa?anai. Aiae?c, i?iaaaeaiee
aeena?oaioii na?ae/eoue, ui ?icoa?oaaiiy noni?euenoaa ia a?aeieo ?
aaaaoeo ??cei ci?ieei no?oeoo?o niiaeeaaiiy, a ca?aene — ? a?aeiia?aei?
aeiiae aei yeino? oiaa??a oa iineoa. Oiio neeaaeiei caaaeaiiyi
eiinthia?ecio ? ia?ai???ioaoe?y a?o/eciyiiai ae?iaieoeoaa e
ianeoaiaoaaiiy ia caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ia
ona?aaeiaiiai, a eiie?aoiiai niiaeeaa/a. Aei oiai ae iaiao?aeii
a?aoiaoaaoe, ui ao?aoa ?aaeueieo aeioiae?a ia?aaaaeiith a?eueo?noth
a?iiaaeyi ciooo? ?o eoioaaoe iaeaeaoaao? ? a iniiaiiio iaye?ni? oiaa?e.
Oea iniaeeai iaaacia/ii ca oiiae iineaaeaiiy iaaeyaeo ca noaiaea?oaie
yeino? oiaa??a, yea ia? i?noea aiane?aeie aeaiiioaaeo noa?i? ?
iaaeinoaoiueiai iaeaaiaeaeaiiy ?iaioe iiai? nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai
eiio?ieth.

Oaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?ei-i?aaiai? aace caoenoo i?aa niiaeeaa/?a oa
iie?auaiiy noaiiaeua ia niiaeea/iio ?eieo iiaeia aeinyaoe oeyoii:
ia?aaeyaeo ii?iaoeaii? aace, ui ?aaeaiaioo? iiaiiaaaeaiiy aea?aeaaieo
i?aai?a, ye? cae?eniththoue iaaeyae ? eiio?ieue ca ye?noth ? aaciaeith
oiaa??a ia?iaeiiai niiaeeaaiiy; ia?aaeyaeo nenoaie i?aeaea?aeaaieo
noaiaea?o?a, ye? canoa??ee ? ia a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiaai nueiaiaeaiiy;
oa?i?iiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeoo ii?iaoeaiiai aeoo i?i ii?yaeie caai?iie
aeei?enoaiiy, ooee?caoe?? oa cieuaiiy iaaeia?iye?nieo oa iaaacia/ieo
aeey caei?ia’y ethaeeie oa iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua i?iaeiaieue/i?
ne?iaeie ? oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a; noai?aiiy i?aaiaeo oiia aa?aio?e
iaaeaiiy iaiao?aeieo iineoa iaea?eueo a?aceeaei aa?noaai ianaeaiiy ca
nioe?aeueii aeinooiieie oe?iaie; anoaiiaeaiiy o caeiiiaeaa/iio ii?yaeeo
i?i?iaeueiiai iaai?o nioe?aeueii aa?aioiaaieo iineoa, aecia/aiiy
aeaea?ae iie?eooy aeo?ao, iia’ycaieo c iaaeaiiyi oeeo iineoa noa’?eoai
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? iacaeaaeii a?ae oi?i aeaniino? oiui.
Aaoi?ii aeiaaaeaii, ui aeeiiaiiy oeeo oiia aeicaieeoue nooo?ai
i?aeaeueoe ye?noue niiaeeaaiiy ianaeaiiyi iaoa??aeueieo aeaa oa iineoa ?
a e?ioeaaiio ?aooieo ni?eyoeia c?inoaiith aeeoo?aiai ??aiy.

O nueiiiio ?icae?e? — “Iai?yie aaeineiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee
aeioiae?a oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aoaeoeaieo iaoai?ci?a iii’yeoaiiy iane?aee?a
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ianaeaiiy” ?ice?eoi oeyoe
aaeineiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee aeioiae?a, iaoai?cie ?aoi?ioaaiiy
nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo iaeicaaacia/aieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy a
ia??iae ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe??, c’yniaaii iniaeeaino? ?aoi?ioaaiiy
?nioth/i? nenoaie eiiiainaoe?e ? aa?aio?e oa aeeeaaeai? i?iiiceoe??
uiaei iaiaaeaiiy i?euea oa e?ea?aeaoe?? i?ea?ea?a. Cia/ia oaaaa
i?eae?eaia ?icaeyaeo ieoaiiy ?aoi?ioaaiiy iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy
i?i?iaeueii? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe ye aaaeeeai? eaiee a nenoai? iineeaiiy
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy.

Nueiaiaei? a Oe?a?i? ua ia aaeaeiny caae?yoe iaae?ei? iaoai?cie, ye?
aeaaaee a ciiao aoaeoeaii oa nioe?aeueii ni?aaaaeeeai aieeaaoe ia
oii?yaeeoaaiiy i?ioean?a oi?ioaaiiy aeioiae?a ? niiaeeaaiiy
iaeicaaacia/aieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy. Oiio iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaei
caaaeaiiyi ? i?aeoe/ia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ae??aeo iaoai?ci?a oa caoiae?a
iaiaaeaiiy ia?a?iae?caoe?? ? aa?aiooaaiiy c?inoaiiy aeeoo?aiai ??aiy
iaeicaaacia/aieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy. Oni?oia ?ica’ycaiiy oeueiai caaaeaiiy
aeicaieeoue ia aeiionoeoe ianiaa coaiae?iiy ianaeaiiy ? noai?eoue
iaae?ei? i?aeaaeeie nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? noaa?eueiino? a noni?euenoa?.

Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith a?o/eciyii? nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy ? oa,
ui aiia ia?aaoaa? o i?ioean? aeiaaio?eaaeiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy, ? oiio ?e
i?eoaiaii? ye noa??, oae ? niaoeeo?/i? ia?ao?aei?, a oaeiae ? aaniethoii
iia? aeaiaioe oa iaoai?cie. ?? ?aoi?ioaaiiy ia? cae?enithaaoenue
uiiaeiaioa o aeaa aoaie. Ia ia?oiio aoai?, yeee ia iiaea aooe iaioei ca
o?eaae?noue iiaeieaiiy e?eciaiai noaio aeiiii?ee, ae?th/a nenoaia
nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy ia? aooe iaia`yceiai caa?aaeaiith (ca oiiae
iineeaiiy ?? aae?aniino? oa aaeineiiaeaiiy oi?i aeiiiiia
iaeicaaacia/aiei a?iiaaeyiai). Naia ia oeueiio aoai? iaiao?aeii i?eeiyoe
i?iaeo Iniia caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i nioe?aeueia no?aooaaiiy, oaeineiiaeeoe
oi?aae?iiy ae?yeuei?noth oiiaeii nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy, a oaeiae
caii/aoeoaaoe ? aecia/eoe iaeaoaeoeai?o? aeey a?o/eciyieo oiia oi?ie
i?eaaoiiai no?aooaaiiy ia eiia?oe?eieo canaaeao, ia?aaanoe aea?aeaaia
i?eueaiaa iain?eia caaacia/aiiy ia i?ioan?eii-aaeocaaee ??aaiue. Ia
ae?oaiio aoai?, yeee iiaeiai ?icii/aoeny eeoa ca oiiae aeinyaiaiiy
noaa?e?caoe?? oa a?ae?iaeaeaiiy noaeiai c?inoaiiy aeiiii?ee, iathoue
aooe i?eeiyo? oa ai?iaaaeaeai? caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe, ia aac? yeeo
cai?iaaaeaeoaaoeiooueny a?aeiia?aei? i?aai?caoe?eii-o?iainia? iaoai?cie,
ui iiai?noth a?aeiia?aeaoeiooue eiioeaiooaeueiei iai?yiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy
nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy.

Aaaeeeaith i?iaeaiith ?aoi?ioaaiiy iaoai?ci?a nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
ianaeaiiy ? oii?yaeeoaaiiy nenoaie aa?aio?e, i?euea, aaceiooiaieo
iineoa, eiiiainaoe?e oa i?ea?ea?a. ?o aca?iica’ycie oa nenoaiio
i?aeii?yaeeiaai?noue ?ice?eaa? noaia 2.

