IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

IAOEIAI-OAOIIEIA?*IEE EIIOeA?I “?INOEOOO IIIIE?ENOAE?A”

?INOEOOO IIIIE?ENOAE?A

I?aiaiei Ieoaeei Ieeieaeiae/

OAeE 537.226.4:532.783

?ACIIAINIEE AEAEO?IEEEIIEE AOAEO

A NAAIAOIAEAEO?E*IIIO ??AeEIIO E?ENOAE?

A IEAIA?I?E EII??Oe? C ?OOIIITH AA?OIUeITH

A?AIEOeATH

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 01.04.15 – o?ceea iieaeoey?ieo oa ??aeeeo e?enoae?a

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? naaiaoiaeaeo?e/ieo ??aeeeo e?enoae?a
?inoeoooo iiiie?enoae?a IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,

OAAeI?ssEI Ieaenaiae? Iao?iae/,

?inoeooo iiiie?enoae?a IAI Oe?a?ie,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,

EENAOeUeEEE Eiia?i Ieeieaeiae/,

?inoeooo iiiie?enoae?a IAI Oe?a?ie,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,

EIAAEUe*OE Ieaenaiae? Aaneeueiae/,

?inoeooo o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. O.A. Oaa/aiei, i.
Ee?a,

eaoaae?a oai?aoe/ii? o?ceee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 15 aa?aciy 2000 ?. i 14 aiae, ia can?aeaii?
Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.169.01 a ?inoeooo? iiiie?enoae?a IAI
Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 61001, i. Oa?e?a-001, i?iniaeo Eai?ia, 60.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
iiiie?enoae?a IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 15 ethoiai 2000 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee Ae 64.169.01,

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe Ao?iuaiei E.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. A?aee?eooyi
naaiaoiaeaeo?e/ieo aeanoeainoae a o??aeueiiio niaeoe/iiio ??aeeiio
e?enoae? aoei caii/aoeiaaii aeine?aeaeaiiy oa canoinoaaiiy iiaiai eeano
iaoa??ae?a — naaiaoiaeaeo?e/ieo ??aeeeo e?enoae?a (N?E). Caaaeyee ?o
ae?aeaeo?e/iei aeanoeainoyi oa aaeee?e ?ooiiino? iieaeoe, N?E aeoaea
/ooeea? aei aeaeo?e/iiai oa iaai?oiiai iiey ? naia oey ?o aeanoea?noue o
niieo/aii? c iioe/iith ai?cio?ii??th i?eaaee aei ?o oe?ieiai
aeei?enoaiiy a i?eno?iyo a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy N?E ? nueiaiaei? caeeoa?oueny aeoaea ia?niaeoeaiith
/anoeiith o?ceee oa o?i?? ??aeeeo e?enoae?a. Aieiaiith i?e/eiith oeueiai
i?ia?ano ? ?o oe?iea canoinoaaiiy a i?eno?iyo, ui caniiaai? ia
aeaeo?iiioe/iiio aoaeo? Eea?ea-Eaaa?aiea, yea noaei iiaeeeaei i?ney
a?aee?eooy yaeua iiaa?oiaai? noaa?e?caoe?? a eii??eao c iaiaaeaiei
ia’?iii. sse iane?aeie, aoee ?ic?iaeai? i?eno?i? c /anii
aeaeo?iiioe/iiai ia?aieeaiiy o i?e?inaeoiaeiiio ae?aiacii?. Ciaioaiiy
/an?a ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy a aeaeo?iiioe/iiio aoaeo? a?ae i?e?naeoiae aei
i?e?inaeoiae aeicaieeei ?icaeyaeaoe ??aeeie?enoae?/i? iaoa??aee, ui aei
oiai /ano oni?oii canoiniaoaaeeny caaaeii o?eueee a aeenieayo, oaeiae ye
ia?niaeoeai? aeey nenoai iioe/ii? ia?iaee ?ioi?iaoe??.

Aeaeo?iiioe/i? aoaeoe oa i?eno?i? c i?aeaeuaiith oaeaeeiae??th ia ?o
iniia?, aania?a/ii ia ae/a?iothoueon? iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino?
canoinoaaiiy oeueiai oi?eaeueiiai oeio iaoa??ae?a. Iiaeaeueoa aea/aiiy
o?ceee N?E, aeyaeaiiy oa aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ai?oa iaa?aeiieo aoaeo?a oa
oeyo?a ?o aeei?enoaiiy nueiaiaei? neeaaeathoue aeooaeueio caaea/o.
Na?aae ia?niaeoeaieo iai?yie?e aeine?aeaeaiiy N?E — aeaeo?iiaoai?/iee
aoaeo oa ?aciiainiee a?aeaoe N?E ia ?iioeuenio ae?th aeaeo?e/iiai iiey,
aeaoaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy yeeo ia? ye ooiaeaiaioaeueia, oae ? i?eeeaaeia
cia/aiiy.

Ia ii/aoeo oe??? ?iaioe a e?oa?aoo?? aoei c?a?aii aeayeo ?ioi?iaoe?th
i?i aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aciiainii? iiaaae?iee N?E, aea aaaaoi aniaeo?a, ui
noinothoueny ?aciiainiiai a?aeaoeo N?E a oiiaao iaiaaeaiiai ia’?io oa
iaoai?cie caoaeaeaiiy ?aciiaino iio?aaothoue a?eueo aeeaieiai aea/aiiy.
Oea iaoiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue anaa?/iiai oa nenoaiaoe/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy eieeaaeueieo i?ioean?a a N?E o ci?iiiio oa ?iioeueniiio
aeaeo?e/iiio iie? c a?aooaaiiyi nee iiaa?oiaai? aca?iiae??.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeaia ?iaioa ?
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith ieaiiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue o aaeoc? aea/aiiy ca’yce?a
i?ae iieaeoey?iith aoaeiaith eiiiiiaio?a oa iae?ineii?/ieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ??aeeie?enoae?/ieo nenoai, ui i?iaiaeyoueny a ?inoeooo?
iiiie?enoae?a a iaaeao oaie Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie:
“Aeine?aeaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae aieeao iieaeoey?ii? aoaeiae eiiiiiaio?a
ia iaaeiieaeoey?io no?oeoo?o oa iae?ineii?/i? ia?aiao?e niaeoe/ieo
??aeeeo e?enoae?a c oa??iaeaeo?e/ieie aeanoeainoyie ? nenoai c TGB
oacaie” (iiia? aea?ae?a?no?aoe??: 0196U012151, oa?i?i aeeiiaiiy
1996–1999 ?.?.).

Iaoa ?iaioe — anoaiiaeaiiy ca’yceo ?aciiainiiai aeaeo?ieeeiiiai aoaeoo a
naaiaoiaeaeo?e/iiio ??aeeiio e?enoae? c a?aie/ieie oiiaaie oa
aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ce/ieo caeiiii??iinoae ?aciiainiiai aoaeoo. Aeey
aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe o?aaa aoei ?ica’ycaoe ?yae eiie?aoieo caaaeaiue:

— Anoaiiaeaiiy oiia aeieeiaiiy ?aciiainiiai a?aeaoeo N?E ia ?iioeuenio
ae?th (??cea ci?ia iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey).

— Aeine?aeaeaiiy caeaaeiino? ?ioaineaiino?, /anoioe oa aeia?ioiino?
?aciiain?a a?ae oaiia?aoo?e, iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey oa
iaoai?/ieo iai?oaeaiinoae a oaenoo?? N?E.

— Aei??thaaiiy noaei? aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ca’yceo a i?yiiio oa
cai?ioiueiio aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiio aoaeoao a ?aciiainieo oiiaao.

— Aecia/aiiy aieeao ?aciiainieo oiia ia /an ia?aiiey?ecaoe?? a aoaeo?
Eea?ea-Eaaa?aiea.

