Oe?a?inueea Aeaaeai?y Aa?a?ieo Iaoe

Aea?aeaaiee I?e?onueeee aioai?/iee naae

OAeE 582. 594. 2: 581. 143. 6

Iiieiaa Ea?ena Eaii?ae?aia

??aee?ni? aeaee i?o?aeieo oei?e E?eio,

?o i?e?i?iciiiaeaiiy oa i?aeo?eiaiiy a?ieia?/ii? ??ciiiai?oiino?

03. 00. 05 — aioai?ea

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

sseoa — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? a?ioaoiieia?? Aea?aeaaiiai I?e?onueeiai
aioai?/iiai naaeo.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:
aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe,

Ieo?ioaiiaa Ieueaa Aieiaeeie??aia

Aea?aeaaiee I?e?onueeee

aioai?/iee naae OAAI,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo;

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:
aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Aoaa?a Ieaenaiae? Ieoaeeiae/,

Iinoeooo ao??ii-ie?eieo oa

e?ea?nueeeo ?ineei OAAI,

caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi???th;

eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Oaieeoeueea Ethaeieea Ieoaee?aia,

N?ioa?iiieuenueeee aea?aeaaiee

oi?aa?neoao, aeioeaio

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:
Ee?anueeee Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i.Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 7″ o?aaiy 1999 ?.

i 10-00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 53.369.
01. i?e

Aea?aeaaiiio I?e?onueeiio aioai?/iiio naae? ca aae?anith:

334267, E?ei, i. sseoa, Aea?aeaaiee I?e?onueeee aioai?/iee naae

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Aea?aeaaiiai I?e?onueeiai aioai?/iiai naaeo ca aae?anith: 334267, E?ei,
i. sseoa, Aea?aeaaiee I?e?onueeee aioai?/iee naae.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “18“ aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe N.
TH. Naaeiao?nueeee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Na?aae i?aaenoaaiee?a ?iaeeie I?o?aeieo
(Orchidaceae Juss) i?e?iaeii? oei?e E?eio, an? 47 aeae?a, yaeyth/enue
??aee?nieie oa cieeath/eie ?ineeiaie, caianai? aei *a?aiii? eieae
Oe?a?ie. Aaaaoi c ieo aenieiaeaei?aoeai?, ui aea? ia?niaeoeao ?oiueiai
aeei?enoaiiy o caeaiiio aoae?aieoeoa? oa ea?oieea?noa?, a oaeiae iathoue
e?ea?nuee? aeanoeaino? ? canoiniaothoueny a io?oe?ei?e oa
iao?aaeeoe?ei?e iaaeeoeei?. Aeaye? i?o?aei? ? oi?eaeueieie ia’?eoaie
aea/aiiy ?o ye aiaeai?/ieo oa aocueeia?aaeueieo aeae?a, iai?eeeaae
Ophrys taurica (Agg.) Nevski, Cimperia comperana (Stev.) Aschers. et
Graebn., Himantoglossum caprinum (Bieb.) C. Koch, iniaeeai o ca’yceo c
??ceei nei?i/aiiyi /enaeueiino? i?ae aieeaii aio?iiiaaiieo oaeoi??a.
Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui 27 aeae?a i?o?aeieo, a?aeianaieo aei I oa II
eaoaai??e ??aeeino? (*a?aiia eieaa Oe?a?ie), o E?eio aeoaea
iaei/enaeuei?, a ia o?e aeua caaaeaieo aeaee iioe?th?oueny ae?y
Aeiaeaoeo II Eiiaaioe?? i?i i?aeia?iaeio oi?a?aeth aeaeaie aeeei? oaoie
? oei?e, ui ciaoiaeyoueny i?ae caa?icith cieeiaiiy (Aieoaaa, 1996;
Niaei, 1989). Ine?eueee, i?e?iaeia a?aeoai?aiiy (a?ae i?i?inoaiiy
ian?iiy aei aaia?aoeaiiai a?eo) o?eaa? 8-12 ?ie?a, ? aneeaaeiaia o?niith
caeaaei?noth ae?th/eo o a?ioeaiicao niaoe?o?/ieo caieethaa/?a oa
i?ei?ecieo a?ea?a, caa?aaeaiiy ? a?aeiiaeaiiy iiioeyoe?e ??aee?nieo
aeae?a i?o?aeieo o i?e?iae? iiaeeeai ?c canoinoaaiiyi niinia?a
i?enei?aiiai ?iciiiaeaiiy.

Iaoiae eeiiaeueiiai i?e?i?iciiiaeaiiy i?o?aeae c’yaeany a i?aeoeoe?
ea?oieea?noaa caaaeyee i?aoeyi P?ooa?a (Richter, 1969) oa Ii?aey (Morel,
1974). Aei oeueiai /ano aeaoaeueii niin?a ?ic?iaeaiee eeoa aeey 30
aeae?a i?iieneiaeo aeaei?aoeaieo o?ii?/ieo aeae?a i?o?aeae,
i?aaenoaaiee?a ?iae?a Cymbidium Sw., Dendrobium Sw., Phalaenopsis Bl.,
Cattleya Ldl., Vanda Jones (Arditti, 1976; Fast, 1982; *a?aa/aiei,
Eooie?, 1986; Ieo?ioaiiaa oa ?i., 1992). Canoinoaaiiy oeueiai niiniao
aei i?o?aeieo iii??ii? ciie iaeaea ia ?ic?iaeaii, ui coiiaeaii
iniaeeainoyie ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? a?ieia?? oa naciiiei ?icaeoeii oe??? a?oie
i?o?aeae. Oiio aeoaea aeooaeueiei caea?oueny i?aea?? niinia?a
i?enei?aiiai i?e?i?iciiiaeaiiy ??aee?nieo aeeei?inoo/eo i?o?aeieo c
aeei?enoaiiyi aaaaoaoeaieo ? aaia?aoeaieo i?aai?a a oiiaao in vitro.
Aieiaiei i?e aeai?? aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo ? ia iioeiaeaeaiiy, a
oe?eeiaeoa caa?aaeaiiy iiioeyoe?e a i?e?iaeieo i?noeyo c?inoaiiy.
Ianooiia ia?anaaeea thaai?eueieo iniaei a ni?eyoeea? i?e?iaei? oiiae
aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy /enaeueiino? iiioeyoe?e oeeo aeae?a iiaea noaoe,
ii?yae c o?aaeeoe?eieie caniaaie ioi?iie, aaaeeeaei aeaiaioii
i?aeoe/iiai caa?aaeaiiy a?ieia?/ii? ??ciiiai?oiino? ??aee?nieo i?o?aeieo
E?eio.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeiioaaeenue a ca’yceo c oaiaoe/iei ieaiii Aea?aeaaiiai I?e?onueeiai
aioai?/iiai naaeo ca i?iaeaiaie 01.02. “I?iaanoe ioe?ieo noaio
??ae?enieo aeae?a, ui ioi?iiythoueny, ia oa?eoi??? i?aaeaiiiaa?aaeieo
?aeiiia E?eio” ? 01.03.”I?iaanoe iiioeyoe?eii-e?euee?niee iae?e
??ae?enieo, cieeath/eo ? aiaeai?/ieo aeae?a A??nueeiai E?eio” oa ieaiii
ani??aionueei? i?aeaioiaee.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoith aeaii? ?iaioe ? aea/aiiy
a?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae aeeei?inoo/eo i?o?aeieo oa ?o i?e?i?iciiiaeaiiy
aeey caa?aaeaiiy ??aee?nieo aeae?a c ianooiiei a?aeoai?aiiyi
/enaeueiino? iiioeyoe?e a i?e?iaeieo oiiaao. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy
iinoaaeaii? iaoe ae??ooaaeenue oae? caaaeaiiy.

1. Aea/eoe iniaeeaino? a?ieia?? ??aee?nieo aeae?a i?o?aeieo E?eio a
i?e?iae?, ye? iio?aaothoue ia?oi/a?aiaiai caa?aaeaiiy.

2. I?iaanoe ii??aiyeueia aea/aiiy ii?oiaaiaoe/ieo iioaioe?e
??ciiiai?oieo i?aai?a oa oeaiei i?o?aeieo a oiiaao in vitro.

3. Anoaiiaeoe iioeiaeuei? ia?aeii? aenieaioe aeey i?e?i?iciiiaeaiiy
i?o?aeieo a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaeniiii?/iiai noaoono, a?eiaiai oa
o?c?ieia?/iiai noaio ?ineeie.

4. Aea/eoe aieea o?io?/ieo, ai?iiiaeueieo oa o?ce/ieo oaeoi??a ia
ii?oiaaiac (iioei?coaaoe neeaae aeeaeeueieo na?aaeiaeu, a oaeiae
aecia/eoe oiiae ae?iuoaaiiy ia ??cieo aoaiao ?icaeoeo i?ioiei?io,
i?i?inoea oa thaai?eueii? ?ineeie).

