?AAII-O?AIE?ANUeEA AeA?AEAAIA IAAeE*IA AEAAeAI?ss

EEssE THe?ai A?eai?iae/

OAeE 616.12 — 005.4+616.12-008.331.1+

616.379-008.64)-02:616.127-091-07

?AIIAeAETHAAIIss I?IEA?AeA

I?E ?OAI?*I?E OAI?IA? NA?Oess, A?IA?OII?*I?E OAI?IA? OA OeOE?IAIIO
Ae?AAAO?

(EE?I?EI-OEUeO?ANO?OEOO?I? AeINE?AeAEAIIss)

14.01.02 – Aioo??oi? oai?iae

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe

?aaii-O?aie?anuee – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Euea?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
?i. Aeaieea Aaeeoeueeiai IIC Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio

— /eai – ei?aniiiaeaio IAI ? AII Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani? Ca?a?ii Aeieo?i Aeaiieniae/, Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. Aeaieea Aaeeoeueeiai, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iaoieia?/ii?
aiaoii?? c eo?nii noaeiai? iaaeeoeeie.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

— aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eoiiiaeoeueea ??eia A?eai??aia,
?aaii-O?aie?anueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y IIC Oe?a?ie, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e aini?oaeueii? oa?ai?? ?1;

— aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Nooi?ia Ieaenaiae?a Naiai?aia,
?inoeooo aa?iioieia?? AII Oe?a?ie, iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio eaai?aoi???
ii?oieia?? ? oeeoieia??;

— aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe AEa??iia Ieaa Eineiiae/, Ee?anueea iaaee/ia
aeaaeai?y i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E. Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ie, aeioeaio
eaoaae?e ea?ae?ieia?? ? ooieoe?iiaeueii? ae?aaiinoeee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I. I.
Aiaiiieueoey IIC Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a i?iiaaeaaoeee aioo??oi?o oai?ia ?1.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “1“ aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 11 aiaeei?

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 20.601.01

?aaii-O?aie?anueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??

(284000, i. ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, aoe. Aaeeoeueea, 2).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue

a a?ae?ioaoe? ?aaii-O?aie?anueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??

(284000, i. ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, aoe. Aaeeoeueea, 7).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “1” aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? I.A.I?ei/ae.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Na?oeaai–noaeeii? caoai?thaaiiy (NNC) iin?aeathoue
ia?oa i?noea na?aae i?e/ei nia?oiino? oa ?iaae?aeiino? aei?ineiai
ianaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii ?icaeiaieo e?a?i na?oo ? iathoue oaiaeaioe?th aei
i?ia?anoaaiiy (E.O. Iaeay, A.A. AEio?i, 1998; S. Sans oa ?i., 1997). A
inoaii? ?iee nia?oi?noue ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie a?ae NNC iaaieiii c?inoa? (c
1990 ii 1994 ??e ca?eueoeeany ia 22%), a o?eaae?noue aeeooy
nei?i/o?oueny (I.O. Aic?aiia, 1998). Oey oaiaeaioe?y niinoa??aa?oueny a
a?eueoino? e?a?i Oeaio?aeueii? oa No?aeii? ?a?iie. Ca?aeii ?c aeaieie
AIIC, o?eaae?noue aeeooy ethaeae ye o cao?aeieo, oae ? a no?aeieo
aea?aeaaao, ia 50% aecia/a?oueny iayai?noth caoai?thaaiue i?aai?a
e?iaiia?ao. A 1990 – 1992 ?ieao a Oe?a?i? eiinoaoiaaii iaeaeu? o ?a?ii?
iieacieee nia?oiino? a?ae NNC ye /ieia?e?a, oae ? ae?iie: 1490 oa 830
in?a ia 100 oen. ianaeaiiy, a?aeiia?aeii. Na?aaeiy o?eaae?noue aeeooy
/ieia?e?a a Oe?a?i? neeaaeaea a 1993 – 1994 ?ieao 62.8 ?ie?a, a o ae?iie
– 73.2 ?iee. Oeae iieaciee ia 8 – 10 ?ie?a ieae/ee, i?ae o cao?aeieo
aea?aeaaao. ??aaiue nia?oiino? a?ae NNC a Oe?a?i? a 2 – 3 ?ace aeuee,
i?ae a ?ioeo aeiiii?/ii ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao. Ieoiia aaaa nia?oiino? a?ae
?ON a no?oeoo?? caaaeueii? nia?oiino? anueiai ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie
noaiiaeoue 60%. ?ON na?aae caaaeueii? /enaeueiino? NNC a Oe?a?i?
neeaaea? 37.1%, a a?ia?oii?/ia oai?iaa (AO) – 36.3%. ?inoe?iiiacaeaaeiee
oeoe?iaee ae?aaao (?IOeAe) ca eeaneo?eaoe??th aaciina?aaeiuei ia
iaeaaeeoue aei NNC, iaeiae a?i nooo?ai aieeaa? ia aeieeiaiiy
aoa?ineea?ico, ?icaeoie ?ON oa nei?i/o? o?eaae?noue aeeooy ethaeeie.
I?e/eiith nia?o? 70% oai?eo ia ?IOeAe ? ?ON (I.Ae. O?iiueei oa ?i.,
1996; A.N. ?o?iia, 1996; P.H. Bennet, 1990). Ui noino?oueny ?aaeueieo
?aca?a?a i?iaeiaaeaiiy na?aaeiuei? o?eaaeino? aeeooy ethaeeie, oi aiie o
cia/i?e i??? caeaaeaoue a?ae iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiaaiaco NNC,
i?io?eaeoeee aoa?ineea?ico oa canoinoaaiiy no/anieo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy
oai?eo ia ?ON, AO oa ?IOeAe.

Aaaaoi ieoaiue iaoiaaiaco oa ii?oiaaiaco NNC ? iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aieie ?
aeeneon?eieie. Cia/ii? oaaae, c iiceoe?? ooiaeaiaioaeueieo iaoe oa
aioo??oi?o caoai?thaaiue, caneoaiaothoue ieoaiiy ?aiiaeaethaaiiy na?oey
i?e ?ON, AO oa ?IOeAe, iaoiaaiaco aoa?ineea?ico, a oaeiae
iaoio?c?ieia?/i? iaoai?cie aeieeiaiiy noaiiea?ae?? (NO) oa ?ioa?eoo
i?iea?aea (?I). A?aoiaoth/e oa, ui eiaeia oai?iaa ii/eia?oueny ia
noaee?oeiiiio ? ee?oeiiiio ??aiyo, aea/aiiy oeueo?ano?oeoo?ieo iniia
iaoi — ? ii?oiaaiaco NNC oa OeAe ia ee?i?/iiio iaoa??ae? iaaoaa?
iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy (E.O.Iaeay, A.?.Eaaeiee, 1996).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a i?iea?ae? i?e
caoai?thaaiiyo i?aai?a e?iaiia?ao, ia ee?oeiiiio ??ai? ? neeaaeiith
i?iaeaiith. O?aaeeoe?eia iaoieiai-aiaoii?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia ?ice?eaa?
a aeinoaoi?e i??? iaoi- ? ii?oiaaiac NNC. Ni?iae i?aai?coaaoe a?eaaaee
iaoieiaiaiaoii?a aeey aeni?an-?icoei?a iiia?eeo c iaoith
oeueo?ano?oeoo?iiai aeine?aeaeaiiyie i?iea?aea (A.I.A?oa?o oa ?i., 1980)
iioe?aiiy ia iaaoee. Oa?i?i, yeee ieiaa a?ae iiiaioo nia?o? aei
iaea?aeaiiy iae?iioao?a i?iea?aea aeey oeueo?ano?oeoo?iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia?aaaaeii ia?aaeuoaaa aea? aiaeeie. Ca oeae /an aaea
aeieeaee aaoie?oe/i? ci?ie a i?iea?ae?, ye? ?iaeee iaoa??ae iaei
i?eaeaoiei aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy.

?aaeueiei oeyoii iaea?aeaoe i?iea?ae aeey oeueo?ano?oeoo?iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy (aac iinia?oieo ci?i) ? ioieoe?eia o?ainoi?aeaeueia
aeni?an-iae?iin?y na?oey a oiiaao ee?i?ee a?ae?aco i?ney eiinoaoaoe??
a?ieia?/ii? nia?o? oai?eo. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iinia?oi? ci?ie a i?iea?ae? a
ia?o? 30 oa. i?ney nia?o? oai?eo nooo?ai ia aieeaathoue ia
oeueo?ano?oeoo?o na?oey. Aeni?an-iae?iioaoe, iaea?aeai? i?ioyaii oeueiai
/ano, aeathoue iiaeeea?noue aeine?aeeoe ?aiiaeaethaaiiy i?iea?aea i?e
NNC oa ?IOeAe.

Ia aeaiee /an ?niothoue /enaeuei? ioae?eaoe?? i?i ee?oeii? iniiae
iaoiaaiaco ? ii?oiaaiaco aoa?ineea?ico, ?I, AO oa OeAe, aea aiie
ia?aaaaeii io?eiai? a aenia?eiaio? ia oaa?eiao (A.A.Iaai?i?a oa ?i.,
1997, A.Oaoo, 1975, P. Anversa oa ?i., 1986). Oe? ?acoeueoaoe
aeno?aiieththoueny ia ethaeeio, oi/a a?aeiii, ui ciiaeaeueiaai? oai?iae
ia oaa?eiao ia a?aeiia?aeathoue iniaeeainoyi oeeo caoai?thaaiue o
ethaeeie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iea?aea ethaeeie i?e ?ON ia oeueo?ano?oeoo?iiio ??ai? ?
iiiaeeiieeie (S. Arbustini oa ?i., 1991; K. Kawamura oa ?i., 1978; J.
Schaper, 1986). Aiie noinothoueny ia?aaaaeii aea/aiiy a?iin?e i?iea?aea,
io?eiaieo i?ae /an iia?aoe?? ai?oi — ei?iia?iiai ooiooaaiiy,
aiaeiaoa?ieoii?e o oai?eo ia ?ON, a oaeiae a?iin?e o?ainieaioiaaiiai
na?oey.

A?aoiaoth/e iaiao?aei?noue aeiiiaiaiiy aeaieo aenia?eiaioaeueii?
ee?oeiii? ea?ae?ieia?? ?acoeueoaoaie ee?i?ei — oeueo?ano?oeoo?ieo
niinoa?aaeaiue, ie i?iaaee aeaoaeueia aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy an?o eiiiiiaio?a i?iea?aea ethaeeie (i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?ia
?onei, ?ioa?noeoe?e, ea?ae?ii?ioeeoe) a ??cieo ciiao na?oey (?ioaeoieo,
eiei?ioa?eoieo, a cii? iae?ico oa ?oaoethaaiiy) i?e ia?aeiiiio ?
iiaoi?iiio ?I. A aeine?aeaeoaaieo iaie aeiaaeeao ?I /anoi aeieeaa o
oai?eo ia AO oa OeAe. Oea aeaei iai iiaeeea?noue aeine?aeeoe
?aiiaeaethaaiiy i?iea?aea, iaoi- ? ii?oiaaiac oeeo caoai?thaaiue, a
oaeiae ?o aca?iica’ycie ?c ?ON. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe, ia iao iiaeyae,
aeathoue iiaeeea?noue iae?aneeoe iia? i?aeoiaee aei ei?aeoe??
no?oeoo?ieo oa iaoaaie?/ieo o?aaeaiue i?iea?aea i?e noaiiea?ae??, ?I, AO
oa ?IOeAe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
aeena?oaoe?? caoaa?aeaeaia ia a/ai?e ?aae? Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Ae.Aaeeoeueeiai 28 a?oaeiy 1988 ?.
Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ? /anoeiith ieaiiaeo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueeeo
?ia?o eaoaae?e n?iaeii? iaaeeoeeie Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Ae.Aaeeoeueeiai «Aea/eoe aieea ?ioiiei?aaoth/eo cania?a
ia ?ioiio nenoaio, cn?aeaiiy e?ia? ? o?a?eiie?c o oai?eo ia ?ON» (?
aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0194O008100), a oaeiae eaoaae?e iaoaiaoii?? «Ci?ie
iae?i – oa i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea i?e ?ON, ceiye?nieo iooeeiao,
caoai?thaaiiyo eaaaiue oa ae?? enaiia?ioee?a» (? aea?ae?a?no?aoe??
0194E008103).

Iaoa ?iaioe — ?ice?eoe oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? caeiiii??iino? ?aiiaeaethaaiiy
i?iea?aea i?e ?ON, a?ia?oii?/i?e oai?ia? oa ?inoe?iiiacaeaaeiiio
oeoe?iaiio ae?aaao? c iiceoe?? ee?oeiii? ii?oieia?? o ni?anoaaeaii? c
iniaeeainoyie ee?i?/iiai ia?aa?ao oeeo caoai?thaaiue; cai?iiiioaaoe
iaoiaaiaoe/ii iaa?oioiaai? i?aeoiaee aei e?eoaaiiy oeeo caoai?thaaiue.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. C’ynoaaoe ee?oeii? iaoai?cie iaoiaaiaco aoa?ineea?ico;

2. Anoaiiaeoe caeiiii??iino? ?aiiaeaethaaiiy aaiii?e?ioee?-eoeyoi?iiai
?onea i?iea?aea i?e ?ioa?eo? oa aa??aioi?e noaiiea?ae??;

3. C’ynoaaoe ?ieue e?ioaoe/ieo eai?ey??a a ?aiiaeaethaaii? na?oey i?e
?ioa?eo? i?iea?aea, a?ia?oii?/i?e oai?ia? oa ?inoe?iiiacaeaaeiiio
oeoe?iaiio ae?aaao?;

4. Anoaiiaeoe ?ieue o?iiaioeeo?a a iaoiaaiac? aa??aioii? noaiiea?ae?? oa
?ioa?eoo i?iea?aea;

5. C’ynoaaoe ?ieue ?ioiii? nenoaie a o?aaeaiiyo i?iea?aea i?e ?ioa?eo?
oa a?ia?oii?/i?e oai?ia?;

6. ?ice?eoe iaoai?cie iae?ico ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a i?e ?ioa?eo? oa i?ioeane
?oaoethaaiiy i?iea?aea;

7. C’ynoaaoe iniaeeaino? ?aiiaeaethaaiiy i?iea?aea i?e a?ia?oii?/i?e
oai?ia? oa ?inoe?iiiacaeaaeiiio oeoe?iaiio ae?aaao?;

8. Cai?iiiioaaoe iaoiaaiaoe/ii iaa?oioiaai? i?aeoiaee aei e?eoaaiiy
noaiiea?ae??, ?ioa?eoo i?iea?aea, a?ia?oii?/ii? oai?iae oa
?inoe?iiiacaeaaeiiai oeoe?iaiai ae?aaaoo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Ae??oaia i?iaeaia ee?oeiiiai
?aiiaeaethaaiiy i?iea?aea i?e ?ON, a?ia?oii?/i?e oai?ia? oa oeoe?iaiio
ae?aaao? c iaoith aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiae?a iaoiaaiaoe/iiai e?eoaaiiy
oai?eo.

Ia iniia? oeueo?ano?oeoo?iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeni?an — iae?iioao?a
i?iea?aea ethaeeie ?ice?eoi ?yae iiaeo aeaieo i?i iaoiaaiac
aoa?ineea?ico, noaiiea?ae??, ?ioa?eoo, a?ia?oii?/ii? oai?iae oa
?inoe?iiiacaeaaeiiai oeoe?iaiai ae?aaaoo.

· Anoaiiaeaii, ui aoa?ineea?ic o?aaea? ia o?eueee ai?oo oa a?oa???
i’yciai — aeanoe/iiai oeio, aea e noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ci?iaie a
ia?ea?oa??iey?iiio ?ioa?noeoe?? i?iea?aea.

· Aeyaeaii, ui e?enoaee oieanoa?eio iathoue aioo??oiueiee?oeiia, a ia
iicaee?oeiia iioiaeaeaiiy, ye aaaaeaeiny ?ai?oa.

· Cai?iiiiiaaii «iae?ioaaaeueio» a?iioaco iaoiaaiaco aoa?ineea?ico, ca
yeith iae?ioaae iiaeeiathoue ee?oeiiee aeao?eo c ?ioa?noeoe?th ? e?i?aee
?c ieacie e?ia? oa ooai?ththoue e?enoaee oieanoa?eio ana?aaeei?
aoi?eiieo e?cinii.

· Cai?iiiiiaaii o?iiaiaaiio eiioeaioe?th iaoiaaiaco aa??aioii?
noaiiea?ae??, ca?aeii c yeith a iaoiaaiac? caoai?thaaiiy ae??oaeueia
cia/aiiy ia? o?iiaic, a ia niaci a?ioeaaeo a?oa??e.

· A i?iea?ae? ethaeeie i?ae e?ioaoe/ieie eai?ey?aie oa i?iea?ae?aeueieie
ee?oeiaie aeyaeaii ?nioaaiiy o?a?iaeanoe/ieo ca’ycie, ye? ia?aaeathoue
nei?i/aiiy ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a ia no?iee e?ioaoe/ieo eai?ey??a,
caaacia/oth/e ?o ioeuenaoe?th oa a?aeo?e e?ioe.

· Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e ?ioa?eo? i?iea?aea e?ioaoe/i? eai?ey?e
ae?i?iothoue ?c ciie iae?ico e?aie? aee?o oa ee?oeiiee aeao?eo,
ni?eyth/e ciaioaiith ieiu? ?ioa?eoo oa iaiaaeaiith ?oaoey.

· Aeyaeaii, ui iaei??th ?c i?e/ei caoaeaiiy oa iae?oa?aoe?? i?ina?oo
a?oa??ie i?iea?aea i?e ?ON ? i?ie?oa?aoe?y niieo/ii? oeaieie iaaeiei
o?iiaioeeoa?ieo aa?aaao?a, ye? i?eeeiathoue aei ?o o?aaeaieo no?iie.

· ?ice?eoi iniaeeaino? o?aaeaiiy na?oey i?e ?inoe?iiiacaeaaeiiio
oeoe?iaiio ae?aaao?, ye? iieyaathoue o aeieeiaii? a i?iea?ae?
ae?aaaoe/ieo i?e?iaia?iiao?e oa e?ioaia?iiao?e, i?ia?anoth/iio
?oeioaaii? i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea oa ?oai?? ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a.

· Aeyaeaii aaoi?ioii? ci?ie a a?ia?oaiceaiiio na?oe?, ye? ni?eythoue
?aiiaeaethaaiith i?iea?aea oa o?aaeaiith ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a.

· Aeyaeaii iaeei ?c iaoai?ci?a nia?o? ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a — «i?ieain
yae?a», yeee oa?aeoa?iee aeey aeiiae?ioe/ii? oace ?ioa?eoo i?iea?aea ?
caii/aoeiao? eiaaoeyoe?eiee iae?ic ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aecia/aii e?eoa???
oeueo?ano?oeoo?ii? ae?aaiinoeee ii/aoeiaeo noaae?e aoa?ineea?ico, yeeie
? iayai?noue e?enoae?a oieanoa?eio a iae?ioaaao. Io?eiaii iaoaio Oe?a?ie
ia niin?a ii?oieia?/ii? ae?aaiinoeee aoa?ineea?ico i?iea?aea [16]. A?i
ai?iaaaeaeaiee a i?aeoeeo ?inoeoooo ee?i?/ii? iaoieia?? Euea?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Ae.Aaeeoeueeiai.