Noaia 2

Nioe?aeuei? aa?aio??

O a?ioia?e oi?i? (i?i?iaeueia ca?ieaoa, i?i?iaeueia iain?y, noeiaiae?? ?
aeiiiiiae)

O oi?i? aaciieaoieo iineoaO oi?i? aeioaoe?e, ui ni?yiiaothoueny ia
cieaeaiiy oe?i ? oa?eo?a ia oiaa?e ? iineoae ianiaiai iiieoo

I?eueae

Aaciieaoi? iineoae, ui iaaeathoueny ?c “noni?eueieo oiiae?a niiaeeaaiiy”

(iioe?ai? ia an? aa?noae ianaeaiiy)

Eiiiainaoe??

(aeeoo?ai iaiao?aei? i?eueae aeey ie?aieo eaoaai??e ianaeaiiy)I?ea?ea?
(“ia?aaaae” oa “aeeeth/aiiy ?c caaaeueieo i?aaee” nioe?aeueiiai
caaacia/aiiy a?iiaaeyi

Nioe?aeuei? aa?aio??, ui aecia/ai? o a?ioia?e oi?i?, ?aaeaiaioothoue
??aaiue eioo?a, ieae/a yeiai ia iiaeii? aooe iniaeno? aeioiaee
ianaeaiiy. Caeaaeii a?ae eaoaai??e io?eioaa/?a, i?eueae iiaeia
?iciiae?eeoe ia aea? iniiai? ? aeineoue a?aei?ii? oi?ie: eiiiainaoe??
(aai aeeoo?ai iaiao?aei? oa nioe?aeueii aei?aaaeai? i?eueae); i?ea?ea?
(oiaoi oae? i?eueae, ye? ia ? aeiiii?/ii iaiao?aeieie oa nioe?aeueii
ni?aaaaeeeaeie).

?nioth/a a Oe?a?i? nenoaia i?ea?ea?a ? ?oaeeiaioa?iith ? aei oiai ae
niioai?aiith oi?iith aaeaioaoe?? eieeoiuei? nenoaie
iiiaieeaoo?ii-ath?ie?aoe/ieo i?ea?ea?a aei oiia ?eieiai?
o?ainoi?iaoe??. I?ioa iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui iiai?noth e?ea?aeoaaoe
?nioth/o nueiaiaei? nenoaio i?ea?ea?a iaaecae/aeii aaaeei, aea ?? iiaeia
ea?aeeiaeueii o?ainoi?ioaaoe. Ia ia?oa i?noea a i?ioean? o?ainoi?ioaaiiy
nenoaie i?ea?ea?a aia?aoo aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy iaiao?aeii iinoaaeoe
caoiaee, ui iia’ycai? ?c caaacia/aiiyi aaciina?aaeiuei? neoaeaiai?
ae?yeueiino? i?aoe?aiee?a ? ye? aeicaieythoue aea?aeneoaeaiaoeyi a?eueo
iiaii ?aae?coaaoe nai? i?aai?caoe?ei? cae?aiino? oa iie?ioeoe oiiae
aeeiiaiiy neoaeaiaeo iaia’yce?a. I?e oeueiio aaaeeeaei caoiaeii, ui ia?
ia?aeaeueii cae?enithaaoenue ii?yae ?c i?ioeanii cai?oaiiy i?ea?ea?a — ?
a?aeiiaeaiiy iaiao?aeiiai ??aiy iieaoe i?aoe? aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a.

E?ecia? oiiae iaaecae/aeii cai/othoue ia?eoaoiee oa?aeoa? aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei i?ae iaeiaieie i?aoe?aieeaie ? ?iaioiaeaaoeyie ia ei?enoue
inoaii?o. Oiio ?aaoethaaiiy aaee/eie aa?oino? i?i?iaeueii? ca?ia?oii?
ieaoe ia? caaacia/oaaoe iino?eiee eiii?ii?n i?ae caaeiaieaiiyi iio?aa
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? i?aoethth/eo oa ?nioth/eie aeiiii?/ieie
iiaeeeainoyie. Cacia/aia iiaeiii noi?iaiaeaeoaaoenue cai?iaaaeaeaiiyi ia
i?aei?e?inoaao oa i?aai?caoe?yo aea?aeaaieo aa?aio?e a iieao? i?aoe? oa
caoiae?a uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?e naii? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe.
Iaeiie/ai? i?iaeaie o noa?? aecia/aiiy i?i?iaeueii? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe
iathoue ae??ooaaoenue o eiioaeno? caaaeueii? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii?
iie?oeee aea?aeaae, ui ia? ocaiaeaeoaaoe ?ioa?ane i?aei?e?ioe?a,
iaeiaieo i?aoe?aiee?a oa ia’?aeiaiue, ui i?aaenoaaeythoue ?oi? ?ioa?ane.

O ainueiiio ?icae?e? — “Iniaeeaino? aca?iiaieeao
e?aaeeoii-?iaanoeoe?eiiai iaoai?cio oa noaio aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy”
i?iaiae?ciaaii aieea oa oa?aeoa? aca?iica’yceo e?aaeeoii-?iaanoeoe?eiiai
iaoai?cio ? iaoai?cio oi?ioaaiiy aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi
iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy caiuaaeaeaiue ianaeaiiy ye no?aoaa?/iiai
aeaea?aea ?iaanooaaiiy a?o/eciyii? aeiiii?ee oa cae?eniaii aiae?c
o?iainiai-i?aaiaeo i?iaeai a?aeiiaeaiiy ciaoe?iaieo ?ioeyoe??th
caiuaaeaeaiue a?iiaaeyi.

Na?oiaa aeiiii?/ia iaoea ? ainiiaea?nueea i?aeoeea e?a?i c ?icaeiooith
?eieiaith aeiiii?eith aecia/athoue caeo/aiiy caiuaaeaeaiue ianaeaiiy ye
no?aoaa?/ia aeaea?aei ?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa ? iiaeaeueoiai c?inoaiiy
??aiy aeeooy. Oiio, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, a oiiaao no?oeoo?ii?
ia?aaoaeiae aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie caiuaaeaeaiiy ianaeaiiy iathoue aaea
iaeaeeae/ei /anii noaoe iniiaiei aeaea?aeii o?iainoaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eii?
noa?e. Noai?aiiy nenoaie aa?aio?e caoenoo caiuaaeaeaiue ianaeaiiy
iio?aao? canoinoaaiiy aoaeoeaiiai iaoai?cio no?aooaaiiy aeaiiceo?a
a?iiaaeyi; noaiiaeaiiy oaei? e?aaeeoii? nenoaie, ui caaacia/eoue
i?eaaoiiio ?iaanoi?o ?aae?caoe?th i?aaa aeaniino? oeyoii iaaeaiiy eiio
i?aaa ia io?eiaiiy iaae?eii? ? anaa?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? uiaei ?aaeueiiai
noaio oeueiai naaiaioo ?eieo iineoa.