5. ?ic?iaeoe niin?a i?e?i?iciiiaeaiiy aeeei?inoo/eo aeae?a i?o?aeieo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. I?iaaaeaia ii??aiyeueia aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae
a?ieia?? aoeueaiiinieo (Ophrys taurica, O. oestrifera, Platanthera
chlorantha) oa ei?aiaaeuieo (Goodyera repens) aeae?a i?o?aeieo o
i?e?iae? oa a oiiaao in vitro. Iieacaii, ui ?eoie ?icaeoeo, ye?
oa?aeoa?i? aeey iaeiai aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo i?o?aeieo, caa??aathoueny i?e
eoeueoeaoaaii? in vitro, a a iaaeao aaeeeiai aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo
a?aeaoaa?oueny nei?i/aiiy ?aii?o oac iioiaaiaco. Aia?oa aea/ai?
ii?oiaaiaoe/i? iioaioe?? aeae?a i?o?aeieo E?uio Comperia comperana,
Himantoglossum caprinum, Ophrys taurica, ui iathoue noaoon I eaoaai???
??aeeino?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeeoo?caeaoi?noue aenieaio?a c aaaaoaoeaieo
i?aai?a i?o?aeieo ei?aeth? c e?euee?noth oa a?aeiiniith aeoeai?noth
?cioi?i ia?ieneaeace, ui coiiaeth? caaaeueio no?ee?noue ?ineei aei
iani?eyoeeaeo oaeoi??a ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua. Aecia/ai? iioeiaeuei?
ia?aeii? aenieaioe aeey ?iciiiaeaiiy in vitro (ian?iiy ?c ia?ice?eoeo
ei?iai/ie). O aeae?a, ye? aieiae?thoue aeeaieei niiei?i ian?iiy
anoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue i?i?inoaiiy ian?iiy a?ae noaae?? ?oiueiai
aec??aaiiy. I?ae?a?ai? neeaaee aeeaeeueieo na?aaeiaeu aeey ?icaeoeo
i?ioiei?i?a oa i?i?inoe?a. Aecia/aiee oa?i?i aeey aaeaioaoe?? ?ineei.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. ?ic?iaeaiee niin?a i?e?i?iciiiaeaiiy a oiiaao
in vitro aeeei?inoo/eo i?o?aeiuo E?eio, canoinoaaiiy yeiai aeicaiey?
nei?ioeoe o?eaae?noue ?icaeoeo noaae?? i?ioiei?i?a aei 8-12 i?nyoe?a ?
noaae?? thaai?eueii? ?ineeie aei 10-12 i?nyoe?a o ii??aiyii? c 2-4
?ieaie ?o ?icaeoeo a i?e?iae?. I?e oeueiio i?enei?th?oueny i?ioean
?iciiiaeaiiy i?o?aeieo caaaeyee nei?i/aiith ?aii?o oac iioiaaiaco a
2,5-3 ?ace aeey aoeueaiiinieo oa a 3-5 ?ac?a aeey ei?aiaaeuieo aeae?a.
Aeaiee niin?a iiaea canoiniaoaaoeny aeey io?eiaiiy n?yioe?a oa
?ineei-?aaaia?aio?a c iaoith aaaaeaiiy ?o a eoeueoo?o, i?aeo?eiaiiy
a?ieia?/ii? ??ciiiai?oiino? ? ?aiao??aoe?? a i?e?iaei? i?noey c?inoaiiy.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? a naiino?eiiio cai?? iaoa??aeo,
i?iaaaeaiith aenia?eiaio?a oa ia?iaoe? io?eiaieo aeaieo, i?aeaioiaee
iaoeiaeo noaoae, ioi?ieaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Ni?eueii c iaoeiaei
ea??aieeii cae?eniaii aea?? ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiue, canoinoaaiiy
iaoiaeee oa ?ic?iaea no?oeoo?e ?iaioe.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeeny ia
i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo: iieiaeeo a/aieo “I?iaeaie aeaiae?ieia??,
ea?oieea?noaa ? ieiae?aieoeoaa” (sseoa, 1995; 1996; 1997; 1998); “Oeyoe
ae??oaiiy i?iaeai ? ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo a?ioaoiieia?? a aeaei?aoeaiiio
naae?aieoeoa? oa ieiae?aieoeoa?” (sseoa, 1997); “Ioi?iia oa
eoeueoeaoaaiiy i?o?aeae” (E?aniiaea?, 1998), a oieiae ia can?aeaiiyo
a?aeae?eo a?ioaoiieia?? oa a/aii? ?aaee AeIAN (1995-1998 ??.)

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 10 ?ia?o, c ieo /ioe?e —
a ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ? o?noue — a iaoa??aeao eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 6
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa ia?ae?eo e?oa?aoo?e, ui i?noeoue 159 aeaea?ae, a
oiio /ene? 98 ia ?iicaiieo iiaao. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 132 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo ? i?noeoue 20 ?enoie?a, 17 oaaeeoeue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c iioae?eiaaieo aeaieo ii a?ieia??
oa aeieia?? i?o?aeieo, a oaeiae ii ?iciiiaeaiith a oiiaao in vitro
o?ii?/ieo oa aeayeeo iacaiieo aeae?a i?o?aeieo iii??ieo cii.

Ia’aeoe oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia’?eoaie aea/aiiy aeey ?ic?iaee
niinia?a i?e?i?iciiiaeaiiy aeeei?inoo/eo i?o?aeieo a oiiaao in vitro
yaeyeenue ?ineeie c i?e?iaeieo o?oioeaiic?a: aeaee na?aaecaiiiii?nueei?
a?oie a?aae?a — Cimperia comperana (Stev.) Aschers. et Graebn.,
Himantoglossum caprinum (Bieb.) C. Koch, Ophrys taurica (Agg.) Nevski,
O. oestrifera Bieb., ui a?aeiinyoueny aei aeeoo?ai? oi?ie aaaaoaoeaiiai
iaeiie?oieea ?c noa?e/ieie noaaeaei?aiaaeie ooaa?i?aeaie oa in?ii?i
ii/aoeii aaaaoaoe??; ?a?iiaenueei-na?aaecaiiiii?nueeee iaii?aeueiee aeae
Platanthera chlorantha (Cust.) Reichenb. c aa?aoaiiaeaeieie
noaaeaei?aiaaeie ooaa?i?aeaie ? aaniyiei ii/aoeii aaaaoaoe??, a oaeiae
aiea?eoe/iee e?oiuei-ceiiaicaeaiee aeae Goodyera repens (L.) R. Br.
aeiaaiei?aiaaeuii? aeeoo?ai? oi?ie c iie?oeeee?/ieie iaaiiaie (Aieoaaa,
1996; Oaoa?aiei, 1996). Ie??i oeueiai a aenia?eiaioao aoee aeei?enoai?
Anacamptis pyramidalis (L.) Rich., O. mascula (L.) L., Orchis pallens
L., O. purpurea Huds., Dactylorhiza romana (Seb. et Mauri) Soo.

Yeniaaeeoe?eieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie (1994-1997 ??.) aoee ioiieai?
oeaio?aeueiee ?aeii aieiaii? a??nueei? a?yaee (a. *aoe?aeaa,
Ia?aaaeueieoeueea e?nieoeoai) oa cao?aeiee ?aeii I?aaeaiiiai aa?aaa
E?eio (ien Na?e/, ien Ia?oueyi). Oaiieia?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy ca
?ineeiaie, iae?e a?eiai? no?oeoo?e iiioeyoe?e oa aaiaioai?/i? iiene
i?noeue c?inoaiiy i?o?aeieo i?iaiaeeeeny ca?aeii c “Iaoiaee/ieie
aeac?aeaie…” (Aieoaaa, 1978; Aieoaaa, Ei?aeaiaaneee, 1985).

C iaoith aecia/aiiy ii?oiaaiaoe/ieo iioaioe?e i?e?iaeiiai ?ineeiiiai
iaoa??aeo a oiiaao in vitro, aoee aeei?enoai? an? iniiai? i?aaie
i?o?aeae, ca aeiyoeii iieiaeeo aoeuea c a?oiueeaie a?aeiiaeaiiy.
Iniiaiith oiiaith aeai?o ia?aeiiiai aenieaioo ? ia iioeiaeaeaiiy, a
oe?eeiaeoa caa?aaeaiiy ?ineei a i?e?iaeieo oeaiiiiioeyoe?yo.

I?e i?iaaaeaii? eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue a ?iaio? aeio?eioaaeenue ye
caaaeueiia?aeiieo a a?ioaoiieia?? niinia?a (Aooaiei, 1964; *a?aa/aiei,
Eooie?, 1986) oae ? niinia?a, ?ic?iaeaieo o a?aeae?e? a?ioaoiieia??
I?e?onueeiai aioai?/iiai naaeo OAAI (Ieo?ioaiiaa, 1997).

A aenia?eiaioao ii aea/aiith ii?oiaaiaoe/ieo iioaioe?e i?o?aeieo
ia?aeii? aenieaioe c aaaaoaoeaieo oa aaia?aoeaieo i?aai?a iii?uoaaeenue
ia aeeaeeuei? na?aaeiaeua: Knudson C (1922), Burgeff (1932),
Prasad-Mitra (1975), MS — Murashige, Skoog (1962), 1/2 MS, a oaeiae MS ?
1/2 MS c 2,4-Ae a?ae 0,45 aei 4,52 ieI; Gamborg (1968), Nitsch (1969),
Bourgin-Nitsch (1967).

Iinoae c aenieaioaie ciaoiaeeany a eoeueoo?aeuei?e e?iiao?, aea
i?aeo?eioaaeanue iino?eia oaiia?aoo?a a iaaeao 20-250N, 16-aiaeeiiee
oioiia??iae c ina?oeai?noth 1 — 2,5 eee ? 70%-aa a?aeiinia aieia?noue
iia?o?y. A caeaaeiino? a?ae iinoaaeaiiai caaaeaiiy eoeueoeaoaaiiy
aenieaio?a i?iaiaeeeiny oaeiae a oa?iinoao? i?e oaiia?aoo?? 270N i?e
a?aenooiino? ina?oeaiiy.

C iaoith aea/aiiy aieeao oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeio ia i?i?inoaiiy ian?iiy
i?o?aeieo, i?ia??ee c ian?iiyi iii?uoaaee a ieaeith eaia?o
oieiaeeeueieea c oaiia?aoo?ith 40N ia 6-8 oeaei?a. Oaiia?aoo?a
eoeueoeaoaaiiy ian?iiy a eiio?ie?, a a iiaeaeueoiio i?ioiei?i?a oa
i?i?inoe?a, neeaaeaea 20-250N.

Aeey aea/aiiy aieeao oiia ina?oeaiiy ia ?icaeoie i?ioiei?i?a ?
i?i?inoe?a, i?ia??ee aai eieae aeo?eioaaee a oai?ya? (oa?iinoao?) 4-8
oeaei?a, ia neaaiina?oeaieo noeeaaeao (0,5-1,0 eee) oa noeeaaeao c
ina?oeai?noth 1,5-3,0 eee.

Noaeoeueoeaoaaiiy i?ioiei?i?a oa i?i?inoe?a cae?enithaaee iaeei ?ac a
10-30 aei?a a ia??iae ?ioaineaiiai ?inoo, ? iaeei ?ac a 30-50 aei?a a
ia??iae, eiee ii?oiaaiaoe/i? i?ioeane oiia?eueithaaeeny. I?e o?eaaeiio
eoeueoeaoaaii? ian?iiy a niaoe?aeueieo aenia?eiaioao, ianaaee ia
na?aeai?eaioiaeai? aeeaeeuei? na?aaeiaeua cae?enithaaee iaeei ?ac a 8-15
i?nyoe?a.