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?e aeine?aeaeaii?
naaiaoiaeaeo?e/ieo ia?aiao??a iaoa??ae?a aoee aeei?enoai? noaiaea?oi?
aeaeo?iiioe/i? iaoiaeeee. Eiino?oeoe?? aenia?eiaioaeueieo onoaiiaie
?ic?iaeyeenue c a?aooaaiiyi ?aciiainieo iniaeeainoae ieaia?ii? eii??ee c
?ooiiith aa?oiueith ieanoeiith. Aeey ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo
?acoeueoao?a aeei?enoiaoaaeenue iaoiaee iae?i?eii? ai?ieneiaoe?? ca
aeiiiiiaith eiii’thoa?iiai aiae?co; ioe?iea aeinoia??iino? ?acoeueoao?a
i?iaiaeeeanue c aeei?enoaiiyi noaoenoe/iiai ?iciiae?eo No’thaeaioa aeey
iaeeo aea??ie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe. Iaoeiaa iiaecia aecia/aia i?ea?iaeueieie
?acoeueoaoaie, ye? iaea?aeaii aia?oa:

· Aeyaeaii aoaeo eieeaaiue aaee/eie eiao?oe??ioo aeaicaeiieaiiy i?e
?iioeueni?e ae?? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ia N?E;

· Aeyaeaii ?nioaaiiy ?aciiaino oaenoo?e N?E oa anoaiiaeaii oiiae eiai
caoaeaeaiiy;

· Aeine?aeaeaii aca?iiae?th ?aciiaino oaenoo?e N?E oa iaoai?/ieo
?aciiain?a eii??ee. Anoaiiaeaii ?nioaaiiy aoaeoo neio?ii?caoe??;

· Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaeaeue ?aciiainiiai a?aeaoeo a iaaeao oaiiiaiieia?/ii?
oai??? Eaiaeao-Aea AEaia;

· Aeyaeaiee oa aeine?aeaeaiee aieea iaoai?/ii? iai?oae ia oaenoo?o N?E
oa ?? ?aciiaini? aeanoeaino?;

· Iieacaii, ui a ?aciiainieo oiiaao noaea aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ca’yceo
ca?eueoo?oueny ia ii?yaeie, a /an ia?aiiey?ecaoe?? a aoaeo?
Eea?ea-Eaaa?aiea ciaioo?oueny aaea?/?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iaoiiaeth?oueny
ia?niaeoeai?noth canoinoaaiiy ??aeeie?enoae?/ieo iaoa??ae?a a
iioiaeaeo?iii?e oaoi?oe? oa ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?yo. Caeiaoo?
caeiiii??iino? ?aciiainii? aca?iiae?? N?E c aeaeo?e/iei iieai a oiiaao
iaiaaeaiiai ia’?io iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey ?icoe?aiiy iaae
aeei?enoaiiy oeeo iaoa??ae?a. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ? aaciaeie aeey
?ic?iaee ?aciiaoi??a, aeaeo?iiaoai?/ieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a oa aeao/ee?a.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a a iaea?aeaieo iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoaoao iieyaa? a
o/ano? a iinoaiiaoe? caaea/?; ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiy
?aciiainiiai a?aeaoeo naaiaoiaeaeo?e/iiai ??aeeiai e?enoaeo ia
aeaeo?e/iee ?iioeuen [1,3,5,8,10,12,13]; noai?aii? aenia?eiaioaeueii?
onoaiiaee aeey aei??thaaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee ?aciiaino N?E [4,5,9,11,14]; a
iinoaiiaoe? oa i?iaaaeaii? aenia?eiaioo ii aeine?aeaeaiith aieeao
?aciiainieo oiia ia aeaeo?iiaoai?/iee aoaeo oa /an ia?aiiey?ecaoe?? N?E
[2,17]; i?iaaaeaii? iaoaiaoe/ii? ia?iaee oa o?ce/iiai aiae?co caeiaooeo
?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioo [1 – 7,15]; noai?aii? iiaeae? ?aciiainiiai
a?aeaoeo N?E a oiiaao iaiaaeaiiai ia’?io [16]; ocaaaeueiaii? io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a; o/ano? a oi?ioethaaii? aeniiae?a oa iaa?oiooaaiue.

Ioae?eaoe?? oa ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 17
?ia?o, c ieo 5 noaoae a ?iicaiieo oa a?o/eciyieo aeo?iaeao. Iniiai?
?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia oaeeo iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo: IV oa V ?a?iiaenueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo c ??aeeeo e?enoae?a
(Iieueua, Caeiiaia, 1997 ?. oa A?aoe?y, Oa?niianin, 1999 ?.), VII
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? ?Iae?i?eia iioeea ??aeeeo oa oioi?ao?aeoeaieo
e?enoae?a? (Oe?a?ia, Ia?oai?o, 1997 ?.), VI oa VII I?aeia?iaeieo
eiioa?aioe?yo c naaiaoiaeaeo?e/ieo ??aeeeo e?enoae?a (O?aioe?y, A?ano,
1997 ?. oa I?ia//eia, Aea?iooao, 1999 ?.), XVII I?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe?? c ??aeeeo e?enoae?a (O?aioe?y, No?anao?a, 1998 ?.), VI
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? ?Pattern Formation in Liquid Crystals?
(I?ia//eia, Aae?aoo, 1999 ?.), XIII Eiioa?aioe?? c ??aeeeo e?enoae?a
(Iieueua, E?eieoey, 1999 ?.), VII I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? ?Ia?aaeia?
aeenieaei? oaoiieia??? (Oe?a?ia, Iiaee Na?o, 1999 ?.)

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo oeeoiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e ?c 122 iaeiaioaaiue.
Caaaeueiee ia’?i neeaaea? 126 noi??iie, a oiio /ene? 41 ?enoiie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe,
i?iaiae?ciaaiee no/aniee noai i?iaeaie, noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa oa iniiai?
caaaeaiiy i?iaaaeaieo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, i?eaaaeaii iniiai?
iaoeia? oa i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe, iiaeaii ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i
ai?iaaoe?th oa ioae?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a, iaaaaeaia caaaeueia
oa?aeoa?enoeea aeena?oaoe??.

Ia?oee ?icae?e ia? iaeyaeiaee oa?aeoa?. A iueiio ?icaeyiooi iioae?eiaai?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue no?oeoo?e oa aeeiai?ee N?E c a?aooaaiiyi nee
iiaa?oiaai? aca?iiae??. Iienaii iniaeeaino? no?oeoo?e oaa?ii?a oa ??
aieea ia iiyao ?aciiainiiai a?aeaoeo a aeaeo?ieeeiiiio oa
aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiio aoaeoao. C i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co aeoiaeeoue, ui
?aciiainiee a?aeaoe aaaaoi?aciai i?iyaeyany i?e aeine?aeaeaiiyo ??cieo
oa?aeoa?enoee N?E. Aea a?i ?icaeyaeaany ye aeayeee caaaaeath/ee oaeoi?
ui aei eiie?aoii? iaoe. I?iiiioaaeeny oaeiae iaoiaee onoiaiiy
?aciiainiiai a?aeaoeo. sse i?aaeei, ?aciiainiei aoaeoai ia i?eae?eyeinue
iaiao?aeii? oaaae, a c?iaeaiee o iaaaaaoueio aeiaaeeao aiae?c aoa
i?iaaaeaiee ia aeineoue ei?aeoii. Aeine?aeaeaii eeoa aeaye? ?aciiaine,
iia’ycai? c a’yceith oa/??th, aea iaaeinoaoiuei oaaae i?eae?eyeiny
iiaeeeaiio aianeo a ?aciiaini? yaeua i?oaeieo aeanoeainoae niaeoe/ieo
oa??a.

?acii c oeei, ye iieacaee ianooii? aeine?aeaeaiiy, aoee aeyaeai?
iecueei/anoioi? ?aciiaine N?E, ui ia iia’ycai? ?c cai?ioiueith oa/??th ?
ui iiaeooue aooe aacoiiaii oe?eaaeie aeey a?eueo aeeaieiai ?icoi?iiy
no?oeoo?e oa aeeiai?ee N?E a ci?iiiio aeaeo?e/iiio iie?. E??i oiai,
aeei?enoaiiy ?aciiainieo aeanoeainoae N?E aeicaieeoue ?icoe?eoe
ooieoe?iiaeuei? iiaeeeaino? ?o canoinoaaiiy.