Aecia/aii e?eoa??? oeueo?ano?oeoo?ii? ae?aaiinoeee ?ioa?eoo i?iea?aea a
aeiiae?ioe/i?e oac? – aeo?ae yaea? ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a oa i?oioiiae??e a
?ioa?noeoe?e a cii? ?ioa?eoo a ia?o? aiaeeie caoai?thaaiiy. Aiie
iiaeooue aooe canoiniaai? a eaai?aoi??yo noaeiai-iaaee/ii? aenia?oece
aeey ae?aaiinoeee ?ioa?eoo a aeiiae?ioe/i?e eiai oac?.

?ic?iaeaii iaoiae e?eoaaiiy ?ioa?eoo i?iea?aea ?c canoinoaaiiyi
ianoa?i?aeieo i?ioecaiaeueieo i?aia?ao?a. Aeaeaii ?ioi?iaoe?eiee eeno
«Ianoa?i?aei? i?ioecaiaeuei? i?aia?aoe a e?eoaaii? aino?iai ?ioa?eoo
i?iea?aea» (Ee?a, IIC Oe?a?ie, ?93, 1993). Iaoiae ai?iaaaeaeaiee a
e?eoaaeueio ?iaioo: Euea?anueeiai oa Aieeinueeiai iaeanieo
ea?ae?ieia?/ieo aeeniaina??a, ?aaiaoieia?/iiai a?aeae?eo Aieeinueei?
iaeanii? e?ea?i?, ea?ae?ieia?/iiai a?aeae?eo Euea?anueei? oeaio?aeueii?
o?ainii?oii? ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i?, oa?aiaaoe/ieo a?aeae?e?a 4 oa 5
ee?i?/ieo e?ea?aiue i. Eueaiaa, oa?aiaaoe/ieo a?aeae?e?a oeaio?aeueieo
?aeiiieo e?ea?aiue i. Ai?iaeaiea ?aaii-O?aie?anueei? iae., oa i.
Aieiaaoeue Caea?iaonueei? iae., oa?aiaaoe/iiai a?aeae?eo 2 e?ea?i? i.
Oa?iiiiey.

Iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue canoinoaaiiy i?e aa??aioi?e noaiiea?ae??
aioeo?iiaioe/ii? oa?ai??.

Iaa?oioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy i?e e?eoaaii? oai?eo ia ?ON,
a?ia?oii?/io oai?iao oa ?inoe?iiiacaeaaeiee oeoe?iaee ae?aaao
oeeoii?ioaeoi??a, aia?ii?ioaeoi??a, ?AIO oa aioeo?iiaioeeoa?ieo cania?a.

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? ai?iaaaeaeai? a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean ?yaeo eaoaae?
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Ae.Aaeeoeueeiai,
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I.Aiaiiieueoey, Ee?anueei?
iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E.Ooieea,
?aaii-O?aie?anueei? oa Aoeiaeinueei? aea?aeaaieo iaaee/ieo aeaaeai?e.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii aecia/ai? iniiai? iai?yiee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoo oa caaaeaiiy ?iaioe. Aanue iaoa??ae, i?aaenoaaeaiee
a ?iaio? (i?iaaaeaiiy aeni?an-iae?iin?e i?iea?aea, i?eaiooaaiiy
iaoa??aeo aeey oeueo?ano?oeoo?iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeine?aeaeaiiy c??c?a
i?iea?aea i?ae aeaeo?iiieie i?e?ineiiaie oa ?o oioia?aooaaiiy,
?ioa?i?aoaoe?y aeyaeaieo ci?i a i?iea?ae? oa i?iaaaeaiiy
ee?i?ei-oeueo?ano?oeoo?ieo ni?anoaaeaiue, oiui), i?iaaaeaiee aaoi?ii
naiino?eii. Aeaa i?ae?icae?ee aeena?oaoe??: «?ieue aaoi?ioiieo ?iceaae?a
o iaoiaaiac? ?ioa?eoo i?iea?aea» oa «Ci?ie a ?ioii?e nenoai? ? nenoai?
cn?aeaiiy e?ia? i?e ?ioa?eo? i?iea?aea oa ?o iaaeeeaiaioicia ei?aeoe?y»
? /anoeiaie ieaiiai? IAe? eaoaae?e n?iaeii? iaaeeoeeie Euea?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Ae.Aaeeoeueeiai «Aea/eoe aieea
?ioiiei?aaoth/eo cania?a ia ?ioiio nenoaio, cn?aeaiiy e?ia? ? o?a?eiie?c
o oai?eo ia ?ON» (? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0194O008100).

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie, aeeeaaeaieie a
aeena?oaoe??, c?iaeaii iiiaae 30 aeiiia?aeae ia eiia?anao, c’?caeao oa
eiioa?aioe?yo:

? Oe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?e?ioee?eoeyoe?y oa ?? a?eia? ci?ie»
(Ee?a, 1999); ? oa ?? I?aeia?iaeiiio eiia?anao c ei?iia?ii? oai?iae
na?oey (I?aaa, 1997, Oei?aioe?y, 1998); O?? C’?cae? oa?aiaao?a Oe?a?ie
(Ee?a, 1998); V oa V? Eiia?anao iaoieia?a Oe?a?ie (*a?i?a?a, 1993;
A?iieoey, 1998); ? Iieuenueei – Oe?a?inueeiio eiia?an? iaoieia?a (?yo?a,
1997); ?? Oe?a?inueei – Iieuenueeiio eiia?an? iaoieia?a (Euea?a, 1998);
V Aae??aoe/ii – Aeuei?enuee?e ea?ae?ieia?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? (A?aoe,
Aano??y, 1997); OV oa OV? Aano??enueeiio eiia?anao c aa?iioieia?? (Aaae
Aioaaooaei, Aano??y, 1996, 1997); Aano??enueeiio c’?cae? e?ea??a ?c
aioo??oiuei? iaaeeoeeie (?ina?oe, Aano??y, 1997); V Eiia?an?
ea?ae?ieia?a Oe?a?ie (Ee?a, 1997); XXIII oa XXVII C’?caeao
Aano??enueeiai oiaa?enoaa e?ea??a ?c aioo??oiuei? iaaeeoeeie (A?aeaiue,
Aano??y, 1992; E?ioe, Aano??y, 1996); III, IV oa V? Eiia?anao na?oiai?
oaaea?aoe?? oe?a?inueeeo e?ea?nueeeo oiaa?enoa (Ee?a-Euea?a, 1990;
Oa?e?a, 1992; Iaeana, 1996); XIV oa XV ?a?iiaenueeeo eiia?anao iaoieia?a
(?ina?oe, Aano??y, 1993; Eiiaiaaaai, Aeai?y, 1995); ? ?a?iiaenueeiio
eiia?an? o?c?ieia?a (Iaano??oo, I?aea?eaiaee, 1995); IV oa V C’?caeao
aiaeie?eiieia?a Oe?a?ie (Euea?a, 1987; ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1994);
I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? «No/ania neooaoe?y a o?iiaie?cen?» (A?aeaiue,
Aano??y, 1994); IV C’?cae? ea?ae?ieia?a Oe?a?ie (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
1993); XIX I?aeia?iaeiiio eiia?an? I?aeia?iaeii? aeaaeai?? iaoieia??
(Iaae??ae, ?niai?y, 1992); I?aeia?iaeiiio c’?cae? «A?aeainueea
?ioaineaia oa?ai?y» (A?aeaiue, Aano??y, 1992); O??? C’?cae? oa?aiaao?a
Oe?a?ie (Oa?iii?eue, 1992); Ieaioi? i?aae?iiy Oe?a?inueeiai
?anioae?eainueeiai oiaa?enoaa iaoieiaiaiaoii?a (Caii??aeaey, 1991); I
C’?cae? ea?ae?ieia?a Eacaonoaio (Aeia-Aoa, 1991); Eiioa?aioe??
a?aeae?eaiiy na?oeaai-noaeeiii? iaoieia?? ethaeeie ?inoeoooo ee?i?/ii?
ea?ae?ieia?? ?i. A.E.Iyni?eiaa AEIOe AII N?N? (Iineaa, 1991), a oaeiae
ia can?aeaiiyo Euea?anueeiai iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa ea?ae?ieia?a
(1991-1998), can?aeaiiyo Euea?anueeiai iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa
iaoieiaiaiaoii?a (1991 — 1995), can?aeaii? a?io?i?/ii? naeoe?? IOO ?i.
O.Oaa/aiea (Euea?a,1993) oa ?ioeo eiioa?aioe?yo.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 50 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o:

3/4 15 ioae?eaoe?e – a ia??iaee/ieo oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao oa
ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, ?aeiiaiaeiaaieo AAE Oe?a?ie (3 ?c ieo –ca
ei?aeiiii, 10 – aac ni?aaaoi??a);

3/4 29 ?ia?o – o iaoa??aeao oa oacao eiia?an?a, c’?cae?a ? eiioa?aioe?e
(14 ?c ieo –ca ei?aeiiii, 16 — aac ni?aaaoi??a);

3/4 5 ?ia?o – o iaoeiaeo ca??ieeao (3 ?c ieo — aac ni?aaaoi??a);

3/4 iaea?aeaii iaeia na?aeioeoai ia iaoaio Oe?a?ie (aac ni?aaaoi??a).

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a a iniiaieo ni?eueieo ioae?eaoe?yo: [1, 2] –
aeine?aeaeaiiy iieaciee?a ee?oeiiiai ? aoii?aeueiiai ?ioi?oaoo, aea/aiiy
aieeao ianoa?i?aeieo i?ioecaiaeueieo i?aia?ao?a oa ?ioiiiiaeoeyoi??a ia
ee?i?/iee ia?aa?a oa iieacieee ?ioiii? nenoaie oai?eo ia ?I; [3] –
aiae?c i?e/ei oa ee?oeiieo iaoai?ci?a aeeoo?ai-iaaacia/ieo a?eoi?e ?
anenoie?? o oai?eo ia ?I; [5] – iaea?aeaiiy iae?iin?eiiai iaoa??aeo,
aeine?aeaeaiiy oeueo?ano?oeoo?e i?iea?aea oa aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a; [14] –
aeine?aeaeaiiy ee?oeiiiai ? aoii?aeueiiai ?ioi?oaoo oa oeueo?ano?oeoo?e
e?ioioeeo?a o oai?eo ia ?I.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, i’yoe ?icae?e?a aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue, caeeth/aiiy,
caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, nieneo aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 258 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai
oaenoo, ?ethno?iaaia 139 aeaeo?iiieie i?e?ioioia?ao?yie, i?noeoue 14
oaaeeoeue, 6 noai, 2 ae?aa?aie oa 2 AEA. I?eaaaeaii 463 e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?aea: 91 a?o/eciyieo oa ?in?enueeeo, 372 – iioae?eiaaieo ca
ei?aeiiii.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaoa??ae ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Caaaeueia e?euee?noue ee?i?/ieo
niinoa?aaeaiue noaiiaeoue 326 in?a (256 /ieia?e?a oa 70 ae?iie o a?oe?
a?ae 18 aei 85 ?ie?a). Oa?aeoa?enoeea ee?i?/ieo a?oi ca a?eii oa
iaoiaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy i?eaaaeaia a oaae.1.

Aeey ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue i?iaiaeeee aea/aiiy /ioe?ueio a?oi
oai?eo, a eiaei?e ?c yeeo canoiniaoaaee iaeei ?c iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiue:

? oeueo?ano?oeoo?ia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeni?an-iae?iioao?a i?iea?aea (o
ii??aiyii? ?c aeaieie i?eaeeoo?aiai ee?i?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy) – 80
niinoa?aaeaiue (?c ieo 12 aeiaaee?a neoaeeee eiio?ieai);

? oeueo?ano?oeoo?ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ee?oei aaiicii? e?ia? (o?iiaioeeo?a,
eaeeioeeo?a, e?ioioeeo?a, iiiioeeo?a) oa ?ioiieo eiiieaen?a o oai?eo ia
?ON – 19 oai?eo (?I – 14 oai?eo, noaiiea?ae?y – 5 in?a);

? ee?i?ei-AEA aeine?aeaeaiiy 26 oai?eo ia aa??aioio noaiiea?ae?th o
ni?anoaaeaii? ?c aeaieie iinia?oieo oeueo?ano?oeoo?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
i?iea?aea 8 oai?eo, ye? iiia?ee o ia?o? aiaeeie ?I;

? eaai?aoi?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ioiii? nenoaie ? nenoaie cn?aeaiiy e?ia? o
oai?eo ia ?I oa ei?aaoth/ee aieea ia ieo ?ioiiiiaeoeyoi??a
(ianoa?i?aeieo i?ioecaiaeueieo i?aia?ao?a oa ?ioiinoeioeyoi??a) – 201
oai?ee.

Oaaeeoey 1

?iciiae?e oai?eo ca a?eii oa iaoiaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy

A?eia? a?oie (?iee)Oeueo?ano?oeoo?a i?iea?aea

(iiia?e? ia ?I)Oeueo?ano?oeoo?a ee?oei aaiicii? e?ia? oa Oe?E

(oai?? ia ?ON)Ee?i?ei-oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? ni?anoaaeaiiy

(oai?? ia aa??aioio noaiiea?ae?th)Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ioiii? nenoaie oa
nenoaie cn?aeaiiy e?ia?

(oai?? ia ?I)iniiaia a?oiaeiio?ieueiniiaia a?oiaeiio?ieueiniiaia
a?oiaeiio?ieue10 — 19—1———-20 — 29—-1———30 –
391111—121040 — 4912322392050 – 59272521261—60 – 692747—857—70 –
79923432—80 — 893————Caaaeueia
e?euee?noue68121952620130Na?aaei?e a?e62545752565635

Ia?oa a?oia niinoa?aaeaiue iae?/oaaea 68 iaoe??io?a (46 /ieia?e?a ? 22
ae?iee, na?aaei?e a?e 62 ?iee), ye? iiia?ee a aino?iio ia??iae?
aaeeeiaiaieuaaiai ?I. I?eaeeoo?aa ianoaaeaiiy iaoe??io?a aeeth/aei
ee?i?/ia, AEA ? eaai?aoi?ia ianoaaeaiiy. Aaciina?aaeiueith i?e/eiith
nia?o? oai?eo ia ?I aoee ianooii? oneeaaeiaiiy: iaa?ye eaaaiue (37
in?a), ?ic?ea i?iea?aea (11 in?a), ea?ae?iaaiiee oie (13 in?a) oa
o?a?eeyoe?y oeoii/e?a (7 in?a). A aeine?aeaeoaai?e a?oi? iiia?eeo ia ?I
aoee ianooii? oiiia? (noiooi?) caoai?thaaiiy: AO (20 in?a), ?IOeAe (22
iniae), iino?ioa?eoiee ea?ae?ineea?ic (27 in?a) oa ?o ??ciiiai?oi?
ii?aeiaiiy (18 in?a). A eiaeiiio ?c i?eaaaeaieo niinoa?aaeaiue e?aee
oeoii/ie na?oey aoa ioieoiaaiee a 2-3 i?noeyo. Oaeei /eiii, a noi?
io?eiaee 196 iae?iioao?a ?c ??cieo cii na?oey: ?ioaeoieo, eiei?ioa?eoieo
oa iae?ioe/ii ci?iaieo ae?eyiie. Anueiai ia oeueo?ano?oeoo?iiio ??ai?
aeine?aeaeaii: 88 iae?iioao?a ?c 39 ?ioaeoieo cii ia?aaeiuei? no?iee
e?aiai oeoii/ea, 52 iae?iioaoe ?c 26 eiei?ioa?eoieo cii ? 56 iae?iioao?a
?c 28 cii iae?ico. E??i oeueiai, aeine?aeaeaii 32 iae?iioaoe na?oey,
io?eiai? a 12 in?a eiio?ieueii? a?oie iiia?eeo. ?acoeueoaoe
oeueo?ano?oeoo?iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy na?oey ?ao?iniaeoeaii ii??aithaaeenue
c ee?i?/ieie aeaieie oa ci?iaie ia AEA, io?eiaieie i?e aeeoo?
iaoe??io?a. Eiio?ieai neoaeea i?iea?ae 12 in?a (6 /ieia?e?a oa 6 ae?iie,
na?aaei?e a?e 54 ?iee), ye? ia oai??ee ia ?I, a iiia?ee c i?eaiaeo ?ioeo
caoai?thaaiue, a oaeiae aaoio?aai (2 iniae), o a?oe? 18-75 ?ie?a.

Ae?oaa a?oia oai?eo iae?/oaaea 19 in?a (13 /ieia?e?a oa 6 ae?iie,
na?aaei?e a?e – 57 ?ie?a), ye? ia?aaoaaee ia e?eoaaii? c i?eaiaeo
aino?iai ?I (14 oa.) oa ianoaa?eueii? noaiiea?ae?? (5 oa.). Eiio?ieai
aeey oe??? a?oie oai?eo aoea e?ia 5 in?a c iae?ioee?eoeyoi?iith
aeenoii??th oa ea?ae?aea??th aa?oaa?iaaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy.

O?aoy a?oia niinoa?aaeaiue neeaaeaeany ?c 26 oai?eo ia aa??aioio
noaiiea?ae?th (22 /ieia?ee ? 4 ae?iee, a?eii 46 — 70 ?ie?a). ?acoeueoaoe
ee?i?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ca ieie oa ca AEA — ci?iaie aoee ni?anoaaeai?
?c aeaieie oeueo?ano?oeoo?iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iea?aea 8 oai?eo ia ?I,
ye? iiia?ee a ia?oo aeiao caoai?thaaiiy. sse o oai?eo ia aa??aioio
noaiiea?ae?th, oae ? o iiia?eeo ia ?I aoee ?aoeei?iei? ci?ie naaiaioo ST
ia AEA. Oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? ci?ie a i?iea?ae? a cii? ci?i naaiaioo SO o
oai?eo ia ?I aoee i?aenoaaith aeey ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ci?i a i?iea?ae? o
oai?eo ia aa??aioio noaiiea?ae?th.

*aoaa?oa a?oia niinoa?aaeaiue neeaaeaeany ?c 201 oai?iai (169 /ieia?e?a
? 32 ae?iie, na?aaei?e a?e 56 ?ie?a) ia aino?ee aaeeeiaiaieuaaee ?I.
Ae?aaiice aoee iinoaaeai? ia iniia? noeoiiino? ee?i?/ieo oa
aiaiianoe/ieo aeaieo, ?acoeueoao?a AEA ? eaai?aoi?ieo iieaciee?a e?ia?.
O 105 oai?eo aea/aee aieea ianoa?i?aeieo i?ioecaiaeueieo i?aia?ao?a ia
ia?aa?a ?I, a o 16 – aieea aieueoa?aio oa oeiae?io ia iieacieee e?ia? in
vitro. ?aooa 80 in?a ia?aaoaaee ia aioeaia?iaeuei?e oa?ai?? aac
?ioiiiiaeoeyoi??a. Eiio?ieai aeey oe??? a?oie oai?eo aoea e?ia 30
aeiii??a, a?e yeeo noaiiaea 28-40 ?ie?a.

