OE?A?INUeEA AEAAeAI?ss AA?A?IEO IAOE

?INOEOOO CA?IIAIAI AINIIAeA?NOAA OAAI

A?EOEI Ieaenaiae? Ieeieaeiae/

OAeE 633.854.78:631.584.4:631.51

??NO, ?ICAEOIE ? O?IAEAEI?NOUe NIIssOIEEA

A I?NEssOE?NIEO IIN?AAO A CAEAAEIINO?

A?Ae IA?IA?OEO A?OIOO, NIINIA?A N?AAE

? I?EEII?A AeIAEssAeO

06.01.09 — ?ineeiieoeoai

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee — 1999

16

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?inueei?
aeaaeai?? aa?a?ieo iaoe a 1995-1997 ?.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oeae?/ ?ai? Aeieo?iae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi???th oaoiieia??
ae?iuoaaiiy

?aii?o ca?iiaeo ? ie?eieo eoeueoo?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

O?aioeia Eaii?ae ?aaiiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith ?ineeiieoeoaa

Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai

aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

E?a?anueeee Aiaoie?e Ieeieaeiae/,

aee?aeoi? OIA “Oaoiaoea”

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo

ie?eieo eoeueoo? OAAI

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “__24_” ______09______ 1999 ?. i _9__
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 08.353.01 a
?inoeooo? ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa OAAI ca aae?anith: 320027 i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, aoe. Aeca?aeeinueeiai, 14, oaeaoii 45-02-36.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo ca?iiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa OAAI.

A?aeaoee ia aaoi?aoa?ao i?ineii iaaeneeaoe a aeaio i?ei??ieeao,
cana?ae/aieo ia/aoeith.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_17__” ____08_______1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,
I.Ae. A?otho

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A Noaio Oe?a?ie aaaeeeaei ?aca?aii ?ioaineaiiai
aeei?enoaiiy ??ee? oa ca?eueoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa ian?iiy niiyoieea ?
i?neyoe?ni? eiai iin?ae ia iac?iooaaieo caieyo i?ney iceiiai aeeoa
(Oeae?/ ?.Ae., 1986, 1998 ??.). I?e oeueiio iiai?oa aeei?enoiaothoueny
a?iee?iaoe/i? ?ano?ne, a?oio caaaa/o?oueny i?aai?/iith ?a/iaeiith,
iineaaeththoueny a?ic?ei? i?ioeane, ciaioo?oueny caao?’yiai?noue
(Aaa?eeia A.I., 1971; Inoaiia A.?., ?n?/ei I.A.. 1973; Aaaae N.A., 1980;
Aaeaoiie?ia I.Ae., 1994).

Iaeiae, aeine?aeaeaiith oeueiai ieoaiiy i?eae?eyeiny iaaeinoaoiuei
oaaae, a niaoe?aeueieo aeine?ae?a ii aea/aiith niinia?a ia?ia?oeo
a?oioo, aa?a?oeeae?a, no?aoiaeo aeiaaaie aei ii?ie aen?ao, i?eeii?a
aeiaeyaeo i?e n?aa? iiaeo a?a?eae?a i?neyoe?niiai niiyoieea aei ii/aoeo
iaoi? ?iaioe ia i?iaiaeeee.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? aoee neeaaeiaith /anoeiith oaiaoe/iiai ieaio
?inoeoooo ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa ii aeeiiaiith aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie
“Ca?iia? ? ie?ei? eoeueoo?e” oaie “?ic?iaeoe ? inai?oe eiiieaeni?
nenoaie ae?iaieoeoaa ?ineeiii? ie?? oeyoii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeieia?/ii
/enoeo, ?ano?nicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy ie?eieo eoeueoo?”.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe. Aieiaiith iaoith aoei aea/eoe iniaeeaino? ?inoo
? ?icaeoeo i?neyoe?niiai niiyoieea a caeaaeiino? a?ae ia?ia?oeo a?oioo,
niinia?a n?aae, no?aoiaeo aeiaaaie, aa?a?oeeae?a, i?eeii?a aeiaeyaeo ca
iin?aaie. Anoaiiaeoe iiaeeeaino? i?aeaeuaiiy eiai a?iaeaeiino? i?e
cieaeaii? aeo?ao ca ?aooiie iioei?caoe?? aa?ioaoi?/ieo i?eeii?a.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe o?aaa ae??oeoe oae? caaaeaiiy:

— aea/eoe aieea aa?ioaoi?/ieo i?eeii?a ia ??no, ?icaeoie iaaecaiii?
/anoeie ? ei?aiaai? nenoaie niiyoieea, iiaeeiaiiy OA?, aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy,
caao?’yiai?noue iin?a?a, i?iaeoeoeai?noue, ye?noue a?iaeath;

— anoaiiaeoe aieea ai?iioaaiue ia aeaeeaaiiy ?ineei niiyoieea,
caao?’yiai?noue iin?a?a;

— aecia/eoe aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue aa?ioaoi?/ieo i?eeii?a ae?iuoaaiiy
niiyoieea.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe. Aia?oa a oiiaao i?ai?/ii? i?aeciie Noaio Oe?a?ie
aea/ai? ia?ia?oie a?oioo, no?aoia? aeiaaaee aei aonoioe iin?ao, i?eeiie
aeiaeyaeo ca i?neyoe?niei niiyoieeii ia aa?a?oeeaeiiio ?
aacaa?a?oeeaeiiio oiiao. Aeine?aeaeai? iniaeeaino? ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo
?ineei, oi?ioaaiiy iaaecaiii? /anoeie ? ei?aiaai? nenoaie,
aiaeiniiaeeaaiiey, iiaeeiaiiy OA?, aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue
aa?ioaoi?/ieo i?eeii?a.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue. Ia iniia? iaea?aeaieo aeaieo ?ic?iaeaii ?
?aeiiaiaeiaaii ae?iaieoeoao iniiai? i?eeiie ae?iuoaaiiy niiyoieea a
i?neyoe?nieo iin?aao i?ney iceiiai aeeoa (ia?ia?oie a?oioo, niiniae
n?aae, i?eeiie aeiaeyaeo). E?au? aa??aioe aeine?aeaeaiue i?ieoee
ae?iaie/o ia?aa??eo a ENI “Ci?y” Iiaiiineianueeiai ?aeiio
Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeano? ? ai?iaaaeaeai? o ae?iaieoeoai, ui
caaacia/o? iaea?aeaiiy 220-270 oe/aa caeaii? iane iceiiai aeeoa ? 10-18
oe/aa ian?iiy niiyoieea c iaei??? ieiu? ca ??e.