C iaoith iioei?caoe?? ??ciaaiaco i?iaiaeeee aeine?ae c aeei?enoaiiyi
??ciiiai?oieo eiioeaio?aoe?e ? ni?aa?aeiioaiue aoenei?a (IIE, IIE, IIE,
2,4-Ae) a aeeaeeueieo na?aaeiaeuao. ?ineeie aenaaeaeoaaee ia
aaeaioaoe?th a eiioaeia?e c noi?ooth ??ciiiai?oiiai neeaaeo: oi?o,
ia?e?o, iio (nooa noi?o e?niaeo aeae?a Hypnum cupressiforme, Dicranum
scoparium) a ni?aa?aeiioaiiyo — 2:1:1, 2:1:2, 2:2:1, aai caiaeueio noi?o
c iioii c i?e?iaeieo i?noeue c?inoaiiy. ?ineeie iii?uoaaee ia NIA?
(noeeaae i?enei?aiiai ae?iuoaaiiy ?ineei) i?e oaiia?aoo?? 220N,
ina?oeai?no? 2-3 eee c 16-aiaeeiiei oioiia??iaeii.

Ecioa?iaioi? niaeo?e ia?ieneaeace aea/aee c aaiceaeeiii oa aaeiaith
eeneioith ye noano?ao?a iaoiaeii aeene-aeaeo?ioi?aco ca i?iienii
o??ie «?aiae ? Iao?a?» a 7% IAAA. Ia?ieneaeaco aeno?aaoaaee c
?ineeiiiai iaoa??aeo i?e ioieiaeaeaii? aei 00 N o??n-ae?oeeiiaei aooa?ii
c caoenieie aeiaeaoeaie ii Naoiiiao (1969). A?aeiinio aeoeai?noue
eiaeii? o?aeoe?? ia?ieneaeace aecia/aee ii Eeo (Liu, 1973) a
iiaeeo?eaoe?? A?ooeia, ?aae?ia (1985).

Eiaeiee aenia?eiaio aoa iinoaaeaiee o?e/? a i’yoee?aoi?e iiaoi?i?no?.
Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ci?iith noaio aenieaio?a ? ?ineei i?iaiaeeeeny /a?ac
5, 10, 20, 40 oa 60 ae?a. An? io?eiai? oeeo?ia? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?
noaoenoe/ii ia?iaeyeeny c aeiiiiiaith iaeaoo i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai Excel
aeey Windows 95.

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

A?ieia?/i? iniaeeaino? ? a?eiaa no?oeoo?a oeaiiiiioeyoe?e ??aee?nieo
aeae?a i?o?aeieo E?eio

A oiae? aeine?aeaeaiue aoee anoaiiaeai? iniaeeaino? aaaaoaoe??,
a?eiaiai neeaaeo iiioeyoe?e oa ieiaeiooai?aiiy ??aee?nieo i?o?aeieo, ye?
iio?aaothoue ia?oa/a?aiaiai caa?aaeaiiy.

Himantoglossum caprinum — aeae c aeoaea ?aii?i ii/aoeii aaaaoaoe??.
I?ney aeenai?iaoe?? a e?ioe? na?iiy, i?aeoe/ii aac ia??iaeo niieith
iieiaei? aoeueae, ii/eia?oueny a?ae?inoaiiy ei??ioe?a. I?eei?aiaaa
?icaoea eenoe?a oi?io?oueny a aa?ani?-aeiaoi? o aaia?aoeaieo (g) oa
aaaaoaoeaieo (vm) iniaei. Iaaecaiia aaaaoaoe?y ?iaoo?ieo (im) ?
thaai?eueieo (j) ?ineei ii/eia?oueny ia 1-1,5 i?nyoe? i?ci?oa. Aaniyi?
a?ae?inoaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny a ea?oi?, eiee cae?enith?oueny ?icaeoie
thaai?eueieo iniaei ia?oiai ?ieo iacaiiiai aeeooy. Oaeiae a oeae ia??iae
a?aeaoaa?oueny a?aei??aiiy ia?aceioaaaoeo eenoe?a o aaia?aoeaieo,
aaaaoaoeaieo oa ?iaoo?ieo ?ineei. Oea?o?iiy a?aei?/a?oueny c 2-3
aeaeaaee /a?aiy, a ?iee c ?aiiueith oa oaieith aaniith — c ia?oi?
aeaeaaee /a?aiy, ? o?eaa? ii 1-2 aeaeaaee eeiiy. Ieiaeiiioaiiy oa
aeenai?iaoe?y cao?eniaai? c 3 aeaeaaee eeiiy ii 1-2 aeaeaaee na?iiy.
Ieiaeiooai?aiiy ia ia?aaeuo? 10-18% (?iiae? 5-9%), thaai?euei? iniaeie
iiyaeythoueny iiaeeco aaia?aoeaieo o?eueee a i?noeyo c?inoaiiy, aea ?
a?eueia a?ae o?aa’yiiai iie?eao caiey ? aeinoaoi? caieiaeaiiy.

Comperia comperana, Ophrys taurica, O.oestrifera oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
aecia/aiei ia??iaeii niieith ae?oeo i?ioyaii 2,5-3 i?nyoe?a ia noaae??
iieiaei? aoeueae. A?ae?inoaiiy ei??ioe?a ii/eia?oueny a na?aaeei?
aa?aniy, ?icaoea eenoe?a ooai?th?oueny a aeiaoi?, ui ? iciaeith
oeiiaiai na?aaecaiiiii?nueeiai naciiiiai ?eoio ?icaeoeo. ?ineeie
oea?oooue c inoaiiuei? aeaeaaee ea?oiy ii 1-2 aeaeaaee o?aaiy. O O.
taurica ii/aoie aaaaoaoe?? ? oea?o?iiy niinoa??aa?oueny ia 7-10 aei?a
?ai?oa. Ieiaeiiioaiiy oa aeenai?iaoe?y aeaecia/athoueny o 1-2 aeaeaaee
/a?aiy. Ieiaeiooai?aiiy noaiiaeoue 5-8% (?iiae? 1-3%) ? aeoaea
caeaaeeoue a?ae iiaiaeieo oiia.

Oeaiiiiioeyoe?? an?o aeae?a, ui aeine?aeaeoaaeeny a i?e?iaeieo i?noeyo
c?inoaiiy, a?aeiinyoueny aei oeio ii?iaeueieo iaiiaii/eaiieo, caaaeyee
ia /?oei aecia/aieo i?ioiei?i?a oa nai?eueieo ?ineei (oaae. 1). Aiie
iathoue i?aainoi?iii?e oa?aeoa? c aeii?ioaaiiyi aaaaoaoeaieo oa
aaia?aoeaieo iniaei, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy yeeo iiaea eieeaaoeny a caeaaeiino?
a?ae aeieia?/ieo oiia a ia??iae caeeaaeaiiy aaia?aoeaii? noa?e.

Oaaeeoey 1 — A?eiaa no?oeoo?a oeaiiiiioeyoe?e ??aee?nieo i?o?aeieo a
??cieo oiiaao i?noeac?inoaiiy

Aeae oa i?noeac?inoaiiyA?eiaay a?oia

( e?euee?noue iniaei, %)jimvmg Himantoglossum caprinum (“I?eeia
i?aea??’y”, n. Ia?aaaeueia)i?ai?/ii-no?aeiee caieiaeaiee noee ia
oce?nn?10,010,016,663,3no?aeiee caieiaeaiee, ca?iuaiee ceaeaie, noee
0,00,022,277,8i?aaeaiiee caieiaeaiee ??ciio?aaiee a?aee?eoee
noee3,811,337,747,2Comperia comperana (ien Na?e/)i?aaeaiii-cao?aeiee
nooee a?aee?eoee noee0,014,321,464,3i?aaeaiia aeniiceoe?y, ae?eyiea a
aeoaiai-ye?aoeaaiio e?n? 0,08,316,675,0i?aaeaiia aeniiceoe?y, nooa
a?aee?eoa ae?eyiea a aeoaiai-ye?aoeaaiio e?n?0,05,941,252,9Ophrys
oestrifera (ien Ia?oueyi)i?aaeaiia aeniiceoe?y, nooa a?aee?eoa ae?eyiea
a ye?aoeaaiio e?n?15,025,025,035,0i?ai?/iee caieiaeaiee iioiaee noee
i?ae iaiaoii ye?aoeaaiai e?no0,014,128,657,3i?aaeaiii-cao?aeia
aeniiceoe?y, caieiaeaia a?aee?eoa ae?eyiea a?ey e?niai? noaaeee
7,715,47,769,2

Iacaaaeath/e ia aaeeeo iioaioe?eio ieiaeii?iaeoeoeai?noue, a?aeoai?aiiy
i?o?aeieo iaiaaeo?oueny aaea ia ia?oiio aoai? ?icaeoeo a?ae ii/aoeo
caieeaiiy ye iaaeinoaoi?noth caieeaiiy, iioeiaeaeaiiyi o?oioaaaie ?
ieoiaeaeieie a?ecoiaie, oae ? ianiaei iioeiaeaeaiiyi aaia?aoeaieo
iaaii?a ?ineei a i?noeyo c iineeaiei aio?iiiaaiiei iaaaioaaeaiiyi.

Aneia?ioe/ia ?iciiiaeaiiy ian?iiaaei niiniaii aeayeeo i?o?aeieo E?eio

Io?eiaiiy anaioe/ii? eoeueoo?e i?aai?a oa oeaiei i?o?aeieo. Aaaeeeaith
caaea/ith ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai? aea/aiiy ii?oiaaiaoe/ieo iioaioe?e in
vitro ? io?eiaiiy anaioe/ii? eoeueoo?e i?aai?a oa oeaiei i?o?aeae,
a?ae?a?aieo c i?e?iaeieo oiia. Ine?eueee iiaa?oiaaa caa?oaeiaiiy
nai?io?oieie aaeoa??yie ? nii?aie a?ea?a i?aecaiieo i?aai?a ?noioii
a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae iaaecaiieo, cieaeaiiy caa?oaeiaiiy aei 5% aoei
aeinyaiooa eeoa i?e no?ae/ano?e noa?ee?caoe?? 70%-aei aoaiieii (1 oaee),
1%-aei Ohymerosal (5-7 oaee) ? 0,8%-aei AgNO3 (6-8 oaee) c
o?ueio-/ioe?ueio ?aciaei i?iieaaiiyi a noa?eeuei?e aeenoeeueiaai?e aiae?
i?ney eiaeiiai ?aaaaioo. A aeayeeo aeiaaeeao (aooiie oa ea?oee)
aeinoaoiuei aoei canoinoaaiiy iaeiiai 70%-aiai aoaiieo (aei 1 oaee), aai
ei?ioei/aniiai caio?aiiy (ii 30 n) a 70%-aee aoaiie, a i?ney oeueiai a
0,8%-aee AgNO3, ui caoeuaei aeai? i?aaie a?ae caaeaae? a i?ioean?
noa?ee?caoe??.