Aeey io?eiaiiy i?iea?aea, i?eaeaoiiai aeey aeaeo?iiiiai-i?e?ineii?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoa canoiniaaiee iaoiae ioie?eii? o?ainoi?aeaeueii?
aeni?an-iae?iin?? na?oey. ?? aeeiioaaee aaciina?aaeiuei i?ney
eiinoaoaoe?? a?ieia?/ii? nia?o? oai?eo a noaoe?iia??. I?aaiaith
i?aenoaaith aeey iae?iin?? na?oey aoa iaeac IIC N?N? N 667 a?ae 15
aeiaoiy 1976 ?. Ca?aeii ?c iei, aaoiin?y (iae?iin?y) aeicaiey?oueny a
aeia?euei? oa?i?ie i?ney eiinoaoaoe?? a?ieia?/ii? nia?o? oai?eo a
noaoe?iia??.

Aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy iae?iioao?a i?iea?aea i?iaiaeeee
ca caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie iaoiaeeeaie. Oeaieio o?enoaaee 1% ?ic/eiii IsO4
ia 0,1 I eaeiaeeeaoiiio aooa?? (?I 7,3) ca iaoiaeii I. Ea?iianueeiai
(1971). I?ao?enaoe?th cae?enithaaee 2.5% ?ic/eiii aethoa?aeueaeaa?aeo.
*an o?enaoe?? a ?ic/ei? ini?th noaiiaea 2 aiaeeie. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeae?aee o? /anoeiee, ye? a?aeiia?aeaee na?aaeiueiio oa?o i?iea?aea.
I?ney o?enaoe?? eoni/ee oeaieie caio?thaaee a eaeiaeeeaoiee aooa?, a
caoei ciaaiaeithaaee a ?ic/eiao aoeeiaiai nie?oo c?inoath/i?
eiioeaio?aoe?? ca iaoiaeii B.Weakley (1972). Ia aoai? ciaaiaeiaiiy a 70%
nie?o?, c?acee i?iea?aea aeieiio?anoiaoaaee 30 oa. a 2% ?ic/ei?
o?ai?e-aoeaoaoo ia 70% nie?o?. Caoei ?o ciaaiaeithaaee a 100% aoeaoii?
i?ioyaii 10 oa. Cao?eniaai? ? ciaaiaeiai? c?acee i?iea?aeo
iie?ia?ecoaaee a noi?o? aiiio c a?aeaeeoii («Merk», I?ia//eia) a
i?iii?oe??, ?ic?iaeai?e a eaai?aoi??? aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii?? IAe?
ii?oieia?? ethaeeie AII N?N? (1973). Ia oeueo?aoii? ia?ee LKB — III
(Oaaoe?y) io?eioaaee c??ce i?iea?aea oiaueiith 200-400 wmetafile8?
??????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? `A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyy????? ???&? ?MathType??
????u`y??????Iaoiaeeea iaea?aeaiiy oa i?aeaioiaee ee?oei aaiicii?
e?ia? aeey oeueo?ano?oeoo?iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy: aeey aeae?eaiiy
o?iiaioeeo?a, eaeeioeeo?a, e?ioioeeo?a oa iiiioeeo?a o oai?eo a?aee
iaoua 10 ie e?ia? ?c e?eoueiai? aaie nee?eiaaiiaaiei oi?eoeii. E?ia
ci?ooaaee o neeyi?e nee?eiaaiiaai?e i?ia??oe? c 2% ?ic/eiii oeeo?aoo
iao??th o ni?aa?aeiioaii? 9:1. Oeeo?aoio e?ia oeaio?eooaoaaee i?e 150 G
i?ioyaii 10 oa. aei ooai?aiiy inaaeo a?eo?ioeeo?a. Iaaeinaaeiao /anoeio
e?ia? ia?aiineee o ae?oao i?ia??eo. Caoei ?? oeaio?eooaoaaee ua 10 oa.
i?e 200 G. Io?eiaiee oaeei oeyoii inaae ee?oei e?ia? i?iieaaee 0.1 I
oinoaoiei aooa?ii (ph = 7.4) o?e ?ace. Inaae ia?aiineee nii/aoeo o 2.5%
?ic/ei aethoa?aeueaeaa?aeo ia 30 oa., a caoei, i?ney i?iieaaiiy,
o?enoaaee eiai iaeio aiaeeio a 1% ?ic/ei? ini??ai? eeneioe ia
eaeiaeeeaoiiio aooa??. Iiaeaeueoa i?aeaiooaaiiy ee?oei e?ia? aeey
oeueo?ano?oeoo?iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeiny aiaeia?/ii aei
iae?iioao?a i?iea?aea.

Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee ?ioiieia?/iiai noaoono oa nenoaie cn?aeaiiy e?ia?
oai?eo /aoaa?oi? a?oie niinoa?aaeaiue aeei?enoiaoaaee eiiieaen iaoiaeee
(oaae.2).

Oaaeeoey 2

Iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ioiieia?/iiai noaoono oa nenoaie cn?aeaiiy
e?ia?

?

i/iIacaa oanooIaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy1O-e?ioioeeoe?icaoeiooai?aiiy ca
Mendes, 19722A-e?ioioeeoe?icaoeiooai?aiiy ca Mendes,19723?ioii?
eiiieaeneCa E?aeoiiii, iiaeeo?eaoe?y Aioeiaie (1978)4?ioiiaeiaoe?ie
eeano AIaoiaeii ?ioiiaeeooc?? ca Iai/?i? (1965)5?ioiiaeiaoe?ie eeano
IIaoiaeii ?ioiiaeeooc?? ca Iai/?i? (1965)6?ioiiaeiaoe?ie eeano GIaoiaeii
?ioiiaeeooc?? ca Iai/?i? (1965)7Aooieiaaoeyoe?eiee oano AEOBerkard ?
ni?aaao.(1967)A-cn?aeath/a aeoeai?noue ia ae?oa?e oaeeei?
?ieoaaoe??Berkard ? ni?aaao.(1967)IA-iaeneiaeueia aiie?ooaea
cn?aeaiiyBerkard ? ni?aaao.(1967)O1 — /an aeinyaiaiiy 1/2 IABerkard ?
ni?aaao.(1967)O2 — /an aeinyaiaiiy IABerkard ? ni?aaao.(1967)O — /an
cieaeaiiy o?iiaiieanoei o?iia?iiai? aeoeaiino?Berkard ?
ni?aaao.(1967)8??O (?iaeaen ?iaeoeaaoe?? o?iiaiieanoeio oa
o?iia?io)Berkard ? ni?aaao.(1967)9I?ioai?i-noeueoaoieeLipinski
(1968)10O?a?eiiaai caaaeueieeRutberg (1960)11Aaoa-iaooieiaee oano
(o?a?eiiaai A)H.Cummine,R.Lyons(1968)12Aoaiieiaee oanoca Aiaeae A.N. oa
ni?aaao., iiaeeo. A.A. Ee/iaa (1975)13*an o?a?eiie?coKowalsky (1954)

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? aieeao aieueoa?aio oa oeiae?io ia ?ioiieiiiaoaioi?
ee?oeie e?ia? 16 oai?eo ia ?I aoee canoiniaai? in vitro ianooii?
?ioiieia?/i? iaoiaeeee: eiia?iiaaiiai (I. Iandes ? ni?aaao., 1973),
aeoeaiiai (R. Eaaman ? ni?aaao., 1976), oaio?e?icaeaaeiiai (S.
Limantibul ? ni?aaao., 1972), aaoieia?/ii caeaaeiiai (L. Iiaatta ?
ni?aaao., 1979) ?icaoeiooai?aiiy e?ioioeeo?a, a oaeiae aecia/aiiy
iieaciee?a INO-oanoo aeey iaeo?io?eueieo a?aioeioeeo?a (A. ?aak, 1968).
E??i oeueiai, aeine?aeaeoaaee oeueo?ano?oeoo?o Oe?E 12 oai?eo ia ?I.
Aeae?eai? Oe?E o?enoaaee a 1% ?ic/ei? OsO4 ia i?ioyc? 2-o aiaeei,
ciaaiaeithaaee o nie?oiaeo ?ic/eiao c?inoath/i? eiioeaio?aoe?? oa
aoeaoii?, iie?ia?ecoaaee o noi?o? aiiio c a?aeaeeoii. Iie?ia?eciaai?
c??ce oiaueiith 200-400 wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyy????? ???&? ?MathType??
????u`y??????

?ACOEUeOAOE AEANIEO AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Ee?oeii? iaoai?cie iaoiaaiaco aoa?ineea?ico. ?ieue iae?ioaa?a oa
aeaaeeeo i’yciaeo ee?oei a aoa?iaaiac?. A ia?ea?oa??iey?iiio i?inoi??
i?iea?aea in?a noa?oiai a?eo aeyaeaii aoa?iiaoici? aiaieua, oeaio?aeueia
/anoeia yeeo neeaaea?oueny ?c ee?oeiiiai aeao?eoo, ooai?aiiai
c?oeiiaaieie a?no?ioeeoaie, iae?ioaa?a, aeaaeeeo i’yciaeo ee?oei (AIE),
ye? i?a?oaaee ?c ia?ea?oa??iey?iiai i?inoi?o, e?enoae?a oieanoa?eio (EO)
oa iiaiooai?aii? niieo/ii? oeaieie. Iiaeeco oeeo aiaieu ciaoiaeyoueny
a?oa??iee oa e?iaiiini? eai?ey?e c iciaeaie noaco e?ia?, yeee
i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?a?aoe?? eaeeioeeo?a oa e?ioioeeo?a a ia?eaaneoey?iee
i?ino??. Neoi/aiiy iaeo?io?eueieo eaeeioeeo?a oa e?ioioeeo?a iaaeiei
aoa?iiaoicieo aiaieu ? iciaeith ?ioiii? ?aaeoe?? oa caiaeueieo ci?i. A
aoa?iiaoicieo aiaieuao aeyaeaii iae?ioaae, ye? oaaioeeoothoue caeeoee
c?oeiiaaieo iai?ioeeoa?ieo ee?oei. A oeeoiieaci? iae?ioaa?a aeieeathoue
aoi?eii? e?ciniie oa ioeueoeaaceeoey?i? o?eueoey. Ana?aaeei? aoi?eiieo
e?cinii c oaaioeeoiaaiiai iae?ioaaaie ee?oeiiiai aeao?eoo
ca?iaeaeothoueny EO, a ana?aaeei? ioeueoeaaceeoey?ieo o?eaoeue –
eaiaey?iee oieanoa?ei oa e?aie? e?i?ae?a. Iae?ioaae, e??i neioaco EO,
i?iaeoeothoue o?a?eey?iee eieaaai, ni?eyth/e ?icaeoeo niieo/ii? oeaieie.
EO, ye? ca?iaeaeothoueny ana?aaeei? aoi?eiieo e?cinii, nii/aoeo iathoue
aeaeyae iaeaiueeeo a?oni/e?a. Iinooiiai ?o ?ici??e ca?eueoothoueny, a
ia`?i oaaioeeoiaaiiai aeao?eoo ciaioo?oueny. I?e ?oeioaaii? iae?ioaa?a
EO iio?aieythoue a ?ioa?noeoe?e, caiiaiaiee ?aooeaie ee?oeiiiai aeao?eoo
oa iiaiooai?aii? niieo/ii? oeaieie. Oai aiie aa?aaothoue i?ae niaith,
ca?eueoothoueny ca ?ici??aie oa ooai?ththoue neoi/aiiy ?c 20-30
e?enoae?a. Aeey ?icaeoeo aoa?iiae?ioe/ieo aiaieu a ia?ea?oa??iey?iiio
i?inoi?? i?iea?aea iaiao?aei? ianooii? oiiae: ?iceaaee
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoe??, iayai?noue ee?oeiiiai aeao?eoo; ia?eoieaeueia
?ioiia oa caiaeueia ?aaeoe?y; i?ie?oa?aoe?y AIE iaaeiei a?oa??ie oa ?o
i?a?aoe?y a ciio o?aaeaiiy; iayai?noue oaiiao?aeoaio?a, ye? aecia/athoue
iai?yiie i?a?aoe?? AIE. Ca oeeo oiia aeieeathoue oieanoa?ei —
neioacoth/? iae?ioaae.

A cii? ?ioa?eoo, ia a?aei?io a?ae aoa?iiae?ioe/ieo aiaieu, iae?ioaae
i?noyoue e?iie?ciniie, eaiaey?i? oieanoa?eiia? no?oeoo?e oa e?aie?
e?i?ae?a. A?aenooi?noue EO a ae?eyioe? ?ioa?eoo iiynith?oueny oei, ui
iae?ioaae ia iiaeooue ?o neioacoaaoe o?eueee c oaaioeeoiaaiiai aeao?eoo
aac aeiaeaoeiaiai iaaeoiaeaeaiiy oieanoa?eio ?c oee?eoethth/i? e?ia?.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeathoue i?aenoaao noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui
iae?ioaae oaaioeeoothoue ee?oeiiee aeao?eo ? o?ainoi?iothoue eiai a
e?i?aee, a ia oaaioeeoothoue EO oa e?i?aei? e?aie? c aoa?iiaoicieo
aiaieu. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi iaoi? a?iioace ? oa, ui iae?ioaae ia?aaaaeii
cina?aaeaeai? a oeo ae?eyieao na?oey, aea ? ee?oeiiee aeao?eo, a ia
neoi/aiiy EO. Iiaeaeueoa c’ynoaaiiy iaoiaaiaco aoa?ineea?ico a cia/i?e
i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae ?acoeueoao?a aea/aiiy i?ioean?a ooai?aiiy EO
aaciina?aaeiuei a aoa?ineea?ioe/i?e aeyooe?.

?iceaaee iaoaaie?cio e?i?ae?a a i?iea?ae? i?e ?ioa?eo?. A eiio?ieuei?e
a?oi? aeine?aeaeaiue a na?eiieaci? ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a i?enooiy iaaaeeea ?o
e?euee?noue o neeaae? a?aioe e?iioonoeeio. A?i ia ia? iioeiaeaeoth/i?
ae?? ia ee?oeie, a yeeo ciaoiaeeoueny. E?iioonoeei o?aeoo?oueny ye
ia?ea? noa??iiy. Iaeiae, iaie aeyaeaii, ui iayai?noue e?iioonoeeio a
ea?ae?ii?ioeeoao (EIOe) ia caaaeaee ei?aeth? c a?eii, a ia?aaeian?i
caeaaeeoue a?ae ia?aianaieo caoai?thaaiue i?iea?aea. A aiaeioae??
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea (AIOe?) oa e?ioioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea
e?i?aee cono??/athoueny a neeaae? e?iie?cinii. ?o e?euee?noue c?inoa? c
a?eii, a oaeiae i?e iayaiino? ?ON, AO oa ?IOeAe. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
?ici???a e?iie?cinii a aiaeioae?? aeieeathoue aeeno?io?/i? ci?ie.

A eiei?ioa?eoieo ae?eyieao na?oey aee?iaa aeeno?io?y EIOe a?eueo
ae?aaeaia, i?ae o cii? iae?ico oa ?ioaeoieo ae?eyieao. Iayai?noue
e?i?aeieo e?aiaeue a na?eiieaci? EIOe ? i?iyaii aaaeei? oa o?eaaei?
?oai?? i?iea?aea. AEe?iaa aeeno?io?y EIOe iaeneiaeueii ae?aaeaia ia
a?aieoe? c iae?icii, a oaeiae a no?ioe? aino?i? aiaa?ecie na?oey. I?e
iii??i?e e?eueeino? e?i?ae?a, ioi/aieo a na?eiieaci? iaia?aiith,
no?oeoo?a EIOe nooo?ai ia ci?ith?oueny. sseui e?aie? e?i?ae?a ia
iaiaaeai? iaia?aiith, oi aiie oiene/ii ae?thoue ia ioi/oth/? ?o
no?oeoo?e, aeeeeeath/e e?cen i?oioiiae??e oa i?io?a?ee. Ceeooy e?i?aeieo
e?aiaeue i?ae niaith ni?e/eith? iae?ic EIOe, ?ic?ea na?eieaie oa aeo?ae
e?i?ae?a a iicaee?oeiiee i?ino??. Iaaaeee? ca ?ici??aie e?i?aei? e?aie?
aeineoue oaeaeei ioi/othoueny a?i/eeii eieaaaiiaeo o?a?ee, /ei
ni?eythoue aeieeiaiith ea?ae?ineea?ico. Aaeeea e?euee?noue e?i?ae?a o
oi?i? e?aiaeue a cii? ?ioa?eoo niia?eueith? i?ioeane caai?iiy ?
?oaoethaaiiy, i?ecaiaey/e aei no?oeoo?ii? iaiaeii??aeiino? oa ciaioaiiy
i?oeiino? ?oaoey ? ni?ey? aeieeiaiith aino?i? aiaa?ecie /e ?ic?eao
i?iea?aea.

Ae?i?iaoe?y e?i?ae?a ?c eiei?ioa?eoieo ae?eyiie na?oey cae?enith?oueny
/a?ac e?ioaoe/i? eai?ey?e. Aeayea /anoeia e?i?ae?a aeaiaeeoueny ?c
eiei?ioa?eoieo cii ii ?icoe?aieo i?aei?ioeeoa?ieo u?eeiao a iai?yieo aei
ai?ea?aea. Oai aiie ceeaathoueny i?ae niaith, ooai?thth/e neoi/aiiy
aaeeeeo ?ici???a, ni?ai??i? c iiia?a/iei ia?aoeiii EIOe. E?i?aei? e?aie?
oaeaeei ia?inoathoue eieaaaiii oa ioi/othoueny ee?oeiaie niieo/ii?
oeaieie, yea a?aeiaaeiao? oeeoioiene/ii ae?th/? e?i?aee a?ae EIOe.
Ianooia? ?aiiaeaethaaiiy i?iea?aea. Iia??oo?oueny aca?iica’ycie i?ae
EIOe, aeieea? o?a?ic ?ioa?noeoe?th, ui ? i?e/eiith nei?ioeeai? neaaeino?
i?iea?aea oa aeieeiaiiy na?oeaai? iaaeinoaoiino?.