Ana oea aeaco? ia iaiao?aei?noue iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aciiainieo
yaeu a no?oeoo?? N?E oa ?o ca’yceo c a?aeiieie iaoai?/ieie ?aciiainaie,
oiia aeieeiaiiy ?aciiainiiai a?aeaoeo oa aieeao ?aciiainii? iiaaae?iee
N?E ia i?aeoe/ii aaaeeea? i?ioeane aeaeo?iiioe/iiai ia?aieeaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iaa?oioiaaii aea?? iaoa??ae?a oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo
iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aea?aii ye ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?
naaiaoiaeaeo?eee, ui iathoue ??ci? iine?aeiaiino? oaciaeo noai?a oa
??ci? oeie oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a, oae ? N?E eiiiiceoe??, ui neeaaeathoueny
c iioe/ii iaaeoeaii? iao?eoe? c SmC oacith, oa iiey?ii? o??aeueii?
aeii?oee, ui ?iaeoeo? a oe?e iao?eoe? aae?ei?aeaeueio no?oeoo?o oa
naaiaoiaeaeo?e/i? aeanoeaino?. Noai?aiiy noi?oae c ??ciei i?ioeaioiei
ai?noii oeeo eiiiiiaio?a aeicaiey? io?eioaaoe N?E eiiiiceoe?? c ??cieie
cia/aiiyie oaeeo ia?aiao??a ye e?ie aae?ei?aeo, niaeoe/iee iaoee,
niiioaiia iiey?ecaoe?y oa iaa?oaeueia a’yce?noue, ui iiaeooue iaoe aieea
ia ?aciiaini? aeanoeaino? N?E. Iienaii iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee aea?aieo
iaoa??ae?a oa noi?oae, iaoiaeeee i?eaiooaaiiy ??aeeie?enoae?/ieo c?ace?a
aeey aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaaaaeaii oae? ?o oa?aeoa?enoeee ye: oacia?
ae?aa?aie, oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? niaeoe/iiai eooa iaoeeo, niiioaiii?
iiey?ecaoe??, iaa?oaeueii? a’yceino? oa aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino?. Iaaaaeaii
iniaeeaino? aei??thaaeueii? eii??ee oa iaoiaeeea aoaeoaaiiy iaeii??aeii?
oaenoo?e N?E. Iienaii iaoiaee iaoaiaoe/ii? ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeaieo, ui canoiniaoaaeenue.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aeine?aeaeaiith ?aciiainii? iiaaae?iee N?E
i?e ?iioeueni?e ae?? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue, ui
iieaco? i?eioeeiiao iiaeeea?noue ?aciiainiiai a?aeaoeo a N?E i?e
cao?aii?, yea iia’ycaia c aeaoi?iaoe??th niaeoe/iiai oa?o. ?icaeyiooi
iaoai?ci caoaeaeaiiy ?aciiainieo eieeaaiue i?e ci?i? iai?oaeaiino?
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. Anoaiiaeaii, ui eieeaaiiy iaaaaeaieo aeaeo?e/ieo
ca?yae?a, ye? ?ai?oa niinoa??aaeeny a eii??eao N?E, iaoai?/i? a?a?aoe??
ieanoei eii??ee oa eieeaaiiy iioe/ii? aonoeie eii??ee, ui aia?oa
a?aee?eo? a oe?e ?iaio?, ? iae?ineii?/iei i?iyaii ?aeeiiai ?aciiainiiai
i?ioeano — eieeaaiue aee?aeoi?a N?E. Anoaiiaeaii ?nioaaiiy ?aciiaino
oaenoo?e N?E oa aeine?aeaeai? caeaaeiino? eiai /anoioe oa ?ioaineaiino?
a?ae oaiia?aoo?e oa iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. Aeyaeaiee aoaeo
aca?iiae?? ?aciiaino oaenoo?e N?E c iaoai?/ieie ?aciiainaie eii??ee, ui
i?eaiaeeoue aei neio?ii?caoe?? oeeo ?aciiain?a.

Aeei?enoaia i?inoa iiaeaeue no?oeoo?e oaa?ii?a, ui i?eionea? iiaio
a?aenooi?noue noeneoaaiiino? ??aeeie?enoae?/iiai iaoa??aeo, a oaeiae oie
oaeo, ui ia iiaa?oi? N?E eii??ee a ?acoeueoao? iiaa?oiaai? aca?iiae??
i?aeo?eio?oueny aii?yaeeoaaiiy, ui ? oa?aeoa?iei aeey SmA oace (iieaeoee
N?E ia?iaiaeeeoey?i? niaeoe/iiio oa?o), i?e an?o oaiia?aoo?ao, ye oea
aoei iieacaii aenia?eiaioaeueii [18]. Aeei?enoaiiy oaei? iiaeae?
aeicaieeei iai ye?nii iieacaoe aeeiai?eo cnoao iaei??? c iaeeaaeeiie
eii??ee oa aieea oaeiai cnoao ia no?oeoo?o oaa?ii?a.

No?oeoo?a oaa?ii?a iaoiiaeth?oueny aaeainii aeaio i?ioeae?th/eo nee.
Iaeia c ieo aeeeeeaia a?aeoeeaiiyi eooa niaeoe/iiai iaoeeo a?ae eiai
??aiiaaaeii? aaee/eie o a?eueiiio i?inoi??, a ?ioa — ? i?oaeia neea, ui
iaoiiaeaia aeaoi?iaoe??th iiey aee?aeoi?a. Aeey iaeeo aaee/ei eooa
iaoeeo aia?a?y (ia iaeeieoeth iiaa?oi?), ui a?aeiineoueny aei ia?oi?
neee, iiaea aooe caienaia o aeaeyae? ?iceeaaeo Eaiaeao-aea AEaia ii
ia?iei nooiaiyi . Ia?aiao?, ui iieno? iiaiee cnoa i?ae aeaiia iiaa?oiyie
eii??ee, aaaaeaiee oae, ui a?aeiiniee cnoa i?ae ieanoeiaie eii??ee
iiai?noth oa iaeiicia/ii aecia/a?oueny eooii .

I?e = 0, oiaoi a SmA oac? oa a oi/oe? oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo a SmC oaco,
no?oeoo?a aoeoaeo ? noaa?eueiith oa a?aeiia?aea? i?i?ioio a?eueii?
aia?a?? nenoaie o a?aeiioaii? aei ci?i aaee/eie cnoao. Ai?eciioaeueiee
cnoa aa?oiuei? ieanoeie eii??ee i?eaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy a?eueii?
aia?a?? oa iaia?a?aiiio ia?aoai?thaaiith no?oeoo?e aoeoaeo ia no?oeoo?o
c iioeeeie niaeoe/ieie oa?aie. Iaoee oa??a a eii??oe? i?eaiaeeoue aei
iiyae iaioeueiaiai niaeoe/iiai eooa iaoeeo , ui iaoiiaeaii
iaiao?aei?noth caa?aaeaiiy aonoeie niaeoe/ieo oa??a ana?aaeei? eii??ee.
O?eueee i?ea?aie/i? oa?e i?ae oii?yaeeiaoth/ith ae??th iiaa?oiiue
caeeoathoueny a SmA oac?. Oaeei /eiii, a ia’?i? eii??ee c’yaey?oueny
?iaeoeiaaia cnoaii SmC oaca. Iiaeeea?noue ci?ie oaiia?aoo?e oaciaiai
ia?aoiaeo oa ?iaeoeoaaiiy iioeei? oace i?ae ae??th ciai?oiueiai iiey,
oeneo aai iaoai?/iiai iai?oaeaiiy aoea iii?/aii ua ?ai?oa [19].

A?eueia aia?a?y nenoaie a ia?oiio iaaeeaeaii? ia? aeaeyae eaaae?aoe/ii?
iioaioe?aeueii? yie, i?i?ioi yei? a?aeiia?aea? ??aiiaaaei?e aoeoaeo
no?oeoo?? c aa?oeeaeueiei iieiaeaiiyi oa??a oa a?aenooi?noth niaeoe/iiai
eooa iaoeeo = 0. Caoaeaeaiee noai a?aeiia?aea? aeayeiio eieeaaeueiiio
i?ioeano a?aeiinii oi/ee ??aiiaaae, yeee i?eaiaeeoue aei iaoai?/ieo
eieeaaiue ?ooiii? ieanoeie eii??ee a ai?eciioaeuei?e ieiuei? oa
eieeaaiiyi niaeoe/iiai eooa iaoeeo .

