IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO O?EINIO?? ?i. A.N.NEIAI?IAeE

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 21. 009: 316. 37

CAIIIE IAOAE?ss NOAIAI?AIA

?AE?A?EIEE ANIAEO AeOOIAIEO IIOOE?A

(IA IAOA??AEAO OE?A?INUeEI? OA ?IN?ENUeEI? OOAeIAEIUeI? E?OA?AOO?E
60–80-o ?IE?A)

niaoe?aeuei?noue 09.00.11 – ?ae?a??ciaanoai

AAOI?AOA?AO AeENA?OAOe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo iaoe

EE?A-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i.I.I.
Ae?aaiiaiiaa (eaoaae?a eoeueoo?ieia??)

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ?
oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie

Caeiae/ Ieeiea Ieoaeeiae/,

-caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
eoeueoo?ieia??

IIO ?i. I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

1.Aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe Aeoeoiai ?aa?ao Eaeaieeiae/ -i?ioani?
eaoaae?e o?einio?? Oe?a?inueeiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo;

2.Eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe Ee?thoei Ieeiea ?aaiiae/ — noa?oee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ? iie?oe/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Co?aeiioe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

i. Eoaainuee, eaoaae?a
o?einio?? ? nioe?ieia??

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 29 ”/a?aiy 1999 ?. i “14” aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.161.03 a ?inoeooo?
o?einio?? ?i.A.N. Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie (252001, i. Ee?a, aoe.
O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
o?einio?? ?i.

A.N. Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie (252001, i. Ee?a, aoe.
O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “26” o?aaiy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao inoi?e/ieo iaoe
Iaaeoiea A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie aeineiaeaeaiiy. Aeooiaii iiooee
iniaenoinoi ye iiaeeeainoue inyaiaiiy ethaenueei? nooi a iiaeo
eiie?aoii-inoi?e/ieo oiiaao iaaoaathoue iniaeeai? aeooaeueiinoi.
I?aaiaiiy aei aoiaiicaoei? noniieuenoaa, ooaa?aeaeaiiy i?ii?eoaoo
caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oeiiiinoae noeioeth? iioa?an aei eoeueoo?iiai
aniaeoo oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoinoi. No/ania noniieuenoai, ui ia?aaoaa? a
noaii e?ece, iio?aao? ieney/i?, aeooiaii aaaaoi? iniaenoinoi,
yea aiae/oaaea a aiaeiiaiaeaeueiinoue ca nioeiaeueii-iieioe/iee ?
aeiiiii/iee ?icaeoie e?a?ie, ca caa?aaeaiiy aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e
ia?iaeo. I?iaieioaiiy Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith Aeaeea?aoei? i?i aea?aeaaiee
noaa?aiioao Oe?a?ie iieeaei ii/aoie aea?aeaaioai?aiith oe?a?inueei?
iaoei?. A oea iaeiiai?ii neeaaeia a no/anieo oiiaao caaaeaiiy
iio?aao? iaaiaeeeaaeiiai ?ica’ycaiiy ieoaiue uiaei /eiieeia oi?ioaaiiy
iniaenoinoi. O ca’yceo c oeei aeooaeueiith aeaea?oueny i?iaeaia
?ae?a?eieo aeooiaieo iiooeia iniaenoinoi, ui iaaoaa? iniaeeaiai
cia/aiiy inoaiiii /anii, eiee iiiioia iineeaiiy aieeao ?aeiai? ia
aeooiaii aniaeoe noaiiaeaiiy Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

O inoi?i? eoeueoo?e ethaenoaa aeooiaii iiooee ii i?aao iiaeia
iacaaoe iaeii?th c eeth/iaeo oai. Caa?iaiiy aei ia? aeania oae /e
iiaeoa aoee aeeneoni?th i?i oeiei oa oeiiiinoi, niinia aeeooy oa
nooi?noue aeeoo??icoiiiiy, iiooe nieneo aeeooy oa iaeaaeo, yea
i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac anth inoi?ith ethaenoaa. Oeei iaoiiaeaia iio?aaa o
aeine?aeaeaii? ?ae?a?eieo aeooiaieo iiooeia iniaenoino? c oi/ee ci?o
caaino?aieo noia?a/iinoae OO noieiooy.