Aea/aiiy aeeoo?caeaoiino? ia?aeiieo aenieaio?a c iaoeaieo i?aai?a
??ciiiai?oieo aeae?a i?o?aeieo. Aeyaeaia /?oea caeaaei?noue i?ae /eneii
?cioa?iaio?a (?O) oa a?aeiiniith aeoeai?noth ia?ieneaeace o i?o?aeieo in
situ oa aeeoo?caeaoi?noth aenieaio?a c aaaaoaoeaieo i?aai?a (eenoe?a ?
ei?ai?a) a oiiaao in vitro. Oae, iaeneioi a?aeiinii? aeoeaiino? ?
iaea?eueoa /enei ?O ia?ieneaeace c aaiceaeeiii o Ophrys taurica, O.
oestrifera, Himantoglossum caprinum, Anacamptis pyramidalis aeyaeaia ia
ii/aoeo in?iiuei? aaaaoaoe??. A oe? ia??iaee yenieaioe c iieiaeeo
eenoe?a oa ei?ai?a aeineoue aeiaai (aei 1-3 i?nyoe?a) caa??aaeeny ia
aeeaeeueieo na?aaeiaeuao aac ciai?oi?o iciae iae?ico. I?e aea/aii?
?cioa?iaioiiai niaeo?o (?ON) ia?ieneaeace c aaeiaith eeneioith ye
i?e?iaeiiai noano?aoo, a eenoeao aeaio aeae?a ?iaeo Ophrys L. a?aei?/aia
iayai?noue aeaeiniaoeeo?/ii? o?aeoe?? o Ophrys oestrifera, ia a?aei?io
a?ae noaa?eueiiai ?ON O. taurica. C aaiceaeeiii oaei? caeaaeiino? ia
aaeaeiny aeyaeoe. Oe? aeai? iiaeia aeei?enoaoe ye oaiinenoaiaoe/i?
e?eoa??? aeey aecia/aiiy ua iaea?oo/eo iniaei aeecueeinii??aeiaieo
aeae?a, ui ii?oieia?/ii aaaeei a?ae??cieoe.

AAAA90,0%84,0%92,1%91,1%4,3%0,8%2,8%1,8%5,7%3,9%3,1%0,7%6,9%2,1%4,5%4,2%
1,2%

Ophrys taurica
Ophrys oestrifera

Oiiaia aeoeai?noue: > > >
>

?en.1. ?cioa?iaioiee niaeo? oa a?aeiinia aeoeai?noue (%) ia?ieneaeace a
eenoeao aeae?a ?iaeo Ophrys L. A — n aaeiaith eeneioith, A — n
aaiceaeeiii

Caeaaei?noue i?i?inoaiiy ian?iiy i?o?aeieo a?ae noaae?? ?oiuei?
noeaeino?. Aeyaeai? iioeiaeuei? oa?i?ie iin?ao ian?iiy aeey eiaeiiai
aeaeo i?o?aeieo a caeaaeiino? a?ae oa?i?io ?oiueiai aec??aaiiy
(e?eueeino? ae?a c iiiaioo caieeaiiy): 40-45 ae?a aeey Anacamptis
pyramidalis oa Platanthera chlorantha, 45-50 ae?a — aeey aeae?a ?iae?a
Ophrys, Comperia, 50-55 ae?a aeey Himantoglossum caprinum ? 30 ae?a —
aeey Goodyera repans. Aeey inoaiiueiai aeaeo ?c-ca a?aenooiino?
aeeaieiai niieith o ian?iiy, oa?i?i iin?ao ia a?a? oaei? ?noioii? ?ie?.
Iieaaooaaeueiith noa?ee?caoe?th ianoaaeiith aoei oa, ui ian?iiy
ciaoiaeeeinue a ia?ice?eoeo ei?iai/eao, a oaeiae aeineoue eaaei
a?aeae?eyeiny a?ae ieaoeaio. Noiae?noue ian?iiy a oiiaao in vitro
neeaaeaea 50-75% (a i?e?iae? 5%), ui a iiaeaeueoiio aeicaieyei io?eiaoe
iaiao?aeio e?euee?noue i?ioiei?i?a oa i?i?inoe?a i?o?aeieo aeey
ianooiieo aenia?eiaio?a.

Aea/aiiy aieeao a?ioe/ieo oa aa?ioe/ieo oaeoi??a na?aaeiaeua ia
i?i?inoaiiy ian?iiy ? ia ??ci? aoaie ii?oiaaiaco i?o?aeieo in vitro. C
iaoith i?aeai?o iioeiaeueiiai aeeaeeueiiai na?aaeiaeua, iaie cae?eniaia
aei?iaoaaiiy o?ueio neeaae?a na?aaeiaeu aeey ae?iuoaaiiy oeaiei oa
i?aai?a, ye? ?aeiiaiaeothoueny aeey eoeueoeaoaaiiy aeayeeo aeae?a
i?o?aeieo a i?iieneiaiio ea?oieea?noa?: Knudson C (1922), Burgeff
(1932), Prasad, Mitra (1975). A iaoeo aeine?aeao iiaeeo?eaoe?th
na?aaeiaeua Knudson C i?iaiaeeee aaaaeaiiyi i?e?iaeiiai aaeaioiaaio
0,05-0,2% aoiaoo eae?y, a oaeiae aeiaeaiiyi 2,32 ieI e?iaoeia oa 2,85
ieI ?IE. Iaee?auei aoei aeeaeeueia na?aaeiaeua Knudson C, aeiiiaiaia
0,1%-aei aoiaoii eae?th. A?aecia/aee oaeiae i?i?inoaiiy ian?iiy oa
ooai?aiiy i?ioiei?i?a ia na?aaeiaeu? Knudson C aac aoiaoo eae?th
(eiio?ieue). Iaeiae, a ia?oiio aeiaaeeo e?euee?noue i?i?inoiai ian?iiy
oa noi?iiaaieo i?ioiei?i?a aeinyaaea 50-75%, a oie /an ye a eiio?ie?
aiia ia ia?aaeuoaaea 10-15%. Aeiyoeii aoa aeae Goodyera repans, aeey
yeiai aoei oa?aeoa?ia ianiaa i?i?inoaiiy ? ooai?aiiy i?ioiei?i?a iaa?oue
ia iiaeeo?eiaaieo na?aaeiaeuao MS, ianiaoeeo?/ieo aeey eoeueoeaoaaiiy
i?o?aeae.

Aeey an?o aeae?a anoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue ?icaeoeo i?ioiei?i?a oa
i?i?inoe?a a?ae ina?oeaiino?, iniaeeai a ia??iae iicaeai?iiy eenoi/e?a,
ne?o/aieo a o?oaeo. Iaea?eueo a?ae/ooieie aei ?ioaineaiino? ina?oeaiiy
aeyaeeeny i?ioiei?ie oa i?i?inoee Goodyera repens. Aeey ?oiueiai
ii?iaeueiiai ?icaeoeo iaiao?aeia ina?oeai?noue 2-3 eee (oaae. 2).

Oaaeeoey 2 — Aieea ?ioaineaiino? ina?oeaiiy ia ?icaeoie i?ioiei?i?a oa

i?i?inoe?a

?ioaineai?noueE?euee?noue ?icaeiooeo i?ioiei?i?a oa i?i?inoe?a,
%ina?oeaiiyOphrys oestrifera Platanthera chlorantha Goodyera repens
2,5-3,0 eee75,12,461,82,185,24,50,5-1,5
eee50,21,980,14,225,81,1a?aenooi?noue na?oea0,960,10,810,10I?ioiei?ie
Ophrys oestrifera oaeiae e?aua ?icaeaaeeny ia neeueii ina?oeaieo
noeeaaeao, a oie /an ye o Platanthera chlorantha ?icaeoie i?ioiei?i?a
a?aeaoaaany iaea?eueo ?ioaineaii i?e ina?oeaiino? 0,5-2,0 eee. Iaiaaii,
oea iia’ycaii c a?ieia?/ieie iniaeeainoyie aeaieo aeae?a: O. oestrifera
— aae?io?o, c?inoath/ee ia na?oeeo noeeao oa a?aee?eoeo i?noeyo; G.
repens oaeiae ? na?oeiethaeaei aeaeii, a oie /an ye P. nhlorantha —
o?iaaeo?eaaea e?niaa ?ineeia.

Ia??iae aeoeaiiai ?inoo i?i?inoe?a a oiiaao in vitro noi?iaiaeaeoaaany
aeae?eaiiyi a aeeaeeueia na?aaeiaeua cia/ii? e?eueeino? oaiieueieo
niieoe, ye? oiia?eueithaaee c?inoaiiy i?i?inoe?a. I?e/iio, ?o
aeae?eaiiy a?aei?/aeiny eeoa o aeae?a, noeeueieo aei ooai?aiiy oaiie?a ?
i?e eoeueoeaoaaii? yenieaio?a aei?ineeo iaoeaieo ?ineei. Oea aeaee,
c?inoath/? ia a?aee?eoeo i?inoi?ao — ia oce?nn? oa na?oeeo noeeao, oae?
ye Ophrys oestrifera, Anacamptis pyramidalis, Himantoglossum caprinum.
Iaaii, oaeo caeaoi?noue oe? aeaee i?o?aeieo ooai?eee a oiae?
aaiethoe?eieo i?enoinoaaiue oa aeaeiiaoe/ieo aca?iiae?e ?ineei a
o?oioeaiic?.