Iniaenoee aianie. Caeiaoaa/ i?eeiaa aaciina?aaeith o/anoue a ?ic?iaoe?
i?ia?aie ? i?iaaaeaii? aeine?ae?a, ocaaaeueiaii? iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e,
iaea?aeaieo aeaieo, neeaaeaii? ca?o?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ae?iaieoeoao.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe oa ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ia
?anioae?eainuee?e eiioa?aioe?? ii ie?eiei eoeueoo?ai (i. Caii??aeaey,
1997), iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e ia?aae? ?inoeoooo ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa,
?aeiiieo ia?aaeao i?aoe?aiee?a n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa (1996, 1997,
1998 ??.)

Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 5 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o.

?ici??e ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 142 noi??ieao iaoeiiieno,
aeeth/a? anooi, 5 aeaa, aeniiaee ? nienie e?oa?aoo?e, yeee aeeth/a? 205
iaeiaioaaiue. ?iaioa i?noeoue 8 iaethie?a, 38 oaaeeoeue, 16 aeiaeaoe?a.

A?OIOIAI-EE?IAOE*I? OIIAE, IAOIAeEEA AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa aeeiiaia a eaai?aoi??? oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy
?aii?o ca?iiaeo ? ie?eieo eoeueoo? ?inoeoooo ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa.
Iieueia? aeine?aee i?iaiaeeee a 1995-1997 ??. a ENI “Ci?y”
Iiaiiineianueeiai ?aeiio Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeano? (i?ai?/ia i?aeciia
Noaio Oe?a?ie) a eaioe? n?aici?ie: iceia ioaieoey — eoeo?oaeca ia neein
— iceia aeeoi — iioe?niee niiyoiee. A?oio — cae/aeiee
na?aaeiueinoaeeieiaee /i?iicai. Ai?no aoiono — 3,8%.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue aoee ni?o iceiiai aeeoa Oa?e?anueea 78 oa
a?a?eae niiyoieeo Oa?e?anueeee 62 (Na?oi/). Ia?oo eoeueoo?o — iceia
aeeoi ia caeaiee ei?i — ae?iuoaaee ca?aeii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey noaiiai?
ciie. I?ney cae?aiiy aeeoa aiineee aeia?eaa (N40P60), iiea ia?iaeyee
AAeO-7, iio?i i?iaiaeeee i?aieo c eioeii, aiineee aa?a?oeeae (i?o?ai, 6
e/aa aai oa?ian, 2 e/aa) ? i?iaiaeeee ia?aaeiin?aio eoeueoeaaoe?th
EIN-4. N?yee ia aeeaeio 6-7 ni. I?ney n?aae iiea i?eeioeiaoaaee ?
ca?aeii noaie aeine?ae?a ai?iioaaee ACNN-1,0, a ia oe?iei?yaeiiio iin?a?
aeiaeaoeiai i?iaiaeeee 1-2 i?ae?yaeieo ia?ia?oee.

Aeine?aee ? niinoa?aaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee ca?aeii iaoiaeeee A.A. Aeiniaoiaa
(1979) ? iaoiaee/ieo aeac?aie ?inoeoooo ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa (1982).
?ici?uaiiy ae?eyiie — nenoaiaoe/ia, iiaoi?i?noue — o?ee?aoia, iae?eiaa
ieiua ae?eyiie ia?oiai ?aooieo — 40 i2.

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Oiiae n?aae ? ?ici?uaiiy ?ineei ia ieiu?

Ocaaaeueiaiiy ee?iaoe/ieo oiia ? iieueia? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui a
oiiaao noaiiai? ciie i?ney cae?aiiy iceiiai aeeoa ia caeaiee ei?i
o?eaae?noue i?neyoe?niiai ia??iaeo neeaaea? a na?aaeiueiio 135 aei?a c
noiith aeoeaieo oaiia?aoo? 23640N ? iiaaeaie a iaaeao 180 ii, ui ?
aeinoaoi?i aeey iaea?aeaiiy a?iaea?a ?aiiueinoeaeeo ? na?aaeiuei?aii?o
a?a?eae?a niiyoieea. Iaeiae, aieia?noue iin?aiiai oa?o a?oioo i?ney
cae?aiiy aeeoa ia caaaeaee caaacia/o? iaea?aeaiiy iiaiioe?iieo noiae?a
niiyoieea, oiio a 1995 ?. n?yee eiai c cai?ciaiiyi, i?ney iiaae?a, 16
/a?aiy, a 1996 ?. — 12, a 1997 ?. — 6 /a?aiy. Iieueiaa noiae?noue
ian?iiy a 1995 ?. aei??aithaaea 86-96%, a 1996 ?. — 85,4-91,9%, a 1997
?. — 71,5-77,2% ? ciaiooaaeanue c i?aeaeuaiiyi no?aoiai? aeiaaaee. Aeua
aiia ii i?aioe? ? a a?eueoino? i?e n?aa? cae/aeiei ?yaeeiaei niiniaii.
Aa?a?oeeaee ia iieueiao noiae?noue ia aieeaaee.

Iaea?eueo ??aiii??ii ia ieiu? ?ineeie niiyoieea ?ici?uothoueny i?e n?aa?
c i?ae?yaeaeyie 15 ni, oiio ui ieiua aeeaeaiiy ooo iaaeeaeo?oueny aei
aaaaoieooieea, a ia aeoyaiooiai a na?aaeeio i?ae?yaeaey i?yiieooieea, ye
i?e n?aa? c i?ae?yaeaeyie 70 ni.

Aieea ai?iioaaiue ia c??aeaeaiiy niiyoieeo

? caao?’yiai?noue iin?a?a

Aeine?aeaie anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e ai?iioaaii? iin?a?a niiyoieeo ai?iiith
ACNN-1,0 a oac? 1-2 ia? eenoe?a iioeiaeaeo?oueny a na?aaeiueiio 32-38%
?ineei. C ieo 10-13% ia?aeiieth?oueny ? ae?eaa?oueny coaaie ai?iie,
9-11% iiai?noth, a 12-14% /anoeiai i?eai?oa?oueny a?oioii. A oac? 2-3
ia? eenoe?a iioeiaeaeo?oueny 15-17% ?ineei, c yeeo 4-6% ae?eaa?oueny ?
ia?aeiieth?oueny, 4-5 iiai?noth ? 6-7% /anoeiai i?eai?oa?oueny a?oioii.
I?aeoe/ii an? ?ineeie ae?aai? c a?oioo aai ia?aeiieai? aeiooue cian?i.
Caaeaaeue ?ineei, i?eneiaieo iiai?noth caieath, neeaaea? 37-54%, a
/anoeiai — 1,6%.