Caoaeaeaiiy oaeiai eieeaaeueiiai i?ioeano iiaeeeaa ca aeiiiiiaith ??cieo
cania?a. Iaea?eueo i?inoee c ieo — iaoai?/ia ae?y ia ?ooiio ieanoeio
eii??ee. ?ioee can?a — ?iioeueniee eieaeueiee iaa??a N?E iaoa??aeo, ui
cae/aeii canoiniao?oueny i?e aeine?aeaeaii? i??iaoaeoo. Ci?ia
oaiia?aoo?e i?eaiaeeoue aei ci?ie eooa a aeaye?e (cae/aeii iae?e)
iaeano? eii??ee oa ?iciianthaeaeaiith e?oaiai? oaee? cao?aiiy. O oe?e
?iaio? ie aeei?enoiaoaaee o?ao?e can?a — caoaeaeaiiy aeaeo?e/iei iieai.
sse iane?aeie aeaeo?ieeeiiiai aoaeoo, iino?eia aeaeo?e/ia iiea,
i?eeeaaeaia ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii aee?aeoi?o N?E, ?iaeoeo? niaeoe/iee iaoee
iieaeoe N?E, aaee/eia eooa yeiai e?i?eii caeaaeeoue a?ae iai?oaeaiino?
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. I?e ci?i? no?eaeii iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey
an? iieaeoee N?E caeiaoaathoue iaeii/aniiai ?iioeueniiai aieeao. A
oeueiio ia?aaaaa caoaeaeaiiy aeaeo?e/iei iieai iaae ?ioeie iaoiaeaie.
Iaeii/aniee oa neioaciee aieea ia iieaeoee N?E ii anueiio ia’?io eii??ee
i?eaiaeeoue aei iaeneiaeueiiai iae?ineii?/iiai aoaeoo.

I?e ?iioeueni?e ci?i? iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey a N?E eii??oe?
caoaeaeothoueny eieeaaiiy aee?aeoi?a N?E (ci?ith?oueny niaeoe/iee eoo
iaoeeo ), ui i?eaiaeeoue aei a?a?aoe?e ?ooiii? ieanoeie eii??ee,
eieeaaiiyi iieacieea aeaicaeiieaiiy oa iiya? inoeeethth/eo iaaaaeaieo
ca?yae?a ia ieanoeiao eii??ee. Oe? o?e iae?ineii?/ieo eieeaaeueieo
i?ioeane ? iane?aeeii iaeii/anieo oa neio?iiieo eieeaaiue aee?aeoi?a N?E
a on?e eii??oe?.

Ne?ae caa?iooe oaaao ia oa, ui oeae eieeaaeueiee i?ioean ? ?aciiainiei,
ia a?aei?io a?ae a?aeiieo ?aeaenaoe?eieo i?ioean?a. Iieacaii, ui
?aciiainiee a?aeaoe ? noia?iiceoe??th aeaio eieeaaeueieo i?ioean?a c
caoooath/ith aiie?ooaeith oa aeecueeeie /anoioaie, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei
iecueei/anoioii? iiaeoeyoe?? aiie?ooaee ?acoeueooth/eo eieeaaiue —
aeooyi (?en. 1). A?aeiii, ui /anoioa aeooy iaoiiaeth?oueny ??cieoeath
/anoio aeo?aeieo neeaaeiaeo eieeaaiue. Ia??iae aeooy ca /an ?nioaaiiy
eieeaaeueiiai i?ioeano ci?ith?oueny a?eueo i?ae o o?e ?ace — c 0.4 in ia
ii/aoeo aei 1.5 in iai?ee?ioe? ?iioeueno — /anoioa, a?aeiia?aeii, a?ae
2.5 eAoe aei 0.7 eAoe. Oea icia/a?, ui /anoioa ye iaeiaioa iaeiiai c
oeeo eieeaaiue ci?ith?oueny ia 1.8 eAoe ca /an ?iioeueno, ui neeaaea?
a?eueo i?ae 30 % a?ae ?? na?aaeiueiai cia/aiiy. Oiio oeae eieeaaeueiee
i?ioean ia iiaea aooe a?aeianaiee aei iaoai?/iiai ?aciiaino eii??ee,
/anoioa yeiai iaoiiaeth?oueny aaiiao?e/ieie ?ici??aie inoaiiuei? oa ??
i?oaeieie aeanoeainoyie ? ia iiaea aeoaea ci?ithaaoeny ca ei?ioeee /an.
Ie aaaaea?ii, ui niinoa??aa?oueny ?aciiain oaenoo?e N?E.

*anoioa eieeaaiue ia ii/aoeo ?iioeueno iaoiiaeth?oueny ?aciiainii
oaenoo?e N?E, oiio ui a?i ia? a?eueo iecueeo aeia?ioi?noue oa caaaeaee
caoaeaeo?oueny ia?oei. *anoioa eieeaaiue a eiioe? ?iioeueno
iaoiiaeth?oueny o?eueee /anoioith iaoai?/iiai ?aciiaino — ?aciiain
oaenoo?e N?E aei oiai /ano iiai?noth caana?. Ia ?en. 2 iieacai?
caeaaeiino? /anoioe eieeaaiue ia ii/aoeo oa a e?ioe? ?iioeueno a?ae
oaiia?aoo?e oa iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. *?oei aeaeii, ui /anoioa
?aciiaino oaenoo?e N?E (e?i?y) aacia?a?aii ci?ith?oueny ?c ci?iith
oaiia?aoo?e oa iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey, a /anoioa iaoai?/iiai
?aciiaino eii??ee (oi/ee) i?eeia? ?yae aeene?aoieo cia/aiue.

I?e aca?iiae?? ?aciiain?a aeieeathoue yaeua caoyaoaaiiy /anoioe oa
neio?ii?caoe??. I?e oeueiio /anoioa ?aciiaino oaenoo?e, yeee ia? iaioo
aeia?ioi?noue oa a?eueo noeeueiiai aei ci?i, cnoaa?oueny a a?e
aenieiaeia?ioiiai iaoai?/iiai ?aciiaino. I?e neeuei?e aca?iiae?? oa
iaaaeee?e ??cieoe? /anoio iiaeeeaa caeeaeaiiy /anoio aei iiaiiai ca?ao —
aoaeo neio?ii?caoe??.

Ci?ia niaeo?o iaoai?/ieo ?aciiain?a i?e ci?i? oaiia?aoo?e i?ioiaeeoue
oeyoii ia?a?iciiae?eo aia?a?? i?ae niaeo?aeueieie neeaaeiaeie, a ?o
/anoioe eeoathoueny iaci?iieie. ?aciiain oaenoo?e N?E, /anoioa yeiai
oaeaeei cieaeo?oueny ?c ciaioaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e a ieie? oaciaiai
ia?aoiaeo, iine?aeiaii caoaeaeo? an? iaoai?/i? ?aciiaine eii??ee a
ae?aiacii? io 20 aei 2 eAoe.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee oiiaai aeieeiaiiy ?aciiainii? iiaaae?iee
N?E. ?icaeyiooi iiaeeeaee ca’ycie ?aciiainieo eieeaaiue aee?aeoi?a N?E c
e?eoe/ieie ia?aaeia?ao?aeieie oeoeooaoe?yie ia?aiao?a ii?yaeeo a ieie?
oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo ae?oaiai ?iaeo. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aecia/ath/ee aieea ia
iiyao oaenoo?e oaa?ii?a oa ?ioaineai?noue ?aciiainiiai a?aeaoeo ia?
iaoai?/ia iai?oaeaiiy a no?oeoo?? N?E. Iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue
iiaoaeiae aenieiye?nii? iaeii??aeii? oaenoo?e N?E oa aeei?enoaiiy
eii??ee c ?ooiieie ieanoeiaie aeey aoaeoeaiiai caoaeaeaiiy ?aciiaino.

Oai?aoe/ii iieacaii, ui ia?oa iiaea cao?aiiy, ui a?aeiia?aea? no?oeoo??
iioeeeo niaeoe/ieo oa??a, noa? iano?eeith i?e (1) = 0.42°. Aeey
oaiia?aoo? aeua O(1) = OAN – 0.015 °N cnoa aa?oiuei? ieanoeie eii??ee
i?eaiaeeoue aei iiyae iaoai?/iiai iai?oaeaiiy a no?oeoo?? iioeeeo
niaeoe/ieo oa??a, ca?eueoaiith a?eueii? aia?a?? nenoaie oa aeieeiaiith
i?oaeii? iiaa?oath/i? neee, ui i?ioeae?? oaeiio cnoao. Ieae/a
oaiia?aoo?e O(1) aoeoaeo no?oeoo?a aoaea iai?oaeaiei noaiii nenoaie oa
cnoa ieanoeie aoaea ciaiooaaoe a?eueio aia?a?th. Aeiaaeueiee i?i?ioi
a?eueii? aia?a?? aoaea a?aeiia?aeaoe no?oeoo?? iioeeeo niaeoe/ieo oa??a
c aeayeei eooii iaoeeo d.