Iinoaiiaeo oaei? naioiaeyaeii? i?iaeaie, ye aeooiaii, cie?aia,
?aeiaieii iiooee, caeieniththoue ienoaoeoai i eioa?aoo?a, cae/aeii,
niaoeeoi/ieie ii?iaiyii c oieinioi?th caniaaie. I?ioeane, ye?
a?aeaoaathoueny a noni?euenoa?, ciaoiaeyoue nai? ae?aaeaiiy a
ooaeiaei?e e?oa?aoo??. Caeienieaoe ?? oieinionueeee aiaeic, iiaeia
aieueo /ioei oyaeoe i?iaeaie no/aniiai aoooy, cie?aia, oi, ui
aeieeathoue o aeooiaiie noa?i.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeaia
oaeeie /eiieeaie:

— o na?oiaeyaeiiio a?aeiioaii? noni?euenoai ia?aaoaa? ia
?icaei??aeae?: na?oiaeyae ?aaeyinueei? aeiae ao?a/aii, a iiaee
na?oiaeyae noni?euenoaa ia?aaoaa? o noai? oi?ioaaiiy. Iianyeaeaiii
iie?oeee, a/ai?, ?ae?a?ei? ae?y/? aeaeea?othoue i?aeaeuaiiy ?ie? ?ae?a??
o aeooiaiiio aeeoo? iniae, aea a?aenooi? ?icoi?iiy iaoai?cio
?aae?caoe?? ia’?aeioth/i? ooieoe?? ?ae?a??. Iiooe oeyo?a ?aae?caoe??
oe??? ooieoe?? ooaeiaei?ie iaoiaeaie cae?enith? no/ania ooaeiaeiy
e?oa?aoo?a, ii/eiath/e c 60-o ?ie?a;

-o nioe?aeueiiio ieai? aea/aiiy ?ae?a?eiiai aniaeoo aeooiaieo
iiooe?a caniaaie ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e o 60-80-o? ?iee iieaco?
aec??aaiiy no/aniiai ?icia?ooy ?ae?a?eiiai aeeooy a iaae?ao
?aaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, yea ia?aaoaaei o aeeaie?e e?ec?,
ianaiia?aae aeooiai?e;

-o aiinaieia?/iiio aniaeo? ?icoi?iiy i?ciaaaeueieo ?ioaioe?e
no/anii? ethaeeie iaiiaeeeaa aac aeine?aeaeaiiy ?o oi?ioaaiiy i?ioyaii
inoaii?o aeanyoe??/, ui iaeiiai?oa ciaeueiaaii naia caniaaie
ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e.

Aeooiaii iiooee a eioa?aoo?i caaaeaee iaee aio?iiioeaio?e/io
ni?yiiaaiinoue, ine?eueee iaoo?aeinoe/ia, nioeiaeueii-inoi?e/ia
iiaea?oioy ?ae?a?eieo aeooiaieo iiooe?a aiaeico?oueny ia a?aeie?aieaii,
a o niiaaiaeiioaiii c ethaeeiith, ye iioieiai/iee aeii? ?? aeooiaiinoi.
?ae?a?ei? aeooiaii iiooee iinoathoue o aeineiaeaeaiii ia ye
i?aaeiao oai?aoe/ieo niaeoeyoeie, a a aeeoo?ai-i?aeoe/iiio ieaii
ii?aeueiiai naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy iniaenoinoi, aei?iaoaaiiy i noaiiaeaiiy
ethaenueeiai aeooo. Ineieueee iaeaeooaeuei?oith /anoeiith aeooiaieo
iiooeia aoee i caeeoathoueny i?iaeaie, iia’ycaii ic iniaeno?niei
caa?iaiiyi aei Aiaa, aiie e noaee ia’?eoii aeineiaeaeaiiy
aeena?oaioa.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ? neeaaeiaith
/anoeiith ieaiiai? oaie “I?iaeaie na?oiaeyaeiiai aeoiaaiiy a no/anieo
oiiaao”, iaae yeith i?aoeth? i?ae ea??aieoeoaii i?io. Caeiae/a I.I.
eaoaae?a eoeueoo?ieia?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa.

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoei? ? cae?eniaiiy
eiiieaeniiai o?einionueeiai aiae?co i?e?iaee ?ae?a?eieo aeooiaieo
iiooe?a, c’ynoaaiiy ?o ciinoo ? oi?i i?iyao a ooaeiaei?e e?oa?aoo??
60-80-o ?ie?a OO no., a oaeiae ?o aieeao ia oi?ioaaiiy ii?aeueieo
yeinoae ? na?oiaeyaeo iniaenoino?.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe aaoi? iinoaaea oae? caaaeaiiy:

— i?iaiaeicoaaoe iniiai? aeine?aeieoeuee? i?aeoiaee oa
o?einionueei-iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae aea/aiiy i?iaeaie;

— c’ynoaaoe nooi?noue ? no?oeoo?o iiiyooy “aeooiai? iiooee” oa
“?ae?a?ei? aeooiai? iiooee”;

— ia iaoa??aeao oe?a?inueei? oa ?in?enueei? ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e
60-80-o ?ie?a aeine?aeeoe /eiieee, ui aieeaaee ia aeya ? oa?aeoa?
?ae?a?eieo aeooiaieo iiooe?a;