No?eeiai /?oeiai aieeao niinia?a n?aae ia iioeiaeaeaiiy niiyoieea i?e
ai?iioaaiiyo ia anoaiiaeaii. I?e ca?eueoaii? aonoioe iin?ao ca ?aooiie
i?aeaeuaiiy no?aoiai? aeiaaaee c 20 aei 60%, a oaeiae ii i?aioe? a
ii??aiyii? c iiaa?oiaaei ia?ia?oeii, caaeaaeue niiyoieea i?aeaeuoaaeanue
ia 2-5%.

I?e i?iaaaeaii? ai?iioaaiue ? i?ae?yaeieo ia?ia?oe?a iioeiaeueia
ia?aaecae?aeueia aonoioa iin?a?a niiyoieea aeinyaa?oueny ia
oe?iei?yaeiiio iin?a? (50-52 oen./aa) i?e no?aoia?e aeiaaaoe? 40%, a
nooe?eueiiio (68-76 oen./aa) — 40-60%.

Ai?iioaaiiy i?ae /an noiae?a niiyoieea cieuo? 76,5% ao?’yi?a, a a oac?
1-3 ia? eenoe?a — 79,5-82,1%. Iniaeeai aenieee aoaeo (90-92%) aea?
aianaiiy aa?a?oeeae?a aai i?iaaaeaiiy aeaio i?neynoiaeiaeo ai?iioaaiue
i?e iiya? ia?inoe?a ao?’yi?a. Caao?’yiai?noue iin?a?a iaioa ii i?aioe?,
i?ae ii iiaa?oiaaiio ia?ia?oeo a 0,7-2,2 ?ace. Ciaioo?oueny aiia ia
26,7-127% c i?aeaeuaiiyi no?aoiai? aeiaaaee aei ii?ie aen?ao a?ae 20 aei
60%. A?eueoa (ia 40-56%) e?euee?noue ao?’yi?a niinoa??aa?oueny ia
cae/aeiiio ?yaeeiaiio iin?a? a ii??aiyii? c oe?iei?yaeiei, aea e??i
ai?iioaaiue i?iaiaeeee aeiaeaoeiai i?ae?yaei? ia?ia?oee. Aea ii ian?
aiie a?ae??ciythoueny iaaaaaoi iaioa, oiio ui a?eueo aono? nooe?euei?
iin?ae e?aua i?eai?/othoue ao?’yie. Oae, yeui a aa??aio?, aea i?iaiaeeee
aei- ? i?neynoiaeia? ai?iioaaiiy ia aacaa?a?oeeaeiiio oii? iana ao?’yi?a
neeaea 9,2-20,4 a/i2, aa?a?oeeaeiiio — 2,8-5,4 a/i2, oi ia
oe?iei?yaeiiio iin?a? a?aeiia?aeii — 7,9-12,4 ? 5,4-5,9 a/i2.

Aenieo aoaeoeai?noue a ai?iouea? c ao?’yiaie aea? noi?nia canoinoaaiiy
a?oioiaeo aa?a?oeeae?a ? iaoai?/ieo i?eeii?a aeiaeyaeo.

Aieea ia?ia?oeo a?oioo, niinia?a n?aae oa i?eeii?a aeiaeyaeo

ia ??no ? ?icaeoie niiyoieea

Ia ??no ? ?icaeoie niiyoieea cia/ii aieeaathoue aa?ioaoi?/i? i?eeiie,
oiio ca aeiiiiiaith ?o iiaeia noi?ioaaoe aaaeaiee aenieii?iaeoeoeaiee
aa?io?oioeaiic (Aaneeue?a Ae.N., 1990; O?aioeia E.?., 1991; I?e?o/ei
Ae.?., 1993).

Aeine?aeaie anoaiiaeaii, ui a oiiaao ciie i?e n?aa? ?aiiueinoeaeiai
a?a?eaeo Oa?e?anueeee 62 i?ney iceiiai aeeoa ia caeaiee ei?i 6-16 /a?aiy
niiyoiee aeinoeaa? a ae?oa?e — ia ii/aoeo o?aouei? aeaeaaee aeiaoiy.
Aieia?noue eiai neeaaea?: ia nooe?eueiiio iin?a? — 9,9, oe?iei?yaeiiio —
14,9%. I?e caoaeaii? i?ae?yaeue c 70 aei 15 ni ? i?aeaeuaii? aonoioe
noiyiiy ?ineei aeiaaeeia aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo nei?i/o?oueny ia 2-5
aei?a, ui ? iiceoeaiei, ai cae?aoe niiyoiee iiaeia ?ai?oa, aei ianooio
iani?eyoeeaeo in?ii?o iiaiaeieo oiia.

Nai? aenie? ?ineeie ii i?aioe?. Ii an?i oiiai ca?eueoaiiy no?aoiai?
aeiaaaee aei ii?ie aen?ao c 20 aei 60% ni?eyei i?aeaeuaiith aenioe
?ineei ia 5-6 ni. Caoaeaiiy i?ae?yaeue c 70 aei 15 ni, i?e ca?eueoaii?
aonoioe iin?ao, ni?eyei ciaioaiith aenioe ?ineei o iinooeea? ?iee ?
i?aeaeuaiith o aieia?.

OIOINEIOAOE*I? IIEACIEEE NIIssOIEEA

Aeine?aee iieacaee, ui iaea?eueoa ieiua eenoy iaei??? ?ineeie
oi?io?oueny ii i?aioe?, ia oe?iei?yaeiiio iin?a?, i?e i?iaaaeaii?
ai?iioaaiue ? i?e no?aoia?e aeiaaaoe? 20%, oiaoi oai, aea aonoioa
noiyiiy ?ineei iaioa. Oae, a na?aaeiueiio ca ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue ii an?i
oiiai ieiua eenoy iaei??? ?ineeie aei??aithaaea: ia oe?iei?yaeiiio
iin?a? 4366 ni2, nooe?eueiiio — 3254 ni2; i?e no?aoia?e aeiaaaoe? 20% —
3990 ni2, 40% — 3865 ni2, 60% — 3451 ni2. I?iaaaeaiiy iinoiaeiaeo
ai?iioaaiue, a ca’yceo ?c ciaioaiiyi aonoioe, oaeiae caaacia/o? ??no
ieiu? eenoy ia 31,4% a ii??aiyii? c aa??aioaie, aea ?o ia i?iaiaeeee.