?aiiaeaethaaiiy i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea i?iea?aea i?e ?ioa?eo? oa
noaiiea?ae??. Aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?i? ?iceaaee a i?iea?ae? i?e ?ioa?eo?.
A ia?o? 2-3 aiaeeie ?I aeyaeaii iaeaea oioaeueia o?aaeaiiy i?e?inoaeei
na?oey a ciiao, iaae yeeie ia AEA ?a?no?oaaany iiiioaciee i?aeeii
naaiaioo SO. A oeeo ae?eyieao na?oey a?oa??iee niaciiaai?, iaoo?iaai?
iaa?yeeei aiaeioae??i, i?e?io?iiaaie /e aa?aaaoaie ee?oei e?ia?.
Aeenoaeuei?oa i?noey ieethc??, a e?iaiiinieo eai?ey?ao oa aaioeao,
aeyaeaii eieaeueia aioo??oiueinoaeeiia cn?aeaiiy e?ia?. I?e aaoiin??
a?coaeuei? oa i?e?ineii?/i? ci?ie, oa?aeoa?i? aeey ?I, a oeae ia??iae ua
a?aenooi?. Oeueo?ano?oeoo?ia ae?aaiinoeea EAN-neiae?iio a AIOe?
i?iea?aea iiaea neoaeeoe i?aenoaaith aeey ?aiiuei? ae?aaiinoeee ?I,
iaa?oue i?e a?aenooiino? ci?i a ea?ae?ii?ioeeoao. *a?ac 6-9 aiaeei a?ae
ii/aoeo ?I ciia ?ioa?eooaaiiy iicaaaeaia eai?ey?iiai e?iaioieo. Anthaee
niinoa??aa?oueny noac e?ia?, iaa?ye aiaeioae?aeueieo ee?oei, ye?
iaoo?othoue i?ina?o i?e?inoaeei. Aeieeathoue e?iaiaeeeae, aaiie?c
a?eo?ioeeo?a oa aeaa?aioeyoe?y o?iiaioeeo?a. I?ina?o i?e?inoaeei
iaoo?iaaiee c?oeiiaaieie ee?oeiaie e?ia? oa o?a?eiiaeie aiaieaie.
Aea?eueiaiiy a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo ?a/iaei ?c aeaa?aioeueiaaieo
o?iiaioeeo?a oa c?oeiiaaieo eaeeioeeo?a i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaa?yeo oa
?oeioaaiiy aiaeioae?th noaeeiiiai ?onea aeenoaeuei?oa i?noey o?iiaico.
Ia i?ioyc? ianooiieo 2-3 aei?a a cii? ?I a?aeaoaa?oueny ?oeioaaiiy
a?eueoino? i?e?inoaeei oa iae?ic EIOe. A ae??aieo ?icaaeoaeaiiyo
a?ioeaaeo a?oa??e ?iiae? ciaoiaeyoueny o?iiaioeeoa?i? oa ci?oai? o?iiae.

A eiei?ioa?eoieo ciiao na?oey i?e ?I ia? i?noea ??cia nooi?iue o?aaeaiue
a?oa??ie, e?iaiiinieo eai?ey??a oa aaioe. Ooieoe?iioth/?, aeia?a
caa?aaeai? i?e?inoaeeie ?iiae? ?icoaoiaai? ii?yae ?c c?oeiiaaieie. Ia
i?noe? inoaii?o /anoi ciaoiaeyoueny eeoa /anoeiai caa?aaeai? o?iiae oa
o?aaeai? aiaeioae?aeuei? ee?oeie. Nooi?iue o?aaeaiiy AIOe? a cia/i?e
i??? aecia/a?oueny a?aenoaiith aei ciie iae?ico, a oaeiae o?eaae?noth
?ioa?eoo i?iea?aea. A?oa??iee, o ii??aiyii ?c e?iaiiinieie eai?ey?aie oa
aaioeaie, iioeiaeaeai? iaioa. Aiie caaacia/othoue i?e?iaaiiaeeiai?eo,
iacaaaeath/e ia aeayeo iaiaeii??aei?noue aiaeioae?th. ?iiae?
niinoa??aa?oueny aaeaac?y a?eo?ioeeo?a oa eaeeioeeo?a aei
aiaeioae?aeueii? aeno?eee a?oa??ie. A eiei?ioa?eoieo ciiao aeyaeaii
a?oa??iee c iciaeaie iae?ico AIE oa aeano?oeoe??th aioo??oiuei?
aeanoe/ii? iaia?aie (iaae?aiae?ic). AIE a?eueo /ooeea? aei ?oai??
i?iea?aea i?e ?I, i?ae aiaeioae?aeuei? ee?oeie ? ?oeiothoueny oaeaeoa.
Ooieoe?iiaeueia caeaoi?noue a?oa??ie ciaioo?oueny ? e?iaiia?a
niia?eueith?oueny. Iaeo?io?euei? eaeeioeeoe oa aiceiio?ee i?iieeathoue
/a?ac no?iee o?aaeaieo a?oa??ie oa aeoiaeyoue a ?ioa?noeoe?e. Oai aiie
i?eeiathoue o/anoue a e?cen? iioeiaeaeaieo EIOe.

No?oeoo?a ? ooieoe?y e?ioaoe/ieo eai?ey??a i?iea?aea oa ?o ?ieue a
?aiiaeaethaaii? na?oey i?e ?ioa?eo?. E?ioaoe/i? eai?ey?e i?iea?aea
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae e?iaiiinieo iaioith oiaueiith no?iee,
a?aenooi?noth ia?eoeeo?a ? a?eueoei i?ina?oii. Aiie iathoue nooe?eueio
aacaeueio iaia?aio oa ye??i? o?eaiaioe, ye? cae?i/othoueny a
ia?eeai?ey?iiio ?ioa?noeoe??. Aiie neeaaeathoueny c eiiiaeoii
ca?oiiaaieo eieaaaiiaeo o?a?ee oa i?e?iaieieii, ye? aie?oathoueny a
no?oeoo?o aacaeueii? iaia?aie eai?ey??a. A e?ioaoe/ieo eai?ey?ao
aaeeeiai ae?aiao?o i?ae ?o no?ieith oa ea?ae?ii?ioeeoaie aeyaeaii
iayai?noue o?a?iaeanoe/ieo i?e?ica’ycie. Aiie ooai?ai? aeanoe/ieie
aieieiaie oa eieaaaiiaeie o?a?eeaie. O?a?iaeanoe/i? ca’ycee ia?aaeathoue
ye nei?i/aiiy, oae ? ?icneaaeaiiy EIOe ia no?iee e?ioaoe/ieo eai?ey??a,
caaacia/oth/e ?o ioeuenaoe?th, a, ioaea, ? oee?eoeyoe?th e?ioe.

Ia i?ioyc? ia?oeo aeaio aiaeei ?I a aanaei? iaoo?iaaii? o?iiaii
ei?iia?ii? a?oa??? ianooia? oioaeueia aeano?oeoe?y aiaeioae?th
e?ioaoe/ieo eai?ey??a oa e?ioinoac. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei e?ioinoaco,
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy a ?ioa?noeoe?? oiene/ii ae?th/eo iaoaaie?o?a, ui
ni?e/eith? iioeiaeaeaiiy i?eeaaeeo EIOe. Ooieoe?iioth/? e?ioaoe/i?
eai?ey?e eiei?ioa?eoieo cii aeaiaeyoue /anoeio e?i?ae?a ?c ciie iae?ico
oa aaaeei? ?oai?? i?iea?aea. Iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy ae e?i?ae?a a ?ioa?noeoe??
niia?eueith? i?ioeane caai?iiy oa iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia ia?aa?a
caoai?thaaiiy.

E?ioaoe/i? eai?ey?e a eiei?ioa?eoieo ciiao oaae iioeiaeaeai?. Aiie
ao?a/athoue ii?oieia?/iee oa ooieoe?iiaeueiee ca’ycie c
i?iea?ae?aeueieie ee?oeiaie. ?acoeueoaoii oeueiai ? iia??oaiiy ?o
ioeuenaoe??, ciaioaiiy a?aeoieo e?ioe c i?iea?aea ?, ye iane?aeie,
?icaeoie cano?eieo yaeu a ?ioa?noeoe??. Iane?aeeii canoith e?ioe ?
?aiiaeaethaaiiy ?ioa?noeoe?th, o?a?ic i?iea?aea, o?aaeaiiy oa aeeno?io?y
EIOe. Iaaeiei e?ioaoe/ieo eai?ey??a ooai?ththoueny eieaaaiia? o?a?eee,
ui ? ii/aoeii neea?ioe/ieo i?ioean?a, ye? iioe?ththoueny c
ia?eaaneoey?iiai i?inoi?o ia i?aei?ioeeoa?iee ?ioa?noeoe?e, i?ecaiaey/e
aei aeieeiaiiy o?a?ico i?iea?aea.

O?iiaiaaiia eiioeaioe?y iaoiaaiaco aa??aioii? noaiiea?ae??. I?e
oeueo?ano?oeoo?iiio aeine?aeaeaii? aeni?an — iae?iioao?a i?iea?aea
iiia?eeo a?ae ?ioa?eoo, a oeo ciiao, iaae yeeie i?e aeeoo? aoa
i?aeaeuaiee naaiaio SO, a i?e aaoiini? ia aoei iae?ico, iaie aeyaeai?
i?eno?ieia? o?iiaioeeoa?i? o?iiae a ae??aieo ?icaaeoaeaiiyo ei?iia?ieo
a?oa??e oa o?a?eiia? aiaiee a i?ina?o? e?iaiiinieo eai?ey??a. I?e
o?iiaiooai?aii? ianooia? aeaa?aioeyoe?y o?iiaioeeo?a. A e?iaiiinia ?onei
iinooiathoue aaciaeoeai? iaae?aoi?e, ye? aea?eueiythoueny ?c
o?iiaioeeoa?ieo aeueoa- ? u?eueieo a?aioe. I?ae ?o aieeaii ieae/a ??aiy
o?iiaico aeieea? niaci a?oa??ie oa iaa?ye noaeeiiiai aiaeioae?th.

A?aoiaoth/e i?eaaaeai? oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? aeai? ? i?eeiath/e aei oaaae
oa, ui i?e aa??aioi?e noaiiea?ae?? ? o?eaae? aia?iici? aie? oa
?aoeei?iei? ci?ie iieiaeaiiy naaiaioo ST, iiae?aii aei ?ioa?eoo, ie
i?eeoee aei aeniiaeo, ui iaoiaaiac AN coiiaeaiee ia niaciii ei?iia?ii?
a?oa???, a ?? o?iiaicii. ?ioeie neiaaie, AN aeieea? a ?acoeueoao?
ei?ioeio?eaaeiai o?iiaico i?ieneiaeueii? /anoeie a?ioeaai? a?oa??? c
ianooiiei niiioaiiei o?iiaie?cenii ? a?aeiiaeaiiyi ei?iia?iiai
e?iaiia?ao. Niaci a?ioeaai? a?oa??? aeieea? aoi?eiii, aeenoaeuei?oa
i?noey o?iiaico, i?ae aieeaii aacieiino?eeoi?ia o?iiaioeeoa?iiai aaiaco.
C oeueiai iaeyaeo, a?aoiaoth/e caa?ico iiaoi?iiai o?iiaiooai?aiiy,
oai?ei ia aa??aioio noaiiea?ae?th iaiao?aeii i?ecia/aoe aioeo?iiaioe/io
oa?ai?th.

Ee?oeii? iaoai?cie o?aaeaiiy i?iea?aea i?e ?ioa?eo?. ?ieue o?iiaioeeo?a
o iaoiaaiac? ?ioa?eoo i?iea?aea. Iaeiei ?c ia?oeo i?iya?a aeoeaaoe??
o?iiaioeeo?a i?e ?I ? ?o i?eeeiaiiy aei ooeiaeaeaieo (iaa?yeeeo)
aiaeioae?aeueieo ee?oei oa ooai?aiiy o?iiaioeeoa?ieo aa?aaao?a.
Aeaa?aioeyoe?y iiiaeeiieeo o?iiaioeeo?a ia noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
o?iiaiooai?aiiyi ? ia i?ecaiaeeoue aei iioeiaeaeaiiy aiaeioae?aeueieo
ee?oei oa ?iceaae?a i?e?iaaiiaeeiai?ee. I?e aeaa?aioeyoe?? cia/ii?
e?eueeino? o?iiaioeeo?a (a?ae aeanyoe?a aei nioaiue), ye? aoiaeyoue aei
neeaaeo o?iia?a aai o?iiaioeeoa?ieo aa?aaao?a, aeieea? niaci a?oa??ie,
iaa?ye oa iioeiaeaeaiiy aiaeioae?th AIOe? na?oey ieae/a ??aiy iaoo?aoe??
a?ioeaai? a?oa???. I?e oeueiio e?iaioie a a?oa??ieao oa eai?ey?ao
niia?eueith?oueny aai i?eieiy?oueny. Aeaa?aioeyoe?y o?iiaioeeo?a, ye?
aoiaeyoue a neeaae o?iiaioeeoa?ieo aa?aaao?a, noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
ooai?aiiyi o?a?eio oa o?iia?a. O?iii?noue o?a?eio aei o?iiaioeeo?a ?
cia/ii a?eueoith, i?ae aei ?ioeo ee?oei e?ia? /e aiaeioae?ioeeo?a
noaeeiiiai ?onea. Aei o?a?eio i?eeeiathoue a?eo?ioeeoe oa eaeeioeeoe.
Oaeei /eiii aeieeathoue ci?oai? (o?iiaioeeoa?ii – a?eo?ioeeoa?ii —
eaeeioeeoa?i?) o?iiae. Aiie caeaa?eueoiai cono??/athoueny o i?ina?o?
a?ioeaaeo a?oa??e a cii? ?ioa?eoo. Iaeo?io?euei? eaeeioeeoe, ye?
aoiaeyoue a neeaae “a?eeo” o?iia?a, iathoue caeaoi?noue aei eiioaeoo c
o?iiaioeeoaie oa ?o aeoeaaoe??, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeaa?aioeyoe??
o?iiaioeeo?a oa o?iiaiooai?aiiy. Nai? ae eaeeioeeoe i?e oeueiio ia
?oeiothoueny, oi/a ciaoiaeyoueny a na?aaeiaeu? a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo
noanoaioe?e aeniei? eiioeaio?aoe??. Eaeeioeeoe, ?iei?ii?iaai? a ??cieo
ae?eyieao o?iiao, c /anii ?oeiothoueny, ni?eyth/e e?ceno o?iia?a oa
?aeaiae?caoe?? a?oa??e ? /anoeiaiio a?aeiiaeaiith e?iaiia?ao a cii?
?ioa?eoo. Oea ieoaiiy aeiaaa? iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

I?ina?o EE, ye i?aaeei, iaoo?iaaiee ia o?iiaaie, a o?iiaioeeoa?ieie,
a?eo?ioeeoa?ieie aai ci?oaieie (a?eo?ioeeoa?ii – o?iiaioeeoa?ieie)
aa?aaaoaie. Aiie ia i?aeaeathoueny aeacaa?aaaoe?? iaa?oue i?ney
?oeioaaiiy eai?ey??a oa aeoiaeo aa?aaao?a o ?ioa?noeoe?e. Oai aiie aaea
ia o?ainoi?iothoueny o o?iiae ? ia aeaa?aioeththoue, a ?oeiothoueny. O
aaioey?i?e /anoei? i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea, ia a?aei?io a?ae
a?oa??ie, o?iiae neeaaeathoueny ia?aaaaeii ?c a?eo?ioeeo?a oa iaaaeeeeo
ca ?ici??aie o?iiaioeeoa?ieo i?e?io?iia?a.

Iaaeiei o?iiaioeeoa?ieo aa?aaao?a oa o?iia?a, ye? i?eeeiee aei
iicaaaeaii? aiaeioae?th no?iee noaeei, aeineoue oaeaeei c’yaeythoueny
eieaaaiia? o?a?eee oa aeanoe/i? aieieia. Aiie ni?eythoue ?iei?ii?aoe??
o?iia?a oa aa?aaao?a o no?ieo noaeei oa ua a?eueoiio caoaeaiith ?o
i?ina?oo. I?ie?oa?aoe?y niieo/ii? oeaieie iaaeiei o?iiaioeeo?a ca’ycaia,
i?aaaeiiiae?aii, ?c aeae?eaiiyi ieie o?iiaioeeoa?ieo oaeoi??a ?inoo.

Aaoi?ioii? ?iceaaee a i?iea?ae? i?e ?ioa?eo?. I?e aeine?aeaeaii?
oeueo?ano?oeoo?e e?ioioeeo?a aaiicii? e?ia?, nooo?aeo ci?i, ye? a
aeacoaaee ia iayai?noue ?I, iaie aeyaeaii ia aoei. sse O-, oae ? A-
e?ioioeeoe iii?oii ia a?ae??ciythoueny i?ae niaith. I?e aeine?aeaeaii?
ae e?ioioeeo?a a iicanoaeeiiiio ?one? ?ioaeoieo oa eiei?ioa?eoieo ciiao
na?oey i?e ?I aeyaeaii ia?aoai?aiiy A-e?ioioeeo?a a ieaciaoe/i? ee?oeie,
a aeayeeo O-e?ioioeeo?a – a oeeoioiene/i? ee?oeie. Ioaea, aino?ee ?I
i?ecaiaeeoue ia no?eueee aei e?euee?nieo oa ye?nieo ci?i O- oa A-
e?ioioeeo?a o aaiici?e e?ia?, ye aei ?o i?a?aoe?? ?c o?aaeaiiai AIOe?
i?iea?aea a ?ioa?noeoe?e, aea aiie o?ainoi?iothoueny a ieaciaoe/i?
ee?oeie oa oeeoioiene/i? O- e?ioioeeoe.

Caeeoa?oueny ia c’yniaaiei aeaea?aei iioiaeaeaiiy Oe?E a e?ia? i?e ?I,
a?aoiaoth/e iayai?noue a oee?eoethth/?e e?ia? iacia/ii? e?eueeino?
ieaciaoe/ieo ee?oei. Aeyaeai? ci?ie o oai?eo ia ?I caneoaiaothoue
iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy oa iio?aaothoue iaaeeeaiaioicii? ei?aeoe?? i?e
iaaei??i?e aeoeaiino? aaoi?ioiieo i?ioean?a.

Ci?ie a ?ioii?e nenoai? ? nenoai? cn?aeaiiy e?ia? i?e ?I oa ?o
iaaeeeaiaioicia ei?aeoe?y. Ai?no O-e?ioioeeo?a a e?ia? oai?eo ia ?I a
ia?o? aeiae caoai?thaaiiy aoa nooo?ai cieaeaiei, a caoei iinooiiai
ca?eueooaaany, ia aeinyaath/e ii?ie o a?eueoino? oai?eo ia 26-30 aeiae.
E?euee?noue A-e?ioioeeo?a, ia a?aei?io a?ae O-e?ioioeeo?a, a ia?o? aei?
?I aoea i?aeaeuaiith o 65% oai?eo. Ia iiiaio aeienee ?c noaoe?iia?o
(26-30 aeiaa ?I) na?aaei? iieacieee e?eueeino? A-e?ioioeeo?a caeeoaeenue
iii??ii i?aeaeuaieie. Ai?no ?ioiiaeiaoe?i?a A oa G i?e iinooieaii? a
noaoe?iia? aoa nooo?ai ca?eueoaiei. Ia i?ioyc? oe?eiai ia??iaeo
caoai?thaaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?y ?ioiiaeiaoe?io A nooo?ai ia ci?ithaaeany, a
G – ciaioeeany ia 17%. Iaeiae aiie ia?aaeuoaaee iieacieee ii?ie.
E?euee?noue ?ioiiaeiaoe?i?a I ai?iaeiaae aino?iai ia??iaeo ?I ia
ci?ithaaeany.