— c’ynoaaoe ii?aeueii-na?oiaeyaeio cia/ei?noue ?ae?a?eii-aeooiaieo
iiooe?a a oiiaao iaaecia/aiino? nioe?aeueii-ii?aeueieo i???ioe??a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeineiaeaeaiiy. O?einionueeee aiae?c oe?a?inueei?
oa ?inienueei? ooaeiaeiuei? eioa?aoo?e 60-80-o ?ieia aeyaea ieano
aeooiaieo iiooeia, oe?ii?niei oeaio?ii yeeo noaa ?o ?ae?a?eiee aniaeo,
ni?yiiaaiee ia ii?aeuei? i???ioe?e aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, ia ?ice?eooy ?o
cia/aiiy a ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio aooo?, aecia/aiiy ?ae?a?eii? a??e ye
nieneiaecia/aeueii? iniiae ia oeyoo aeoiaeo ?c noaio noaaiaoe??
noni?euenoaa ? aeaa?aaeaoe?? iniae, aei a?aeoai?aiiy c?iuaiiai
ia?iaeiith ii?aeeth ? caaaa/aiiai o?enoeyinueeith aoeeith ii/oooy
niai?iino? ethaenueei? iniaenoino?.

A iaaeao i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?ii caeiaooi ?acoeueoaoe,
ui neeaaeathoue aeaiaioe iiaecie:

1. Aeooiai? iiooee a noni?euenoa? ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a
ooaeiaei?e e?oa?aoo??, yea coi?ea a ?aaeyinueeeo ?aeaieia?/ieo oiiaao
?ai?oa, i?ae oea a?aeaoeiny a o?einio??, ae?aceoe ?o nooi?noue. Aeooiai?
iiooee aoee ?acoeueoaoii nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo ci?i, ui a?aeaoaaeeny a
60-80-o ?ieao. Na?oiaeyaeia i???ioaoe?y aeooiaieo iiooe?a iniaenoino?
ni?eyea ?icaeoeo ?? aeeoo?ai? aeoeaiino?, a ?o ?ae?a?eiee aniaeo a?a
aei naiaiaee iniaenoino? /a?ac aeooiai? iiooee aeaniiai “ss” –
iaiao?aeii? oiiae aeey iaaoooy nieneo aeeooy, iiaeieaiiy i???ae i?ae
?aaeueiei aeeooyi ? eiai aeooiaieie aei??aie ?aea?th Aiaa.

2. ?ae?a?eia ci???ioiaai?noue aeooiaieo iiooe?a, ui iaea nai?
aeoiee o “aiaiooeaii?” ii/aoeo OO no. ? i?iiiioaaea ye can?a
ia?aaoaeiae na?oo caa?iaiiy aei iiiaeaiiai o?enoeyinoaa, a oiiaao
60-80-o ?ie?a ae?aaeaea ia/aea aeia?a, na?oea, e?ane, ethaia? a
o?enoeyinueeeo ia?acao-neiaieao (Niai?o, Iaaeiiie, Aaeaio, a iinoaoyo
a?ae?eii? ? oea?eiaii? ?noi???), ui aeaaaei (iniaeeai a oe?a?inuee?e
ooaeiaei?e e?oa?aoo?? ) a?ae/oooy niai?iino? aeoo ? ooaa?aeaeoaaei
niai?i?noue ia?iaeo, iaoe??, Oe?a?ie. Aiaeii/an aeooiai? iiooee a noa??
?ae?a?eii? na?aeiiino? (ui caeaa?eueoiai i?iyaeeiny a ?in?enuee?e
ooaeiaei?e e?oa?aoo??) iaaoaaee ?en aeayei? neie?aoe/iino?:
aca?iiiia’ycai?noue ia?iaeii? a??e c o?enoeyinueeeie aeaiaioaie,
i?aaiaiiy aei aaciaaeii?, aia?o?/ii ni?eeia?ii? naiaiaee (?anioo?i,
Ooeoei).

3. A no?oeoo?? aeooiaieo iiooe?a ?o ?ae?a?eiee aniaeo iaa
iniaeno?niee aeya, ui ni?eeiaeiny ye aeeeee io?oe?eiei oioae?oa?iei
?aeaaeai, aeieo?ei?caoe??, an?e nenoai? eieaeoeaiiai nioe?oio. ?ae?a?ei?
aeooiai? iiooee aoee iia’ycai? c nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iei,
anoaoe/iei, ii?aeueiei aniaeoaie aeooiaieo iiooe?a, ine?eueee
?aae?coaaee iieeeeaiiy ? ni?iiiaei?noue ethaeeie aooe noa’?eoii (a ia
ia’?eoii, ye oiai aeiaaaea nenoaia) o nai?e aeooiai?e ae?yeueiino?,
aenooiaee i??eeii naiaiaee a ?aae?caoe?? iniaenoino?, aecia/aee
aeooiaiee nain ?? aoooy ? iicaiaoa??aeueiee, iicaooee?oa?iee ?ioa?an
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ? ca’ycie c o?ainoeaiaeaioiei.