Ieiua eenoy ia 1 aa iaea cai?ioith caeiiii??i?noue oiio, ui aiia
aecia/a?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ieiu? eenoy iaei??? ?ineeie ? ?o
e?euee?noth. A oac? iiaiiai oea?o?iiy iaeneiaeueia eenoeiaa iiaa?oiy
(2,64 i2/ i2) oi?io?oueny ii i?aioe? ia nooe?eueiiio iin?a? i?e
no?aoia?e aeiaaaoe? 40%. A?eueo aenie? iieacieee (1,85-2,43 iei.
i2.aei?a) iaa ooo ? oioineioaoe/iee iioaioe?ae.

C?noaaeaiiy aeaieo iiaeeiaiiy oioineioaoe/ii aeoeaii? niiy/ii?
?aae?aoe?? iieaco?, ui i?e ?iaeaen? eenoeiai? iiaa?oi? 2,5-2,6 i2/i2 ??
iiaeeia?oueny 64,4-65,7% a?ae iaaeath/i? ia iin?a (oaae. 1). Iaea?eueoa
OA? iiaeeia?oueny cae/aeiei ?yaeeiaei iin?aii, aea oi?io?oueny a?eueoa
ieiua eenoy ia 1 aa. Iaeiae, c ?? i?aeaeuaiiyi iia??oothoueny oiiae aeey
oioineioaco na?aaei?o ?, iniaeeai, ieaei?o eenoe?a niiyoieeo a ca’yceo c
ciaioaiiyi ina?oeaiino?. Oae, na?aae niinia?a n?aae e?auo ina?oeai?noue
(ia 5,4-7,2%) iaa oe?iei?yaeiee iin?a, a oaeiae iin?ae, aea
i?iaiaeeee i?neynoiaeia? ai?iioaaiiy. A ca’yceo c oeei
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ?iaioe eenoy ooo naia aeniea (8,9-9,3 a/i2. aeiao).
A?eueo aenieith /enoa i?iaeoeoeai?noue oioineioaco aoea ii i?aioe? (ia
0,1-0,4 a/i2. aeiao), a oaeiae i?e i?iaaaeaii? iinoiaeiaeo ai?iioaaiue
(ia 0,2-0,4 a/i2. aeiao).

Iana iaei??? ?ineeie niiyoieea ? nooa iana ?ineei ia 1 i2 ci?ithaaeanue
aiaeia?/ii ci?i? eenoeiai? iiaa?oi?. Naia aeniea iana nooi? ?a/iaeie c 1
i2 i?e n?aa? cae/aeiei ?yaeeiaei niiniaii ii i?aioe? i?e no?aoia?e
aeiaaaoe? 60%.

A aeine?aeao ii i?aioe? i?e no?aoia?e aeiaaaoe? 20% aeo?ae ian?iiy naiee
aenieee (36,4%), oiio ui ooo niiy/ia ?aae?aoe?y a?eueoa
aeei?enoiao?oueny ia noai?aiiy ?ai?iaeoeoeaieo i?aai?a, a ia
aaaaoaoeaii? iane. A cae/aeiiio ?yaeeiaiio iin?a? oeae iieaciee ieae/ee
ia 0,5-3%, iaeiae ? ooo aeo?ae ian?iiy ciaiooaaany c 33,2-34,7 aei
24,2-27,8% i?e i?aeaeuaii? no?aoiai? aeiaaaee c 20 aei 60% ? aoa aeuei
ii i?aioe?.

Oaaeeoey 1

Oioineioaoe/i? iieacieee i?neyoe?niiai niiyoieea

a caeaaeiino? a?ae ia?ia?oeo a?oioo, niinia?a n?aae ? ai?iioaaiue

(na?aaei? ca 1995-1997 ??.)

?icaeoie ei?aiaai? nenoaie, aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy

Iaea?eueo ?icaeiaio ei?aiaao nenoaio oi?iothoue ?ineeie ii i?aioe?, i?e
n?aa? oe?iei?yaeiei niiniaii, oiio ui ooo iaioa aonoioa, i?ae i?e
cae/aei?e ?yaeeia?e n?aa?. Oae, na?aaeiy e?euee?noue neaeaoieo ei?ai?a
neeaea ii i?aioe? 67 oo., ii iiaa?oiaaiio ia?ia?oeo- 62, a i?e n?aa?
cae/aeiei niiniaii — 47 ? 38 oo., ui, iaaooue, iia’ycaia c a?eueo e?auei
aiaeii-iia?o?yiei ? iiaeeaiei ?aaeeiii a?oioo ii i?aioe?. Caaouaiiy
iin?ao i?eaiaea aei ciaioaiiy ei?aiaai? nenoaie /a?ac eiieo?aioe?th i?ae
?ineeiaie. A oe?iei?yaeiiio iin?a? ei?aiaaa nenoaia nyaa? aeeaeie 190 ni
? iioe?th?oueny a noi?iie ia 70-76 ni, aea canaith? aieiao ? iiaeeai?
?a/iaeie na?aaeeie i?ae?yaeue ia iiai?noth, ai ooo cina?aaeaeo?oueny
iaei ei?ai?a, ye? i?e i?ae?yaeieo ia?ia?oeao ?oeiothoueny ? i?e
ia?aneoaii? a?oioo ia a?aeiiaeththoueny. Ia iin?aao c i?ae?yaeaeyie 15
ni o ?ineei ei?aiaaa nenoaia nyaa? aeeaeie 170-180 ni, aea ei?ai?
oaeaeei ? iaea?eueo iiaii inaiththoue a?oio i?ae ?ineeiaie ? ia
?oeiothoueny, a a?eueo aeiaaee /an aeei?enoiaothoue ?iaeth/ee i?iee oa?
a?oioo, ui ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith a?iaeaeiino? ? a?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueiiio
aeei?enoaiith aieiae.

Iaea?eueoo e?euee?noue aieiae c 1 aa (3344-3365 i3) i?neyoe?niee
niiyoiee aeo?a/a? i?e n?aa? cae/aeiei ?yaeeiaei niiniaii ii i?aioe?, aea
ooo aiia aeei?enoiao?oueny a?eueo aoaeoeaii, ia ui aeacothoue nai? iaio?
eiao?oe??ioe aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy (1979-2067 i3/o). Aoaeoeaii
aeei?enoiao?oueny aieiaa oaeiae i?e i?iaaaeaii? iinoiaeiaeo ai?iioaaiue
? i?e aianaii? a?oioiaiai aa?a?oeeaeo (2058 i3/o).