Ianooiia iiaea, no?oeoo?a oaa?ii?a, ao?a/a? noaa?euei?noue i?e (2) =
0.84°. I?e oaiia?aoo?? ieae/a O(2) = OAN – 0.055 °N noaa?eueiei noaiii c
ioeueiaei cnoaii ? no?oeoo?a oaa?ii?a, a no?oeoo?a aoeoaeo noa?
ianoaa?eueiith ? a?aeiia?aea? a?eueo aenie?e a?euei?e aia?a??. I?e
ca?eueoaii? cnoao aa?oiuei? ieanoeie no?oeoo?a oaa?ii?a noa?
ianeiao?e/iith, iiaa?oiy oaa?iia ?c na?aaeeiii? ieiu? ci?uo?oueny o
iai?yieo aei ?ooiii? ieanoeie eii??ee. A oie iiiaio, eiee iiaa?oiy
oaa?iia nyaa? iiaa?oi? ieanoeie, no?oeoo?a oaa?ii?a ia?aoai?th?oueny a
no?oeoo?o iioeeeo niaeoe/ieo oa??a.

Oaea ia?aoai?aiiy oaa?ii?a a iioee? niaeoe/i? oa?e i?aeoaa?aeaeaii iaie
i?e aenia?eiaioaeueiiio aeine?aeaeaii?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iineaaeaiiy
eieeaaiue i?e ioieiaeaeaii? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iiyaith aeeneeeiaoe?e, ui
oa?aeoa?i? aeey no?oeoo?e oaa?ii?a. Aieiaee oene, ui i?eeeaaeaiee aei
?ooiii? ieanoeie eii??ee, i?eaiaeeoue aei cieeiaiiy oeeo aeeneeeiaoe?e,
ia?aoai?aiith no?oeoo?e oaa?ii?a a no?oeoo?o iioeeeo niaeoe/ieo oa??a oa
a?aeiiaeaiith aiie?ooaee eieeaaiue.

?c ca?eueoaiiyi oeneo aiie?ooaea eieeaaiue iae?i?eii c?inoa?.
Iaeneiaeueii, ye iane?aeie i?eeeaaeaiiai oeneo aiie?ooaea iiaea aooe
ca?eueoaia iaeaea ia ii?yaeie. I?e oeneo aeua 450 I/ni2 a?aeaoaa?oueny
cnoa aa?oiuei? ieanoeie eii??ee. Oea aeeeeeaii ?ic?eaii ca’yceo iieaeoe
N?E c iiaa?oiath ieanoeie eii??ee oa i?eaiaeeoue aei ?oeioaaiiy
iaeii??aeii? aoeoaeo oaenoo?e. Aiie?ooaea eieeaaiue ??cei iaaea?.

I?e iino?eiiio ciai?oiueiio oeneo aaee/eiith 320 ± 4 I/ni2 oaiia?aoo?ia
caeaaei?noue ii/aoeiai? aiie?ooaee eieeaaiue iieacaia ia ?en. 3 (e?eaa
1). Ni?anoaaeaiiy e?eai? 1 oa e?eai? 2 (aiie?ooaea eieeaaiue i?e
iino?eiiio ciai?oiueiio oeneo oa aac oeneo) iieaco?, ui a SmC* oac? i?e
oaiia?aoo?? a?eueo i?ae ia 1°N ieae/a oaiia?aoo?e oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo a
SmA, aieiaee oene ? iniiaiei oaeoi?ii iiyae eieeaaiue aee?aeoi?a N?E.
I?e neaaeiio oeneo, ui aeeeeeaiee o?eueee aioo??oi?ie iaoai?/ieie
iai?oaeaiiyie, eieeaaiiy iaaaeeei? aiie?ooaee niinoa??aathoueny o
aocueeiio oaiia?aoo?iiio ?ioa?aae? iiaeeco oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo.
Oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue aiie?ooaee eieeaaiue neiao?e/ia a?aeiinii
oaiia?aoo?e oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo. Iino?eiee ciai?oi?e oene aaee/eiith
ii?yaeeo 102 I/ni2 i?eaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai ca?eueoaiiy aiie?ooaee
eieeaaiue oa ?icoe?aiith oaiia?aoo?iiai ?ioa?aaeo ?nioaaiiy eieeaaiue a
noi?iio SmC* oace ia iaioa i?ae ia 15 – 20°N. Iaaiaee, a SmA oac? aieea
aieiaiai oeneo iacia/iee.