Ia?aoai?aiiy caiuaaeaeaiue ianaeaiiy a no?aoaa?/ia aeaea?aei
?iaanooaaiiy aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie iaiiaeeeai aac a?aeiiaeaiiy ciaoe?iaieo
?ioeyoe??th caiuaaeaeaiue a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie a onoaiiaao Iuaaeiiai aaieo
oa Oe?aea?aeno?aoo, ye? aiie iaee noaiii ia 1 n?/iy 1992 ?ieo. Oea ?
iaei??th c iaeaino??oeo i?iaeai, yeo ia? ?ica’ycaoe aea?aeaaa ia
canaaeao nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino? c iaoith a?aeiiaeaiiy aeia??e
ianaeaiiy aei a?o/eciyii? e?aaeeoii-o?iainiai? noa?e, ui o e?ioeaaiio
?aooieo aeicaieeoue ?aai?ioaaoe ?iaanoeoe?eiee iioaioe?ae ianaeaiiy —
o?iainiao aaco iiaeaeueoiai i?aeaeuaiiy eiai aeeoo?aiai ??aiy. Ae??oaiiy
oe??? i?iaeaie ia? aacoaaoeny ia i?eioeeiao aeia??e, ni?aaaaeeeaino? oa
eiinoeoooe?eieo i?aaao ethaeeie. Noeaia???a aeiiii?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy
oa canoinoaaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-o?iainiaeo iaoai?ci?a ?? ?ica’ycaiiy
iiaea aooe aaaaoi, aea ia?aaaaa o ?o ?aae?caoe?? aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie
ia? iaaeaaaoenue oei, ui caaacia/othoue iaae?eiee caoeno ?ioa?an?a
iaea?eueo nioe?aeueii a?aceeaeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy.

Canoinoaaiiyi eieaeueii-iaiaaeaieo iaoai?ci?a, ye? eeoa /anoeiai
ae??oothoue oeth i?iaeaio, aoaeoeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeinyaoe iaiiaeeeai.
Cacia/aia i?iaeaia iio?aao? ?aaeeeaeueiiai ? eiiieaeniiai ae??oaiiy, a
iiaeaeueoa caie?eaiiy c ?? ?ica’ycaiiyi ia iiaea aooe aei?aaaeaia
a?aenooi?noth athaeaeaoieo eioo?a. O aea?aeaae iaa?oue ca oiiae
nenoaiii? e?ece oa caaino?aiiy athaeaeaoii-o?iainiaeo i?iaeai ?niothoue
?aaeuei? iiaeeeaino? cae?eniaiiy ?iaeaenaoe?? ciaoe?iaieo caeeoe?a
aeeaae?a ia canaaeao nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino?, iniaeeai uiaei
iai?aoeacaeaoieo ? iaea?eueo nioe?aeueii-a?aceeaeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy.

?nioth/? cia/i? iioaioe?ei? ?aca?ae caeo/aiiy eioo?a ae??aieo
aeeaaeiee?a ia iio?aae ?icaeoeo ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa aei oeueiai
/ano i?iaeiaaeothoue caeeoaoeny iica oaaaith aea?aeaae, o oie /an ye
iio?aae no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae aeiiii?ee aeiaaathoue ia?aoai?eoe
caiuaaeaeaiiy ianaeaiiy o no?aoaa?/iee ?ano?n ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ?eieo. C
iaoith caaacia/aiiy oeueiai i?ioeano iaiao?aeii ii-ni?aaaeiueiio
caoe?eaaeoe i?eaaoieo in?a o ci?i? no?oeoo?e iniaenoeo caiuaaeaeaiue ?
ni?yioaaoe oe? ?ano?ne aei aeoeaiiai ainiiaea?nueeiai iai?ioo. Aeey
oeueiai iaiao?aeii aeoea?coaaoe i?ioean ooai?aiiy ? ia?iuaiiy ianya?a
caiuaaeaeaiue ianaeaiiy oeyoii oi?ioaaiiy a noni?euenoa? iiooaeiiai
i?ioa?eo na?aaeiueiai eeano. Aaoi?ii aeiaaaeaii, ui cia/iee ?aca?a
?iaanooaaiiy a?o/eciyii? aeiiii?ee noaiiaeyoue “o?iueia?”
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy ianaeaiiy. Oe? eiooe ca oiiae noai?aiiy iaiao?aeii?
aeiiii?/ii? caoe?eaaeaiino? oa iaae?eieo i?aaiaeo aa?aio?e ?o
caa?aaeaiiy iiaeooue cia/ii ca?eueoeoe ?iaanoeoe?eiee ?ano?n aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie.

Oaeei /eiii, aaaeeeaith oiiaith caeo/aiiy caiuaaeaeaiue aei
?iaanoeoe?eii? noa?e aeiiii?ee ia? noaoe noai?aiiy iaae?eiiai iaoai?cio
no?aoiaiai caoenoo aeeaae?a ianaeaiiy o o?iainiai-e?aaeeoi?e nenoai?
e?a?ie, ui iaia’yceiai iiaa?ia aeia??o i?eaaoieo in?a aei a?o/eciyieo
o?iainiai-e?aaeeoieo onoaiia. C oe??th iaoith iaiao?aeii: 1)
eiiiainoaaoe o iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaeo ianyaao ciaoe?iai? aeeaaee
o?ce/ieo in?a a onoaiiaao Iuaaeaaieo oa eieeoiueiai Oe?aea?aeno?aoo; 2)
iaeaaiaeeoe ae??aee iaoai?ci no?aooaaiiy aeaiiceo?a a?iiaaeyi ?c eiai
a?aeiia?aeiei i?aaiaei caaacia/aiiyi; 3) oaeineiiaeeoe i?ioeaaeo?i?
iaoai?cie ?aaoethaaiiy ae?yeueiino? o?iainiai-e?aaeeoieo onoaiia ia
aeineiiae?e i?aaia?e iniia?; 4) ci?ieoe iiaeaoeiao iie?oeeo oeyoii
ca?eueiaiiy a?ae iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ?a?iaanoiaaieo aeioiae?a a?ae
aeaiiceo?a; 5) cai?iaaaeeoe aoaeoeaio i?ioeaioio iie?oeeo, ui ia?
iioei?coaaoe i?ioeane io?eiaiiy aea?aaeaioieo ianya?a i?eaooe?a ia
aea?aaeaioi? ianyae aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo a ?aaeuei?e aeiiii?oe?, o
noa?? iineoa ? iniaeeai o noa?? o?iainiai-e?aaeeoieo a?aeiinei.

Aeniiaee

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeeiiaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?ii iaa?oioiaai? oae?
iniiai? aeniiaee ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??.

1. Ia?ao?ae a?ae oeaio?ae?ciaaii? aeiiii?ee aei nenoaie, caniiaaii? ia
e?aa?aeueieo ?eieiaeo canaaeao, iio?aao? aeiei??iiiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy
?nioth/eo oa cai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?eioeeiiai iiaeo iaoai?ci?a ?aaoethaaiiy
aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy. Oeae i?ioean iiaeiai nie?aoenue ia iaeaaeia
iaoeiai-iaoiaeieia?/ia caaacia/aiiy ?iciaaeoaaiiy ooieoe?e ? iaoai?ci?a
aea?aeaaiiai ? ?eieiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy ??aiy aeeooy ??cieo noni?eueieo
aa?noa ? ianaeaiiy a oe?eiio.

2. “??aaiue aeeooy” ? nenoaiiooai?thth/ith eaoaai???th, ui a?aeia?aaea?
noeoii?noue a?aeiinei ? oiia, ye? aecia/athoue aeeooy, i?aoeth, iiaoo ?
?ioaeaeooaeueii-eoeueoo?iee ?icaeoie ethaeae, oa?aeoa?eco? aeinyaiooo a
noni?euenoa? ia iaaiee i?ii?aeie /ano nooi?iue caaeiaieaiiy
??ciiiai?oieo iio?aa ianaeaiiy, aeeth/ath/e ?aaeuei? aeiiii?/i?
aeaea?aea oa nioe?aeueii-i?aaia? aa?aio?? caaacia/aiiy
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ianaeaiiy. Aiia oaeiae ? aaaaoi??aiaaith eaoaai???th,
o no?oeoo?? yei? iiaeia aeae?eeoe o?e ??ai?: 1) ?ioaa?iaaiee; 2)
nioe?aeueii-aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee; 3) iniaenoi ia?nii?o?eiaaiee (aai
n?iaeiee). Ca nai?i ci?noii eaoaai??y “??aaiue aeeooy” ? a?eueo
oe?ieith, i?ae “aeia?iaoo” ? “ye?noue aeeooy”, ine?eueee e??i inoaii?o
aeeth/a? aei naiai neeaaeo ? ?o aioeiiaee — oae? ??aiaa? i?iyae aeeooy
ethaeeie, ye “iaeicaaacia/ai?noue”, “a?aei?noue” ? “ceeaei?”, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ??ciith aeeaeiith iaaeiniiaeeaaiiy aeeoo?aeo aeaa
ii??aiyii c iio?aaaie a?aeoai?aiiy.