A ia?o? aei? caoai?thaaiiy o an?o oai?eo ca?a?no?iaaii nooo?aa
ca?eueoaiiy ??aiy Oe?E A?i ia?aaeuoaaa eiio?ieuei? aaee/eie a 2-2.5
?ac?a ? oo?eioaaany aenieei ai?iaeiaae oe?eiai ia??iaeo caoai?thaaiiy.

I?ecia/aiiy ianoa?i?aeieo i?ioecaiaeueieo i?aia?ao?a (?iaeiiaoaoeeio oa
aieueoa?aio) a na?aaei?o oa?aiaaoe/ieo aeicao ai?iaeiaae 2 oeaeiaaiai
eo?no e?eoaaiiy nooo?ai ia iieacieee ee?oeiiiai ?ioi?oaoo ia aieeaa?,
iaeiae ni?ey? iii??iiio cieaeaiith eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ioiiaeiaoe?io G oa
??aiy Oe?E i?e 4 oeaeiaaiio eo?n? e?eoaaiiy.

Aieea aieueoa?aio oa oeiae?io ia e?ioioeeoe oa iaeo?io?euei?
a?aioeioeeoe aaiicii? e?ia? aea/aee ?i vitri a ??ci? ia??iaee
caoai?thaaiiy. Aieueoa?ai ia? iiina?aaeeiaaiee aieea ia ?ioiieiiiaoaioi?
ee?oeie e?ia? oai?eo ia ?I i?ioyaii ia?oeo aeaio oeaei?a caoai?thaaiiy.
A?i ni?ey? cia/iiio cieaeaiith ye a?aeiinii?, oae ? aaniethoii?
e?eueeino? INO-iiceoeaieo iaeo?io?eueieo a?aioeioeeo?a, i?ioa ia aieeaa?
ia ?ioiiaaeaaceai? aeanoeaino? ??cieo aeae?a e?ioioeeo?a. Aieueoa?ai
coiiaeth? ca?eueoaiiy aaniethoii? e?eueeino? oaio?e?i-/ooeeaeo
noaiiioeyoe?? e?ioioeeo?a. I?ioa, oea ia aieeaa? ia ?aaoeyoi?i? i?ioeane
?ioiii? a?aeiia?ae?. Aieueoa?ai i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy aaniethoii?
e?eueeino? oaio?e?i-/ooeeaeo oa ciaioaiiy oaio?e?i-?acenoaioieo ee?oei
e?ia? ia 14-16 aeiao ?I. Oe? ci?ie na?ae/aoue i?i iineaaeaiiy
?ioiiaa?aneaii? iai?oaeaiino? ? iiaeooue iaoe iiceoeaiee aieea ia
ia?aa?a ?I. A?i i?eai?/o? ieenii-a?aeiiaio e?ciniiio aeoeai?noue
iaeo?io?eueieo a?aioeioeeo?a. Eiai aeioe?eueii i?ecia/aoe
ei?ioeio?eaaei, o ia?o? aei? caoai?thaaiiy.

Oeiae?i ni?ey? ciaioaiith e?euee?noue e?ioioeeo?a, /ooeeaeo aei
oaio?e?io oa ca?eueoaiith e?eueeino? iiiiioeeaa??a, ?acenoaioieo aei
oaio?e?io. ?iaeaen ?aaoeyoe?? ?ioiii? a?aeiia?ae? i?e oeueiio
cieaeo?oueny. A?i iiaea noeioethaaoe aaoiaa?aneai? ?ioiiiaoieia?/i?
i?ioeane, ye? a aino?iio ia??iae? ?I, iniaeeai iiaoi?iiai, aeoeaiaai?.
Oiio i?ecia/aiiy oeiae?io a aino?iio ia??iae? ?I iaaaaeaia. Eiai iiaeia
i?ecia/aoe oai?ei ia ?I i?e ?icaaeainiaaieo ?ioii?aaoeyoi?ieo i?ioeanao,
ii/eiath/e ?c o?aoueiai oeaeiy caoai?thaaiiy. Aeey ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy oeiae?io iaiao?aeii aecia/aoe ?iaeea?aeoaeueio /ooeea?noue
aei iueiai ?ioiieiiiaoaioieo ee?oei e?ia? oai?eo in vitro.

O oai?eo ia ?I a ia?o? aei? caoai?thaaiiy niinoa??aa?oueny iineeaiiy
aaiieiaaoeyoe?eii? aeoeaiino? nenoaie cn?aeaiiy e?ia?, ca’ycaia ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi aeoeaiino? i?ieiaaoeyio?a oa cieaeaiiyi
aioeo?iiaiieanoeiiai? ? aioeo?iia?iiai? aeoeaiino?. A?eueoa i?ae o 12%
oai?eo ia ?I a aino?iio ia??iae? caoai?thaaiiy a e?ia? aeyaeai?
o?a?eiiiiiia?e, a oaeiae i?iaeoeoe aeaa?aaeaoe?? o?a?eiiaaio-o?a?eio. Ia
oea aeacothoue iiceoeai? aaoa-iaooieiaee, i?ioai?inoeueoaoiee oa
aoaiieiaee oanoe, ui, a naith /a?ao, ? iciaeith AeAC — neiae?iio.
A?ia?eiaaoeyoe?y, aeyaeaia i?e iinooieaii? oai?eo a ee?i?eo, a iniiaiiio
caa??aaeany ia iaeiiio ??ai? ia i?ioyc? iaeaea anueiai /ano e?eoaaiiy.
Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaee, ui o oai?eo ia ?I i?e
iinooieaii? a ee?i?eo ia? i?noea iineeaiiy aaiieiaaoeyoe?eieo
aeanoeainoae e?ia? oa ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? o?a?eiiaaio. O 15% oai?eo
aeyaeaii iiceoeaiee aaoa-iaooieiaee, i?ioai?i-noeueoaoiee oa aoaiieiaee
oanoe, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iayai?noue o oeeo oai?eo aioo??oiueinoaeeiiiai
cn?aeaiiy e?ia?. Canoinoaaiiy ?iaeiiaoaoeeio ii 25 ia 3 ?ace ia aeiao
i?ioyaii 2-4 oeaei?a nooo?ai ia cn?aeaiiy e?ia? oa o?a?eiie?c ia
aieeaa?.

?ieue oee?eoethth/eo ?ioiieo eiiieaen?a o aca?iica’yceo i?ae ?ioiiith
nenoaiith oa nenoaiith cn?aeaiiy e?ia?. I?e aeine?aeaeaii?
oeueo?ano?oeoo?e AIOe? aeyaeaii i?aeaeuaio «eeie?noue» aiaeioae?th,
ee?oei e?ia?, aa?aaaoe?th a?eo?ioeeo?a oa o?iiaioeeo?a, ui ? i?e/eiith
ooai?aiiy neaaeae?a, ye? iaoo?othoue i?ina?o eai?ey??a, /e aaeaac??
ee?oei e?ia? aei no?iie eai?ey??a oa aaioe, ui iia??ooaaei
i?e?iaaiiaeeiai?eo. Oe? ?iceaaee iaee aaia?ae?ciaaiee oa?aeoa? ? aoee
iiae?aieie o an?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo aeiaaeeao. Iaei??th ?c i?e/ei
?iceaae?a ?aieia?? e?ia? oa i?aeaeuaiiy «eeieino?» aiaeioae?aeueieo
ee?oei eai?ey??a ? iayai?noue oiieiai oa?o ini?io?eueiiai iaoa??aeo,
yeee iie?eaa? (/anoeiai /e iiai?noth) ee?oeie e?ia?, aai ethi?iaeueio
ieaciaoe/io iaia?aio aiaeioae?aeueieo ee?oei, i?aeaeuoth/e ?o
aaeaaceai?noue. Iiae?aiee iaoa??ae iaa?iiaaeaeo?oueny a aacaeueiiio oa??
eai?ey??a ? i?ecaiaeeoue aei eiai iioiauaiiy, ui iiaea aooe i?e/eiith
aeieeiaiiy ae?aaaoe/ieo i?e?iaia?iiao?e oa o?aaeaiiy i?e?inoaeei na?oey
i?e AO ? iino?ioa?eoiiio ea?ae?ineea?ic?. Oeae iaia?aiiiiae?aiee
iaoa??ae (iiae?aiee aei aacaeueiiai oa?o eai?ey??a) ia?aaaaeii in?aea?
ia ia ?ioaeoieo, a ia iioeiaeaeaieo ae?eyieao aiaeioae?th oa ia
a?eo?ioeeoao, ye? ia?aaaaeii iathoue ii/aoeia? i?iyae aaiie?co.
Aaeaaceai?noue iienaieo ee?oei oa iioiauaiiy aacaeueiiai oa?o eai?ey??a
coiiaeai?, i?aaaeiiiae?aii, ?ioiieie eiiieaenaie. Aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy
oe??? a?iioace i?iaaaeaii oeueo?ano?oeoo?ia aeine?aeaeaiiy Oe?E,
aeae?eaieo ?c e?ia? oai?eo ia ?I. Oeueo?ano?oeoo?o Oe?E aaiicii? e?ia?
ii??aithaaee c iaia?aiiiiae?aiei iaoa??aeii, yeee aoei aeyaeaii ia
aiaeioae?? i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea na?oey, iaia?aiao ee?oei e?ia?, a
oaeiae aeayeeo ?ioeo no?oeoo?ao i?iea?aea. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aiie i?ae
niaith ca oeueo?ano?oeoo?ith iiae?ai?. Oaeei /eiii, iiaeia i?eionoeoe,
ui ca’ycie i?ae ?ioiiith nenoaiith oa nenoaiith cn?aeaiiy e?ia? i?e ?I
cae?enith?oueny /a?ac iayai?noue oee?eoethth/eo ?ioiieo eiiieaen?a.

Iaoai?cie o?aaeaiiy oa iae?ico ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a. A oeaio?aeuei?e
ae?eyioe? ?ioa?eoo a?eueo?noue EIOe aeia a ?acoeueoao? eiaaoeyoe?eiiai
iae?ico. I?e/eiith nia?o? EIOe a ia?o? aiaeeie ?I (aeiiae?ioe/ia oaca
?I) ? ao?aoa ieie yaea?. ssaeua aeoiaeo yae?a /a?ac ?ic?eae a na?eieai?
a ?ioa?noeoe?e ie icia/eee ye «i?ieain» yae?a EIOe. ?ic?eae a na?eieai?
EIOe aeieeathoue aiane?aeie ia?anei?i/aiiy i?io?a?ee oa ca?eueoaiiy
aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai oeneo. A iiaeaeueoiio aac’yaea?i? EIOe
i?aeeyaathoue eiaaoeyoe?eiiio iae?ico.

A oeaio?aeuei?e cii? ?ioa?eoo /anoeia EIOe aeia oeyoii i?ioeeoie?ceno.
A?i aeieea? a ia?o? aiaeeie caoai?thaaiiy i?ae aieeaii e?ciniiieo
oa?iaio?a ? iieyaa? o iaa?yeo na?eiieacie, aaeoie?caoe?? i?oioiiae??e oa
na?eiieaciaoe/ii? n?oee, cieeiaii? ae?eiaaio oa ?ioeo oeeoia?aioe ?c
na?eiieacie, noiioaii?, o?aaiaioaoe?? oa e?cen? i?io?a?ee.

Ia ia?eoa??? ?ioa?eoo niinoa??aa?oueny ?-aeenei?aeiee iae?ic (?ic/eiaiiy
?-aeene?a na?eiia??a ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a). Oeae oei iae?ico cono??/a?oueny
??aeoa, i?ae aeaa iiia?aaei?o. Nii/aoeo a?i aeieea? a ie?aieo
na?eiia?ao, a caoei iioe?th?oueny ia an? i?io?a?eee. Oeae i?ioean ia
iioe?th?oueny ia ai?cio?iii? aeenee, i?oioiiae??? oa na?eieaio.

Eiio?aeoo?i? o?aaeaiiy EIOe (ia?anei?i/aiiy-ia?a?icoyaiaiiy i?io?a?ee)
cono??/athoueny a on?o ciiao ?I. Aiie iieyaathoue ye a ia?anei?i/aii?
iaeieo, oae ? a ia?a?icoyaiaii? ?ioeo na?eiia??a i?io?a?ee. Oeae aeae
iae?ico noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ia??aiii??iei ia?a?iciiae?eii i?oioiiae??e oa
e?cenii ia?a?icoyaiooeo ae?eyiie i?io?a?ee, a oaeiae aeano?oeoe??th
na?eieaie ia ?aii?o aoaiao o?aaeaiiy EIOe. Cia/ia /anoeia EIOe ?c
eiio?aeoo?ieie ci?iaie a cii? ?ioa?eoo iicaaaeaia yaea? /a?ac ?o i?ieain
a ?ioa?noeoe?e. I?ney i?iieeiaiiy iicaee?oeiii? ??aeeie a na?eiieacio, a
i?oioiiae??yo c’yaeythoueny aii?oi? aeaiiceoe, ye? ? ia?ea?ii ee?oeiii?
nia?o?. Aiie iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?i? aeey iino?aia?ooc?eieo o?aaeaiue EIOe,
aea ? eiiiiiaioaie iaeaea an?o oei?a iae?ico, ca aeiyoeii
i?ioeeoie?ceno.

A eiei?ioa?eoieo ae?eyieao na?oey EIOe aeiooue a ?acoeueoao? e?ceno
?aeaeniaaieo ee?oei. ?aeaenaoe?y EIOe ? iieacieeii ?o aaaeei? ?oai??.
Nii/aoeo aiie i?noyoue cia/io e?euee?noue a?aioe ae?eiaaio, yeee
neioaco?oueny, aea ia aeei?enoiao?oueny. Ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? a?aioe
ae?eiaaio a EIOe ? iieacieeii a?aa?iaoe?? i?iea?aea. Aeayeee /an
?aeaeniaai? EIOe caa??aathoue aeeoo?caeaoi?noue, aea ia i?eeiathoue
o/ano? a nei?i/aii?. I?e a?aeiiaeaii? e?iaiiinoa/aiiy oe? ee?oeie
iiaeooue a?aeiiaeoe naith no?oeoo?o oa ooieoe?th. O aeiaaeeao o?eaaei?
?oai?? a ieo ii/eiathoueny i?ioeane e?ceno, cieeathoue a?aioee
ae?eiaaio, i?ina?oeth?oueny iao?een na?eiieacie, ianooia? noiioaiiy ?
o?aaiaioaoe?y i?io?a?ee oa iae?ic EIOe.

AEe?iao aeeno?io?th ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a aeyaeaii ia?aaaaeii a
eiei?ioa?eoieo ae?eyieao na?oey. Aiia iaeneiaeueii ae?aaeaia a no?ioe?
aino?i? aiaa?ecie na?oey. I?e iayaiino? iii??ii? e?eueeino? e?i?aeieo
e?aiaeue a na?eiieaci? no?oeoo?a i?ioeeo?a nooo?ai ia ci?ith?oueny. I?e
cia/iiio ae iaa?iiaaeaeaii? e?i?ae?a aiie oiene/ii ae?thoue ia i?aaiaee
na?eiieacie ? i?ecaiaeyoue aei iae?ico EIOe.

Ci?oaia aoaeaaiaeii-aee?iaa aeeno?io?y aeieea? a EIOe o aeiaaeeao
aaaeei? oa o?eaaei? ?oai?? i?iea?aea. Aiia niinoa??aa?oueny ia a?aieoe?
?c iae?icii, a oaeiae a no?ioe? aino?i? aiaa?ecie na?oey. A EIOe ?c
ci?oaiith aeeno?io??th i?enooi? ye e?i?aei? e?aie?, oae ? neoi/aiiy
a?aioe ae?eiaaio a na?eiieaci?. E??i oeueiai, a i?oioiiae??yo iiaeooue
aooe aii?oi? aeaiiceoe.

C’ynoaaiiy iniiaieo iaoai?ci?a o?aaeaiiy oa iae?ico i?iea?ae?aeueieo
ee?oei i?e ?ioa?eo? ia? nooo?aa cia/aiiy aeey ?ice?eooy iaoiaaiaco
caoai?thaaiiy, iiooeo aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a iaiaaeaiiy ciie iae?ico oa
iaaeeeaiaioiciiai caoenoo i?iea?aea a?ae o?aaeaiue.

Iaoai?cie oi?ioaaiiy iino?ioa?eoiiai ?oaoey. Ia i?ioyc? ia?oi? aeiae
caoai?thaaiiy a cii? ?ioa?eoo niinoa??aa?oueny iaa?ye ?ioa?noeoe?th,
e?cen niieo/iioeaieiiiai ea?eano i?iea?aea (i?e?io?eaiaio?a, eieaaaiiaeo
? aeanoe/ieo aieieii), a oaeiae a?no?ioeeo?a. Aeieeathoue e?iaiaeeeae,
?oeiothoueny EIOe. A ianooii? 2 — 6 ae?a a cii? ?ioa?eoo ia?aaaaea?
iae?ioe/iee aeao?eo oa eaeeioeeoa?ia ?io?eueo?aoe?y. Niinoa??aa?oueny
aaeeea e?euee?noue o?a?eio, io?aeuei? o?iiae oa ee?oeie e?ia?, ye?
aeeoee ?c c?oeiiaaiiai noaeeiiiai ?onea. Ii/eiath/e c 7-14 aeiae
caoai?thaaiiy a cii? iae?ico c’yaey?oueny aaeeea e?euee?noue iae?ioaa?a
oa o?a?iaeano?a, ye? i?eoiaeyoue ia ci?io eaeeioeeoai. Iaaeiei ieo
aeieeathoue eieaaaiia? o?a?eee oa aeanoe/i? aieieia.

Ia 2-3 oeaei? ?I o?a?eey?i? aeaiaioe a cii? ?oaoey iaaoaathoue
i?inoi?iai? i???ioaoe?? oa aii?yaeeiaothoueny a io/ee c ia?aeaeueii
?icoaoiaaieie o?a?eeaie. Iaa?ye ?ioa?noeoe?th iinooiiai ciaioo?oueny.
?oaaoeue 4-6 oeaeiaai? aeaaiino? ia?aaaaeii neeaaea?oueny ?c eieaaaiiaeo
aieieii ? i?e?io?a?ee, na?aae yeeo ciaoiaeyoueny o?a?ioeeoe. A iieiae?e
niieo/i?e oeaiei? ua caa??aathoueny o?aaiaioe ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a, ?aooee
c?oeiiaaieo i?e?inoaeei oa ia?nenooth/? ee?oeie e?ia?. ?oaaoeue
i?a??/ii? aeaaiino? a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae na?aeiai iayai?noth nooe?eueieo
iie?a, ooai?aieie eieaaaiiaeie, a ia ?aoeeoey?ieie aieieiaie. Aiie
iathoue oaeeynoo eiio?ao?aoe?th ? u?eueii ni?aniaai? i?ae niaith.
Aeanoe/i? aieieia a oiau? i?ney?ioa?eoiiai ?oaoey a?aenooi?. *ei aeiaoa
a cii? iae?ico ?nio? ee?oeiiee aeao?eo, oei iia?euei?oa a?aeaoaa?oueny
?oaoethaaiiy. Na?aeee ?oaaoeue iaeaea iiai?noth caiiaith? i?ino??, yeee
caeiaee c?oeiiaai? ea?ae?ii?ioeeoe. A no?ioe? aino?i? aiaa?ecie na?oey
i?ioeane ?oaoethaaiiy aeoaea niia?eueiai?. Ia i?ioyc? i?a?ieo
iino?ioa?eoiee ?oaaoeue i?ae aieeaii nee nei?i/aiiy na?oey
ou?eueith?oueny oa a?aeiaaeiao?oueny a?ae nei?ioeeaiai i?iea?aea.