4. Aeooiai? iiooee 60-80-o ?ie?a caii/aoeoaaee, a a ianooii? ?iee
cia/iith i??ith noeioethaaee noni?euei? o?ainoi?iaoe?? a N?N? /a?ac
caa?iaiiy aei ethaeeie, iniae ye oe?iiino?, aei ?ae?a?eii? a??e ye
nieneiaecia/aeueiiai ia/aea o aeoiae? ?c noaio aeooiaiiai caiaiaaeo
noni?euenoaa. Oea aoa ii/aoie iiai?ioo, yeee i?ea?a aei aeciaiiy i?aaa
?ae?a?? ia ?nioaaiiy a noni?euenoa?. Oe? i?ioeane ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy
nii/aoeo a ooaeiaei?e e?oa?aoo??, a /a?ac ia? a?aeaoeiny noeioethaaiiy
?ioa?ano aei ?ae?a?? oe?ieeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy, a ia?oo /a?ao
?ioae?aaioe?? oa iieiae?.

5. Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ?ae?a?eii? ci???ioiaaiino? aeooiaieo
iiooe?a a oe?a?inuee?e ? ?in?enuee?e ooaeiaei?e e?oa?aoo?? 60-80-o
?ie?a aeyaea, c iaeiiai aieo, ?ene ?o aca?iiaeiiiaithaaiino?, ie?ai?
aeaiaioe ae?aeiao i?ae ieie ? aiaeii/an, c ae?oaiai aieo, a?aeiaeoia
?icoiaeaeaiiy a iinoaiiaoe? ieie oe?eiai ?yaeo ieoaiue, o iiooeo
a?aeiia?aeae ia ieo. Oae, yeui o ?in?enuee?e e?oa?aoo?? iayaia
i?iaeiaaeaiiy o?aaeeoe?e “aiaiooeaiiy”, iaaaeiaieaiiy iniaenoei aeeooyi
aac aeooiaiiai naino aoooy, aia?o?/ia ?icaeai?iiy, aoio iin??a oeueiai
noaio (?anioo?i, Ooeoei, Oaiae?yeia oa ?i.); a oe?a?inuee?e e?oa?aoo??
oeueiai /ano a?aeiaoiaeeii ooaa?aeaeaiiy “nia?neeai? iai’yo?”,
iiaa?iaiiy aei ?noi?e/ii? iai’yo? ia?iaeo, aeoeaiooaaiiy oaaae ia
a?/iiio, yea aoaeo? niai?e ethaenueeeo aeoo, ?c yeeo ae?inoa?
niai?i?noue iaoe?? (I.Aii/a?), iiiyooy Aiaa ye ?oo?eiiai aeooiaiiai
/eiieea, caeaoiiai aieeaaoe ia ii?aeueiee aea??, ?ae?a?eia ye “nayoa”,
“caaaeueiiethaenueea” (I. Aii/a?, ?.?aaie/oe), Aia ye nooi?noue
ia?iaeii? ?ae?a??, ye o?ainoeaiaeaioia, ui ni?yiiao? ethaeeio aei
ca’yceo c ii?aeeth, nia?noth (A.Ae?icae, A.Othothiiee).

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeaea?aeueia aaca.
Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ae?a?eiiai aniaeoo
aeooiaieo iiooe?a iniaenoino? ? no/ani? aeinyaiaiiy a aaeoc?
iaoiaeieia?? aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe, cie?aia, ?ae?a??ciaanoaa, o?einio??,
?noi???, aoeee, ineoieia??, a oaeiae oai??? oa ?noi??? eoeueoo?e,
e?oa?aoo?e ? ienoaoeoaa.

Eiioeaiooaeueiith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? ? i?eioeei ae?aeaeoe/ii?
?aeiino? ia’?eoeaieo iniia ?ae?a?eieo aeooiaieo iiooe?a ethaeeie o
na?o?, ?aae?caoe?? oeeo iiooe?a, i?ciaiiy nieneo ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy.

Aaoi?, a?oiooth/enue ia i?eioeeiao ?noi?ecio, ia’?eoeaiino?,
na?oiaeyaeiiai ieth?ae?cio, eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, noiaeaeaiiy
a?ae aano?aeoiiai aei eiie?aoiiai o i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?icaeyaea?
i?iaeaio a ae?aeaeoe/iiio aca?iica’yceo aeooiaiino? c
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieie i?ioeanaie eiie?aoiiai noni?euenoaa, ?noi?e/iiai
ia??iaeo. A oaeiio ?ac? ?ae?a?ei? aeooiai? iiooee iinoathoue ye oeyo
aei oi?ioaaiiy ii?aeueieo yeinoae ? na?oiaeyaeo iniaenoino?.