3. Nai???aei?noue eaoaai??? “??aaiue aeeooy” iieyaa? o oiio, ui aiia ia
iiaea aooe ioa?aeoa?eciaaia yeeiinue iaeiei iieacieeii, a ?ice?eaa?oueny
?o nenoaiith, ui oa?aeoa?eco? aeinyaiooee ??aaiue ?aaeueieo aeioiae?a oa
iaeiiai? caaacia/aiino? ianaeaiiy, niiaeeaaiiy iaoa??aeueieo aeaa,
eoeueoo?ieo ? iiaooiaeo iineoa, nooi?iue caaacia/aiiy ianaeaiiy
iaeaaeieie oiiaaie o ae?iaieoeoa? ? iiaoo?, noa?ao o?ce/iiai,
aeooiaiiai oa nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo, ?ice?eaa? ye?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee
aeeoo?aiai ??aiy, ??aaiue ?nioth/eo noni?eueii-i?aaiaeo aa?aio?e
ianaeaiiy, a oaeiae iaae?ei?noue caaacia/aiiy iie?oe/ieo naiaiae ? i?aa
a?iiaaeyi o noni?euenoa?.

4. O aeine?aeaeaii? aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy aaaeeeaa i?noea
iaeaaeeoue iaeicaaacia/aiino?. Aiia aeeth/a? uiiaeiaioa o?e ??ai?
iaaeiniiaeeaaiiy: a?aei?noue, ceeaei? oa o?c?ieia?/ia aeaeeaaiiy
(iaaeceeaei?). Eiaeiiio c oeeo ??ai?a a?aeiia?aea? aeaniee ?iaeeeaoi?,
ui aecia/a? iaaeo ia?aoiaeo iaeiiai noaio iaaeiniiaeeaaiiy aei ?ioiai, a
naia — i?i?iaeueiee niiaeea/ee athaeaeao (iaaea iaeicaaacia/aiino?),
i?iaeeoeiaee i?i?ioi (iaaea ceeaeaiiino?) ? o?c?ieia?/iee i?i?ioi (iaaea
o?c?ieia?/iiai aeaeeaaiiy).

5. Iaeaaaeeea?oei ?iaeeeaoi?ii, ui oa?aeoa?eco? aeeoo?aee ??aaiue
ianaeaiiy, ? iiiiiaeueiee niiaeea/ee athaeaeao. A?i aeicaiey? aecia/eoe
aaee/eio aa?oino? o??? iaae? ??aiy niiaeeaaiiy, ca yeith a?aeaoaa?oueny
eiai ia?ao?ae a?ae ?iaiy na?aaeiuei? caaacia/aiino? aei noaio
iaeicaaacia/aiino?. Iniaeeai aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy INA iieyaa? o iiaeeeaino?
eiai aeei?enoaiiy aeey ioe?iee aa?o?nieo e?eoa???a aeeoa?aioe?aoe??
ianaeaiiy ca ??aiai iniaenoiai niiaeeaaiiy ? iaeiiaiai noaio. A ia??iae
aeiiii?/ii? e?ece a iie? ci?o aea?aeaae iiaeiai iino?eii ciaoiaeeoenue
oaeee iieaciee, ye aa?o?noue i?iaeeoeiaiai i?i?ioio — aaciaee ?iaeeeaoi?
aeinyaiaiiy iaae? nioe?aeueii iaaacia/ii? a?aeiino?. A aeno?aiaeueiiio
e?eciaiio ia??iae? iaeaaaeeea?oith eii?aeeiaoith iaoai?cio aea?aeaaiiai
“oaeaeeiai ?aaaoaaiiy” uiaei caaacia/aiiy nioe?aeueii? noaa?eueiino? ?
aaciaee noa? iaaea o?c?ieia?/iiai aeaeeaaiiy, — aaniethoia iaaea, ieae/a
yei? aea?aeaaa ia iiaeiia aeiioneaoe iaae?iiy ??aiy niiaeeaaiiy.

6. Iniiaiei aecia/aeueiei /eiieeii aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy ?
neooaoe?y, ui neeaaea?oueny a aeiiii?oe? e?a?ie. Aeano?oeoeaiee aieea
?ioeyoe?? ia aeiiii?eo i?iyaey?oueny o oiio, ui aiia eaia? aa?o?ni?
i?iii?oe??, niioai?th? aaco, ia ye?e cae?eniththoueny ?ic?aooiee
iae?iaeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a, aaia?o? ? iiaeeaeth? iaaea?aaeaioiee
oa?aeoa? aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, i?ecaiaeeoue aei ii?ooaiiy i?eioeeio
nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino? a i?ioean? ?iciiae?eo noni?eueiiai
i?iaeoeoo. Aeayeee /an a oiiaao ?ioeyoe?? ? e?eciaiai nei?i/aiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa ??aaiue aeeooy iiaea i?aeo?eioaaoenue ca ?aooiie
eiiiainaoi??a oa eaoaioieo iaoai?ci?a aaeueioaaiiy i?ioean?a iiaeeaeaiiy
a?aeiino?.

7. Iia??oaiiy aeeoo?aiai ??aiy iaea?eueo ianooaaii i?iyaey?oueny o
ia?a?iae?caoe?? ianaeaiiy. ?? oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith ? oa, ui ?nioaaiiy
ia?a?iae?a a?aeaoaa?oueny ca iaaeath a?aeiino? aai iaaeaie, ui
ie?aneththoue ?io? /eneaii? nioe?aeuei? ia?eoa???. Eeaneo?eaoe?y
ia?a?iaeueieo a?oi iiaea aooe i?iaaaeaia ia iniia? ?o ia’?aeiaiiy ca
iaeoa?aeoa?i?oeie aeey ieo ni?eueieie iciaeaie: 1) ca aeiiii?/iith
(ia?aaeon?i ??aiai noeoiieo aeioiae?a); 2) ca iciaeaie aioenoni?eueiiai
niiniao aeeooy oa i?ioei?aaieie niiniaaie caaacia/aiiy aeeoo?aeo
iio?aa; 3) ca iciaeaie, ye? na?ae/aoue i?i iaaoooy iniaith iniaeeaiai
noaoono “nioe?aeueiiai i?a?aioa” aai “noni?eueiiai aeaeeanaioa”; 4) ca
i?iyaaie iaaeiaeo (iiethnieo) aeaiia?ao?/ii-o?c?ieia?/ieo iciae.

8. O eiaei?e e?a?i? ae?thoue ye caaaeuei?, oae ? niaoeeo?/i?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? iaoai?cie c?inoaiiy aai, iaaiaee, iaae?iiy
aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy, caaaa/aiiy aai ca?aeiaiiy oeo /e ?ioeo
noni?eueieo aa?noa. Oe? iaoai?cie ? neeaaeiaith caaaeueiiai iaoai?cio
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeiiii?ee, yeei, o e?ioeaaiio ?aooieo, ? aecia/a?oueny
aeeoo?aee ??aaiue. Aiie yaeythoue niaith noeoii?noue aeiiii?/ieo
aaaeae?a, noeioe?a oa iioeaaoe?e, nioe?aeueieo oa
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo caoiae?a, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny aea?aeaaith oa
?ioeie i?aaiaie noni?eueiiai ?aaoethaaiiy c iaoith aeinyaiaiiy
iaiao?aeiiai ??aiy ia?iaeiiai aeia?iaooo. *ei a?eueoa iaoai?cie
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiia?aeaoeiooue i?e?iae?
noni?eueieo iio?aa, oei aeeiai?/i?oa c?inoaoeia aeeoo?aee ??aaiue
ianaeaiiy.