?aiiaeaethaaiiy i?iea?aea i?e a?ia?oii?/i?e oai?ia? oa oeoe?iaiio
ae?aaao?. I?e?ioee?eoeyoi?ia ?onei oa ?ioii? ci?ie a i?iea?ae? i?e
a?ia?oii?/i?e oai?ia?. I?e eaae?e oi?i? AO nooo?aeo ci?i o aoaeia? IOe?
i?iea?aea oa ia?eaaneoey?iiai ?ioa?noeoe?th, a ii??aiyii? c
eiio?ieueieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie, ia aeyaeaii.

I?e na?aaei?e aaaeeino? AO niinoa??aa?oueny aiaieuaaa iioiauaiiy
aacaeueiiai oa?o aeayeeo eai?ey??a oa iaaei??iee ?icaeoie niieo/ii?
oeaieie a ia?eeai?ey?iiio i?inoi??. Aiaeioae?aeueia aeno?eea aaaaoueio
i?e?inoaeei oaae iioiauaia oa aeaoi?iiaaia, ui coiiaeth? caoaeaiiy
i?ina?oo oa caeaeno?noue a?oa??ie ? e?iaiiinieo eai?ey??a. A
eieiyaea?i?e cii? oa a ia?eoa?e/ieo ae?eyieao aiaeioae?th
niinoa??aa?oueny a?ia?ieac?y i?aaiae, ui ? i?iyaii a?ia?o?io??
aiaeioae?ioeeo?a. I?e?iaaiiaeeiai?ea iia??oo?oueny, aeieea? ?oai?y
a?ia?o?ioiaaieo EIOe.

I?e aaaee?e oi?i? AO, yea noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ?icaeoeii a?ia?oaiceaiiai
na?oey, iaeii/anii ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ?ici???a ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a, aeieea?
a?ia?o?io?y oa a?ia?ieac?y noaeeiiiai aiaeioae?th, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei
caoaeaiiy i?ina?oo cia/ii? e?eueeino? i?e?inoaeei. Ooai?ththoueny iia?
eai?ey?e c iaeei i?ina?oii, ooieoe?iiaeueia caeaoi?noue yeeo ?
iaiaaeaiith. Aiie caaacia/othoue iia?eueiee ?oo ieacie, aea ia ee?oei
e?ia?. Aiane?aeie niia?eueiaiiy i?e?iaaiiaeeiai?ee e?ioioeeoe, iiiioeeoe
oa eaeeioeeoe i?a?othoue /a?ac u?eeie i?ae aiaeioae?aeueieie ee?oeiaie
oa aeaoaeoe a no?ieao i?e?inoaeei a ia?eeai?ey?iee i?ino??. Oai A-
e?ioioeeoe o?ainoi?iothoueny a ieaciaoe/i? ee?oeie c aeia?a ?icaeiaiith
ca?ienoith aiaeiieaciaoe/iith n?oeith, i?iaeoeoth/e ?ioiiaeiaoe?ie.
Aeaye? O -e?ioioeeoe ia?aoai?ththoueny a oeeoioiene/i? ee?oeie. Aiie
eiioaeoothoue c a?ia?o?ioiaaieie oa aeano?oeoeaii ci?iaieie EIOe,
ni?eyth/e ?o iiaeaeueoiio ?oeioaaiith. Iiiioeeoe, iieieaoenue a
?ioa?noeoe??, ca?eueoothoueny ca ?ici??aie ? o?ainoi?iothoueny a
iae?ioaae. Aiie iiaeeiathoue ee?oeiiee aeao?eo oa ?aooee c?oeiiaaieo
EIOe. Ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? iai?ioeeoa?ieo ee?oei a ?ioa?noeoe??
i?ecaiaeeoue aei eiai ?aiiaeaethaaiiy oa o?a?ico. Iane?aeeii
?aiiaeaethaaiiy ?ioa?noeoe?th i?e AO ? ?oai?y, aeeno?io?y oa iae?ic
aeayeeo EIOe.

A?oa??aeueia a?ia?oaic?y aeeeeea? aeano?oeoe??th no?iie e?ioaoe/ieo
eai?ey??a, aeaoi?iaoe?th oa caoaeaiiy ?o i?ina?oo. Iia??oo?oueny
ae?aiaae ?ioa?noeoe?th. ?oeiothoueny ye??i? o?eaiaioe oa o?a?iaeanoe/i?
ca’ycee, a?aeiia?aeaeuei? ca ioeuenaoe?th eai?ey??a oa a?aeo?e e?ioe ?c
i?iea?aea. Aeieea? e?ioinoac, yeee ni?ey? ooai?aiith eieaaaiiaeo o?a?ee
oa aeanoe/ieo aieieii a ia?eeai?ey?iiio i?inoi??. I?e AO ?oeiothoueny ua
e aeaye? e?ioaoe/i? i?e?inoaeeie aaeeeiai ae?aiao?o. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue
aei ua a?eueoiai canoith e?ioe a i?iea?ae? oa iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy oai
oiene/ii ae?th/eo i?iaeoeo?a iai?io ?a/iaei. I?e oeueiio aeieea? aaea ia
eieaeueiee, a aeeoociee ea?ae?ineea?ic (o?a?ic) oa i?iea?ae?iaeeno?io?y.
Eiiieaen ci?i a e?ioaoe/iiio ?one?, ?ioa?noeoe?? oa i?iea?ae?aeueieo
ee?oeiao ? iaei??th ?c i?e/ei ?icaeoeo na?oeaai? iaaeinoaoiino? oa
aaaeeiai ia?aa?ao ?I.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy oeueo?ano?oeoo?e a?ia?oaiceaiiai na?oey ?
i?aenoaaith aeey canoinoaaiiy oeeoii?ioaeoi??a, ?ioiiiiaeoeyoi??a oa
?ia?a?oi??a aia?ioaicei-ia?aoai?thth/iai oa?iaioo, ye cania?a
iaoiaaiaoe/ii? oa?ai??, o eiiieaen? ?c ?ioeie a?iioaiceaieie
i?aia?aoaie.

Ae?aaaoe/i? i?e?iaia?iiao??, e?ioaia?iiao?? oa o?aaeaiiy
ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a i?e ?inoe?iiiacaeaaeiiio oeoe?iaiio ae?aaao?. O oai?eo
ia eaaeo oi?io ?IOeAe c o?eaae?noth caoai?thaaiiy aei 10 ?ie?a ci?ie a
AIOe? iaei a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae eiio?ieueieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaeiae, o
iieiaei? aeiaaee?a aeyaeaii iii??ii ae?aaeai? iciaee ae?aaaoe/ieo
i?e?iaia?iiao?e. Aiie iieyaathoue o eieaeueiiio iioiauaii? aacaeueii?
iaia?aie aeayeeo EE. Iioiauaiiy aeieeathoue a ciiao ?oeioaaiiy
aacaeueii? ieaciieaie aiaeioae?aeueieo ee?oei. A oeeo i?noeyo aiia
iioiauo?oueny a 2 – 3 ?ace ? ao?a/a? oeiiao o?eoa?iao aoaeiao. O?aaeaiiy
aiaeioae?th i?e ?IOeAe iieyaa? oaeiae a ?oeioaaii? ethi?iaeueii?
ieaciieaie, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy oeeoiieaciaoe/ieo aenooi?a oa
i?e?iai?nei, ye? caoaeothoue i?ina?o eai?ey??a. Oa?aeoa?iith ?
a?ia?o?io?y yaea? aiaeioae?th ?, aeaui ??aeoa, — aiaeioae?ioeeo?a, ui ?
iaei??th ?c i?e/ei caoaeaiiy i?ina?oo i?e?inoaeei oa iia??oaiiy
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoe?? i?iea?aea. *anoi aeieea? aa?aaaoe?y oa
aioo??oiueieai?ey?iee aaiie?c a?eo?ioeeo?a.

I?e ?IOeAe na?aaeiuei? aaaeeino? o?aaeaiiy EE oa a?oa??ie a?eueoa
ae?aaeai?, i?ae i?e eaae?e oi?i?. Aacaeueia iaia?aia aaaaoueio EE
iioiauaia aaea ii oe?eiio ia?eiao?o. Ethi?iaeuei? i?e?iai?neie oa
oeeoiieaciaoe/i? aenooie /anoi a?aeuaieththoueny oeyoii i?e?ieeaciaoico.
I?e oeueiio ?ici??e aiaeioae?aeueieo ee?oei ciaioothoueny, a i?ina?o
eai?ey??a caoaeo?oueny. Ia /anoeiai c?oeiiaaieo ae?eyieao ethi?iaeueii?
ieaciieaie c’yaey?oueny oiieee oa? iii??ii ini?io?eueiiai
aacno?oeoo?iiai iaoa??aeo (iiaeeeai, a?eee ieacie e?ia?, /e ?ioii?
eiiieaene), yeee i?aeaeuo? aaeaaceai?noue aiaeioae?th oa ni?ey?
i?eeeiaiith aei iueiai iaeaea an?o ee?oei e?ia?, aea iae/ano?oa –
a?eo?ioeeo?a. Aeacai? ci?ie nooo?ai iia??oothoue i?e?iaaiiaeeiai?eo
i?iea?aea. Iia??oothoueny ?aieia?/i? aeanoeaino? e?ia?, coiiaeai?
ciaioaiiyi aeanoe/iino? oa i?oeiino? oeeoiieaciaoe/ieo iaia?ai ee?oei
e?ia?, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?oeioaaii? a?eo?ioeeo?a ? o?iiaioeeo?a oa
ca?eueiaiiy oaeoi??a cn?aeaiiy e?ia?. Oea ni?ey? ooai?aiith ia o?eueee
aa?aaao?a (a?eo?ioeeoa?ieo, o?iiaioeeoa?ieo oa ci?oaieo), aea e
i?e?io?iia?a. Caoaeaiiy i?ina?oo eai?ey??a oa a?oa??ie o ii?aeiaii? c
aa?aaaoe??th ee?oei e?ia? oa ?? aioo??oiueinoaeeiiei cn?aeaiiyi ?
i?e/eiith ?oeioaaiiy i?e?inoaeei, aeieeiaiiy ieacii?aa?e oa
i?e?ie?iaiaeeea?a. Iane?aeeii oeueiai ? ?oai?y i?iea?aea oa iae?ic
ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a.

O oai?eo ia ?IOeAe aaaeei? oi?ie aeyaeaii cia/ia, a ?iiae? — oioaeueia
o?aaeaiiy EE oa a?oa??ie. Iioiauaiiy aacaeueii? iaia?aie
i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea ca?eueoo? oeyo aeeooc?? eenith c e?iaiiiniiai
?onea aei EIOe oa cao?oaeith? i?iieeiaiiy noano?ao?a oa?/oaaiiy aei ieo,
ui aeeeeea? ?oai?th oa aeeno?io?th i?iea?aea. Aeyaeaii oaeiae c?oeiiaai?
EE oa a?oa??iee. Ia i?noe? c?oeiiaaieo a?oa??ie aeieeathoue io/ee
eieaaaiiaeo o?a?ee, na?aae yeeo ciaoiaeeoueny cia/ia e?euee?noue
aeanoe/ieo aieieii. Iane?aeeii oeeo ci?i ? ?aiiaeaethaaiiy
?ioa?noeoe?th, ?oai?y oa iae?ic EIOe, a oaeiae na?oeaaa iaaeinoaoi?noue.

I?e eaae?e oi?i? ?IOeAe e?ioaoe/i? eai?ey?e oa ia?eaaneoey?iee
?ioa?noeoe?e nooo?ai ia a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae eiio?ieueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue. I?e na?aaei?e oa aaaee?e oi?iao aeyaeaii ae?aaaoe/i?
e?ioaia?iiao??. Ca oeueo?ano?oeoo?ieie ci?iaie aiie ? o?ueio oei?a: c
iioiauaiiyi aacaeueii? iaia?aie (eeane/iee oei); c a?ia?o?io??th ye??ieo
o?eaiaio?a oa ia?eeai?ey?iei o?a?icii (neea?ioe/iee oei); c iioiauaiiyi
aacaeueii? iaia?aie o ii?aeiaii? c ia?eeai?ey?iei o?a?icii (ci?oaiee
oei). Eiaeai aeacaiee oei ae?aaaoe/ii? e?ioaia?iiao?? caeaaeeoue a?ae
ee?i?/ieo iniaeeainoae ia?aa?ao ?IOeAe oa iayaiino? o oai?eo ?ON /e AO.

?ioei aaaeeeaei i?iyaii ae?aaaoe/ieo e?ioaia?iiao?e ? aeaaaia?aoeai?
ci?ie a aiaeioae??: ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? aioo??oiueiee?oeiieo i?aaiae oa
oeeoia?aioe, iaa?ye aai noiioaiiy aiaeioae?th. Aeano?oeoe?y e?ioaoe/iiai
aiaeioae?th noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ?icoe?aiiyi i?eeaaeiai aacaeueiiai oa?o.
A?i noa? aaaaoioa?iaei, a eiai oiau? aeieeathoue eieaaaiia? o?a?eee.
?oeioaaiiy aiaeioae?aeueieo ee?oei i?ecaiaeeoue aei iinooiiaiai
caoaeaiiy i?ina?oo EE. Aeieea? o?ii?/ia iaaeinoaoi?noue e?ioaoe/ii?
nenoaie, ui ni?ey? neea?icoaaiith ia?eeai?ey?iiai ?ioa?noeoe?th.

I?e ?I ia oe? ?IOeAe e?euee?noue c?oeiiaaieo EE a ?ioaeoieo oa
eiei?ioa?eoieo ciiao na?oey c?inoa?. Ae?i?iaoe?y ee?oeiiiai aeao?eoo oa
e?i?ae?a ?c ciie iae?ico e?ioaoe/ieie eai?ey?aie i?e oeueiio
ciaioo?oueny, ?icoe?th?oueny ciia iae?ico, ca?eueoo?oueny ?ecee ?icaeoeo
?ic?eao na?oey oa ?ioeo oneeaaeiaiue ?I.

I?e ?IOeAe aeieea? ?ioa?noeoe?aeueiee o?a?ic oa i?iea?ae?iaeeno?io?y,
?aiiaeaethaaiiy i?iea?aea oa aeenooieoe?y e?aiai oeoii/ea. ?o iiaeia
iiia?aaeeoe, a iaea?eueo?e i???, c aeiiiiiaith ?ia?a?oi??a
aia?ioaiceiia?aoai?thth/iai oa?iaioo. Oe? i?aia?aoe caiia?aathoue
?aiiaeaethaaiith noaeei oa i?iea?aea, iathoue ea?ae?ii?ioaeoi?io ae?th
oa iie?auothoue ooieoe?th aiaeioae?th noaeei, i?eai?/othoue
eieaaaineioacoth/o ooieoe?th o?a?iaeano?a oa ciaioothoue iciaee
na?oeaai? iaaeinoaoiino?. Caeeoa?oueny aeooaeueiith i?iaeaia ae?i?iaoe??
e?i?ae?a c ?ioa?noeoe?th. ?niothoue ee?i?/i? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?
i?i oa, ui aaia?ei oa o?ce/i? ai?aae aeoea?cothoue e?iie?oe/i? oa?iaioe
noaeeiiiai aiaeioae?th, i’yc?a oa aee?iai? ee?oeiaeie, a oie /an ye
aioeieneaeaioe ciaioothoue oeeoioiene/io ae?th e?i?ae?a ia ee?oeie
i?iea?aea. Aeacai? i?aia?aoe iiaeii? i?ecia/aoeny a?eueoino? oai?eo ia
na?oeaai-noaeeii? caoai?thaaiiy oa ?IOeAe a aeinoaoi?o aeicao oa
o?eaaeee /an.

AENIIAEE

1. Ae??oaia i?iaeaia ee?oeiiiai ?aiiaeaethaaiiy i?iea?aea i?e ?ON,
a?ia?oii?/i?e oai?ia? oa oeoe?iaiio ae?aaao? c iaoith aaeineiiaeaiiy
iaoiae?a iaoiaaiaoe/iiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo.

2. Aoa?ineea?ic o?aaea? ia o?eueee ai?oo oa a?oa??? i’yciai —
aeanoe/iiai oeio, aea e noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ci?iaie a ia?ea?oa??iey?iiio
iioa?noeoei? i?iea?aea. A iueiio aeyaeaii aoa?iiaoici? aiaieua, a
oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? yeeo ciaoiaeyoueny e?enoaee oieanoa?eio
noai?e?ineii?/ieo ?ici???a.

3. Cai?iiiiiaaii «iae?ioaaaeueio» a?iioaco aoa?ineea?ico, ca yeith
iae?ioaae iiaeeiathoue aeao?eo c ?ioa?noeoe?th ? e?i?aee ?c ieacie e?ia?
oa ooai?ththoue e?enoaee oieanoa?eio ana?aaeei? aoi?eiieo e?cinii.
Oiaoi, e?enoaee oieanoa?eio iathoue aioo??oiueiee?oeiia, a ia
iicaee?oeiia iioiaeaeaiiy. I?ney aiiioico iae?ioaa?a e?enoaee
oieanoa?eio iieiythoueny a aoa?iiae?ioe/ieo aiaieuao, aea aiie
ca?eueoothoueny ca ?ici??aie oa aa?aaothoue i?ae niaith

4. Cai?iiiiiaaii «o?iiaiaaiio» eiioeaioe?th aa??aioii? noaiiea?ae??. A
iaoiaaiac? aa??aioii? noaiiea?ae?? ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy ia? o?iiaic, a
ia niaci a?ioeaaeo a?oa??e. Ei?iia?iniaci aeieea? aoi?eiii, aiane?aeie
niiioaiiiai o?iiaie?ceno, aeaa?aioeyoe?? o?iiaioeeo?a oa aea?eueiaiiy
a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo ?a/iaei c aacieiino?eeoi?iith ae??th. I?e aa??aioi?e
noaiiea?ae??, yea noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ?aoeei?ieieie ci?iaie naaiaioo ST,
iaiao?aeii i?ecia/aoe aioeo?iiaioe/i? caniae.