Neeaae aeeaeeueiiai na?aaeiaeua, ui canoiniao?oueny aeey ?aaaia?aoe??
?ineei Cymbidium Sw. o a?aeae?e? a?ioaoiieia?? I?e?onueeiai aioai?/iiai
naaeo, aoa iiaeeo?eiaaiee aeey aeae?a, ui ?ioaineaii aeae?eythoue a
aeeaeeueia na?aaeiaeua oaiiee. I?e oeueiio canoiniaoaaee i?aeaeuai?
eiioeaio?aoe?? ae?oeeio (50,6-63,2 ieI) ye i?e eoeueoeaoaaii?
i?i?inoe?a, oae ? i?aai?a i?e?iaeieo ?ineei. Iaee?aua ei?aiaooai?aiiy
a?aecia/aia i?e aeei?enoaii? ?IE ? IIE a eiioeaio?aoe?? 2,46 ieI oa 2,69
ieI a?aeiia?aeii (oaae 3).

Oaaeeoey 3 — Aieea aoenei?a ia ??ciaaiac

Eiioeaio?aoe?y aoeneio, ieIE?euee?noue oei??iaieo i?i?inoe?a, %O.
oestriferaP. chloranthaG. repens?IE

0,98

2,46

4,90

28,11,2

69,02,8

41,31,3

19,31,1

80,53,4

26,22,1

53,02,4

87,24,8

38,12,5?IE

1,14

2,85

5,71

15 ,71,1

34,22,0

19,41,3

10,70,5

25,11,3

13,21,0

12,00,7

40,81,9

14,30,92,4-Ae

0,9

2,26

4,52

11,00,6

18,10,9

13,21,0

14,10,7

21,91,3

17,81,2

13,01,0

24,91,1

20,21,4IIE

1,07

2,69

5,37

31,22,6

75,84,4

39,33,1

41,52,1

79,44,7

44,62,9

50,62,8

81,33,1

48,12,4

Oiiae o?eaaeiai caa?aaeaiiy ian?iiy a eoeueoo?? in vitro. A oiae?
aenia?eiaio?a ii i?i?iuoaaiith ian?iiy ??aee?nieo aeae?a i?o?aeieo iaie
aeyaeai? oiiae o?eaaeiai caa?aaeaiiy ian?iiy, caeaoiiai aei i?i?inoaiiy
i?ioyaii o?ueio ?ie?a c iiiaioo iin?ao. I?e oeueiio ian?iiy, ui
ciaoiaeeeiny ia aeeaeeueiiio na?aaeiaeu? in vitro iiiaae aeaa ?iee,
i?i?anoa? a o? ae ia??iaee, ui e aen?yia a iioi/iiio nacii?,
a?aeiia?aeii ii/aoeo aaaaoaoe?? ?ineei a i?e?iae?. I?inoioa niiniao —
i?aeo?eiaiiy aieiaino? ana?aaeei? eoeueoo?aeueiiai iinoaeo, iecueea
?ioaineai?noue ina?oeaiiy (1-1,5 eee) ? o?eaaea ciaoiaeaeaiiy ian?iiy ia
aeeaeeueiiio na?aaeiaeu? (noaeoeueoeaoaaiiy iaeei ?ac a 8-15 i?nyoe?a) —
?iaeyoue aeaiee niin?a ia eeoa c?o/iei, aea e aeiiii?/iei. Oea aea?
iiaeeea?noue caa?aaeaiiy i?o?aeieo a oiiaao in vitro ? a?aee?eaa?
ia?niaeoeae a?aeoai?aiiy aaiioiiaeo ??aee?nieo aeae?a.

Ii??aiyeueia aea/aiiy ii?oiaaiaco aeae?a i?o?aeieo c ??ciiiai?oieie
oeiaie aeeoo?aeo oi?i, a?aae?a oa n?ie?a aaaaoaoe??. Aea/aiiy
ii?oiaaiaco a oiiaao in vitro aoeueaiiinieo oa ei?aiaaeuiuo i?o?aeieo
aeyaeei oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino? ?aii?o aoai?a ?icaeoeo. Oae, naiee
iao?eaaeee ia??iae noaae?? i?ioiei?io aoa o Goodyera repens, a i?e
iayaiino? aeinoaoiueiai ina?oeaiiy o ia? oi?ioaaeeny caeai? i?i?inoee. A
iiaeaeueoiio a?aeaoaaeiny eeoa ia?inoaiiy iaoaia??a iiaco/iai iaaiia, a
ia ieaei?o iaoaia?ao niinoa??aaany ?icaeoie eenoe?a oa ei?ai?a. Aeey
Platanthera chlorantha noaae?y i?ioiei?i?a, ye? iathoue nii/aoeo
aeoyaiooo, a iio?i c?aiooo oi?io, o?eaaea aeineoue aeiaai (3-5
i?nyoe?a). I?e oeueiio i?i?inoee oi?ioaaeeny a ia??iae, ui ni?aiaaeaa c
ii/aoeii aaniyii? aaaaoaoe?? ?ineei a i?e?iae?. A oiae? aeine?aeaeaiue
aoea i?inoaaeaia /?oea caeaaei?noue i?ae naciiiei ?icaeoeii in situ oa
in vitro. A?eueo aeaoaeueii oeth caeaaei?noue ?icaeyiaii ia i?eeeaae?
Ophrys oestrifera.

Ii?oiaaiac a eoeueoo?? in vitro Ophrys oestrifera. A iaoeo aeine?aeao
ian?iiy aeaiiai aeaeo iiiaeeiiei ii/eiaei i?i?inoaoe /a?ac 6 oeaei?a
i?ney iin?ao ia aeeaeeueia na?aaeiaeua. Ianiaa i?i?inoaiiy ian?iiy
a?aecia/aia /a?ac 9-12 oeaei?a i?ney iin?ao, ui a?aeiia?aeaei ii/aoeo
aaaaoaoe?? ?ineei a i?e?iae? — a?ae?inoaiith i?eei?aiaai? ?icaoee
eenoe?a (?en. 2). *a?ac 1,5-2 i?nyoey i?ney ia?aianaiiy ia
na?aeii?eaioiaeaia na?aaeiaeua, niinoa??aaeany oaeaeea aeeoa?aioee?iaea
noaaeaai? /anoeie. A oaeiio noai? i?ioiei?ie, iaeaea aac ci?i,
ciaoiaeeeenue c eenoiiaaea ii ethoee, iacia/ii ca?eueooth/enue aei
4,0-4,5 ii a ae?aiao??. Oea a?aeiia?aeaei oac? ceiiaiai niieith ?ineei a
i?e?iae? — ceioth/i? ?icaoe? eenoe?a (?en. 2).

Aeoeaia ca?eueoaiiy ae?aiao?o i?e?iaoeueae oa ne?o/aieo a o?oaeo
eenoi/e?a, ui iaaoaathoue caeaiiai caaa?aeaiiy, ii/eia?oueny c ethoiai.
Aei na?aaeeie aa?aciy o aaaaoueio i?i?inoe?a a?aecia/aeiny ?icai?oaiiy
ia?oiai caeaiiai eenoi/ea c aeia?a iii?oiith oeaio?aeueiith aeeeeith.
Oey oaca a?aeiia?aeaea aaniyi?e aaaaoaoe?? a i?e?iae?, eiee ai?eaeueia
noaaeaaa ia?enoaia ia?aaoaeiao?oueny ia ?icaeoie aaia?aoeaii? noa?e c
ooai?aiiyi ea?oeiiina.

Iaea?eueo ?ioaineaiee ?icaeoie i?i?inoe?a: ?icai?oaiiy 2-3-o eenoi/e?a
8-13 ii aeiaaeeiith, ca?eueoaiiy ae?aiao?o i?e?iaoeueae aei 6-9 ii,
ooai?aiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo cii c?inoaiiy ? a?ae?inoaiiy 1-2-o ei??ioe?a aei
5-8 ii aeiaaeeiith, a?aecia/aeiny a ae?oao ? o?aoth aeaeaaee ea?oiy, ?
ia?oo-ae?oao aeaeaaee o?aaiy. Aeaiee ia??iae ?icaeoeo a oiiaao in vitro
ni?aiaaea? c aeoeaiith aaaaoaoe??th, oea?o?iiyi ? ii/aoeii ieiaeiiioaiiy
?ineei O. oesrtifera o i?e?iae? (?en. 2).

A oiiaao in vitro

1 2 3 4 5
6 7 8 9 10

________________________________________________________________________
__

VII VIII IX X XI XII I
II III IV V VI

i?nyoeue

A oiiaao in situ

1 2 3 4 5
6 7 8 9 10

________________________________________________________________________
__

VII VIII IX X XI XII I
II III IV V VI

i?nyoeue

?en. 2. ?icaeoie O. oestrifera a oiiaao in vitro oa in situ (iaeee
aeeoo?aee oeeee).

A oiiaao in vitro: 1 — iin?a ian?iiy (ia??iae o?c?ieia?/iiai niieith); 2
— iiiaeeiiea i?i?inoaiiy; 3 — ianiaa i?i?inoaiiy ? oi?ioaaiiy
i?ioiei?i?a; 4 — ca?eueoaiiy ?ici???a i?ioiei?i?a; 5 — aeeoa?aioee?iaea
noaaeaai? /anoeie; 6 — oi?ioaaiiy eenoe?a; 7 — ?icai?oaiiy eenoe?a; 8 —
ei?aiaooai?aiiy; 9 — oi?ioaaiiy i?e?i?icaoee oa ei??ioe?a; 10 —
oiia?eueiaiiy i?ioean?a ?inoo (e?oi?e niie?e). A oiiaao in situ: 1 —
ia??iae niieith; 2 — a?ae?inoaiiy iieiaeeo ei??ioe?a; 3 — ii/aoie
a?ae?inoaiiy eenoe?a ia iiaa?oi? a?oioo; 4 — oi?ioaaiiy i?eei?aiaai?
?icaoee eenoe?a; 5 — ceioth/a ?icaoea eenoe?a; 6 — ?icaeoie ? oi?ioaaiiy
ea?oeiiina; 7 — oea?o?iiy; 8 — ii/aoie ieiaeiiioaiiy oa cae?i/aiiy
aaaaoaoe??; 9 — aeenai?iaoe?y oa a?aeie?aiiy an?o iaaecaiieo /anoei; 10
— ia??iae niieith iieiaei? noi?iiaaii? aoeueae.