9. Aaaeeeaei iaoai?ciii ?aaoethaaiiy ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy ? iaoai?ci
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi. Eiai aoaeoeaia ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aeiaaa? a?ae aea?aeaae iaeneiaeueii iiaiiai a?aooaaiiy ?aaeueieo
aeiiii?/ieo iiaeeeainoae ??cieo nioe?aeueieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy. Iaea?eueo
iaaacia/ieie yaeuaie o iiaeaoeia?e noa?? ? i?iyae iineeaiiy o?neaeueiiai
oeneo ia iaeicaaacia/ai? aa?noae ianaeaiiy. Oea iaaaeueii iio?aao?
caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy iecee oe?eueiaeo iaoai?ci?a,
ni?yiiaaieo ia ?aae?caoe?th i?eioeeio nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino? oa
?ioeyoe?eii? iaeo?aeueiino? o noa?? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi.

10. Na?aae ieoaiue aeeoo?aiai ??aiy i?iaeaia caaacia/aiiy niiaeeaaiiy
ianaeaiiyi ye?nieo aeeoo?aeo aeaa ? iaei??th c iaeaieiai?oeo. ??
aoaeoeaia ae??oaiiy iia’ycaia c ?icaeoeii eiinthia?ecio. Nenoaia
eiinthia?ecio ia? caaacia/oaaoe ianooii? i?aaa: ia ioi?iio caei?ia’y ?
aaciaeo niiaeeaaiiy, ioi?iio aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a, iaoa??aeueio ?
ii?aeueio eiiiainaoe?th ca iiianai? caeoee, ui aeieeathoue aiane?aeie
niiaeeaaiiy iaye?nieo oiaa??a (iineoa), iaeneiaeueii iiaio oa i?aaaeeao
?ioi?iaoe?th uiaei ?aaeueii? niiaeea/i? yeino? oiaa??a (iineoa), ia
caei?iaa aeiae?eey. Oaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?ei-i?aaiai? aace caoenoo i?aa
a?o/eciyieo niiaeeaa/?a oa iie?aoaiiy noaio ia niiaeea/iio ?eieo
aeicaieeoue nooo?ai i?aeaeueoe ye?noue niiaeeaaiiy ianaeaiiyi
iaoa??aeueieo aeaa oa iineoa ? ni?eyoeia c?inoaiith aeeoo?aiai ??aiy.

11. Nueiaiaei? a?o/eciyia nenoaia nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy ia?aaoaa? o
i?ioean? ?aoi?ioaaiiy. Iaiao?aeieie neeaaeiaeie oeueiai i?ioeano ?
i?eeiyooy Iniia caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i nioe?aeueia no?aooaaiiy,
oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy ae?yeuei?noth oiiaeii nioe?aeueiiai
no?aooaaiiy, a oaeiae caii/aoeoaaiiy ? aecia/aiiy iaeaoaeoeai?oeo aeey
a?o/eciyieo oiia oi?i i?eaaoiiai no?aooaaiiy ia eiia?oe?eieo canaaeao.

12. Nenoaia i?ea?ea?a, ui ia oeae /an ooieoe?iio? a Oe?a?i?, ?
niioai?aiith oi?iith aaeaioaoe?? eieeoiuei? iiiaieeaoo?ii-ath?ie?aoe/ii?
nenoaie i?ea?ea?a aei oiia ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe??. ?? iaiao?aeii
ea?aeeiaeueii ?aoi?ioaaoe. Ia ia?oa i?noea a i?ioean? o?ainoi?ioaaiiy
nenoaie i?ea?ea?a iaiao?aeii iinoaaeoe caoiaee, iia`ycai? ?c
caaacia/aiiyi aaciina?aaei?o neoaeaiaeo ooieoe?e i?aoe?aiee?a, ui
aeiiiiiaea aea?aeneoaeaiaoeyi iiai?oa ?aae?ciaoaaoe i?aai?caoe?ei?
cae?aiino? oa iie?ioeoue oiiae aeeiiaiiy neoaeaiaeo iaia’yce?a. I?e
oeueiio ia?aeaeueii ?c i?ioeanii cai?oaiiy i?ea?ea?a, ia?
caaacia/oaaoenue a?aeiiaeaiiy iaiao?aeiiai ??aiy iieaoe i?aoe?
aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a.

13. Iaeiie/ai? i?iaeaie o noa?? ?aaoethaaiiy aaee/eie i?i?iaeueii?
ca?ia?oii? ieaoe iathoue ae??ooaaoenue o eiioaeno? caaaeueii?
nioe?aeueii? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee aea?aeaae oeyoii iineeaiiy ?? ?ie?
uiaei iaaeiiouaiiy iaaea?aaeaioiino?, ui aeieea? o a?aeiineiao i?ae
i?aaenoaaieeaie iaeiaii? i?aoe? ? ?iaioiaeaaoeyie. I?e oeueiio cia/iei
?aca?aii aac?ioeyoe?eiiai ca?eueoaiiy ??aiy i?i?iaeueii? ca?ia?oii?
ieaoe ia? ?aae?caoe?y caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia nei?i/aiiy ae?iaie/eo
aeo?ao oa i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?.

14. I?aai?ciaai? caiuaaeaeaiiy ianaeaiiy ? aaaiiei iioaioe?eiei
aeaea?aeii o?iainoaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eii? noa?e oa iiaeaeueoiai c?inoaiiy
aeeoo?aiai ??aiy. Aaaeeeaith ia?aaeoiiaith oeueiai i?ioeano ? noai?aiiy
iaae?eii? nenoaie aa?aiooaaiiy caoenoo caiuaaeaeaiue ianaeaiiy. O
oeueiio iai?yi? iaiao?aeii oaeineiiaeeoe i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia?
iaoai?cie ?aaoethaaiiy ae?yeueiino? o?iainiai-e?aaeeoieo onoaiia;
iaeaaiaeeoe ae??aee iaoai?ci no?aooaaiiy aeaiiceo?a ?c eiai
a?aeiia?aeiei i?aaiaei caaacia/aiiyi; noi?ioaaoe a?aee?eoo ?
aeaiie?aoe/io nenoaio ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy i?eaaoiiai ?iaanoi?a;
ca?eueieoe a?ae iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ?a?iaanoiaai? aeioiaee a?ae aeaiiceo?a;
a?aeiiaeoe ciaoe?iai? caiuaaeaeaiiy a?iiaaeyi a onoaiiaao Iuaaeiiai
aaieo oa Oe?aea?aeno?aoo. Inoaii? ? iaeaino??oith i?iaeaiith, yeo ia
canaaeao nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino? ia? ?ica`ycaoe aea?aeaaa aae
a?aeiiaeoe aeia??o ianaeaiiy aei e?aaeeoii-o?iainiai? nenoaie ? oaeei
/eiii ?aai?ioaaoe ?iaanoeoe?eiee iioaioe?ae ianaeaiiy oa ni?eyoe
i?aeaeuaiith ??aiy eiai aeeooy.

?aae?caoe?y cai?iiiiiaaieo caoiae?a ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa aeicaieeoue
noaa?e?coaaoe ??aaiue aeeooy ianaeaiiy, iiia?aaeeoe iineeaiiy
nioe?aeueii? iai?oae a e?a?i? ? o iiaeaeueoiio caaacia/eoue aa?iii?eiee
?icaeoie aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ia aoai? ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? Oe?a?ie.

Nienie iniiaieo iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

Iiiia?ao??, ?icae?ee a eieaao

1. Iaiaeeao?a A.I. ??aaiue aeeooy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie oa i?iaeaie
?aoi?ioaaiiy iaoai?ci?a eiai ?aaoethaaiiy / a?aei. ?aae. ae.a.i. Aiaeiy
Ae.I. -E.: Ia?eaiaionueea aeae-ai, 1998. — 256 n. (iaeiiin?aia iiiia?.,
20,75 ae.a.).