I?IAeOEOEAI?NOUe ?INEEI, O?IAEAEI?NOUe

A CAEAAEIINO? A?Ae IA?IA?OEO A?OIOO, NIINIA?A

N?AAE OA I?EEII?A AeIAEssAeO CA IIN?AAIE

A ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue, a ca’yceo c i?aeaeuaiith aonoioith noiyiiy ia
cae/aeiiio ?yaeeiaiio iin?a? a ii??aiyii? c oe?iei?yaeiei, a oaeiae i?e
i?aeaeuaii? no?aoiaeo aeiaaaie c 20 aei 60%, ciaiooaaeenue iana ian?iiy
c eioee?a ia 19,6 oa 10,6%, iana 1000 ian?iei ia 9,7-11,6%. Iiceoeaii ia
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ?ineei aieeioea i?aiea. Iana ian?iiy c eioeea ? eiai
e?oii?noue i?aeaeueeeny a ii??aiyii? c iiaa?oiaaei ia?ia?oeii ia
3,4-4,8%.

?c ciaioaiiyi aonoioe noiyiiy ?ineei, ca ?aooiie no?aoiai? aeiaaaee ?
ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino? iinoiaeiaeo ai?iioaaiue, i?iaeoeoeai?noue
niiyoieea c?inoaea. Iiceoeaii aieeioei ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue niiyoieea
oaeiae canoinoaaiiy aa?a?oeeaeo, oiio ui ciaioeeanue caao?’yiai?noue
iin?a?a ? iie?aueeeny oiiae aeey ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo ?ineei.

O?iaeaei?noue aecia/aeany ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi e?eueeino? ?ineei oa ?o
i?iaeoeoeaiino?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui cae/aeiee ?yaeeiaee iin?a ia? ia?aaaao
iaae oe?iei?yaeiei o?eueee i?e aeio?eiaii? iin?a?a a /enoiio noai?
(oaae. 2).

Oaaeeoey 2

Aieea aa?ioaoi?/ieo i?eeii?a ia o?iaeaei?noue i?neyoe?niiai

niiyoieea, 1995-1997 ??.

? – 2,6-3,7%

I??0,5, oe/aa – 1,1-1,5

A na?aaeiueiio ca ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue ia aacaa?a?oeeaeiiio oii?
i?iaaaeaiiy o?eueee iaeiiai ai?iioaaiiy i?ney n?aae ia cae/aeiiio
?yaeiaiio iin?a? caaacia/eei oaeee aea a?iaeae (12,6-12,8 oe/aa), ye ia
oe?iei?yaeiiio, aea i?iaaee aeiaeaoeiai aeaa i?ae?yaeieo ia?ia?oee. O
aieiaiio 1997 ?., eiee neeaeeny ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey ?icaeoeo ao?’yi?a,
?yaeeiaee iin?a aeyaeany aeoaea caao?’yiaiei ? a?iaeaei?noue cieceeany a
ii??aiyii? c oe?iei?yaeiei ia 1,2-2,6 oe/aa. I?iaaaeaiiy iinoiaeiaeo
ai?iioaaiue, a oaeiae aianaiiy a?oioiaiai aa?a?oeeaeo caaacia/eei ?o
i?eai?/aiiy, noai?eei e?au? oiiae aeey oi?ioaaiiy a?eueo aeniei?
a?iaeaeiino?. A na?aaeiueiio ii aeine?aeo a?ae aianaiiy aa?a?oeeaeo
i?e??no a?iaeath neeaaeaa 2,0 oe/aa ia ?yaeiaiio ? 0,6 oe/aa — ia
oe?iei?yaeiiio iin?a?, a i?iaaaeaiiy ai?iioaaiue ii noiaeao ia
aacaa?a?oeeaeiiio oii? ii iiaa?oiaaiio ia?ia?oeo — 1,4 ? 0,7 oe/aa. Ia
aa?a?oeeaeiiio oii? aoaeoeai?noue ai?iioaaiue aeyaeeany ieae/ith. Ii
iiaa?oiaaiio ia?ia?oeo i?e??no a?iaeath aei??aithaaa: ia iin?a? c
i?ae?yaeaeyie 15 ni — 0,4 oe/aa, 70 ni — 0,1 oe/aa, a ii i?aioe? – 0,8 ?
0,4 oe/aa.

Ii i?aioe? a 1995 ? 1997 ??. o?iaeaei?noue niiyoieea aoea aeuith, i?ae
ii iiaa?oiaaiio ia?ia?oeo, a 1996 ?. — iaeiaeiaith, a a na?aaeiueiio ii
aeine?aeo ca ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue ia aa?a?oeeaeiiio oii? — ia 0,7 ?
aacaa?a?oeeaeiiio – ia 0,5 oe/aa a?eueoith.

sse?noue ian?iiy, aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea

A na?aaeiueiio ca ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue ai?no ie?? a ian?ii? neeaa
49,2-49,5%, a a?eeo — 14,9-15,0%. Ii ?ieao oe? iieacieee eieeaaeeny.
Oae, a 1995 ?. ia cae/aeiiio ?yaeeiaiio iin?a? ai?no aee?o aoa ieae/ei
ia 0,1-1,1%, i?ae ia oe?iei?yaeiiio, a 1996 ? 1997 ??. — aeuei ia
0,2-0,8%.

Iiaa?oiaaee ia?ia?oie a?eueo aia?aicaa??aath/ee, i?ae i?aiea.
Nia?aa?o?noue i?iaeoeoe?? ooo cieceeany ia 6,6-9,7%, a ae?iaieoeoai
ian?iiy a ?ic?aooieo ia 100 ea iaeeaa i?aeaeueeiny ia 18,5-25,1%. I?e
n?aa? cae/aeiei ?yaeeiaei niiniaii a ii??aiyii? c oe?iei?yaeiei
nia?aa?o?noue 1 oe ian?iiy cieceeany ia 4,6-8,6%. I?e canoinoaaii?
a?oioiaeo aa?a?oeeae?a, ca ?aooiie nei?i/aiiy oaoiieia?/ieo i?eeii?a,
ieoiia aaaa aia?aiaeo?ao a aia?a??, ui iaeiie/aia a o?iaea?,
cieaeo?oueny c 10,6 aei 7%.