A?aeiii, ui aaee/eia eiao?oe??ioa aeaicaeiieaiiy a SmA* oac?
aaciina?aaeiuei ca’ycaia c na?aaei?i eaaae?aoii oeoeooaoe?e niaeoe/iiai
eooa iaoeeo. Iauiaeaaii aoee i?aaenoaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aei??thaaiue c
aenieei ?icae?eaiiyi eiao?oe??ioa aeaicaeiieaiiy a iioeeeo o??aeueieo
niaeoe/ieo iaoa??aeao, ui i?iyaeythoue oaciaee ia?ao?ae a?ae SmA* oace
aei iioeeeo oac [20]. Iiaeeco oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo a SmC* oaco (DT < 5 °C) niinoa??aaeiny e?eoe/ia ciaioaiiy aaee/eie eiao?oe??ioa aeaicaeiieaiiy, ui aeeeeeaii ia?aaeia?ao?aeieie oeoeooaoe?yie niaeoe/iiai ia?aiao?a ii?yaeeo. Aiie?ooaea oeeo oeoeooaoe?e neeaaeaea e?eueea a?aaeon?a. A iaoiio aenia?eiaio?, caaaeyee aenieiio i???ioaoe?eiiio aii?yaeeoaaiith a iaeii??aei?e aoeoaeo oaenoo??, neio?ii?coth/?e ae?? ?ooiii? ieanoeie eii??ee oa iaeii/aniiio caoaeaeaiith eieeaaiue aee?aeoi?a N?E ?iioeuenii aeaeo?e/iiai iiey, eieeaaiiy (oeoeooaoe??) aee?aeoi?a N?E noathoue neio?iiieie oa i?eaiaeyoue ia i?inoi aei ?ioaa?aeueiiai (ona?aaeiaiiai) ciaioaiiy aaee/eie eiao?oe??ioa aeaicaeiieaiiy, a aei ?? inoeeeyoe?e ia /anoio? ?aciiaino oaenoo?e N?E. Aeey i?iyniaiiy ieoaiiy i?i oa, yeee aieea ia ?aciiainio iiaeo ia? oei oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo, iaie aeine?aeaeaii ?yae naaiaoiaeaeo?e/ieo niieoe oa noi?oae, ui i?iyaeythoue ??ci? oacia? ia?aoiaee (I – SmC*, N* – SmC*, SmA* – SmC*) ia?oiai ? ae?oaiai ?iaeo. Iai ia aaeaeiny aeyaeoe i?yeeo iciae ?aciiainiiai a?aeaoeo a oaeeo nenoaiao, ui ia iathoue oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo SmA* – SmC* ae?oaiai ?iaeo. Aoei iieacaii, ui aeieeiaiiy ?aciiainii? iiaee aeeeeeaii e?eoe/ieie ia?aaeia?ao?aeieie oeoeooaoe?yie niaeoe/iiai ia?aiao?a ii?yaeeo (eooa iaoeeo iieaeoe aei ii?iae? niaeoe/iiai oa?o) ye c aieo aenieioaiia?aoo?ii?, iaio aii?yaeeiaaii? SmA oace, oae ? c aieo iecueeioaiia?aoo?ii?, a?eueo aii?yaeeiaaii? SmC* oace a ieie? oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo ae?oaiai ?iaeo SmA* – SmC*. Oaeee aeniiaie ? aeaui aeeaiei oa iai/?eoaaiei, ine?eueee ia?aaeia?ao?aei? oeoeooaoe?? ia?aiao?a ii?yaeeo iathoue i?noea oaeiae a nenoaiao c oaciaei ia?aoiaeii ia?oiai ?iaeo, ? i?eaiaeyoue aei e?eoe/ii? iiaaae?iee iiaeeiaiiy oa oaeaeeino? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy oeueo?acaoeiaeo oaeeue [21]. Iaei??th c iiaeeeaeo i?e/ei oiai, ui ie ia niinoa??aaee o oeueiio aeiaaeeo ?aciiainiiai a?aeaoeo N?E, iiaeooue aooe o?oaeiiu? c iiaoaeiaith aenieiye?nii? iiiiaeiiaiii? iaeii??aeii? oaenoo?e aoeoaeo aeey iaoa??ae?a, ui ia iathoue SmA oace. Aeey oaeeo iaoa??ae?a, ui iathoue oaciaee ia?ao?ae N* – SmC*, iai ia aaeaeiny caeiaooe aeineoue aenieiye?niee iiiiaeiiai, ye oea aoei c?iaeaii a eii??eao c ?a/iaeiaie, ui iathoue SmA oaco. A aeniea iaeii??aei?noue aoeoaeo oaenoo?e N?E ? aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii aeey iiyae ?aciiainiiai aoaeoo. O i’yoiio ?icae?e? iienaii aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ?aciiainieo oiia N?E ia ?o iiaaae?ieo a aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiio aoaeo? oa aeaeo?iiioe/iiio ia?aieeaii?. Iieacaii ca?eueoaiiy ia ii?yaeie aoaeoeaiino? aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy i?e oiiaao ?aciiainiiai a?aeaoeo N?E ia ?iioeuen aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a ?aciiainieo oiiaao /an aeaeo?iiioe/iiai ia?aieeaiiy a aoaeo? Eea?ea-Eaaa?iaiea ciaioo?oueny iaeaea a aeaa ?ace. A ?iaio? aia?oa aenia?eiaioaeueii aeyaeaii oa aeine?aeaeaii noaoe/iee aeaeo?iiaoai?/iee aoaeo. Ia a?aei?io a?ae a?aeiiiai aeeiai?/iiai aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai aoaeoo (ca’ycie i?ae aeaeo?e/iei iieai oa oaeaee?noth iioieo), o oeueiio aeiaaeeo aeaeo?iiaoai?/iee aoaeo, ui aeieea? a iai?yieo, ia?iaiaeeeoey?iiio niaeoe/iei oa?ai, ? noaoe/iei (ca’ycie i?ae aeaeo?e/iei iieai oa ci?uaiiyi), ? ? aiaeiaii i’?ciaoaeoo a e?enoaeao. Iaeneioi eiao?oe??ioa aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy a oi/oe? oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo SmA* — SmC* ia oaiia?aoo?i?e caeaaeiino? (?en. 4) i?aeoaa?aeaeo? eiai ca’ycie c aeaeo?ieeeiiei aoaeoii. Ine?eueee a oiiaao ?aciiainiiai a?aeaoeo N?E ci?ith?oueny niaeoe/iee eoo iaoeeo , aoei i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeeeaiai aieeao oeueiai aoaeoo ia i?ioean ia?aiiey?ecaoe??. sse iieacaa aenia?eiaio, a ?aciiainieo oiiaao /an ia?aiiey?ecaoe?? a aeaa ?ace iaioa. I?e ?aciiainiiio a?aeaoeo N?E ciaioaiiy eooa i?eaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy iaa?oaeueii? a’yceinoe gj, ui ? noa? i?e/eiith ciaioaiiy /ano ia?aiiey?ecaoe??. Oeae oaeo iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee a aeaeo?iiioe/ieo i?eno?iyo aeey ciaioaiiy /ano ia?aieeaiiy. AENIIAEE 1. Aeyaeaii, ui a N?E eii??oe? c ?ooiieie ieanoeiaie i?e ?iioeueni?e ci?i? iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey caoaeaeothoueny neio?iii? eieeaaiiy iai?yieo aeiaaeo inae iieaeoe (aee?aeoi?a) N?E. Iieacaii, ui oe? eieeaaiiy i?eaiaeyoue aei o?ueio iae?ineii?/ieo aoaeo?a: eieeaaiiyi iaaaaeaieo aeaeo?e/ieo ca?yae?a, eieeaaiiyi aaee/eie eiao?oe??ioa aeaicaeiieaiiy oa iaoai?/iei a?a?aoe?yi ieanoei eii??ee. 2. Aeyaeaii ?nioaaiiy ?aciiaino oaenoo?e N?E, oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith yeiai, ui a?ae??ciy? eiai a?ae a?aeiiiai ?ai?oa iaoai?/iiai ?aciiaino iaeeaaeie eii??ee, ? ?ioee oa?aeoa? caeaaeiino? /anoioe a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ? iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. I?e ci?i? oeeo ia?aiao??a /anoioa iaoai?/ieo ?aciiain?a i?eeia? ?yae aeene?aoieo cia/aiue, a /anoioa ?aciiaino oaenoo?e N?E ci?ith?oueny iaia?a?aii. Ca?a?no?iaaii aoaeo aca?iiae?? oeeo ?aciiain?a i?ae niaith, yeee i?eaiaeeoue aei ci?ie /anoioe ?aciiaino oaenoo?e N?E oa iiaii? neio?ii?caoe?? ia iaeaeeae/iio iaoai?/iiio ?aciiain?. 3. Caeiaooi caeaaeiino? aiie?ooaee, /anoioe oa aeia?ioiino? ?aciiaino oaenoo?e N?E a?ae oaiia?aoo?e oa iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. ?ica?aei?noue aiie?ooaee oa e?eoe/ia cieaeaiiy /anoioe ?aciiaino oaenoo?e N?E a oi/oe? oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo aeacothoue ia ca’ycie oeueiai ?aciiaino c i’yeith iiaeith naaiaoiaeaeo?e/iiai oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo. Aiie?ooaea eieeaaiue e?i?eii caeaaeeoue a?ae ci?ie niaeoe/iiai eooa iaoeeo caoaeaeoth/ei ?iioeuenii. E?ooecia oe??? caeaaeiino? ca?eueoo?oueny, yeui ci?ia niaeoe/iiai eooa noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ci?iith iai?yieo aaeoi?a niiioaiii? iiey?ecaoe??. Iane/aiiy aeinyaa?oueny i?e iiaiiio ?ice?o/oaaii? aae?ei?aea. 4. Aecia/aii oiiae aeieeiaiiy ?aciiainii? iiaaae?iee N?E. a) Iieacaii, ui ?aciiaini? eieeaaiiy aeeeeeai? e?eoe/ieie ia?aaeia?ao?aeieie oeoeooaoe?yie ia?aiao?a ii?yaeeo iiaeeco naaiaoiaeaeo?e/iiai oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo ae?oaiai ?iaeo SmA* — SmC* ? niinoa??aathoueny ye a SmA*, oae ? a SmC* oac?. a) Aeyaeaii, ui iineaaeaiiy ?aciiainiiai a?aeaoeo a SmC* oac? aeeeeeaii aeieeiaiiyi no?oeoo?e oaa?ii?a. Iieacaii, ui ca aeiiiiiaith noai?aiiy iaoai?