Ea?oth/enue cacia/aieie iaoiaeieia?/ieie iieiaeaiiyie, aaoi?
aeei?enoaa oai?aoe/iee iaoa??ae o?einionueeeo aeine?aeaeaiue, cie?aia,
o?einio?a e?ioey O?O-ii/..OO noie?ooy A.Nieiaeiaa, I.Aa?aey?aa,
?.O?oaaoeueeiai, N.O?aiea, N.Aoeaaeiaa, A.?icaiiaa, no/anieo
a?o/eciyieo aeine?aeaeaiue: A.Aioiiaiea, I.Aaoo?ia, A.A?aea?a,
N.Aaceeoaaiea, ?.Aeno?eoeueeiai, N.Aaeeeianueeiai, A.Ai?nueeiai,
?.Aeoeoiaia, I.Caeiae/a, A.?eue?ieiaa, A.Eieiaeiiai, I.Einooe,
A.Eiaiaeea, I.Iieuaiea, Ae.*eaeaanueeiai, A.Oeiea?oea, I.ss?ioeueeiai, a
oaeiae aeinyaiaiue na?oiai? o?einio??: O.Aaaeaia?a, A.Eaith,
I?oaaa-?-Aannaoa, O.Ieania?a, A.O?iiia, I.Oaeaeaaaa?a, E.Oieueoiae??a
oa ?i.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/eiinoue aeineiaeaeaiiy iieyaa? o ?icaeyae? oyaeaiue
i?i i?e?iaeo ? nooi?noue ?ae?a?eieo aeooiaieo iiooeia o ooaeiaei?e
e?oa?aoo?? oa ?ice?eoo? ?o cia/aiiy aeey oi?ioaaiiy na?oiaeyaeo
iniaenoino?. O aeine?aeaeaii? i?inoaaeaii iiooe ooaeiaei?ie iaoiaeaie
oeyo?a ?aae?caoe?? ia’?aeioth/i? ooieoe?? ?ae?a?? oa aaiethoe?th
?ae?a?eieo aeooiaieo iiooe?a o oai?/ino? oe?a?inueeeo oa ?in?enueeeo
ienueiaiiee?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa?iaee oa aeniiaee
aeena?oaoei? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoaii aeey iiaeaeueoi? ?ic?iaee
i?iaeai na?oiaeyaeiiai aeoiaaiiy iniae, aecia/aiiy iinoey oa ?iei
?ae?a?? o oi?ioaaiii aeooiaiino?. Aiie iiaeooue i?eneoaeeoeny i?e
?ic?iaoei eaeoeie iaa/aeueieo eo?nia «Inoi?iy i oai?iy naioiai? oa
aio/eciyii? eoeueoo?e», «Iniiae ?aeiai?ciaanoaa», «Iniiae anoaoeee» oa
«Iniiae aoeee», i?e aeeeaaeaiii niaoeiaeueieo eo?nia c ?ae?a??ciaanoaa,
o?einio??, i?e iaienaiii iaa/aeueieo iiniaieeia, a oaeiae o
i?inaioieoeueeie aeiyeueiinoi.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iniiaii iaea? oa aeniiaee
aeena?oaoei? ciaeoee aiaeia?aaeaiiy a oanoe ioaeieaoeiyo aaoi?a.
E?ii oiai, aiie ai?iaiaaii o aenooiao ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioeiyo:

Haoeiaa eiioapaioeiy iieiaeeo a/aieo — Eoaainueeee aea?aeaaiee
iaaeaaiai/iee oiiaa?neoao, Eoaainuee, 1999;

Neiiic?oi “Iaoea Eoaaiueie o eiioaeno? ?icaeoeo ?aa?iio” –
Eoaainuee, 1999;

Iiaeia?iaeia iaoeiaa eiioa?aioeiy «O?enoeyinoai a eiioaenoi
inoi?i? i eoeueoo?e Oe?a?ie», Ee?a, 1997;

Haoeiaa eiioapaioeiy iieiaeeo a/aieo — Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
iaaeaaiai/iee oiiaa?neoao ?i. I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, Ee?a, 1993, 1995;