?aoeaic??: Ii?e??iei A. “Cieio? ai?e” ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee aai ieoaiiy
??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy //A?/a. — 1999. — ?5. — N.147-151.; ?aaaiei A.
??aaiue aeeooy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie oa i?iaeaie ?aoi?ioaaiiy iaoai?ci?a
eiai ?aaoethaaiiy //Oe?a?ia: aniaeoe i?aoe?. — 1999. — ?3. — N.44-45.

2. Iaiaeeao?a A.I. “O?iueiaa” aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie oa iai?yie caeiiiaeaa/i?
no?aoaa?? ?? iaiaaeaiiy. – E. : Ia?eaiaionueea aeae-ai, 1998. – 136 n.
(iaeiiin?aia iiiia?., 6,0 ae.a.).

3. Iaiaeeao?a A.I., O?iio??a A.I. Aiae?c aeiiii?/ieo oa i?aaiaeo
iaoiae?a ?aaoethaaiiy i?i?iaeueii? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe. – E.:
Ia?eaiaionueea aeae-ai, 1997. – 88 n. (2,5 ae.a.), o o./. aaoi?a —
C.5-8; 19-43; 52-78 (?icaeyiooi iaoai?ci ?aaeaiaioaoe?? i?i?iaeueii?
ca?ia?oii? ieaoe, ?ieue ICI ye aoaeoeaiiai ?ino?oiaioo iae?iaeiiii?/iiai
?aaoethaaiiy, aieea ci?i ICI ia ?icaeoie ae?iaieoeoaa, ?eiie i?aoe? oa
aeioiaee i?aoe?aiee?a).

4. I?iaiic /eneaiiinoe e no?oeoo?u ?aaioathueo a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa
Oe?aeiu iaineiia?ia e aai nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneay ioeaiea /Aiae?eaiei
A.TH., Aaeea? E.I., Iaiaeuao?a A. A., Ieeeiaiei E.E. — E.:
Iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee oeaio? ii i?iaeaiai caiyoinoe ianaeaiey e
?uiea o?oaea AI Oe?aeiu, Ieienoa?noai o?oaea Oe?aeiu, 1992. — 72 n.
(eie. iiiia?., 4,32 ae.a.), o o./. aaoi?a 1,7 ae.a. — N.15-44
(i?iaiae?ciaaii noai caiyoino? iaineiia??a; aeaia ioe?iea ??aiy aeeooy
iain?iia??a oa aecia/aii iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeai? iai?yie ?o nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo).

5. Iioeaaoe?y i?aoe? a ?eieia?e aeiiii?oe?: i?iaeaie oai??? ? i?aeoeee
/Aiaeiy Ae.I., Iaiaeeao?a A.I., Iao??oeia I.Ae. oa ?i. — E.: ?inoeooo
aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie, 1997. — 183 n. (eie. iiiia?., 8,0 ae.a.), o o./.
aaoi?a 1,7 ae.a. — N.67-105 (?ice?eoi i?noea a?aeiinei aeaniino? a
nenoai? oaeoi??a iioeaaoe?? i?aoe?, aeine?aeaeaii iniiai? aeaiaioe
iioeaaoe?eiiai iaoai?cio oa eiai aieea ia i?ioean noaa?e?caoe??
aeiiii?ee ? ??aaiue aeeooy).

Noaoo? a iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo

6. Iaiaeeao?a A. I?aaia? oi?ie aea?aeaaii? aeaniino? a oiiaao ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee //A?/a — 1995. — ?12. — N.13-24. (1,1 ae.a.)

7. Iaiaeeao?a A. Iaoiaeieia?/i? i?iaeaie aecia/aiiy e?eoa???a
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ianaeaiiy ca ??aiai niiaeeaaiiy //Oe?a?ia: aniaeoe
i?aoe? — 1996. — ?7-8. — N.35-45. (1,3 ae.a.)

8. Iaiaeeao?a A. Caeaaei?noue aeeiai?ee ?aaeueieo aeioiae?a i?aoethth/eo
a?ae aieeao ?iciiae?eue/i? iie?oeee aea?aeaae //Oe?a?ia: aniaeoe i?aoe?
— 1997. — ?3-4. — N.32-40. (1,2 ae.a.)

9. Iaiaeeao?a A., O?iio??a A. E?eoa??? aecia/aiiy iii?iaeueii? aa?oino?
i?i?iaeueii? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee //Oe?a?ia:
aniaeoe i?aoe? — 1997. — ?6. — N.16-20. (eieaeoeaia noaooy 0,8 ae.a.), o
o./. aaoi?a 0,5 ae.a. — N.18-20 (aecia/aii iaoiaeieia?th iaa?oioiaaiiy
e?eoa???a ?aaoethaaiiy ?aaeueii? i?i?iaeueii? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe).

10. Iaiaeeao?a A. Iniaeeaino? o?iainiaiai caaacia/aiiy a?aeoai?aiiy
?iai/i? neee a oiiaao ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? //?aoi?ia
o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? nenoaie ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee. Ca. iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue. — Eooeuee.: ?aae. aeae. Aieei. oi-oo., 1977. — C.371-377. (0,7
ae.a.)

11. Iaiaeeao?a A. Eiinthia?eci — iiiyooy, ui aoiaeeoue o iaoa aeeooy
//A?/a. — 1998. — ?4. — N.79-99. (1,1 ae.a.)

12. Iaiaeuao?a A., Oiaea/oe I. I?iaeaiu ii?aaeaeaiey iauaiia aeaiaaeiie
iannu, eiyooeoeeaioa iiiaoecaoeee e iai?aaeaiee ?aoi?ie?iaaiey
oeiainiaiai naeoi?a Oe?aeiu //Oeiainiaua ?enee. — 1998. — ?4. — N.61-71.
(eieaeoeaia noaooy 1,5 ae.a.), o o. /. aaoi?a 0,9 ae.a. — N.61-65; 68-70
(?ice?eoi iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee ioe?iee ??aiy iiiaoecaoe?? aeiiii?ee
? eiai aieeao ia aeiiii?eo oa ??aaiue aeeooy, iaa?oioiaaii
iaiao?aei?noue o?aooaaiiy ianya?a o?iueiaeo aeioiae?a ? caiuaaeaeaiue
ianaeaiiy a ?ic?aooieao a?ioiai? iane ? eiao?oe??ioa iiiaoecaoe??).

13. Iaiaeeao?a A. Oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie
ia?a?iae?caoe?? ianaeaiiy //Oe?a?ia:aniaeoe i?aoe?. -1998. -?5. —
N.33-37. (0,7 ae.a.)

14. Iaiaeeao?a A. Iniaeeaino? i?ioean?a ia?a?iae?caoe?? ianaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie //Oe?a?ia: aniaeoe i?aoe?. – 1998. – ? 6. – N. 27–33. (0,9
ae.a.)

15. Iaiaeeao?a A. Iineeaiiy iie?oe/ii? aeanoaa?e?caoe?? a Oe?a?i?:
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? i?e/eie //A?/a. — 1999. — ?1. — N.89-105. (1,0
ae.a.)

16. Iaiaeeao?a A. Niaoeeo?/i? i?iyae iineeaiiy aenieoaoaoe?? i?aoe? a
oiiaao aeiiii?/ii? e?ece //Oe?a?ia: aniaeoe i?aoe?. — 1999. — ?3. —
N.29-33. (0,6 ae.a.)

17. Iaiaeeao?a A. Eiioeaiooaeuei? i?aeoiaee aei noai?aiiy i?aaiai?
iniiae iiaeieaiiy “o?i?caoe??” aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie //Aeiiii?ea. O?iaine.
I?aai. — 1999. — ?3. — N.21-24. (0,5 ae.a.)

18. Iaiaeeao?a A. O?iueiaa neeaaeiaa aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie
//Oe?a?ia: aniaeoe i?aoe?. — 1999. — ?5. — N.32-38. (0,7 ae.a.)