5. Iaei??th ?c i?e/ei caoaeaiiy i?ina?oo a?oa??e i?e ?ON ? i?eeeiaiiy
aei ?o o?aaeaieo no?iie o?iiaioeeo?a oa o?iiaioeeoa?ieo aa?aaao?a. I?ae
aieeaii o?iiaioeeoa?ieo oaeoi??a ?inoo iaaeiei ieo a?aeaoaa?oueny
i?ie?oa?aoe?y niieo/ii? oeaieie, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ua a?eueoiai
caoaeaiiy oa iae?oa?aoe?? i?ina?oo noaeei. Aioeo?iiaioeeoa?i? caniae,
iiia?aaeaeoth/e aa?aaaoe?th o?iiaioeeo?a oa o?iiaiooai?aiiy, oei naiei
caiia?aathoue i?ie?oa?aoe?? niieo/ii? oeaieie, caoaeaiith oa
iae?oa?aoe?? i?ina?oo a?oa??e.

6. A cii? ?ioa?eoo iaeiei ?c iaoai?ci?a iae?ico ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a ?
ao?aoa ieie yaea? a ia?o? aiaeeie caoai?thaaiiy («i?ieain yae?a»).
I?ieain yae?a oa?aeoa?iee aeey aeiiae?ioe/ii? oace ?ioa?eoo i?iea?aea ?
caii/aoeiao? eiaaoeyoe?eiee iae?ic ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a.

7. I?e ?ioa?eo? a i?iea?ae? aeieeathoue aaoi?ioii? ci?ie. Aiie
iieyaathoue a o?ainoi?iaoe?? A-e?ioioeeo?a, ye? aeeoee ?c
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea a ?ioa?noeoe?e, a ieaciaoe/i? ee?oeie, a
aeayeeo iiioeyoe?e O-e?ioioeeo?a – a oeeoioiene/i? ee?oeie. O oai?eo ia
?ioa?eo i?iea?aea ai?iaeiaae aino?iai ia??iaeo caoai?thaaiiy ??aaiue
Oe?E i?aeaeuaiee. Aeniea aeoeai?noue aaoi?ioiieo i?ioean?a ? i?aenoaaith
aeey canoinoaaiiy ianoa?i?aeieo i?ioecaiaeueieo i?aia?ao?a oa
?ioiiiiaeoeyoi??a.

8. E?ioaoe/i? eai?ey?e aeaiaeyoue ?c ciie iae?ico i?e ?ioa?eo? ia
o?eueee ee?oeiiee aeao?eo oa o?a?eiiaai, aea e e?i?aei? e?aie?.
Iaaeinoaoi?noue e?ioaoe/iiai ?onea na?oey i?ecaiaeeoue aei
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy cia/ii? e?eueeino? oeeoioiene/ii ae?th/eo e?i?ae?a a
cii? iae?ico, ui niia?eueith? i?ioeane ?oaoethaaiiy oa ni?ey?
aeieeiaiith ?ic?ea?a i?iea?aea.

9. I?e a?ia?oii?/i?e oai?ia?, aiane?aeie a?ia?o?io?? aiaeioae?th,
caoaeo?oueny i?ina?o a?oa??ie oa e?iaiiinieo eai?ey??a ? o?aaea?oueny
e?ioioee?eoeyoi?ia ?onei i?iea?aea. Ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? ooieoe?iioth/eo
eai?ey??a aeeeeea? ?oai?th oa aeeno?io?th ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a ? ni?ey?
?icaeoeo na?oeaai? iaaeinoaoiino?. Niia?eueiaiiy i?e?iaaiiaeeiai?ee ?
noac e?ia? i?ecaiaeyoue aei aeoiaeo ?ioiieiiiaoaioieo ee?oei e?ia? a
?ioa?noeoe?e oa aeieeiaiiy oai aaoi?ioiieo ci?i. Ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino?
iai?ioeeoa?ieo ee?oei a ?ioa?noeoe?? ni?e/eith? ?aiiaeaethaaiiy ? o?a?ic
i?iea?aea oa o?aaeaiiy ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a.

10. I?e ?inoe?iiiacaeaaeiiio oeoe?iaiio ae?aaao? aeieeathoue ae?aaaoe/i?
aaiii?e?i- oa e?ioaia?iiao??, ye? i?ia?anothoue c a?eii oa aaaee?noth
caoai?thaaiiy ? noi?iaiaeaeothoueny ?oeioaaiiyi i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai
?onea oa ?oai??th ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a.

11. C iaoith caoenoo i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea na?oey oa iiia?aaeaeaiiy
?aiiaeaethaaiiy i?iea?aea o oai?eo ia ?ON, a?ia?oii?/io oai?iao oa
?inoe?iiiacaeaaeiee oeoe?iaee ae?aaao ? i?aenoaae canoiniaoaaoe
oeeoii?ioaeoi?e, aia?ii?ioaeoi?e, ?AIO oa aioeo?iiaioeeoa?i? caniae.

I?AEOE*I? ?AEIIAIAeAOe??

1. Aioeo?iiaioeeoa?i? i?aia?aoe (ani??ei, oeeeii?aeei) iaiao?aeii
canoiniaoaaoe ia o?eueee i?e aino?eo oi?iao ?ON, aea e i?e noaa?euei?e
noaiiea?ae??, a?aoiaoth/e oa, ui aiie iiia?aaeaeoth/e aa?aaaoe?th
o?iiaioeeo?a oa ?o aaeaac?th aei noaeeiii? no?iee, oei naiei
caiia?aathoue i?ie?oa?aoe?? niieo/ii? oeaieie iaaeiei o?iiaioeeoa?ieo
aa?aaao?a, caoaeaiith oa iae?oa?aoe?? i?ina?oo a?oa??e.

2. A eiiieaenio oa?ai?th ?ioa?eoo i?iea?aea iiaeii? aoiaeeoe
oeeoii?ioaeoi?e (o?eiaoaceae?i), caeaoi? caoenoeoe noaeeiiee aiaeioae?e
oa ea?ae?ii?ioeeoe a?ae o?aaeaiiy.

3. I?e e?eoaaii? aa??aioii? noaiiea?ae?? iaiao?aeii canoiniaoaaoe, e??i
iaa?aeeeaaeiiai aaaaeaiiy ia?eioee?a oa aiaeaacoth/eo noi?oae,
aioeo?iiaioe/i? caniae (aaia?ei oa ani??ei).

4. I?e aenie?e aeoeaiino? aaoi?ioiieo ci?i o oai?eo ia ?ioa?eo i?iea?aea
aeioe?eueii i?ecia/aoe aieueoa?ai (50 ia aea?/? ia aeiao) aai
?iaeiiaoaoeei (25 ia o?e/? ia aeiao) o ia?o? aei? caoai?thaaiiy. Aiie
iathoue iiina?aaeeiaaiee aieea ia ?ioiieiiiaoaioi? ee?oeie e?ia?
i?ioyaii ia?oeo aeaio oeaei?a ?ioa?eoo.

5. C iaoith caoenoo e?ioaoe/ieo eai?ey??a a?ae o?aaeaiiy oa ?oeioaaiiy,
a oaeiae ciaioaiiy e?ioinoaco oa iaa?yeo ?ioa?noeoe?th, iaiao?aeii
i?ecia/aoe aacii?ioaeoi?e (aeaoeii) c ia?oeo aei?a ?ioa?eoo i?iea?aea.

6. I?e ?IOeAe ? i?aenoaae aeey canoinoaaiiy ea?ae?ii?ioaeoi??a
(o?eiaoaceaeeio). A?i iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia aia?aaoe/iee iai?i a
i?iea?ae?, ni?ey? aeei?enoaiith caian?a ae?eiaaio a ea?ae?ii?ioeeoao oa
iiia?aaeaeo? oiene/io ae?th a?eueieo aee?ieo eeneio ia i?iea?ae.

7. Aeey ae?aaiinoeee ii/aoeiaeo noaae?e aoa?ineea?ico aeioe?eueii
aecia/aoe iayai?noue e?enoae?a oieanoa?eio a iae?ioaaao, ye?
ciaoiaeyoueny a ia?ea?oa??iey?iiio i?inoi?? i?iea?aea.

8. Aeey ae?aaiinoeee ?ioa?eoo i?iea?aea a aeiiae?ioe/i?e oac? iaiao?aeii
aeyaeyoe aeo?ae yaea? ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a oa i?oioiiae??e a ?ioa?noeoe?e a
cii? ?ioa?eoo, ui ia? i?noea a ia?o? aiaeeie caoai?thaaiiy.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Aeeiaieea iaeioi?uo iieacaoaeae eioiiie nenoaiu o aieueiuo eioa?eoii
ieiea?aea / Eeye TH.A., Ca?aiaa A.O., Iaiueeianeee A.A., *eae A.Ae., Eou
E.I.// A?a/aaiia aeaei. – 1990.- ?11.-N.27-29.

2. Aieea aieueoa?aio oa oeiae?io ia ?ioiieiiiaoaioi? ee?oeie e?ia?
oai?eo ia aino?ee ?ioa?eo i?iea?aea / Eeye TH.A., Ca?aiaa A.O., *ii»ye
A.A., *eae A.Ae., Naae?a A.O., Oaaei?ia TH.A., Aieioeiianueea N.E.,
A?ooea I.A., Aiae A.A.//Oe?. ea?ae?ie. aeo?iae. – 1996. — ?2. – N.21-23.

3. Eeye TH.A., Ca?aiaa A.O. A?eoiiaaiia ae?y oa ?aioiaa nia?oue i?e
e?eoaaii? i?ioea?eoi?/ieie i?aia?aoaie // Acta Medica Leopoliencia =
Euea?anueeee iaaee/iee /aniien. – 1996. — ?1. – N.58-62.

4. Eeye TH.A. Aa??aioia noaiiea?ae?y: aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy iaoiaaiaco ?
e?eoaaiiy // Acta Medica Leopoliencia = Euea?anueeee iaaee/iee /aniien.
– 1996. — ?3-4. – N.83-88.

5. Kiyak J. Zerbino D. Pathogenesis and morphogenesis of
microcirculatory disorders in myocardial infarcfcion. Clinical and
ultrastructural examination // Pol.J. Pathol.-1996.-Vol.47, N1.-P.27-32.

6. Kiyak J. Cholesterol Crystals, smooth muscle cells and new data on
the genesis of atherosclerosis //Pol J Pathol.-1997.-Vol.7, N1.-P.49-55.

7. Eeye TH.A. Oeueo?ano?oeoo?a oa ooieoe?y e?ioaoe/ieo eai?ey??a i?e
?ioa?eo? // Acta Medica Leopoliencia = Euea?anueeee iaaee/iee /aniien. –
1997. — ?1-2. – N.88-95.

8. Eeye TH.A. Iaoiaaiac aoa?ineea?ico c iiceoe?? ?iceaae?a iaoaaie?cio
e?i?ae?a o i?iea?ae? i?e ?oai?/i?e oai?ia? na?oey // Acta Medica
Leopoliencia = Euea?anueeee iaaee/iee /aniien. – 1997. — ?3-4. – N.5-13.

9. Eeye TH.A. Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy iaoiaaiaco aoa?ineea?ico:
oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy e?i?ae?a a i?iea?ae? i?e ?oai?/i?e
oai?ia? na?oey // Patomorfologia wczoraj, dzis i jutro.- 1998. -?4. –
S.29-30.

10. Eeye TH.A. ?ieue aeaaeaiueeeo i’yciaeo ee?oei noaeeiiiai ?onea
i?iea?aea o iaoiaaiac? aoa?ineea?ico // Oe?. ea?ae. aeo?iae. – 1998. —
?7. – N.78-82.

11. Eeye TH.A. ?ieue e?ioaoe/ieo eai?ey??a i?iea?aea a ?aiiaeaethaaii?
na?oey i?e na?oeaai-noaeeiieo caoai?thaaiiyo: ee?i?ei-oeueo?ano?oeoo?i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy // Aeiiia?ae? IAI Oe?a?ie. – 1998. — ?12. – N. 176-180.

12. Eeye TH.A. O?aaeaiiy na?oey i?e oeoe?iaiio ae?aaao? // Aeooaeuei?
i?iaeaie iaaeeoeeie, a?ieia??, aaoa?eia??? ? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa.
– Euea?a.- 1998.- Ei. 4.- N. 42-47.

13. Eeye TH.A. ?ieue o?iiaioeeo?a a iaoiaaiac? ?oai?/ii? oai?iae na?oey
// Acta Medica Leopoliencia = Euea?anueeee iaaee/iee /aniien. – 1999. —
?1. – N. 14-21.

14. Ca?aiaa A.O., Eeye TH.A., *eae A.Ae. ?ieue aaoi?ioiiee ?iceaae?a a
iaoiaaiac? ?ioa?eoo i?iea?aea//I?aeoe/ia iaaeeoeeia.-
1999.-?3-4.-N.100-106.

15. Eeye TH.A. O?aaeaiiy aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea i?iea?aea i?e
a?ia?oaiceaiiio na?oe?: ee?i?ei — oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy//Oe?.
ea?ae. aeo?iae.- 1999.- ?2, aei.2.- N.36-38.

16. Iao. 17537 A Oe?a?ia, A61A 10/00. Niin?a ii?oieia?/ii? ae?aaiinoeee
aoa?ineea?ico i?iea?aea / Eeye TH.A. (UA).-? 95073563.- Cayae. 28.07.95,
iioae. 06.05.97; Io?oe?eiee atheeaoaiue.-?5.-N.3.1.46.

17. Ca?aeii Ae.Ae., Eeye TH.A., Ia?ooaiea i?iieoeaaiinoe e
o?aineaieeey?iiai iaiaia i?e eioa?eoa ieiea?aea // Oac. aeiee. OIII
Ananithciie eiioa?aioeee ii yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee. – Iineaa. – 1988. –
N. 155.

18. Eeye TH.A., Ca?aiaa A.O., *aaiaaoe A.O. Aioo?eieoioiiae?eaeueiua
aeeth/aiey eaeueoeey a ea?aeeiieieoao i?e eioa?eoa ieiea?aea o /aeiaaea
// Oac. aeiee. OIII Ananithciie eiioa?aioeee ii yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee.
– I., 1988. – N. 161.

19. Oeueo?ano?oeoo?ia ae?aaiinoeea aeeno?io?e ? iioeiaeaeaiue i?iea?aea
a ee?i?/i?e iaoieia?? / Eeye TH.A., Ai?ae?e I.Ae., Aoeaae/ A.E.,
Na?a??iei I.I. // Oace aeiiia?aeae «Iaaeeoeeia ? oa?iaoe?y – aeinyaiaiiy
? ia?niaeoeae». – Euea?a, 1990. – N. 85-86.

20. Eeye TH.A. Iniiaiua oeueo?ano?oeoo?iua oeiu aeaaee ea?aeeiieioeeoia
i?e eioa?eoa ieiea?aea // Aeooaeueiua aii?inu i?aeoe/aneie iaaeeoeeiu:
Na. iao/. o?. – Eueaia,1990. – N. 41-42.

21. Iiaua iiaeoiaeu e ea/aieth eioa?eoa ieiea?aea / Eeye TH.A., Ca?aiaa
A.O., Naaeea A.O. // Oac. aeiee. ? nuacaea ea?aeeieiaia Eacaonoaia. –
Aeia-Aoa, 1991. – N. 156.

22. Ca?aeii Ae.Ae., Eeye TH.A. Eioa?eo ieiea?aea: iee?ioee?eoeyoi?iua
ia?ooaiey a iino?aaieiaoeeiiiii ia?eiaea // Oac. aeiee. Ieaioia
i?aaeaiey Oe?aeineiai ?anioaeeeaineiai iauanoaa iaoieiaiaiaoiiia
«Aeooaeueiua aii?inu iaoieiaee ?aaieiaoeee e eioaineaiie oa?aiee». –
Caii?iaeuea. – 1991. – N. 3-4.

23. Eeye TH.A. Aeaye? i?aenoiee 15-??/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
oeueo?ano?oeoo?e i?iea?aea ethaeae, ye? iiia?ee a?ae ?ioa?eoo i?iea?aea
// Ieoaiiy i?aeoe/ii? iaaeeoeeie: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. – Euea?a, 1992. –
N.13-15.

24. Kiyak J., Zerbino D. Myocardial infarction: the role of reperfusion
in pathogenesis and morphogenesis //XIX International Congress of the
International Academy of Pathology, Madrid (Spain)// Patologia.- 1992.-
V.25, ?3.- P.152.

25. ?aieia?/i? ii?ooaiiy i?e ?ioa?eo? i?iea?aea: oeueo?ano?oeoo?i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy / Eeye TH.A., Ca?aiaa A.O., *eae A.Ae., Ai?ae?e Ae.A. //
Oace aeii. IV c’?caeo ea?ae?ieia?a Oe?a?ie. – Aei?i?iiao?ianuee. 1993. –
N.118.

26. Eeye TH.A. Oeueo?ano?oeoo?ia ae?aaiinoeea o?iia?a a
i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiio ?one? na?oey i?e ?ioa?eo? i?iea?aea // Oace aeii. V
eiia?ano iaoieiaiaiaoii?a Oe?a?ie. – *a?i?a?a, 1993. – N.80.

27. Eeye TH.A. Iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy ae?eiaaio a ea?ae?ii?ioeeoao ii ia?eoa???
iae?ico o oai?eo ia ?ioa?eo i?iea?aea: oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
// Oace aeii. IV c’?caeo ea?ae?ieia?a Oe?a?ie. – Aei?i?iiao?ianuee.
1993. – N.110.

28. Kiyak J. Acute myocardial infarction: ultrasructural studies of
myocardial cell death //XIVth European Congress of Pathology, Innsbruck
(Austria)//Pathol. Res. and Practice.- 1993.-V.189, N.6-7.- P.731.

29. Zerbino B., Kiyak J., Zaremba Y., Burachinski B. Intravascular blood
coagulation in myocardium during myocardial infarction: ultrasructural
examination //XIVth European Congress of Pathology, Innsbruck
(Austria)//Pathol. Res. and Practice.- 1993. V.189, No 6-7.- P.846.

30. Kiyak J. Pathogenesis and morphogenesis of microcirculatory
disorders of the heart during acute myocardial infarction: clinical and
ultrasructural examination //24. Jahrestagung der Osterreichischen
Gesellschaft fur Innere Medizin Wien// Acta Med. Austriaca.-1993.- V.20,
Sonderheft 1.- P.43.

31. Kiyak J. Influence of thrombolytic therapy for myocardial infarction
upon myocardial ultrastructure// Inter. Sympos. «Update in Thrombolysis
1994». — Vienna (Austria)//Annals of Hematology.-1994.- V.69, Suppl.2.-
P.S85.

32. Nenoaia cn?aeaiiy e?ia? ? o?a?eiie?c o oai?eo ia ?ioa?eo i?iea?aea
i?e eiiieaeniiio ?o e?eoaaii? c canoinoaaiiy aieueoa?aio ? oeiae?io /
Ca?aiaa A.O., Naae?a A.O., Eeye TH.A., *eae A.Ae., Eou ?.I., Caoa??y
E.A., E?iao I.A.//Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy iaaeeoeeie: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. –
Euea?a, 1995. – N. 76.