Iaoeiaa eiioa?aioeiy iieiaeeo a/aieo-?aeiai?ciaaoeia —
Aeoooa, 1991, 1992.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue a?aeia?aaeaii o iiiia?ao??, i’yoe
noaooyo, aeae?oeiaaieo o iaoeiaeo ca??ieeao, oacao iioae?eiaaieo
iaoa??ae?a eiioa?aioe?e oa aeaio aeaiiiiaaieo ?iaioao.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoei? oa iineiaeiaiinoue aeeeaaeo iaoiiaeaii
eiaieith aeineiaeaeaiiy, eiai iaoith oa caaaeaiiyie. O ia?oiio ?icae?e?
c?iaeaii iaeyae iniiaieo aeine?aeieoeueeeo i?aeoiae?a oa aecia/aii
iaoiaeieia?th aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iinoaaeaii caaaeaiiy oa i?aaeiao
aeineiaeaeaiiy oeieeii caeiiiii?ii iaoiiaeee iaiaoiaeiinoue ?icaeyaeo
aeooiaieo iiooeia, cie?aia, ?o ?ae?a?eiiai aniaeoo, ye
aeeoo?aeiyeueiinoi, o i?ioeani yei? naiiooaa?aeaeo?oueny ie?aia
iniaenoinoue. Ia iaoa?iaeao inoi?i? oieinioi? i?ineiaeeiaaii
aaiethoeith aeooiaieo iiooeia ethaenoaa (ae?oaee ?icaeie). O
o?aoueiio ?icaeiei i?iaiaeiciaaii ?aeiaiei? aeooiai? iiooee a
oe?a?inueeie oa ?inienueeie ooaeiaeiie eioa?aoo?i 60-80-o ?ieia OO no.,
iieacaii ?o caeaaeiinoue ianaiia?aae aiae aeooiaiiai noaio nioeioio.
Aeena?oaoeiy neeaaea?oueny ic anooio, o?ueio ?icaeieia, aeniiaeia i
nienea aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Ianya aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 147 noi??iie
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae 194 ioieoe neeaaea?
14 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo.

INIIAIEE CIINO AeINEIAeAEAIIss

O ANOOII?E /anoeii i?aoe? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeueiinoue
aeineiaeaeaiiy, aiaeico?oueny noai ?ic?iaeaiinoi i?iaeaie, noi?iiaaii
iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoei?, aecia/a?oueny iaoeiaa iiaecia
aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

O IA?OIIO ?ICAe?E? «Iniiai? aeine?aeieoeuee? i?aeoiaee oa
o?einionueei-iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae aea/aiiy i?iaeaie» c?iaeaii iaeyae
e?oa?aoo?e oa aecia/aii iaoiaeieia?th aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A oe?eiio niaeo? aeooiaii? i?iaeaiaoeee, yeo ?icaeyaea? no/ania
a?o/eciyia oa ca?oa?aeia iaoea, aeoaea oe?ieee. ?ic?iaoe? i?iaeaie
?aeaaeueiiai i?enayoeee nai? ?iaioe I.A.Aoeea?i, A.A.?eue?ieia, I.I.
E?ooeoe oa ?i., eaoaai??? na?aeiiino? ye iaea?eueo ?ic?iaeai?e oi?i?
oaiiiaio aeooiaiiai — E.N.Aeaionueeee, N.E.?oa?iooaei, I.A.Ni??e?i,
A.I.Ooaa?eiia oa ?i. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy noaaaee oae? eiiiiiaioe
aeooiaiiai na?oo ethaeeie, ye iaoa oa ?aeaae (A.?.Aeaaeaeiae/ ,
I.?.ssoeaiei oa ?i.), nain aeeooy (E.I.Eiaai, E.N.Eiaaeyinueea, I.Iaea,
E.A.Neai?oeia, A.O?aiee oa ?i.), ?ae?a?eia na?aeii?noue (A.Eiaiaee),
a??a oa ia?aeiiaiiy (A.?.Oeiea?oe oa ?i.). ??ci? aniaeoe ?nioaaiiy
aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e, iniaeeaino? ?? ?icaeoeo iaea?aeaee aena?oeaiiy a
aeine?aeaeaiiyo M.I.Aaoo?ia, A.N.A?aea?a, N.?.Aaeeeianueeiai,
Ae.N.Eeoa/iaa, TH.I.Eioiaia, A.ss.I?iiia oa ?yaeo ?ioeo a/aieo. ?o
i?aoe? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue oieeiooe iaeiia?/ieo aeoeoia/aiue
aeooiaiino?. Aiaiooeaoeoai ye niaoeeo?/ia ?ae?a?eii-o?einionueea oa/?y,
ie?ai? eiai iiaeeo?eaoe?? ?icaeyaeathoue o nai?o ioae?eaoe?yo I.I.
Eaneiaay, I.N.Iieuaiei, I.N.Naiaie?i oa ?i.

Aca?iia?aeiioaiith ienoaoeoaa oa ?ae?a?? i?enayoeee nai? i?aoe?
N.Ae.Aaceeoaaiei, Ae.I.Oa?eiiae/, ?.A.sseiae?a, na?oiaeyaeiei aniaeoai
e?oa?aoo?e, cie?aia, oei, ui iia’ycai? c ?ae?a?eieie iiooeaie, —
A.A.Aioiiaiei, I.?.Einooa oa ?i. Caa?iaiiy aei oai??a ooaeiaeiuei?
e?oa?aoo?e ye ia’?eoo aiae?co iiaeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?eaiaeeoue aei iaiao?aeiino? aeei?enoaiiy ?yaeo aeine?aeaeaiue c
i?iaeai aca?iiaieeao o?einio?? oa e?oa?aoo?e, cie?aia, i?aoeue
A.N.Ai?nueeiai oa ?.?.Iinea?ii?.