/iiai iai?oaeaiiy no?oeoo?a oaa?ii?a iiaea aooe ia?aoai?aia ia no?oeoo?o iioeeeo niaeoe/ieo oa??a, ui i?eaiaeeoue ia o?eueee aei a?aeiiaeaiiy ?aciiainiiai a?aeaoeo, a oaeiae ? aei ?icoe?aiiy eiai oaiia?aoo?iiai ae?aiaciio aei 15 — 20 a?aaeon?a o a?e SmC* oace. a) Oiiaith ?aciiainiiai a?aeaoeo ? oaeiae iaeii??aeia, iiiiaeiiaiia no?oeoo?a c?acea N?E ? oaea eiino?oeoe?y eii??ee, ui aeicaiey? a?eueiee ?oo iaiaaeoth/eo ieanoei eii??ee a?aeiinii iaeia iaeii? ? oaeei /eiii caaacia/o? neio?ii?caoe?th eieeaaiue on?o iieaeoe c?acea N?E. 5. O aeacaieo aeua oiiaao aeine?aeaeaii i?yiee oa cai?ioi?e aeaeo?iiaoai?/iee aoaeo a oaeiae i?ioean ia?aiiey?ecaoe?? N?E ci?iiith aeaeo?e/iith iai?oaith i?yiieooii? oi?ie. Aeyaeaii, ui i?e ?aciiainiiio a?aeaoeo noaea aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ca’yceo ca?eueoo?oueny ia ii?yaeie, a aeaeo?iiaoai?/iee aoaeo a N?E ? aiaeiaii i’?ciaoaeoo a e?enoaeao. Anoaiiaeaii ciaioaiiy /ano ia?aiiey?ecaoe?? a aoaeo? Eea?ea-Eaaa?aiea i?eaeecii a aeaa ?ace. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii: 1. A.I. Oaaei?yei, I.I. Ieaiaiei, A.A. Iiiiaa, A.I. Naieiiaeaiei Naiaiaeiua eieaaaiey a naaiaoiyeaeo?e/aneii aeeaeeii e?enoaeea // Ienueia a AEOO. - 1997. - O.23, ?7. - N.80-85. 2. A.P. Fedoryako, M.N. Pivnenko, E.V. Popova and V.P. Seminozhenko Electromechanical Effect and Free Oscillations in Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals // Functional Materials. - 1997. - V.4. - No.4. - P.375-378. 3. I.I. I?aiaiei, I.I. Oaaei?yei, A.I. Naieiiaeaiei A?euei? eeaeo?iiaoai?/i? eieeaaiiy a naaiaoiaeaeo?e/iiio ??aeeiio e?enoae? // OOAE. - 1997. - O.42, ?11-12. - N.1314-1317. 4. I.I. Ieaiaiei, A.I. Oaaei?yei, E.A. Eoooey, A.I. Naieiiaeaiei Aeeyiea oi?oaeo iai?yaeaiee ia naiaiaeiua eieaaaiey a naaiaoiyeaeo?e/aneeo aeeaeeeo e?enoaeeao // Ienueia a AEOO. - 1999. - O.25, ?6. - N.74-80. 5. M.N. Pivnenko, A.P. Fedoryako, L.A. Kutulya and V.P. Seminozhenko Resonance Phenomena in a Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Near the Phase Transition SmA — SmC* // Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. - 1999. - V.328. - P.111-118. 6. A.P. Fedoryako, M.N. Pivnenko and E.V. Popova Temperature Dependences of Oscillation Parameters in Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals / in Liquid Crystals: Physics, Technology, and Applications, J. Rutkowska, S.J. Klosowicz, J. Zielinski, J. Zmija, Editors // Proceeding of SPIE - 1998. - V.3318. - P.110-113. 7. M.N. Pivnenko, A.P. Fedoryako, E.V. Popova and L.A. Kutulya Resonance Phenomena in a Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals / in Nonlinear Optics of Liquid and Photorefractive Crystals, G.V. Klimusheva, A.G. Iljin, Editors // Proceeding of SPIE - 1998. - V.3488. - P.28-34. 8. A.P. Fedoryako, M.N. Pivnenko, E.V. Popova Temperature Dependences of Oscillation Parameters in Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals // European Conference on Liquid Crystals. Science and Technology, Zakopane, Poland, March 3 – 8, 1997. Abstracts. B-58. 9. A.P. Fedoryako, M.N. Pivnenko and E.V. Popova Free Electrical Oscillations in Homeotropic Oriented Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Sample // 6th International Conference on Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals. Brest, France, July 20 – 24, 1997. Program and Abstract Book. P. 258-259. 10. M.N. Pivnenko, A.P. Fedoryako, L.A. Kutulya and V.P. Seminozhenko Electric Field Dependences of Oscillation Amplitude in Planar Oriented Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal // 6th International Conference on Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals. Brest, France, July 20 – 24, 1997. Program and Abstract Book. P.346-347. 11. M.N. Pivnenko, A.P. Fedoryako, L.A. Kutulya and V.P. Seminozhenko Free Director Oscillations in Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals Under Mechanical Stress // 17th International Liquid Crystal Conference. Strasbourg, France, July 19 – 24, 1998. Program and Abstract Book, P-101. 12. M.N. Pivnenko, A.P. Fedoryako, L.A. Kutulya and V.P. Seminozhenko Resonance Phenomena in a Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Near the Phase Transition SmA — SmC* // 17th International Liquid Crystal Conference. Strasbourg, France, July 19 – 24, 1998. Program and Abstract Book, P-107. 13. M. Pivnenko, A. Fedoryako, M. Kaspar, V. Hamplova, and S. Pakhomov Resonance Mode and Pretransitional Fluctuations Near the SmA — SmC* Phase Transition // European Conference on Liquid Crystals 99. Hersonessos, Greece 1999, Book of Abstracts, P1-043. 14. M. Pivnenko, A. Fedoryako, and L. Kutulya, Interaction Between the Texture Resonance Mode and Mechanical Resonances in a Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal // European Conference on Liquid Crystals 99. Hersonessos, Greece 1999, Book of Abstracts, P1-049. 15. M.N. Pivnenko, V.V. Vashchenko, A.S. Petrenko, A.I. Krivoshey, L.A. Kutulya, and J.W. Goodby New 1R,4R-menthan-3-one Derivatives as Chiral Components of Induced Ferroelectric Systems // 7th International Conference on Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals. Darmstadt, Germany, August 1999, Summaries, P. 204-205. 16. M.N. Pivnenko Free Damping Director Oscillations and Resonant Mode Near the SmA — SmC* Phase Transition // International Conference "Pattern Formation in Liquid Crystals", Bayreuth, Germany, September 1999. Book of Abstracts, P 22. 17. A.P. Fedoryako, M.N. Pivnenko, and V.P. Seminozhenko Second Sound and Resonance Phenomena in Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals // XIII Conference on Liquid Crystals, Krynica Zdroj, Poland, September 1999. Abstract. P. 78. Nienie oeeoiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e 18. Cagnon M. and Durand G. Positional Anchoring of Smectic Liquid Crystals // Phys. Rev. Lett. - 1993. - V.70. - No.18. - P.2742-2745. 19. Lelidis I., and Durand G. Landau model of electric field induced smectic phases in thermotropic liquid crystals // J. Phys. II France - 1996. - V.6. - No.10. - P.1359-1387. 20. Skarabot M., Kocevar K., Blinc R., Heppke G., and Musevic I. Critical behavior of birefringence in the smectic-A phase of chiral smectic liquid crystals // Phys. Rev. E. - 1999. - V.59. – No.2. - R1323-R1326. 21. Collin D., Moyses S., Neubert M.E., and Martinoty P. Critical Behavior of Sound Damping in the Vicinity of the Smectic-A — Smectic-C Transition in 8S5 // Phys. Rev. Lett. - 1994. - V.73. - No.7. - P.983-986. I?aiaiei I.I. ?aciiainiee aeaeo?ieeeiiee aoaeo a naaiaoiaeaeo?e/iiio ??aeeiio e?enoae? a ieaia?i?e eii??oe? c ?ooiiith aa?oiueith a?aieoeath. – ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.15 – o?ceea iieaeoey?ieo oa ??aeeeo e?enoae?a. – ?inoeooo iiiie?enoae?a IAI Oe?a?ie, Oa?e?a, 1999. Aeine?aeaeaii aeaeo?ieeeiiee aoaeo oa i?ioean ia?aiiey?ecaoe?? ??aeeiai e?enoaeo ci?iiith aeaeo?e/iith iai?oaith a ?aciiainieo oiiaao. Aeyaeaii aoaeo eieeaaiue aaee/eie eiao?oe??ioo aeaicaeiieaiiy i?e ?iioeueni?e ae?? ia naaiaoiaeaeo?e/iee ??aeeee e?enoae (N?E) oa aeyaeaii ?nioaaiiy ?aciiaino oaenoo?e N?E, anoaiiaeaii oiiae eiai caoaeaeaiiy. Aeine?aeaeaii aca?iiae?th ?aciiaino oaenoo?e N?E oa iaoai?