19. Iaiaeeao?a A. Oii?yaeeoaaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?euea oa e?ea?aeaoe?y
i?ea?ea?a a nenoai? ?aaoethaaiiy aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie
//Caeiyo?noue oa ?eiie i?aoe?. I?aea?ae. iaoe. ca??iee. Aeione 9. —
1999. — N. 107-118. (0,7 ae.a.)

20. Iaiaeeao?a A. Iiiaeaoeoaaiiy aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi: /iio a/eoue
na?oiaee aeina?ae //A?/a. — 1999. — ?8.- N.29-37. (0,5 ae.a.)

21. Iaiaeeao?a A. sse caaacia/eoe nioe?aeueii ni?aaaaeeeaa
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie ? //A?/a. — 1999. — ?9. —
N.61-73. (0,9 ae.a.)

Aeiaeaoeia? ioae?eaoe?? ii oai? aeena?oaoe??

Iaiaeeao?a A.I. Iaoiaeieia?/i? ieoaiiy aecia/aiiy iieaciee?a
iaeicaaacia/aiino? a oiiaao aeiiii?/ii? e?ece //Iaoa??aee
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? 21-22 a?oaeiy 1992 ?., i.Ee?a, “I?iaeaie
o?oaeicaa?aaeaiiy ? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie a oiiaao
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee”. — E.: Iaoeiai-aeine?aei. oeaio? c i?iaeai
caeiyoino? ianaeaiiy ? ?eieo i?aoe? IAI Oe?a?ie, I?ii?aoe? Oe?a?ie. —
1993 ?. — C.133-134.

Iaiaeeao?a A.I. Aoaeoeai?noue nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy a oiiaao
ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo //Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe?? 26-28 o?aaiy
1994 ?ieo i. Neiiue? “Nioe?aeueia iie?oeea a ia??iae o?ainoi?iaoe?? a?ae
ieaiiai? aei i?eaaoii? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee” (na?anueeith iiaith)
/Iaeaaeiinueea ?anioae. anioe?aoe?y nioe?aeueii? ae?yeueiino?, ?inoeooo
nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe ? nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee i. Neiiue?. -1995 ?.
-C.115-118.

Iaiaeeao?a A., Iaaeoi/?e A. Aa?aio?? a oiiaao e?ece //O?yaeiaee eo?`??.
— 1993. — 28 n?/iy.

Iaiaeeao?a A., O?iio??a A. I?iaeaii? ieoaiiy ii?iaoeaiiai aaeineiiaeaiiy
nenoaie ?aaoethaaiiy oa noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a //
Ia?eaiaioa?. – 1998. – ? 3. – N.13–19. (eieaeoeaia noaooy 0,9 ae.a.), o
o./. aaoi?a 0,6 ae.a. — N. 15-18 (i?iaiae?ciaaii iaaeie?ee nenoaie
iieaoe i?aoe? aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a oa aeeeaaeai? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei
?? aaeineiiaeaiiy).

Iaoeiai-aiae?oe/i? aeiiia?ae? oa aeia?aeee Aa?oiai?e ?aae? Oe?a?ie:

Iaiaeeao?a A. Aeeiai?ea iieaciee?a ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie oa
iniiai? ?iaeeeaoi?e eiai ?iciiae?eo ca ??aiai niiaeeaaiiy — E:
Aiae?oe/iee a?aeae?e Nae?aoa??aoo Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, 1996. — 41
n.;

Iaiaeeao?a A. ?aae?caoe?y i?eioeei?a nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino? oa
?ioeyoe?eii? iaeo?aeueiino? iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee o iaoai?ci? ni?aaeyiiy
i?eaooeiaiai iiaeaoeo c a?iiaaeyi. — E: Aiae?oe/iee a?aeae?e
Nae?aoa??aoo Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, 1996. — 11 n.;

Iaiaeeao?a A. Aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaiai iaoai?cio nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
i?aoe?aiee?a a ?ac? aaie?oonoaa i?aei?e?inoaa. — E: Aiae?oe/iee a?aeae?e
Nae?aoa??aoo Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, 1996. — 14 n.;

Iaiaeeao?a A. Aei ieoaiiy aecia/aiiy aaee/eie iaiiiaeaoeiaoaaiiai
i?i?ioio oa caeiiiaeaa/iai caaacia/aiiy iaoai?cio eiai ?iaeaenaoe??. —
E: Aiae?oe/iee a?aeae?e Nae?aoa??aoo Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, 1997. — 18
n.;

Iaiaeeao?a A. “Eiinthia?eci” ye aaaeeeaa neeaaeiaa a?aeiinei ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee oa iai?yie caeiiiaeaa/i? no?aoaa?? eiai caaacia/aiiy a
Oe?a?i?. — E: Iaoeiai-aiae?oe/ia oi?aae?iiy Nae?aoa??aoo Aa?oiaii? ?aaee
Oe?a?ie, 1998. — 40 n.

Aiioaoe??

Iaiaeeao?a A.I. ??aaiue aeeooy ianaeaiiy oa iaoai?cie eiai ?aaoethaaiiy.
— ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.09.01 — aeaiia?ao?y, aeiiii?ea i?aoe?, nioe?aeueia
aeiiii?ea ? iie?oeea. — ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aena?oeai? oai?aoe/i? oa iaoiaeieia?/i? ieoaiiy aiae?co eaoaai???
“??aaiue aeeooy”, iniaeeaino? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai caaacia/aiiy
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ianaeaiiy a oiiaao e?eciaiai noaio aeiiii?ee.
Aeine?aeaeaii i?iyae aeano?oeoeaiiai aieeao ?ioeyoe?? ia ??aaiue aeeooy,
iniiai? nioe?aeuei? eiiiainaoi?e oa eaoaioi? iaoai?cie aaeueioaaiiy
iioe?aiiy a?aeiino? a oiiaao e?eciai? ?eieiai? eii’thieoo?e, a oaeiae
ieoaiiy aieeao “o?iueiai?” aeiiii?ee ia ?iciiae?e aeioiae?a ? noai
iaeiiaiai ?icoa?oaaiiy a?iiaaeyi, ?ice?eoi niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino?
i?iya?a ia?a?iae?caoe?? ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie.

I?iaiae?ciaaii iaea?eueo aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ?aoi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo
iaoai?ci?a noni?eueiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy a oiiaao
ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo. Iniiaia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny nenoaiiiio aiae?co
oeyo?a ?aoi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo iaoai?ci?a, ui ?aaoeththoue ??aaiue aeeooy
ianaeaiiy. Aei oeeo iaoai?ci?a a?aeiinyoueny: iaoai?ci iiaeaoeiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy iniaenoeo aeioiae?a, eiinthia?eci, nioe?aeueiee caoeno
ianaeaiiy, ?aaoethaaiiy i?i?iaeueieo aea?aeaaieo nioe?aeueieo aa?aio?e,
iaiaaeaiiy i?euea oa e?ea?aeaoe?y i?ea?ea?a, a?aeiiaeaiiy ciaoe?iaieo
caiuaaeaeaiue a?iiaaeyi oa noeioethaaiiy caeo/aiiy caiuaaeaeaiue
a?iiaaeyi a ?iaanoeoe?eio noa?o.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ??aaiue aeeooy, niiaeeaaiiy, a?aei?noue, i?i?iaeueiee
niiaeea/ee athaeaeao (INA), iaoai?ci ?aaoethaaiiy.

Iaiaeuao?a A.A. O?iaaiue aeecie ianaeaiey e iaoaieciu aai ?aaoee?iaaiey
— ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.09.01 — aeaiia?aoey, yeiiiieea o?oaea, nioeeaeueiay
yeiiiieea e iieeoeea. — Einoeooo yeiiiieee IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A ?aaioa enneaaeiaaiu i?iaeaiu o?iaiy aeecie e aai aeeiaieee n o/aoii
ninoiyiey yeiiiieee e niaoeeoeee i?ioeannia iauanoaaiiie o?ainoi?iaoeee
a Oe?aeia.