33. Eeye TH.A. Oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? iaoai?cie oi?ioaaiiy i?ney?ioa?eoiiai
?oaoey o oai?eo ia ?ioa?eo i?iea?aea // Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy iaaeeoeeie:
Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue.– Euea?a, 1995. – N. 36-38.

34. Kiyak J. Ultrastructure and functioning of cardiac lymphatic
capillaries //First FEPS Congress, Maastricht (The Netherlands)//
European J. Physiol. — 1995.-Vol.430, Suppl.4.- P.364.

35. Kiyak J. The role of smooth muscle cells in cholesterol crystal
synthesis: ultrasructural examination of human heart// XVth European
Congress of Pathology. Copenhagen (Denmark)//Pathol. Res. and
Practice1.- 1995.-V.191, ?7-8.-P.694.

36. Eeye TH.A. Oeueo?ano?oeoo?ia ae?aaiinoeea ea?ae?ineea?ico // Oace
aeii. VI eiia?ano NOOEO. – Iaeana, 1996. – N.142.

37. Kiyak J.,Burachinskiy B. Ultrastructural aspects of age-induced
changes in the human heart //15th Osterreichischer Geriatriekongres mit
internationaler Beteiligung.- Bad Hofgastein (Austria), 1996.-P.70.

38. Kiyak J. Smooth muscle cells, cholesterol crystals and a new theory
of atherogenesis//27. Juhrestagung der Osterreichischen gesselschaft fur
Innere Medizin, Linz, 1996// Acta Med. Austriaca.-1996.-V.23.-P.35.

39. Ii??aiyeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea aieeao aieueoa?aio, oeoaae?io oa
oeiae?io ia aeeiai?eo Oe?E i?e eiiieaeniiio e?eoaaii? oai?eo ia ?ioa?eo
i?iea?aea / Ca?aiaa A.O., *eae A.Ae., Eeye TH.A., Naae?a A.O., Neea/ee
A.A., Eou ?.I. // No/ani? aniaeoe iaa?aeeeaaeii? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae:
Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. – Euea?a, 1997. – N.96-97.

40. Eeye TH.A. Iia? aeai? i?i iaoi – ? ii?oiaaiac aoa?ineea?ico //
Iaoa??aee V eiia?ano ea?ae?ieia?a Oe?a?ie. – Ee?a, 1997. – N.48.

41. Eeye TH.A. Iaoiaaiac aa??aioii? noaiiea?ae??: niaci /e iacaaa?oaiee
o?iiaic a?ioeaai? a?oa??? // Iaoa??aee V eiia?ano ea?ae?ieia?a Oe?a?ie.
– Ee?a, 1997. – N.48-49.

42. Burachinsky B., Kiyak J. Myofibrillar degeneration in older patients
with diabetes mellitus.//16th Osterreichischer Geriatriekongres.-
Zalzburg (Austria), 1997.- P.7.

43. Kiyak J. Diabetes mellitus in older patients and ultrastructural
examination of coronary microcirculation //16th Osterreichischer
Geriatriekongres.- Bad Hofgastein (Austria), 1997.- P.18.

44. Burachinsky B., Kiyak J. Autoimmune changes in myocardium of
patients with hypertensive heart disease //28. Osterreichischen
Gesellschaft fur Innere Medizin. Innsbruck// Acta Med. Austriaca.-
1997.- ?1.- P.20.

45. Burachinsky B., Kiyak J. Myocardial ultrastructure in patients with
essential hypertension and acute myocardial infarction//5th Alpe-Adria
Cardiology Meeting in Austria (Graz)// J.Kardiol (Special
Ed.).-1997.-N2.-P.11.

46. Kiyak J. Acute myocardial infarction: ultrasructural aspects of
thrombosis formation and platelets activation//5th Alpe-Adria Gardiology
Meeting in Austria (Graz)// J. Kardiol. (Special Edition).-1997.-N
2.-P.183.

47. Eeye TH.A. Ae?aaaoe/i? i?e?iaia?iiao?? i?iea?aea:
ee?i?ei-oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy // Iaoa??aee VI eiia?ano
iaoieia?a Oe?a?ie. – A?iieoey, 1998. – N.74-78.

48. Eeye TH.A. ?aiiaeaethaaiiy i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea oa ?ioii?
ci?ie a i?iea?ae? i?e a?ia?oii?/i?e oai?ia?: ee?i?ei-oeueo?ano?oeoo?i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy // Iaoa??aee XII c’?caeo oa?aiaao?a Oe?a?ie. – Ee?a,
1998. –N.157-160.

49. Ca?aeii Ae.Ae., Eeye TH.A. E?ioieai?ey?ia ?onei i?iea?aea oa
?aiiaeaethaaiiy ?ioa?noeoe?th i?e ?ioa?eo?, a?ia?oii?/i?e oai?ia? oa
oeoe?iaiio ae?aaao?//Iaoa??aee Oe?. iaoeia. eiio. «I?e?ioee?eoeyoe?y oa
?? a?eia? ci?ie». – Ee?a, 1999.- N.48-50.

50. Eeye TH. ?aiiaeaethaaiiy aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea i?iea?aea
i?ae aieeaii a?eo, ?oai?/ii? oai?iae na?oey, a?ia?oii?/ii? oai?iae ?
oeoe?iaiai ae?aaaoo oa aeaye? aniaeoe e?eoaaiiy //Iaoa??aee Oe?. iaoeia.
eiio. «I?e?ioee?eoeyoe?y oa ?? a?eia? ci?ie». – Ee?a, 1999.- N.54.

Aiioaoe?y

Eeye TH.A. ?aiiaeaethaaiiy i?iea?aea i?e ?oai?/i?e oai?ia? na?oey,
a?ia?oii?/i?e oai?ia? oa oeoe?iaiio ae?aaao? (ee?i?ei-oeueo?ano?oeoo?i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.01.02 — aioo??oi? oai?iae. — ?aaii-O?aie?anueea
aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y, ?aaii-O?aie?anuee., 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith oeueo?ano?oeoo?ieo
caeiiii??iinoae ?aiiaeaethaaiiy i?iea?aea ethaeeie, c’ynoaaiith
iaoiaaiaco oa ii?oiaaiaco ?oai?/ii? oai?iae na?oey, a?ia?oii?/ii?
oai?iae oa oeoe?iaiai ae?aaaoo. Aeyaeaii, ui aoa?ineea?ic iioe?th?oueny
ia ia?eaaneoey?iee ?ioa?noeoe?e a?oa??ie na?oey. C’yniaaii, ui e?enoaee
oieanoa?eio ooai?ththoueny aioo??oiueiee?oeiii, ana?aaeei? aoi?eiieo
e?cinii iae?ioaa?a. ?ic?iaeaii iae?ioaaaeueio a?iioaco iaoiaaiaco
aoa?ineea?ico oa o?iiaiaaiio eiioeaioe?th iaoiaaiaco aa??aioii?
noaiiea?ae??. Aeyaeaii, ui iaeiei ?c iaoai?ci?a iae?ico ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a
a cii? ?ioa?eoo ? aeo?ae ?o yaea? a ?ioa?noeoe?e /a?ac ?ic?eae a
na?eieai?, aiane?aeie ia?anei?i/aiiy i?io?a?ee. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
e?ioaoe/i? eai?ey?e aeaiaeyoue ?c ciie ?ioa?eoo oeeoioiene/ii ae?th/?
e?i?aee, iaiaaeoth/e ae?eyieo iae?ico. A?ia?oii?/ia oai?iaa oa oeoe?iaee
ae?aaao i?ecaiaeyoue aei o?aaeaiiy e?iaiiinieo oa e?ioaoe/ieo eai?ey??a
i?iea?aea ? ?aiiaeaethaaiiy no?iie na?oey, ui ? i?e/eiith ?oai?? oa
aeeno?io?? ea?ae?ii?ioeeo?a. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?aoe? ai?iaaaeaeaii a
i?aeoeeo iaoiii?oieia?/ii? ae?aaiinoeee aoa?ineea?ico, e?eoaaiiy oai?eo
ia ?ioa?eo i?iea?aea oa a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean.

51. Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?aiiaeaethaaiiy i?iea?aea, oeueo?ano?oeoo?a,
aoa?ineea?ic, ?ioa?eo, noaiiea?ae?y, a?ia?oii?/ia oai?iaa, oeoe?iaee
ae?aaao.

Aiiioaoeey

Eeye TH.A. ?aiiaeaee?iaaiea ieiea?aea i?e eoaie/aneie aieacie na?aeoea,
aeia?oiie/aneie aieacie e naoa?iii aeeaaaoa (eeeieei-oeueo?ano?oeoo?iua
enneaaeiaaiey). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.01.02-aioo?aiiea aieacie. – Eaaii-O?aieianeay
ainoaea?noaaiiay iaaeeoeeineay aeaaeaiey, Eaaii-O?aieiane, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth oeueo?ano?oeoo?iuo
caeiiiia?iinoae ?aiiaeaee?iaaiey ieiea?aea /aeiaaea, iaoiaaiaca e
ii?oiaaiaca eoaie/aneie aieacie na?aeoea, aeia?oiie/aneie aieacie e
naoa?iiai aeeaaaoa. Ia iniiaaiee enneaaeiaaiey yeni?ann-iae?iioaoia
ieiea?aea onoaiiaeaii, /oi aoa?ineea?ic ii?aaeaao ia oieueei ai?oo e
a?oa?ee iuoa/ii-yeanoe/aneiai oeia, ii e ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia
ia?eaaneoey?iue eioa?noeoeee a?oa?eie na?aeoea. Oai auyaeaiu
aoa?iiae?ioe/aneea i/aae, niaea?aeauea e?enoaeeu oieanoa?eia
noaiee?ineiie/aneeo ?acia?ia. E?enoaeeu ca?iaeaeathony aioo?eeeaoi/ii ai
aoi?e/iuo eeciniiao iae?ioaaia ec oaaioeeoe?iaaiiiai ec eioa?noeoeey
eeaoi/iiai aeao?eoa. Iinea ?ac?ooaiey iae?ioaaia e?enoaeeu iiiaaeatho ai
aiaeeaoi/iia i?ino?ainoai, oaaee/eaathony a ?acia?ao e aa?aae?otho
iaaeaeo niaie. I?aaeeiaeaii iae?ioaaaeueioth aeiioaco aoa?ineea?ica.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aa?eaioiay noaiiea?aeey aicieeaao a ?acoeueoaoa
o?iiaica aaia/iuo a?oa?ee. Ei?iia?iniaci aicieeaao aoi?e/ii, iiae
aeeyieai aacieiino?eeoi?ia, eioi?ua inaiaiaeaeathony i?e aeaa?aioeyoeee
o?iiaioeeoia. I?e/eiie noaeaiey a?oa?ee i?e EAN yaeyaony aaeaacey
o?iiaioeeoa?iuo aa?aaaoia eee o?iiaia e ii?aaeaiiui noaieai ninoaeia.
Aie?oa ieo i?ienoiaeeo i?ieeoa?aoeey niaaeeieoaeueiie oeaie, /oi
i?eaiaeeo e aua aieueoaio eo noaeaieth. Iaeiei ec iaoaieciia iae?ica
ea?aeeiieioeeoia a ciia eioa?eoa a ia?aua /anu caaieaaaiey yaeyaony
auoiae eo yaea? /a?ac ?ac?uau a na?eieaiia a eioa?noeoeee. Yoio i?ioeann
i?aaeoanoaoao eiaaoeyoeeiiiiio iae?ico ea?aeeiieioeeoia. I?e eioa?eoa a
ieiea?aea aicieeatho aooieioiiua eciaiaiey. Iie caeeth/athony a
o?ainoi?iaoeee A-eeioioeeoia, eioi?ua auoee ec aaiiiee?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai
?onea a eioa?noeoeee, a ieaciaoe/aneea eeaoee. Iie i?iaeooee?otho
eiioiiaeiaoeeiu, i?eieiay o/anoea a ia?aciaaiee eiioiiuo eiiieaenia.
Eiee/anoai iineaaeieo iiauoaii a ino?ii ia?eiaea caaieaaaiey. Iaeioi?ua
iiioeyoeee O-eeioioeeoia o?ainoi?ie?othony a oeeoioiene/aneea eeaoee,
iia?aaeaeathuea ea?aeeiieioeeou. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi iaaeaeo eeioaoe/aneeie
eaieeey?aie e aeeceaaeaueie ea?aeeiieioeeoaie nouanoaoao aiaoiie/aneay
acaeiinaycue /a?ac oea?iyeanoe/aneea naycee. Iie ia?aaeatho nie?auaiey
ea?aeeiieioeeoia ia eeioaoe/aneea eaieeey?u, niinianoaoy iooieo eeiou e
ae?aiaaeo no?iiu na?aeoea. Eeioaoe/aneea eaieeey?u auaiaeyo ec ciiu
iae?ica eeaoi/iue aeao?eo, oea?eiiaai e oeeoioiene/anee aeaenoaothuea
eeieaeu, ia?aie/eaay oai naiui ieiuaaeue eioa?eoa e ?acia?u
iinoeioa?eoiiai ?oaoea. Iaaeinoaoi/iinoue eeioaoe/aneiai ?onea na?aeoea
yaeyaony i?e/eiie /?acia?iiai neiieaiey eeaoi/iiai aeao?eoa a ciia
eioa?eoa, /oi caiaaeeyao i?ioeannu ?oaoeaaaiey e oaaee/eaaao ?ene
?acaeoey ?ac?uaa ieiea?aea e ae?oaeo ineiaeiaiee eioa?eoa.
Aeia?oiie/aneay aieaciue aaaeao e aeia?o?ioee ninoaeenoiai yiaeioaeey,
noaeaieth i?inaaoa a?oa?eie e e?iaaiiniuo eaieeey?ia, oooaeoaieth
aaiiiee?ioee?eoeyoeee ieiea?aea. Yoi, a eiia/iii eoiaa, yaeyaony
i?e/eiie eoaiee, aeeno?ioee e iae?ica eaaeeiieioeeoia. Ia?ooaiea
iee?iaaiiaeeiaieee a aeia?o?ioe?iaaiiii ieiea?aea niinianoaoao auoiaeo
eiioiieiiiaoaioiuo eeaoie e?iae ec iee?ininoaeenoiai ?onea a
eioa?noeoeee e aicieeiiaaieth oai aooieiioiiuo eciaiaiee. Oaaee/aiea
eiee/anoaa iaieioeeoa?iuo eeaoie a eioa?noeoeee yaeyaony iaeiie ec
i?e/ei ?aiiaeaee?iaaiey ieiea?aea, oea?ica no?iiu na?aeoea e
aeaeueiaeoaai iia?aaeaeaiey ea?aeeiieioeeoia. I?e aeia?oiie/aneie
aieacie iia?aaeaeaaony oaeaea eeioaoe/aneia ?onei na?aeoea. Aicieeaao
eeoinoac, ieacuaathuee neea?iaaiiia aeaenoaea ia ieiea?ae. I?iaeoeou
iaiaia aauanoa, eioi?ua ia auaiaeyony /a?ac eeioaoe/aneea eaieeey?u,
oiene/anee aeaenoaotho ia ea?aeeiieioeeou, iaoneaaeeaay na?aea/ioth
iaaeinoaoi/iinoue. Einoeeiiiacaaeneiue naoa?iue aeeaaao nii?iaiaeaeaaony
?acaeoeai aeeaaaoe/aneeo iee?iaiaeiiaoee ieiea?aea e eeioaiaeiiaoee.
Iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iui oeueo?ano?oeoo?iui i?iyaeaieai iee?iaiaeiiaoee
yaeyaony ooieuaiea aacaeueiiai neiy e?iaaiiniuo eaieeey?ia.
Iaeiia?aiaiii iia?aaeaeathony yiaeioaeeioeeou e ia?eoeeou. Iinoaiaiii
noaeaaony i?inaao eaieeey?ia e oooaeoaaony iee?iaaiiaeeiaieea. Aicieeaao
eoaiey ea?aeeiieioeeoia e aeaa?iaoeey ieiea?aea. Oeueo?ano?oeoo?ii
aeaa?iaoeey i?iyaeyaony oaaee/aieai eiee/anoaa a?aioe aeeeiaaia a
na?eiieacia ea?aeeiieioeeoia. Ia yoii oiia i?ia?anne?otho
aeeno?ioe/aneea eciaiaiey. Iie caeeth/athony a eoioeyoeee eeieaeia a
na?eiieacia, eecena ieoioiiae?ee e ieioea?ee. A eiia/iii eoiaa,
i?ienoiaeeo ?ac?ooaiea na?eieaiiu e iae?ic ea?aeeiieioeeoia.
Ii?oieiae/aneea eciaiaiey a ea?aeeiieioeeoao yaeythony i?e/eiie
na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe e neeiiiinoe aieueiuo naoa?iui aeeaaaoii e
?acaeoeth eioa?eoa ieiea?aea. I?iyaeaieai aeeaaaoe/aneie eeioaiaeiiaoee
yaeyaony ooieuaiea aacaeueiiai neiy eeioaoe/aneeo eaieeey?ia eee
aeia?o?ioey yei?iuo oeeaiaioia. I?e naoa?iii aeeaaaoa a ieiea?aea
ooieuaaony aacaeueiay iaia?aia na?eieaiiu ea?aeeiieioeeoia e aicieeaao
ia?eaaneoey?iue oea?ic. ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou aiaae?aiu a ea/aaioth
i?aeoeeo, iaoiii?oieiae/aneoth aeeaaiinoeeo aoa?ineea?ica e a o/aaiue
i?ioeann.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?aiiaeaee?iaaiea ieiea?aea, oeueo?ano?oeoo?a,
aoa?ineea?ic, eioa?eo, noaiiea?aeey, aeia?oiie/aneay aieaciue, naoa?iue
aeeaaao.

Annotation

Kiyak J.H. Myocardium remodelling during ischemic heart disease,
essential hypertension and diabetes mellitus (clinical and
ultrastructural examination). — Manuscript.

The dissertation is submitted for the M.D. degree in speciality 14.01.02
— internal diseases. — State Medical Academy, Ivano-Frankivsk, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to investigating the ultrastructural
myocardial remodelling, clarifying pathogenesis and morphogenesis of
ischemic heart disease, essential hypertension and diabetes mellitus. It
has been revealed that atherosclerosis is spread over periarteriola
interstitium of the heart. Cholesterol crystals are generated in the
macrophagic secondary lisosomes. The macrophagic hypothesis of
atherosclerosis and thrombogenic concept of variant angina is offered.
It has been revealed that the cause of cardiomyocyte necrosis is the
nucleus prolapse into the interstitium in the infarction zone. Lymphatic
capillaries eliminate cytotoxic lipids from the necrotic zone decreasing
the infarction area. Essential hypertension and diabetes mellitus damage
blood and lymphatic microvessels causing interstitium remodelling and
cardiomyocyte ischemia. The results of our research have been
implemented in the diagnostics of atherosclerosis, the treatment of
myocardial infarction patients, and academic courses taught to medical
students.

Key words: myocardium remodelling, ultrastructure, atherosclerosis,
infarction, variant angina, hypertension, diabetes mellitus.

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