INIIAI? AENIIAEE

1. A i?ai?/iiio Noaio Oe?a?ie i?ney cae?aiiy iceiiai aeeoa ia caeaiee
ei?i caeeoa?oueny 120-160 aei?a oaieiai ia??iaeo c noiith aeoeaieo
oaiia?aoo? 2062-24800N ? aieiaicaaacia/ai?noth, aeinoaoiueith aeey
iaea?aeaiiy a 90% ?ie?a ae?oaiai a?iaeath ian?iiy ?aiiueinoeaeeo ?
nei?inoeaeeo a?a?eae?a niiyoieea, yeee aeinoeaa? a na?aaeei? aeiaoiy.

2. I?e caoaeaii? i?ae?yaeue c 70 aei 15 ni ? i?aeaeuaii? aonoioe noiyiiy
?ineei aeiaaeeia aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo nei?i/o?oueny ia 2-5 aei?a.
Ia?ia?oie a?oioo, aa?a?oeeaee, i?eeiie aeiaeyaeo ca iin?aaie ia no?iee
ianooio oac ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo ?ineei ia aieeaathoue.

3. Iieueiaa noiae?noue niiyoieea ii i?aioe? aeua, i?ae ii iiaa?oiaaiio
ia?ia?oeo ia 1,2-3%, c i?aeaeuaiiyi no?aoiai? aeiaaaee c 20 aei 60% aiia
ciaioo?oueny ia 2,8-4,4% i?e cae/aeiiio ?yaeiaiio iin?a? ? ia 6,1-6,7%
ia oe?iei?yaeiiio.

4. I?e ai?iioaaii? niiyoieea ACNN-1,0 i?ae /an noiae?a iioeiaeaeo?oueny
a na?aaeiueiio 18,6% ?ineei niiyoieea ? cieuo?oueny 76,5% ao?’yi?a, a
oac? ia?oi? ia?e eenoy a?aeiia?aeii 18,2 ? 79,5%, 2-3 ia? eenoe?a — 7,4%
oa 82,1%.

5. I?ney i?aiee e?euee?noue ? iana ao?’yi?a iaioa, i?ae ii iiaa?oiaaiio
ia?ia?oeo a 0,7-2,2 ?ace. I?e aianaii? a?oioiaeo aa?a?oeeae?a (i?o?ai, 6
e/aa, oa?ian, 2 e/aa) aai i?iaaaeaii? ai?iioaaiue, caao?’yiai?noue
niiyoieea ciaioo?oueny, a ii??aiyii? c ae?eyieaie, aea ai?iioaaee
o?eueee aei noiae?a, a 2-4,6 ?ac?a. ?c caaouaiiyi iin?a?a
caao?’yiai?noue cieaeo?oueny, aea aiia aeua ia cae/aeiiio ?yaeiaiio
iin?a?, i?ae ia oe?iei?yaeiiio, aea i?iaiaeeee i?ae?yaei? ia?ia?oee.

6. Iaea?eueo ??aiii??ii ia ieiu? ?ici?uothoueny ?ineeie i?e n?aa?
cae/aeiei ?yaeeiaei niiniaii. Ia oe?iei?yaeiiio iin?a? ?ineeie neo/ai? a
?yaeeao, a ieiua aeeaeaiiy ia? oi?io aeoyaiooiai a i?ae?yaeaey
i?yiieooieea, ui i?aeneeth? eiieo?aioe?th i?ae ?ineeiaie, cieaeo?
aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy aieiae, OA? ? i?iaeoeoeai?noue iin?ao.

7. A iinooeea? ?iee ia oe?iei?yaeiiio iin?a? ?ineeie aeu? ca cae/aeiee
?yaeiaee ia 10-21 ni, o aieia? — ieae/? ia 2-12 ni. Iiceoeaii
aieeaathoue ia ??no niiyoieea i?aiea, a oaeiae iaaia caaouaiiy iin?ao.

8. Iaea?eueoa ieiua eenoy ia 1 aa (26,1 oen.i2) ? oioineioaoe/iee
iioaioe?ae iin?ao (2,05 iei.i2.aei?a) i?e no?aoia?e aeiaaaoe? 40% ?
i?iaaaeaii? i?neynoiaeiaeo ai?iioaaiue.

9. I?e ca?eueoaii? eenoiai? iiaa?oi? i?aeaeuo?oueny e?euee?noue aae?aii?
OA?, aea iineeth?oueny cao?iaiiy eenoy, ui i?eaiaea aei ciaioaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? oioineioaco. A na?aaeiueiio ca 1995-1997 ??. ii i?aioe?
ia oe?iei?yaeiiio iin?a? aiia neeaea 9,13 a/i2.aeiao, ii iiaa?oiaaiio
ia?ia?oeo — 8,83, a ia cae/aeiiio iin?a? — a?aeiia?aeii 8,30 oa 8,15
a/i2.aeiao. Ii i?aioe? oa i?e ca?eueoaii? no?aoiai? aeiaaaee c 20 aei
60% a?eueoa ia 0,6-8,7%, i?ae ia ae?oaeo aa??aioao, iiaeeia?oueny OA?,
ui caaacia/o? iaeiie/aiiy a?eueoi? a?iiane, aea ieoiia aaaa ian?iiy
ciaioo?oueny c 33,2-36,4% aei 24,2-28,3%.

10. A i?neyoe?nieo iin?aao ei?aiaaa nenoaia niiyoieea a?a?eaeo
Oa?e?anueeee 62 nyaa? aeeaeie 170-190 ni. Iaea?eueo ?icaeiaia aiia o
?ineei ii i?aioe? i?e i?ae?yaeaeyo 70 ni caaaeyee a?eueo?e ieiu?
aeeaeaiiy. Ia cae/aeiiio ?yaeiaiio iin?a?, caaaeyee ??aiii??iiio
?ici?uaiith ?ineei ia ieiu? ? i?aeaeuai?e aonoio?, ei?ai? aeno??oa ?
iiai?oa canaiththoue a?oio i?ae ?ineeiaie.

11. Noia?ia aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy iaei caeaaeeoue a?ae aa?a?oeeae?a ?
e?eueeino? ai?iioaaiue, aea aeua i?e cae/aeiiio iin?a? ia 4,3-4,5%, i?ae
ia oe?iei?yaeiiio ? ia 1,4-2,4% ii i?aioe?. Iaioa anueiai aeo?a/a?oueny
aieiae ia oi?ioaaiiy 1 o ian?iiy ii i?aioe? ia cae/aeiiio iin?a? oa
aianaii? aa?a?oeeaeo aai i?iaaaeaii? ai?iioaaiue (1979-2058 i3/o).