C ii/aoeii oace cae?i/aiiy aaaaoaoe?? oa ia??iaeo niieith ae?oeo, ui
oa?aeoa?ii aeey na?aaecaiiiii?nueeeo aeae?a, ii?oiaaiaoe/i? i?ioeane a
eoeueoo?? in vitro oiia?eueithaaeeny. A ia?o?e aeaeaae? aeiaoiy, c
ii/aoeii aaaaoaoe?? ?ineei a i?e?iae? (a?ae?inoaiiyi i?eei?aiaai?
?icaoee eenoe?a) o i?i?inoe?a a oiiaao in vitro aeoeaii ?icaeaaeeny iia?
eenoi/ee, c’yaeyeeny iia? ei??ioe? ? ?ineeie ii/eiaee ianooiiee aoai
?icaeoeo.

Oaeei /eiii, naciiiee ?eoi, oa?aeoa?iee aeey iaeiai aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo
?iaeo Ophrys (a?ae aoeueae aei aoeueae), caa??aaany i?e eoeueoeaoaaii?
in vitro. A iaaeao aaeeeiai aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo (a?ae ian?iiy aei ian?iiy)
?icaeoie i?ioiei?io oa i?i?inoeo a oiiaao in vitro ieiaa ca 6-8 i?nyoe?a
a ii??aiyii? c aeaiia-o?ueiia ?ieaie a i?e?iae?. Aei ae?oaiai ?ieo
?icaeoeo c iiiaioo iin?ao i?i?inoee anooiaee a noaae?th, a?aeiia?aeio
4-5-??/i?e iieiae?e thaai?euei?e ?ineei? a i?e?iae?.

I?e?i?iciiiaeaiiy in vitro thaaiieueieo ?ineei oa aaeaioaoe?y in vivo
aeeei?inoo/eo i?o?aeieo

Aea/aiiy ii?oiaaiaoe/ieo iioaioe?e thaai?eueiiai iaoa??aeo, io?eiaiiai
in vitro, iieacaei cia/eio ?ieue aeeoo?ai? oi?ie (aaiioeio) a
?iciiiaeaii?. Iniaeeai ieanoe/iei aeyaeany aeae Goodyera repans c
ei?aiaaeuiith aeeoo?aith oi?iith, caeaoiee aei aaeaaioeaiiai
iaaiiiooai?thiiy i?e ?icae?eaii? iiaco/iai iaaiio ia aeeaeeueiiio
na?aaeiaeu? III c 2,69 ieI IOK. A i?e?iae? oeae aeae oaeiae iiaea
aaaaoaoeaii ?iciiiaeoaaoeny ?icae?eaiiyi ei?aiaaeua. ?aaaia?aoe?eia
caeaoi?noue i?e ?icae?eaii? i?ioiei?i?a i?o?aeieo c aeeoo?aith oi?iith
aaaaoaoeaiiai iaeii??/ieea c noa?e/ieie aai aa?aoaiiaeaeieie
noaaeaei?aiaaeie ooaa?i?aeaie aeyaeeany aeoaea iecueeith, ui ia
noia?a/eoue iniaeeainoyi ?oiuei? a?ieia?? a i?e?iae?.

Oa?i?ie aaeaioaoe?? ?ineei aei oiia in vivo aoee i?enoiniaai? aei ?o
naciiieo ?eoi?a ?icaeoeo. Aeey Ophrys oestrifera aoea iaee?auith in?iiy
aaeaioaoe?y, aeey Platanthera chlorantha — aaniyia, aeey
e?oiuei-ceiiaicaeaii? i?o?aea? Goodyera repans oaeeo aeanoeainoae ia
aeyaeaii. E?aueie noano?aoaie ? noi?o oi?o:ia?e?o:iio (2:1:2), ui
iaaeeaea?oueny ca neeaaeii aei i?e?iaeieo, oa i?e?iaeiee a?oio c iioii c
i?noeue c?inoaiiy, iiia?aaeiuei i?inoa?ee?ciaaiee. ?ineeie nii/aoeo
ae?iuoaaeeny ia NIA?, a /a?ac 3-6 i?nyoe?a ia?anaaeaeoaaeeny a
oaieeoeth.

Oaeei /eiii, ii?oiaaiaoe/iee iioaioe?ae i?aai?a oa oeaiei aeeei?inoo/eo
i?o?aeae ?aae?coaaany /a?ac ooai?aiiy i?i?inoe?a ? ?ineei c ian?iiy i?e
aneia?ioe/iiio ?iciiiaeaii? in vitro c ianooiiei eoeueoeaoaaiiyi /anoei
noa?eeueiuo i?i?inoe?a aeey i?e?i?iciiiaeaiiy. Ia ia?oiio aoai?
i?i?iuoaaiiy ian?iiy oa oi?ioaaiiy i?ioiei?i?a a?aeaoaa?oueny ca 2-3
i?nyoey, o ii??aiyii? c 6-9 i?nyoeyie a i?e?iae?, eiee i?ney
aeenai?iaoe?? ian?iiy i?o?aeieo ii/eia? i?i?inoaoe iaaani? ianooiiiai
?ieo. A iaaeao aaeeeiai aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo o aeae?a, ye?
aeine?aeaeoaaeeny, a?aei?/aii nei?i/aiiy ?aii?o aoai?a iioiaaiaco a
2,5-3 ?ace aeey aoeueaiiinieo ? a 3-5 ?ac?a aeey ei?aiaaeuieo aeae?a, o
ii??aiyii? c ?oi?i i?e?iaeiei ?icaeoeii.

I?iaeaie oa ia?niaeoeae ioi?iie ??aee?nieo i?o?aeieo E?eio

A oaia??oi?e /an ?nioth/? i?e?iaeiioi?iii? caniae ia iiaeooue iiai?noth
caaacia/eoe caa?aaeaiiy i?o?aeieo a E?eio. O ca’yceo c oeei aaaaea?ii
iaiao?aeiei aianoe nai? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei ioi?iie o?oiaaiioiiaeo
i?o?aeieo E?eio.

Iaiao?aeii iiaeaeueoa anaa?/ia aea/aiiy ??aee?nieo aeae?a i?o?aeieo,
cie?aia, aocueeia?aaeueieo: Comperia comperana, c?inoath/i? o?eueee a
E?eio; Himantoglossum caprinum, a?aei?/aiiio oaeiae ia Eaaeac?; Ophrys
taurica, ui ? aiaeai?/iei aeaeii. Iaiao?aeii anoaiiaeoe ?aaoey?iee
eiio?ieue ca noaiii ?o iiioeyoe?e, a oaeiae ?icaeyiooe ieoaiiy
iioei?caoe?? ioi?iiiiai ?aaeeio a i?noeyo c?inoaiiy c ?ioaineaiei
aio?iiiaaiiei iaaaioaaeaiiyi.

Oae, i?iiiio?ii noai?aiiy eieaeueieo ioi?iiieo oa?eoi??e a “I?eeiiio
i?aea??’?” a?ey naea Ia?aaaeueia aea cono??/a?oueny Himantoglossum
caprinum, oa ia ieno Na?e/ (I?aaeaiiee aa?aa E?eio) c iaea?eueoei
i?noeac?inoaiiyi Comperia comperana. Aiaeai?e E?eio Ophrys taurica
oaeiae i?aeeyaa? oe?eeiaeo?e ioi?ii? ? aeey oeueiai ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny
noai?aiiy aioai?/ieo caeaciee?a a o?i/eu? Aaeea oa ?ioeo iaea?eueo
?ai?acaioiaaieo ?aeiiao.

Aaaaea?i oe?eani?yiiaaiei ooai?aiiy a AeIAN aaiaoe/iiai aaieo i?o?aeieo,
oeyoii aaaaeaiiy a eoeueoo?o oa noai?aiiy ?aa?iiaeueii? aioai?/ii?
eieaeoe??. ?aiao??aoe?y aeae?a ua ia aea/aia ia aeaiee iiiaio, ? oea
ieoaiiy ieaio?oueny ae??oeoe aieiaiei /eiii ca ?aooiie ?ineei,
?iciiiaeaieo a eoeueoo??. ?ineeie aoaeooue ia?aiineoeny a i?e?iaei?
o?oioeaiice, aeey /iai iaie i?iaiaeeeiny aaiaioai?/ia aea/aiiy i?noeue
c?inoaiiy i?o?aeieo.

Aia?oa i?iiiio?oueny noai?aiiy ian?iiaai? eieaeoe?? a oiiaao in vitro,
caaaeath/e ia aeyaeaio iiaeeea?noue o?eaaeiai caa?aaeaiiy ian?iiy
i?o?aeieo, caeaoieo aei i?i?inoaiiy ia aeeaeeueieo n?aaeiaeuao.
Caa?aaeai? oa io?eiai? a oiiaao eoeueoo?e aeaee ?ineei ?iaeeie
Orchidaceae Juss aoaeooue neoaeeoe iaoa??aeii aeey aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
a?aeoai?aiiy iiioeyoeee oa ?aiao??aoe?? i?o?aeieo a ?oi? i?e?iaei?
i?noey c?inoaiiy.

AENIIAEE

1. Aea/ai? iniaeeaino? a?ieia?? aeae?a i?o?aeieo E?eio, ui iathoue
noaoon I eaoaai??? ??aeeino? (Comperia comperana, Himantoglossum
caprinum, Ophrys taurica).

2. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?eoie ?icaeoeo, oa?aeoa?i? aeey iaeiai aeeoo?aiai
oeeeeo i?o?aeieo, caa??aathoueny i?e eoeueoeaoaaii? a oiiaao in vitro o
aeaeyae? aneia?ioe/ieo i?ioiei?i?a oa i?i?inoe?a. I?e oeueiio a iaaeao
aaeeeiai aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo n?ie i?ioiaeaeaiiy ?aii?o aoai?a iioiaaiaco
nei?i/o?oueny a 2,5-3 ?ace aeey aoeueaiiinieo (Ophrys taurica,
O.oestrifera, Platanthera chlorantha) oa 3-5 ?ac?a aeey ei?aiaaeuieo
(Goodyera repens) aeae?a i?o?aeieo o ii??aiyii? c ?oi?i ?icaeoeii a
i?e?iae?.