Ia iniiaaiee e?eoe/aneie ?ao?iniaeoeaiie ioeaiee oai?aoe/aneeo acaeyaeia
e iiaeoiaeia iainiiaaiu oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneea iniiau ii?aaeaeaiey
eaoaai?ee “o?iaaiue aeecie”, ?ane?uou aa yeaiaiou e oa?aeoa?
acaeiiaeaenoaey n oaeeie eaoaai?eyie, eae “ia?ac aeecie”, “ea/anoai
aeecie”, “noieiinoue aeecie”, “oneiaey aeecie”, “iio?aaeoaeueneee
ni?in”, “ia?a iio?aaeaiey”, “aeaaininoiyiea”. Oai?aoe/anee iainiiaaia
?acaa?iooay eeanneoeeaoeey ea/anoaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee, eiee/anoaaiiuo
ia?aiao?ia e aeeooa?aioeee?iaaiuo ii?iaoeaia o?iaiy aeecie ianaeaiey,
?ac?aaioaiu eiioeaiooaeueiua iiaeoiaeu ii?aaeaeaiey ninoiyiey
iaeiiaania/aiiinoe e noieiinoiua eiaeeeaoi?u aa aeeooa?aioeeaoeee.

Enneaaeiaaiu i?iyaeaiey aeano?oeoeaiiai aeeyiey eioeyoeee ia o?iaaiue
aeecie, iniiaiua nioeeaeueiua eiiiainaoi?u e eaoaioiua iaoaieciu
oi?iiaeaiey ?ani?ino?aiaiey aaaeiinoe a oneiaeyo e?eceniie ?uii/iie
eiiuthieoo?u, ?anniio?aiu aii?inu aeeyiey “oaiaaie” yeiiiieee ia
?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeia ianaeaiey. I?iaiaeece?iaaiu iniaaiiinoe
i?ioeannia ia?aeiaeecaoee ianaeaiey a ioa/anoaaiiuo oneiaeyo,
?ac?aaioaia eeanneoeeaoeey nouanoaothueo i?iyaeaiee ia?aeiaeueiiai e
iieeia?aeiaeueiiai ninoiyiee, ii?aaeaeai nioeeaeueiue noaoon
iaiia?aeiaeia e aeaia ioeaiea aeeyiey i?ioeannia ia?aeiaeecaoeee ia
ninoiyiea nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie noaaeeueiinoe
iauanoaa.

I?iaiaeece?iaaiu iaeaieaa aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu ?aoi?ie?iaaiey ?uii/iuo
iaoaieciia ?aaoee?iaaiey o?iaiy aeecie ianaeaiey e iainiiaaia
iaiaoiaeeiinoue oneeaiey ?iee ainoaea?noaa a yoii i?ioeanna.

Enneaaeiaaiu iaeaieaa aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu ?aoi?ie?iaaiey iaoaieciia
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey aeioiaeia a?aaeaeai, iniiaiua i?iyaeaiey e iineaaenoaey
nioeeaeueii-iianiiai oneeaiey oeneaeueiiai aeaaeaiey ia aeioiaeu
iaeiiaania/aiiuo neiaa ianaeaiey. Iainiiaaiu iai?aaeaiey e ?ane?uoi
niaea?aeaiea iaoaieciia iaania/aiey i?eioeeia nioeeaeueiie
ni?aaaaeeeainoe e eioeyoeeiiiie iaeo?aeueiinoe a
iaeiaiai-?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiie iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia,
i?aaeeiaeaiu i?aeoe/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee, iicaieythuea iaania/eoue
?aaeecaoeeth yoeo i?eioeeiia.

?anniio?aiu oai?aoe/aneea aii?inu ?acaeoey eiinuethia?ecia eae aaaeiie
ninoaaeythuae iaania/aiey a ?uii/iuo oneiaeyo iaiaoiaeeiuo ea/anoaaiiuo
noaiaea?oia aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy ianaeaiey. Iaiauai ca?oaaaeiue iiuo
oi?ie?iaaiey e niaa?oainoaiaaiey iniiaiuo iaoaieciia eiinuethia?ecia,
?ane?uou aiciiaeiinoe aai i?eiaiaiey a ioa/anoaaiiie i?aeoeea. Iieacaii
ninoiyiea e iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey eiinuethia?ecia a Oe?aeia, inaauaiu aai
iniiaiua i?iaeaiu. ?ane?uou iai?aaeaiey e i?aaeeiaeaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee
ioiineoaeueii iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe aeaenoaey no?oeoo?iuo iaoaieciia
eiinuethia?ecia.

Iainiiaaiu iooe niaa?oainoaiaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee aeioiaeia,
iaoaieciu ?aoi?ie?iaaiey nenoaiu nioeeaeueiie caueou iaeiiaania/aiiuo
neiaa ianaeaiey a ia?eiae ?uii/iie o?ainoi?iaoeee, auyniaiu iniaaiiinoe
?aoi?ie?iaaiey nouanoaothuae nenoaiu eiiiainaoeee e aa?aioee, a oaeaea
aeaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey ioiineoaeueii aiciiaeiinoe ia?aie/aiey eueaio e
eeeaeaeaoeee iaiainiiaaiiuo i?eaeeaaee. Cia/eoaeueiia aieiaiea oaeaeaii
?anniio?aieth aii?ina ?aoi?ie?iaaiey iaoaieciia ?aaoee?iaaiey
ieieiaeueiie ca?aaioiie ieaou eae aaaeiiai caaia a nenoaia nioeeaeueiie
caueou ianaeaiey.

Ii?aaeaeaiu iniaaiiinoe acaeiiiai aeeyiey e?aaeeoii-eiaanoeoeeiiiiai
iaoaiecia e o?iaiy aeecie ianaeaiey, i?iaiaeece?iaaiu iooe
niaa?oainoaiaaiey iaoaieciia i?eaea/aiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ianaeaiey a
iaoeeiiaeueiia oicyenoai eae no?aoaae/aneiai eiaanoeoeeiiiiai enoi/ieea
aeaeueiaeoaai ?inoa aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy. I?iaaaeai aiaeec
oeiainiai-i?aaiauo i?iaeai ainnoaiiaeaiey iaanoeaiaiiuo eioeyoeeae
naa?aaeaiee a?aaeaeai eae aaaeiie ninoaaeythuae ?aaeecaoeee i?eioeeia
nioeeaeueiie ni?aaaaeeeainoe e iiauoaiey aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: o?iaaiue aeecie, iio?aaeaiea, aaaeiinoue, ieieiaeueiue
iio?aaeoaeueneee athaeaeao (IIA), iaoaieci ?aaoee?iaaiey.

Mandybura V.O. Living standard of the population and mechanisms of its
regulation. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by speciality 08.09.01 — demography, labour
economics, social economics and policy. — The Institute of Economics of
the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The theoretical and methodological matters of analysis of the category
«living standard», peculiarities of the social and economic maintenance
of vital activity of the population under conditions of crisis in
national economy are considered. The trends of destructive influence of
inflation on the living standard, the main social means of compensation
and latent mechanisms of slowing down the increase of poverty under
conditions of depressing market conjuncture as well as the matters
regarding impact of increase of shadow sector in the national economy on
the distribution of income and on the situation in the sphere of
property stratification of the citizens are studied; specific
peculiarities of displays of marginalization of the population of
Ukraine are revealed.

The most actual problems regarding reformation of market mechanisms of
the social regulation of the living standard of the population under the
conditions of the transitional period are analysed. The main attention
is fixed on the system’s analysis of the ways of reformation of the
market mechanisms which regulate living standard of the population such
as tax regulation of personal income, consumerism, social protection of
the population, the regulation of the minimal state social guarantees,
restriction of advantages and liquidation of privileges, renovation of
the depreciated savings of the citizens.

Key words: living standard, consumption, poverty, minimal consumer
budget (MCB), mechanism of regulation.

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