12. Naia aeniea a?iaeaei?noue ian?iiy (16,5-17,2 oe/aa) i?e i?i?iaeueieo
aeo?aoao aia?a?? ? cieaeaii? nia?aa?oino? ia 4,6-8,6% caaacia/o?oueny
i?e n?aa? c i?ae?yaeaeyie 15 ni ia oii? aianaiiy a?oioiaeo aa?a?oeeae?a
aai i?iaaaeaii? aeinoiaeiaeo ? i?neynoiaeiaeo ai?iioaaiue i?e no?aoiaeo
aeiaaaeao 40-60%. Ia oe?iei?yaeiiio iin?a? iaea?eueoa o?iaeaei?noue
caaacia/o?oueny i?e no?aoia?e aeiaaaoe? 40%.

13. Aieea niinia?a n?aae, ia?ia?oeo a?oioo, i?eeii?a aeiaeyaeo ca
iin?aaie ia ai?no a ian?ii? ie?? ? a?eeo iacia/iee.

?AEIIAIAeAOe?? AE?IAIEOeOAO

A i?neyoe?nieo iin?aao i?ney iceiiai aeeoa ia caeaiee ei?i niiyoiee
n?yoe ii i?aioe? ia 20-22 ni aai (aeey cieaeaiiy nia?aa?oino? a?iaeath
ian?iiy ia 6,6-9,7%) ii iiaa?oiaaiio ia?ia?oeo, caaacia/oth/e i?e
no?aoiaeo aeiaaaeao 40-60% aonoioo noiyiiy ?ineei 68-76 oen./aa. Aeey
ai?ioueae c ao?’yiaie canoiniaoaaoe a?oioia? aa?a?oeeaee (i?o?ai,
oa?ian) aai ai?iioaaiiy aei ? i?ney noiae?a niiyoieea.

I?e n?aa? oe?iei?yaeiei niiniaii (aonoioa 50-52 oen./aa) aeiaeaoeiai i?e
iaiao?aeiino? i?iaiaeeoe i?ae?yaei? ia?ia?oee c ieo/oaaiiyi.

NIENIE ?IA?O, IIOAE?EIAAIEO II OAI? AeENA?OAOe??

1. Oeae?/ ?.Ae., Ae?aeee I.C., A?eoei I.I., Neey?aiei TH.A. Aei ieoaiiy
i?i niiniae n?aae niiyoieeo // Iaoe.-oaoi. athe./ ?inoeooo ie?eieo
eoeueoo?. – Caii??aeaey, 1997. – ? 2. – N. 231-234.

2. Oeaee/ E.Ae., ?uaea A.N., A?eoei A.I. ?aca?au iiauoaiey ?ano?ni- e
yia?ainaa?aaeaiey i?e au?aueaaiee iiaenieia/ieea a iioeiniuo iinaaao a
oneiaeyo naaa?iie Noaie Oe?aeiu // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoe. a?niee. –
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998. – ? 57 (124). – N. 79-85.

3. Oeae?/ ?.Ae., Ae?aeee I.C., A?eoei I.I., Neey?aiei TH.A. Ia?ia?oie
a?oioo, oaeia?aiiy ? aeiaeyae ca iin?aaie i?neyoe?niiai niiyoieea //
Athe./ ?inoeooo ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa. – Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998. – ?
6-7. – N. 122-127.

4. Oeae?/ ?.Ae., A?eoei I.I. Iniaeeaino? aeiaeyaeo ca niiyoieeii a
i?neyoe?nieo iin?aao i?e n?aa? ??cieie niiniaaie // Athe./ ?inoeooo
ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa. – Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999. – ? 8. – N. 12-17.

5. Oeae?/ ?.Ae., Neey?aiei TH.A., A?eoei I.I. Aieea aeia?ea i?e ??cieo
niiniaao n?aae ? ia?ia?oeo a?oioo ia o?iaeaei?noue i?neyoe?niiai
niiyoieeo // Athe./ ?inoeooo ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa. –
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999. – ? 9. – N. 14-17.

AIIOAOe?ss

A?eoei I.I. ??no, ?icaeoie ? o?iaeaei?noue niiyoieea a i?neyoe?nieo
iin?aao a caeaaeiino? a?ae ia?ia?oeo a?oioo, niinia?a n?aae ? i?eeii?a
aeiaeyaeo. ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy
eaiaeeaeaoa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.01.09
— ?ineeiieoeoai. — ?inoeooo ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
1999.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueo? a?iaea? i?neyoe?niiai niiyoieea oi?iothoueny
ii i?aioe? ia 20-22 ni, i?e n?aa? cae/aeiei niiniaii c no?aoiaith
aeiaaaeith ian?iiy 40-60%, aianaii? a?oioiaiai aa?a?oeeaeo aai
i?iaaaeaii? iinoiaeiaeo ai?iioaaiue. Aea/ai? iniaeeaino? ?inoo ?
?icaeoeo ?ineei, ?o aeaeeaaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy ei?aiaai? nenoaie,
aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy, caao?’yiai?noue, i?iaeoeoeai?noue, ye?noue ian?iiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa:

i?neyoe?niee niiyoiee, niiniae n?aae, ia?ia?oie a?oioo, aeiaeyae ca
iin?aaie.

AIIIOAOeEss

A?eoei A.I. ?ino, ?acaeoea e o?iaeaeiinoue iiaenieia/ieea a iioeiniuo
iinaaao a caaeneiinoe io ia?aaioee ii/au, niiniaia iinaaa e i?eaiia
ooiaea. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.01.09 –
?anoaieaaiaenoai. – Einoeooo ca?iiaiai oicyenoaa, Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1999
a.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth iniaaiiinoae ?inoa e ?acaeoey
iiaenieia/ieea a iioeiniii iinaaa a caaeneiinoe io ia?aaioee ii/au,
niiniaia iinaaa, no?aoiauo aeiaaaie, aa?aeoeeaeia, i?eaiia ooiaea ca
iinaaaie.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi a oneiaeyo ciiu i?e iinaaa ?aiianiaeiai aea?eaea
iiaenieia/ieea Oa?ueeianeee 62 iinea iceiie ?aee ia caeaiue ei?i 6-16
ethiy ii nic?aaaao ai aoi?ie-o?aoueae aeaeaaea ieoya?y. Aeaaeiinoue
naiyi ninoaaeyao 10-15% e eo iiaeii eniieueciaaoue ia oiaa?iua oeaee.