3. Iieacaii, ui aeeoo?caeaoi?noue aaaaoaoeaieo i?aai?a i?o?aeieo
ei?aeth? c e?euee?noth ? a?aeiiniith aeoeai?noth ?cioi?i ia?ieneaeace,
ui aecia/a? caaaeueio no?ee?noue ?ineei aei iani?eyoeeaeo oaeoi??a
ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

4. Aea/ai? ii?oiaaiaoe/i? iioaioe?? i?aai?a oa oeaiei aoeueaiiinieo
(Anacamptis pyramidalis, Comperia comperana, Himantoglossum caprinum,
Ophrys taurica, O.oestrifera, Platanthera chlorantha) oa ei?aiaaeuieo
(Goodyera repens) aeae?a i?o?aeieo a oiiaao in vitro. Iioeiaeueieie
aenieaioaie aeey i?e?i?iciiiaeaiiy ? ian?iiy ?c ia?ice?eoeo ei?iai/ie.

5. Aeyaeaia caeaaei?noue i?i?inoaiiy ian?iiy c ia?ice?eoeo ei?iai/ie
a?ae noaae?? ?oiueiai aec??aaiiy o aeae?a, ui aieiae?thoue aeeaieei
niiei?i: 40-45 ae?a c iiiaioo caieeaiiy aeey Anacamptis pyramidalis,
Platanthera chlorantha; 45-50 ae?a aeey Ophrys oestrifera, O. taurica,
Cimperia comperana ? 50-55 ae?a aeey Himantoglossum caprinum.

6. I?ae?a?ai? neeaaee aeeaeeueieo n?aaeiaeu aeey ?icaeoeo i?ioiei?i?a
(Knudson C c 0,1% aoiaoii eae?th) oa i?i?inoe?a (III c 50,6-63,2 ieI
ae?oeeio), ye? iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny aeey ianiaiai
i?e?i?iciiiaeaiiy aeeei?inoo/eo i?o?aeieo.

7. Aecia/ai? oiiae o?eaaeiai caa?aaeaiiy (i?ioyaii o?ueio ?ie?a)
ian?iiy, caeaoiiai aei i?i?inoaiiy a oiiaao in vitro, ui ? ae?ae
aaaeeeaei aeey a?aeoai?aiiy aaiioiiaeo ? ?iciiiaeaiiy ??aee?nieo
aeae?a.

8. ?ic?iaeaiee niin?a i?e?i?iciiiaeaiiy in vitro aoeueaiiinieo oa
ei?aiaaeuieo aeae?a i?o?aeieo ? aecia/aiee ?aaeei aaeaioaoe?? ?ineei.
Aeei?enoaiiy niiniao ia? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey i?aeo?eiaiiy a?ieia?/ii?
??ciiiai?oi?no? oa caa?aaeaiiy aeeei?inoo/eo aeae?a i?o?aeieo.

9. Iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue aeiaeaoeiaeo cania?a ioi?iie o?ueio
aocueeia?aaeueieo, aiaeai?/ieo aeae?a i?o?aeieo oei?e E?eio (Comperia
comperana, Himantoglossum caprinum, Ophrys taurica) a oi?i? i?aai?caoe??
caiia?aeieo oa?eoi??e a i?noeyo c?inoaiiy iiioeyoe?e c iaea?eueoith
/?naeuei?noth inaei, a oaeiae oeyoii ianiaiai ?iciiiaeaiiy a eoeueoo?? c
ianooiiith ?aiao??aoe??th.

NIENIE ?IA?O, IIOAE?EIAAIEO II OAI? AeENA?OAOe??

1. Iiieiaa E.E., Ieo?ioaiiaa I.A. Iniaaiiinoe ii?oiaaiaca iaeioi?uo
i?oeaeiuo E?uia i?e naiaiiii ?aciiiaeaiee in vitro // Athe. aio. naaea
ei. E.N. Einaiei Eoaaineiai ainaa?ioieaa?neoaoa. — E?aniiaea?, 1998, ?
7. — N. 125-127.

2. Iiieiaa E.E., Ieo?ioaiiaa I.A. Aiciiaeiinoe aeeeoaeueiiai o?aiaiey
anoiaeeo naiyi aeeei?anooueo i?oeaeae a oneiaeyo in vitro // Athe. aio.
naaea ei. E.N. Einaiei Eoaaineiai ainaa?ioieaa?neoaoa. — E?aniiaea?,
1998, ? 7. — N. 128-129.

3. Iiieiaa E.E. Iniaaiiinoe iaeiai aeeciaiiiai oeeeea iaeioi?uo
i?oeaeiuo a i?e?iaea e a oneiaeyo in vitro // Athe. Ieeeo. aioai. naaea.
— 1997. — Aui. 78. — N. 66-72.

4. Iiieiaa E.E., Ieo?ioaiiaa I.A. Ii?oiaaiac iaeioi?iuo i?oeaeiuo E?uia
i?e naiaiiii ?aciiiaeaiee a oneiaeyo in vitro // Aeioaoiieiae/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey naaeiauo e ae?oaeo oeaiiuo iiiaieaoieo eoeueoo?. Na. iao/.
o?oaeia / Ieeeo. aioai. naae. — 1997. — O. 119. — N. 168-181.

5. Iiieiaa E.E. Oaiieiaey ?acaeoey e aic?anoiay no?oeoo?a iiioeyoeee
iaeioi?uo i?oeaeiuo E?uia // I?iaeaiu aeaiae?ieiaee, oeaaoiaiaenoaa,
ieiaeiaiaenoaa: Iaaeaeoia?. eiio. iieiaeuo o/aiuo, a. sseoa, 6-10
ieoya?y 1997 a.: Iaoa?eaeu. — *. 2. — sseoa, 1997. — N. 97-101.

6. Iiieiaa E.E. Iauiinoue e ?acee/ey aeiii?oieiaee aeeei?anooueo
eeoaiaauo e ei?iaaeuiuo i?oeaeae a oneiaeyo in vitro // I?iaeaiu
aeaiae?ieiaee, oeaaoiaiaenoaa, ieiaeiaiaenoaa: Iaaeaeoia?. eiio.
iieiaeuo o/aiuo, a. sseoa, 6-10 ieoya?y 1997 a.: Iaoa?eaeu. — *. 2. —
sseoa, 1997. — N. 92-96.

7. Iiieiaa E.E., Ieo?ioaiiaa I.A., Ei?aeaiaaneee A.A. N?aaieoaeueiia
eco/aiea i?ioeannia ii?oiaaiaca iaeioi?uo i?oeaeiuo E?uia i?e naiaiiii
?aciiiaeaiee in vitro // I?iaeaiu aeaiae?ieiaee, oeaaoiaiaenoaa,
ieiaeiaiaenoaa, aeiia?aaea?noaa e aeiiaeaeey: Iaaeaeoia?. eiio. iieiaeuo
o/aiuo, a. sseoa, 14-16 ieoya?y 1996 a.: Iaoa?eaeu. — O. 1.- sseoa,
1996.- N. 119-122.

8. Iiieiaa E.E., Ieo?ioaiiaa I.A. Iaeioi?ua aniaeou naiaiiiai
?aciiiaeaiey aeeei?anooueo i?oeaeae E?uia a oneiaeyo in vitro //
I?iaeaiu aeaiae?ieiaee, oeaaoiaiaenoaa, ieiaeiaiaenoaa, aeiia?aaea?noaa
e aeiiaeaeey: Iaaeaeoia?. eiio. iieiaeuo o/aiuo, a. sseoa, 14-16 ieoya?y
1996 a.: Iaoa?eaeu. — O. 1.- sseoa, 1996.- N. 116-118.

9. Iiieiaa E.E. Eco/aiea ii?oiaaiaca iaeioi?uo aeaeia ?iaea Ophrys L.
i?e naiaiiii ?aciiiaeaiee in vitro // Iooe ?aoaiey i?iaeai e ia?niaeoeau
?acaeoey aeioaoiieiaee a aeaei?aoeaiii naeiaiaenoaa e ieiaeiaiaenoaa:
Iaaeaeoia?. eiio., a. sseoa, 25-26 naioya?y 1997 a.: Oac. aeiee. —
sseoa, 1997. — N. 21.

10. Iiieiaa E.E., Ieo?ioaiiaa I.A. Iniaaiiinoe naiaiiiai ?aciiiaeaiey in
vitro i?oeaeae oei?u E?uia // I?iaeaiu aeaiae?ieiaee, naaeiaiaenoaa e
oeaaoiaiaenoaa: Iaaeaeoia?. eiio. iieiaeuo o/aiuo, a. sseoa, 25-27
naioya?y 1995 a. :Oac. aeiee. — sseoa, 1995. — N. 72.

Iiieiaa E. E. ??aee?ni? aeaee i?o?aeieo oei?e E?eio, ?o
i?e?i?iciiiaeaiiy oa i?aeo?eiaiiy a?ieia?/ii? ??ciiiai?oiino?. —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe
c niaoe?aeueiino? 03.00. 05. — aioai?ea. — Aea?aeaaiee I?e?onueeee
aioai?/iee naae OAAI, sseoa, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aea/aiith ??aee?nieo aeae?a i?o?aeieo oei?e
E?eio oa ?o i?e?i?iciiiaeaiith a oiiaao in vitro. Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii
ii??aiyeueia aea/aiiy ii?oiaaiaoe/ieo iioaioe?e i?aai?a ? oeaiei aeae?a
i?o?aeieo (Comperia comperana, Himantoglossum caprinum, Ophrys taurica),
ui iathoue noaoon ? eaoaai??? ??aeeino?. Anoaiiaeai? iioeiaeuei? oa?i?ie
a?aeai?o ia?aeiieo aenieaio?a (ian?iiy c ia?ice?eoeo ei?iai/ie) ?
iaee?au? aeey ?icaeoeo i?ioiei?i?a oa i?i?inoe?a aeeaeeuei? n?aaeiaeua.
Aeyaeai? oiiae o?eaaeiai caa?aaeaiiy noiaeiai ian?iiy in vitro.
Aeaoaeueii aea/ai? ? c?iaeaii iien aoai?a ii?oiaaiaco aeae?a i?o?aeieo c
??ciiiai?oieie oeiaie aeeoo?aeo oi?i, a?aae?a ? aaaaoaoe??. Iieacaii, ui
?eoie ?icaeoeo, oa?aeoa?i? aeey iaeiai aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo i?o?aeieo,
caa??aathoueny i?e eoeueoeaoaaii? in vitro aneia?ioe/ieo i?ioiei?i?a oa
i?i?inoe?a. A iaaeao aaeeeiai aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo nei?i/o?oueny oa?i?i
oi?ioaaiiy i?ioiei?i?a oa i?i?inoe?a 3-5 ?acia o ii??aiyii? c ?oi?i
?icaeoeii a i?e?iae?. ?ic?iaeaiee niin?a i?e?i?iciiiaeaiiy in vitro
aeeei?inoo/eo aeae?a i?o?aeieo ? aecia/aiee ?aaeei aaeaioaoe?? ?ineei.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?o?aei?, aeeoo?aa oi?ia, i?ioiei?i, i?i?inoie,
ii?oiaaiac, in vitro, i?e?i?iciiiaeaiiy.