Oa?aeoa?iei iai?yieii o o?einionueeeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo ? ?icaeyae
i?iaeaie na?oiaeyaeiiai neioaco eiioeaiooaeueieo oyaeaiue i?i na?o ?
ethaeeio. O?einionuee? i?iaeaie naino aoooy, ?aeaaeo, aeine?aeaeaiiy
iniaeeainoae ethaenueei? noo? a eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ieo oi?iao i?aeoeee
ii?ooaii a iiiia?ao?yo A.I.?aaiiaa, ?.O.A?ae?ia, I.A.Ae?iaieoeueeiai,
I.I.Eaiioue?aa. A eiioaeno? ?o i?aoeue aeine?aeaeoaai? eaoaai???
iaaoaathoue noaoono na?oiaeyaeieo.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui a 60-80-o? ?iee a ca?oa?aei?e iaooe?
niinoa??aa?oueny caoe?eaaeai?noue aeine?aeiee?a i?iaeaiith “?ae?a?eiiai”
a ooaeiaei?e e?oa?aoo?? oiai/aniiai N?N?. Oae, “ieoaiith o?enoeyinueeiai
a e?oa?aoo??” i?enayoeee nai? ?iaioe ?yae aeine?aeiee?a: Aai?a Eeyei
(*?eaai, 1971), ?iaa?o Aiooe (Aea?iooaaeo, 1973), Aioii Oai?a (Aaiao?a,
1975), I’?? A?ii Aiae?i (Noieaieuei, 1976), O?aaea??e Eaaaiai (Eaeuei,
1977), E?ea O?eueaea Aaiaea? (I?onao?a, 1977), ?aiaoa Oaaa? (Aa?e?i,
1978), Aa?aeueae Iaeeaeuenii (Iaaei, 1983), ?aiaoa Oaia? (Ithioai,
1985), na?aae yeeo ia?o ca ana ne?ae aeae?eeoe ?iaioe ??aie
ssaeiiianueei? oa E.Oieueoiae??a .

Niinoa??aa?oueny iiaa oaeey aeooiaii? i?iaeaiaoeee o a?o/eciyi?e
iaooe? 70-80-o ?ie?a. Oea aeena?oaoe?y N.E.Iiniaa (Eai?ia?aae, 1970),
i?enay/aia i?iaeai? aaiethoe?? i?aaineaaii? eiioeaioe?? aeooiaiiai
naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy iniaenoino?, aeena?oaoe?y O.O.Einaiei (Iineaa, 1971),
ui aeine?aeaeo? i?iaeaio e?eoeee ?ae?a?eieo eiioeaioe?e nieneo aeeooy,
aeena?oaoe?y ?.?.Ea?iooeia (Iineaa,1972), yea ?ice?eaa? i?iaeaio
aca?iia?aeiioaiiy anoaoe/iiai ? ?ae?a?eiiai aeae?a na?aeiiino?, ?iaioa
?.E.Caeaieiai? (I?inuee, 1978), i?enay/aia ?in?enueeiio aoe/iiio
???aoe?iiae?cio e?ioey O?O-ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy, a oaeiae iaoeia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy 80-o ?ie?a: aeena?oaoe?y I.N.Ni?ii? (Iiainea??nuee,
1988), yea ?icaeyaea? ?ae?a?ei? aeooiai? iiooee E..I.Oienoiai oa
O.I.Aeinoi?anueeiai, a oaeiae aeena?oaoe?y ?.N.O?aiaa/ (Eai?ia?aae,
1989), yea aeine?aeaeo? nain aeeooy ye na?oiaeyaeio i?iaeaio. Oe?eaaei ?
i?aeo?ae aei ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie aeooiaieo iiooe?a iniaenoino? o
aeena?oaoe?yo E.N.Oeeeiiae/ (Ee?a, 1989) “O?einionueeee aiae?c
i?aaineaaii? aiaineianueei? eiioeaioe?? ii?aeueieo ?en ethaeeie” oa
I.A.Eenaeueiai? (Ee?a, 1991) “Aooo?a? iniiae nieneiaeeoo?aeo i?iaeai
iniaenoino?”, ye? ia aenieiio iaoeiaiio ??ai? ?ice?eaathoue iinoaaeaio
i?iaeaio.