/ieo ?aciiain?a eii??ee. Anoaiiaeaii ?nioaaiiy aoaeoo neio?ii?caoe??. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaeaeue ?aciiainiiai a?aeaoeo a iaaeao oaiiiaiieia?/ii? oai??? Eaiaeao-Aea AEaia. Aeyaeaii oa aeine?aeaeaii aieea iaoai?/ii? iai?oae ia oaenoo?o N?E oa ?aciiaini? aeanoeaino? oaenoo?e. Iieacaii, ui a ?aciiainieo oiiaao noaea aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai ca’yceo ca?eueoo?oueny ia ii?yaeie, a /an ia?aiiey?ecaoe?? a aoaeo? Eea?ea-Eaaa?aiea ciaioo?oueny aaea?/?. Caeiaoo? caeiiii??iino? ?aciiainii? aca?iiae?? N?E c aeaeo?e/iei iieai a oiiaao iaiaaeaiiai ia'?io iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey ?icoe?aiiy iaae aeei?enoaiiy oeeo iaoa??ae?a. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ? aaciaeie aeey ?ic?iaee ?aciiaoi??a, aeaeo?iiaoai?/ieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a oa aeao/ee?a. Eeth/ia? neiaa: naaiaoiaeaeo?e/iee ??aeeee e?enoae; aeaeo?ieeeiiee aoaeo; ?aciiainia iecueei/anoioia iiaea. Caeiaoo? caeiiii??iino? ?aciiainii? aca?iiae?? N?E c aeaeo?e/iei iieai iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey ?icoe?aiiy iaae aeei?enoaiiy oeeo iaoa??ae?a. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ? aaciaeie aeey ?ic?iaee ?aciiaoi??a, aeaeo?iiaoai?/ieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a oa aeao/ee?a. Ieaiaiei I.I. ?aciiainiue yeaeo?ieeeiiue yooaeo a naaiaoiyeaeo?e/aneii aeeaeeii e?enoaeea a ieaia?iie y/aeea n iiaeaeaeiie aa?oiae a?aieoeae. – ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.15 – oeceea iieaeoey?iuo e aeeaeeeo e?enoaeeia. – Einoeooo iiiie?enoaeeia IAI Oe?aeiu, Oa?ueeia, 1999. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth ?aciiainiiai iiaaaeaiey NAEE i?e eiioeueniii aicaeaenoaee yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey. I?aaeeiaeaia iiaeaeue, iieacuaathuay i?eioeeieaeueioth aiciiaeiinoue ?aciiainiiai ioeeeea a NAEE i?e aiciouaiee, naycaiiii n aeaoi?iaoeeae niaeoe/aneiai neiy. ?anniio?ai iaoaieci aicaoaeaeaiey ?aciiainiuo eieaaaiee i?e eciaiaiee iai?yaeaiiinoe yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi iaaethaeaaoeany ?aiaa yeaeo?e/aneea eieaaaiey a oeaie y/aeee NAEE, iaoaie/aneea aea?aoeee ieanoei y/aeee e iaia?oaeaiiua iaie eieaaaiey iioe/aneie ieioiinoe y/aeee yaeythony iae?ineiie/aneeie i?iyaeaieyie aaeeiiai ?aciiainiiai i?ioeanna eieaaaiee aee?aeoi?a NAEE. Onoaiiaeaii nouanoaiaaiea ?aciiaina oaenoo?u NAEE e enneaaeiaaiu caaeneiinoe aai /anoiou e eioaineaiinoe io oaiia?aoo?u e iai?yaeaiiinoe yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey. Iaia?oaeai yooaeo acaeiiaeaenoaey ?aciiaina oaenoo?u NAEE n iaoaie/aneeie ?aciiainaie y/aeee i?eaiaeyuee e neio?iiecaoeee ?aciiainia. Onoaiiaeaiu oneiaey aicieeiiaaiey ?aciiainiiai iiaaaeaiey NAEE. ?anniio?aia aiciiaeiay naycue ?aciiainiuo eieaaaiee aee?aeoi?a NAEE n e?eoe/aneeie i?aaeia?aoiaeiuie oeoeooaoeeyie ia?aiao?a ii?yaeea aaeece oaciaiai ia?aoiaea aoi?iai ?iaea. Onoaiiaeaii ii?aaeaeythuaa aeeyiea iaoaie/aneiai iai?yaeaiey a no?oeoo?a NAEE ia aicieeiiaaiea oaenoo?u oaa?iiia e eioaineaiinoue ?aciiainiiai ioeeeea. Iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue iino?iaiey aunieiea/anoaaiiie iaeii?iaeiie oaenoo?u NAEE e eniieueciaaiey y/aeee n iiaeaeaeiuie ieanoeiaie aeey yooaeoeaiiai aicaoaeaeaiey ?aciiaina. Enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea ?aciiainiuo oneiaee NAEE ia eo iiaaaeaiea a yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneii yooaeoa e yeaeo?iiioe/aneii ia?aeeth/aiee. Iieacaii oaaee/aiea ia ii?yaeie yooaeoeaiinoe yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneiai i?aia?aciaaiey i?e nicaeaiee oneiaee aeey ?aciiainiiai ioeeeea NAEE ia eiioeuen yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi a ?aciiainiuo oneiaeyo a?aiy yeaeo?iiioe/aneiai ia?aeeth/aiey a yooaeoa Eea?ea-Eaaa?aiea oaeaaony oiaiueoeoue ii/oe a aeaa ?aca. Aia?aua iaia?oaeai yooaeo eieaaaiee aaee/eiu eiyooeoeeaioa aeaoeo/ai?aeiieaiey i?e eiioeueniii aicaeaenoaee ia NAEE e nouanoaiaaiea ?aciiaina oaenoo?u NAEE, ii?aaeaeaiu oneiaey aai aicaoaeaeaiey. Enneaaeiaaii acaeiiaeaenoaea ?aciiaina oaenoo?u NAEE e iaoaie/aneeo ?aciiainia y/aeee. Iaia?oaeai yooaeo neio?iiecaoeee. I?aaeeiaeaia iiaeaeue ?aciiainiiai ioeeeea a ?aieao oaiiiaiieiae/aneie oai?ee Eaiaeao-Aea AEaia. Aia?aua iaia?oaeaii e enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea iaoaie/aneiai iai?yaeaiey ia oaenoo?o NAEE e aai ?aciiainiua naienoaa. Iaeaeaiiua caeiiiia?iinoe ?aciiainiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey NAEE n yeaeo?e/aneei iieai a oneiaeyo ia?aie/aiiiai iauaia iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu aeey ?anoe?aiey iaeanoe i?eiaiaiey NAEE. ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou yaeythony aaciauie aeey ?ac?aaioee ?aciiaoi?ia, yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneeo i?aia?aciaaoaeae e aeao/eeia. Eeth/aaua neiaa: naaiaoiyeaeo?e/aneee aeeaeeee e?enoaee; yeaeo?ieeeiiue yooaeo, ?aciiainiay iecei/anoioiay iiaea. Pivnenko M.N. Resonant electroclinic effect in a ferroelectric liquid crystal in a planar cell with the moving high border. – Manuscript. Thesis for the degree of candidate of physical-mathematical sciences by speciality 01.04.15 – Physics of Molecular and Liquid Crystals. – Institute for Single Crystals National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkiv, 1999. Dynamic properties of ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLC) are by means of observation of electric, optical and mechanical responses to the step-like change of electric field strength. A low frequency resonant mode that manifests itself as free damping collective director oscillations after the electric field reversal is revealed and investigated near the second order SmA — SmC* phase transition on FLC. These director oscillations result in oscillations of the birefringence, induced polarization current and mechanical vibrations of the sample cell plates which are free to move. The resonance frequency exhibits a continuous dependence versus temperature and electric field strength that allowed us to separate this resonance from bending modes of the cell plates. An interaction of the FLC resonant mode with these bending modes resulting in the change of its frequency and the synchronization of the FLC resonance on the nearest bending mode was observed. It is shown clearly that the origination of the resonant response and the free director oscillations are caused by strong pretransitional fluctuations of the order parameter in both SmA and SmC* phases near the phase transition and by the presence of the shearing mechanical stress directed perpendicularly to the smectic layers in SmC* phase in a well aligned uniform bookshelf FLC configuration. Key words: ferroelectric liquid crystals; electroclinic effect; resonant low-frequency mode.

Похожие записи