Iiieiaa E. E. ?aaeeea aeaeu i?oeaeiuo oei?u E?uia, eo iee?i?aciiiaeaiea
e iiaeaea?aeaiea aeieiae/aneiai ?aciiia?acey. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aeieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.05. — aioaieea. — Ainoaea?noaaiiue Ieeeoneee
aioaie/aneee naae OAAI, sseoa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth ?aaeeeo aeaeia i?oeaeiuo E?uia e
?ac?aaioea iaoiaea eo iee?i?aciiiaeaiey a oneiaeyo in vitro. A
?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee eco/aiu iniaaiiinoe aeieiaee
?aaeeeo aeaeia i?oeaeiuo (Comperia comperana, Himantoglossum caprinum,
Ophrys taurica, O. iestrifera). Ioia/aiu ?acee/ey a n?ieao aaaaoaoeee o
thaaieeueiuo, eiiaoo?iuo, aaaaoaoeaiuo e aaia?aoeaiuo ?anoaiee.
Onoaiiaeaiu aic?anoiua ninoaau oeaiiiiioeyoeee e iieacaoaee
ieiaeiia?aciaaiey aeaiiuo aeaeia. Iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue
aeiiieieoaeueiuo ia? io?aiu o?ao oceia?aaeueiuo, yiaeaie/iuo aeaeia
i?oeaeiuo oei?u E?uia (Comperia comperana, Himantoglossum caprinum,
Ophrys taurica) a oi?ia i?aaiecaoeee caiiaaaeiuo oa??eoi?ee a ianoao
i?iec?anoaiey iiioeyoeee n iaeaieueoae /eneaiiinoueth iniaae, a oaeaea
iooai ianniaiai ?aciiiaeaiey a eoeueoo?a n iineaaeothuae ?aiao?eaoeeae.
Aia?aua i?iaaaeaii n?aaieoaeueiia eco/aiea ii?oiaaiaoe/aneeo iioaioeee
oeaiae e i?aaiia aeaeia i?oeaeiuo Comperia comperana, Himantoglossum
caprinum, Ophrys taurica, eiathueo noaoon I eaoaai?ee ?aaeeinoe.
Ii?aaeaeaiu iioeiaeueiua ia?ae/iua yenieaiou aeey ?aciiiaeaiey in vitro
(naiaia ec ia?ane?uaoeony ei?iai/ae). O aeaeia, iaeaaeathueo aeoaieei
iieiai naiyi, auyaeaia caaeneiinoue i?i?anoaiey naiyi io noaaeee eo
nic?aaaiey: 40-45 nooie n iiiaioa iiueaiey aeey Anacamptis pyramidalis,
Platanthera chlorantha; 45-50 nooie aeey Ophrys oestrifera, O.taurica,
Cimperia comperana e 50-55 nooie aeey Himantoglossum caprinum.
Ii?aaeaeaiu oneiaey aeeeoaeueiiai nio?aiaiey naiyi (a oa/aiea o?ao eao),
niiniaiuo e i?i?anoaieth in vitro, /oi yaeyaony e?aeia aaaeiui aeey
ainnicaeaiey aaiioiiaea e ?aciiiaeaiey ?aaeeeo aeaeia. Iieacaii, /oi
aeecianiiniaiinoue aaaaoaoeaiuo i?aaiia i?oeaeiuo e ia?ae/iuo yenieaioia
ec ieo ei??aee?oao n eiee/anoaii e ioiineoaeueiie aeoeaiinoueth ecioi?i
ia?ieneaeacu, ii?aaeaeyy iauoth onoie/eainoue ?anoaiee e iaaeaaii?eyoiui
oaeoi?ai aiaoiae n?aaeu. I?ineaaeeaaeenue /aoeea ioee/ey ii
ecioa?iaioiui niaeo?ai ia?ieneaeacu, n eniieueciaaieai aaeeiaie eeneiou
a ea/anoaa anonoaaiiiai noano?aoa, a eenoueyo o aeaoo aeecei?iaenoaaiiuo
aeaeia ?iaea Ophrys L.. Yoe aeaiiua iiaeii eniieueciaaoue a ea/anoaa
oaiinenoaiaoe/aneiai e?eoa?ey i?e ii?aaeaeaiee aua iaoeaaooueo iniaae,
eioi?ua ii?oieiae/anee o?oaeii ?acee/eiu. Eco/ai ii?oiaaiac o eeoaiaauo
(Ophrys taurica, O.oestrifera, Platanthera chlorantha) e ei?iaaeuiuo
(Goodyera repens) aeaeia i?oeaeiuo a i?e?iaea e a oneiaeyo in vitro.
I?ineaaeaiu oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe ?aiieo yoaiia iioiaaiaca.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ?eoiu ?acaeoey, oa?aeoa?iua aeey iaeiai aeeciaiiiai
oeeeea i?oeaeiuo, nio?aiythony i?e eoeueoeae?iaaiee in vitro
aneiaeioe/aneeo i?ioiei?iia e i?i?inoeia. I?e yoii a i?aaeaeao aieueoiai
aeeciaiiiai oeeeea n?ie i?ioiaeaeaiey ?aiieo yoaiia iioiaaiaca
nie?auaaony a 2,5-3 ?aca aeey eeoaiaauo e a 3-5 ?ac aeey ei?iaaeuiuo
aeaeia i?oeaeiuo ii n?aaiaieth n eo ?acaeoeai a i?e?iaea. Iiaeia?aiu
ninoaau ieoaoaeueiuo n?aae aeey ?acaeoey i?ioiei?iia (Knudson C c 0,1 %
aoiaoii eaeey) e i?i?inoeia (III c 50,6-63,2 ieI aeeoeeia), eioi?ua
iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny aeey ianniaiai iee?i?aciiiaeaiey aeeei?anooueo
i?oeaeiuo. Ii?aaeaeaiu oneiaey inaauaiiinoe e oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeia,
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey ?acaeoey ii?iaeueiuo i?i?inoeia i?oeaeiuo. Iieacaii,
/oi aaeeioeoiui aeaeai (Ophrys taurica, O.oestrifera, Goodyera repens)
i?e eoeueoeae?iaaiee in vitro o?aaoaony eioaineaiinoue inaauaiey 2-3
eee, a oi a?aiy eae oaiaauiineeaua aeaeu (Platanthera chlorantha) eo/oa
?acaeaathony i?e inaauaiiinoe aei 1,5 eee. Iiaeia?ai ?aaeei aaeaioaoeee
?anoaiee e oneiaeyi in vivo. Iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiua n?iee aaeaioaoeee
?anoaiee niaiaaeaee n ia/aeii aaaaoaoeee ?anoaiee a i?e?iaea: inaiueth
aeey Ophrys taurica, O.oestrifera e aaniie aeey Platanthera chlorantha.
Eo/oeie noano?aoaie yaeyeenue: nianue oi?o, ia?eeo, iio (2:1:2),
i?eaeeaeathuayny ii ninoaao e anoanoaaiiui, e i?e?iaeiay ii/aa n ioii ec
iano iaeoaiey, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii i?inoa?eeeciaaiiay. ?ac?aaioaiiue iaoiae
iee?i?aciiiaeaiey in vitro eeoaiaauo e ei?iaaeuiuo aeaeia i?oeaeiuo
aeaao aiciiaeiinoue nouanoaaiiiai nie?auaiey ?aiieo yoaiia iioiaaiaca e
i?aaenoaaeyao aieueoie eioa?an aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey aeieiae/aneiai
?aciiia?acey e nio?aiaiey aeeei?anooueo i?oeaeiuo.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?oeaeiua, aeeciaiiiay oi?ia, i?ioiei?i, i?i?inoie,
ii?oiaaiac, in vitro, iee?i?aciiiaeaiea.

Popkova L.L. Rare species of Crimean orchids, their micropropagation and
conservation of biology difference.-Manuscript.

Thesis for degree of candidate of biological science on the speciality
03.00.05 — botany. — State Nikita botanical garden UAAS, Yalta, 1999.

The thesis is devoted to the study of the rare species of Crimean
orchids and their micropropagation in condition in vitro. For the first
time a comparative study of morphogenic potential of tissues and organs
of orchids species Comperia comperana, Himantoglossum caprinum, Ophrys
taurica, which have status of the first category of rarity, has been
made. Optimal period taken primary explants (seeds from closed bull)
and preferable cultural mediums for developed of protocorms and
seedlings of orchids have been stated. Condition of long-time
conservation in vitro germinate seeds of orchids have been revealed.
Stages of morphogenesis were investigated and discribed in detail for
ofchids species with different types of life forms, areals and
vegetation. It was shown that seasonal rhythm characteric for annual
life cycle in nature are keeped in conditions in vitro. In limited
great life cycle times of development protocorms and seedlings are
reduced in 3-5 to compare with development in nature. A method of wild
orchids micropropagation in vitro has been worked out and conditions of
plants adaptation were determined.

Key words: orchids, life form, protocorm, seedling, morphogenesis, in
vitro, micropropagation.

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I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 02.02.99 ?. Oi?iao 60o90/16

Iaeeaae 100 aec. Cai. ? 3441

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Ae?oea?iee oeao I?e?onueeiai aioai?/iiai naaeo

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