I?e ai?iiiaaiee iinaaia ai?iiie ACNN-1,0 a oaca 1-2 ia? eenoueaa
iia?aaeaeaaony 32-38% ?anoaiee. Ec ieo 10-13% eiiaaony e au?uaaaony
coaueyie ai?iiu, 9-11% iieiinoueth, a 12-14% /anoe/ii i?enuiathony
ii/aie. Ana ?anoaiey, au?aaiiua ec ii/au eee ia?aeiieaiiua, aeaioo
iieiinoueth, a i?enuiaiiua — oieueei ia 37-54%.

Ai?iiiaaiea iiaenieia/ieea iaania/eaaao oie/oiaeaiea 76,5-92,0%
ni?iyeia. Iinea aniaoee cani?aiiinoue iinaaia iaiueoa, /ai ii
iiaa?oiinoiie ia?aaioea a 0,7-2,2 ?aca. I?e aianaiee ii/aaiiuo
aa?aeoeeaeia (oa?ian, ieo?ai) eee i?iaaaeaiee iineaanoiaeiauo
ai?iiiaaiee iia nieaeaaony, a n?aaiaiee n aeaeyieaie, aaea ai?iiiaaee
oieueei aei anoiaeia, a 2-4,6 ?aca, /oi neacuaaaony ia ?inoa, ?acaeoee
?anoaiee e niinianoaoao iiauoaieth o?iaeaeiinoe.

I?e noaeaiee iaaeaeo?yaeee n 70 aei 15 ni e iiauoaiee aonoiou noiyiey
?anoaiee i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue eo aaaaoaoeee nie?auaaony ia 2-5 aeiae, a
?ino ?anoaiee oiaiueoaaony ia 10-21 ni a canooeeaua e oaaee/eaaaony ia
2-12 ni ai aeaaeiua aiaeu. Iieiaeeoaeueii aeeytho ia ?ino ?anoaiee,
oi?ie?iaaiea eenoiaie iiaa?oiinoe, iiaeiuaiea oioineioeoe/anee aeoeaiie
?aaeeaoeee aniaoea, iaaieueoia caaouaiea iinaaia, aianaiea aa?aeoeeaeia
e ai?iiiaaiey.

A iioeiniuo iinaaao ei?iaaay nenoaia aea?eaea Oa?ueeianeee 62 aeinoeaaao
aeoaeiu 170-190 ni. Iaeaieaa ?acaeoay iia ii aniaoea ia oe?iei?yaeiii
iinaaa, aaea aonoioa noiyiey ?anoaiee iaiueoa ia 30%, /ai ia iau/iii
?yaeiaii. Iaeiaei, aneaaenoaea aieaa ?aaiiia?iiai ?aciauaiey ?anoaiee ia
ieiuaaee, a iineaaeiai iinaaa ei?ie auno?aa e iieiaa inaaeaatho ii/ao
iaaeaeo ?anoaieyie, eenouey eo/oa caoaiytho iiaa?oiinoue iiey, yoi
neacuaaaony oaeaea ia aiaeiiio?aaeaiee.

Noiia?iia aiaeiiio?aaeaiea iaei caaeneei io aa?aeoeeaeia e ai?iiiaaiee,
ii auoa ia 4,3-4,5% i?e iau/iii ?yaeiaii iinaaa e ia 1,4-2,4% — ii
aniaoea. Iaiueoa anaai ?anoiaeoaony aeaae (1979-2058 i3/o) ia
oi?ie?iaaiea 1 o naiyi ii aniaoea, aianaiee aa?aeoeeaea eee i?iaaaeaiee
ai?iiiaaiee i?e iinaaa n iaaeaeo?yaeueyie 15 ni.

Aa?ioaoie/aneea i?eaiu iaei aeeytho ia ea/anoai naiyi iiaenieia/ieea. A
n?aaeiai ca aiaeu enneaaeiaaiee niaea?aeaiea ianea a naiaiao ninoaaeei
49,2-49,5%. A aieueoeinoaa eao i?eaiouanoai auei ca iinaaii n oceeie
iaaeaeo?yaeueyie. Oae, a 1995 a. i?e oaeii iinaaa niaea?aeaiea ianea a
naiaiao ieacaeinue ieaea, /ai ia oe?iei?yaeiii ia 0,1-1,1%, a 1996 e
1997 aa. — auoa ia 0,2-0,8%.

Naiua aunieea o?iaeae iioeiniiai iiaenieia/ieea (13,9-23,1 oe/aa)
oi?ie?othony i?e iinaaa ii aniaoea ia aeoaeio 20-22 ni, iau/iui ?yaeiaui
niiniaii (no?aoiaay aeiaaaea 40-60%), aianaiee ii/aaiiiai aa?aeoeeaea
(oa?ian, ieo?ai) eee i?iaaaeaiee aei- e iineaanoiaeiauo ai?iiiaaiee.
Iiaa?oiinoiay ia?aaioea ii/au aieaa yia?ainaa?aaathuay, /ai aniaoea.
Naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee caeanue ieaea ia 6,6-9,7%, a i?iecaiaenoai
naiyi a ?an/aoa ia 100 ea oiieeaa auoa ia 18,5-25,1%. I?e iinaaa
iau/iui ?yaeiaui niiniaii a n?aaiaiee n oe?iei?yaeiui naaanoieiinoue
naiyi iiaenieia/ieea nieaeaaony ia 4,6-8,6%.

Eeth/aaua neiaa:

iioeiniue iiaenieia/iee, niiniau iinaaa, ia?aaioea ii/au, ooiae ca
iinaaaie.

SUMMARY

Grichin A.N. Sunflower growth, development and yield in aftercropping
sowings as influenced by tillage, seeding methods and agrotechnical
practices.

Thesis for candide’s degree maintaing in the speciality 06.01.09 – Plant
industry. Manuscript. UAAS Institute of Grain Farming – Dniepropetrovsk,
1999.

It is established that the highest yields of aftercropped sunflower are
formed at soil ploughing to the depth of 20 to 22 cm, usual sowing
method (the insurance seeding – rate increase by 20 to 40 %), soil
herbicide application or postemergence harrowing. Some features of plant
growth development and survival, root system formation, water
consumption, weed infestation, yilding capacity and sunflower seed
quality have been studied.

Key words:

Aftercropped sunflower, sowing methods, svil tillage, agrotechnical
practices.

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