Aaaeeeaei aeey oi?ioaaiiy iaoiaeieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei
?icaeyaeo aeooiaiino? a nenoai? oaeoi??a oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? aoei
aea/aiiy eieaeoeaieo i?aoeue, a oaeiae i?aoeue ?o ie?aieo aaoi??a:
A.I.?aaiiaa, ?.E.Aeno?eoeueeiai, A.I.Eiceianueeiai, I.O.Oa?anaiea,
A.A.Oaaa/eianueeiai, A.A.Iaeaoiaa, N.I.I?iea?aa, ye? aeine?aeaeothoue
?yae iniiaieo o?einionueei-na?oiaeyaeieo oa caaaeueiiiaoiaeieia?/ieo
ieoaiue, aiae?cothoue aeooaaii-aeooiaiee aei?? ethaenueeiai aoooy ye
?aaeueiino? ii?aeueiiai naiiaecia/aiiy iniaenoino? o na?o? eoeueoo?e.
Oe?eaaeie c iaoiaeieia?/ii? oi/ee ci?o ? oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeooiaiiai na?oo iniaenoino?, i?iaaaeai? E.I.Aaoeueoaiiaith-Neaanueeith
oa I.N.Ai?n?iiaei, aeey a?eueo aeeaieiai ?icoi?iiy i?eioeei?a
aca?iia?aeiinei o?einio?? oa e?oa?aoo?e, ienoaoeoaa — ?.?.Iinea?ii?,
?.A.sseiae?aa, A.Oaiana, N.?.Aaeeeianueeiai, i?eioeei?a aca?iia?aeiinei
?ae?a?? oa eoeueoo?e — i?aoe? N.I.Naaaeue?aa oa C.A.Oaaeo??c?ii?.

Oeae noeneee iaeyae iieaco?, a yeeo iai?yieao eaea aea/aiiy
aeooiaiiai na?oo ethaeeie. Iaeiae ?nio? i?iaeaia aeooiaieo iiooe?a
iniaenoino?, cie?aia, oeo, ui iia’ycai? c ?ae?a??th, yea ua ia noaea
i?aaeiaoii niaoe?aeueiiai aiae?co, ui e ?iaeoue aeine?aeaeaiiy oe???
i?iaeaie a icia/aiiio aniaeo? aei?a/iith ? aeooaeueiith. ? cian?i iiaeo
i?aeoiae?a ? ioe?iie iio?aaothoue o? oai?e oe?a?inueei? oa ?in?enueei?
e?oa?aoo?e 60-80-o ?ie?a OO no. ,a yeeo o??th /e ?iuith i??ith ciaeoee
a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?ae?a?ei? iioeae. Oea iaoiiaeth?oueny aeaiia i?e/eiaie:
ii-ia?oa, oei, ui ia ii/aoeo oeueiai ?noi?e/iiai i?ii?aeeo /ano
iai?oeeany oae caaia “a?aeeeaa” a aeooiaiiio aeeoo? noni?euenoaa, a
iai?ee?ioe? eiai caaa?ooaaeany ia iaio neaaiica?nia “ia?aaoaeiaa”.

I?eioeeiiai aaaeeeai, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, ieoaiiy i?aaii??iino?
ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co ?ae?a?eiiai aniaeoo aeooiaieo iiooe?a o
e?oa?aoo?ao aeaio a?aoi?o ia?iae?a, iiooe a?aeiia?ae? ia yea nie?a?oueny
ia o?eueee ia iaoiaeieia?th ? oai??th no/anii? eiiia?aoea?noeee, aea ia
iaioith i??ith iia’ycaiee ?c eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ieie aniaeoaie aea/aiiy
i?iaeaie. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui ii??aiyeueia aea/aiiy oai?/ino? ieooe?a
ooaeiaeiueiai neiaa ia noaaeoue nai?i caaaeaiiyi aeya ?aeaeieo aiaeia?e,
oi?iaeueieo iiae?aiinoae oa ?i. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aei i?iaeaie ia
aei?aaaeiao? i? iaiao?aeiino? ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co, i? eiai iaoe. A?i
ianaiia?aae ia? cae?enithaaoeny o aeaeyae? aca?iiae?? iiceoe?e, ?o
ae?aeia?/iino? oa aca?iiaeiiiaiaiue, ui, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa , e
aecia/a? niaoeeo?eo ooieoe?iioaaiiy oiai /e ?ioiai yaeua eoeueoo?e a
?noi?e/iiio eiioaeno?. C oi/ee ci?o aeena?oaioa, ii??aiyeueiee ?icaeyae
?ae?a?eiiai aniaeoo aeooiaieo iiooe?a a oe?a?inuee?e oa ?in?enuee?e
e?oa?aoo?ao iiaeiai ?oe ye?ac oeei oeyoii, ine?eueee aea? a?aoi?
e?oa?aoo?e a nai?o aeooiaieo iiooeao iaiia ae aca?iiaeiiiaithaaee iaeia
iaeio. Aaoi? aeyaea ie?ai? aeaiaioe ae?aeiao i?ae aeaiia e?oa?aoo?aie,
oei a?eueoa, ui ?ieiee, ni?aiaaeath/e a i?aenoieao,aiie ?icoiaeeeeny a
iinoaiiaoe? oe?eiai ?yaeo ieoaiue ? a naiiio iiooeo a?aeiia?aeae ia ieo.
Ne?ae oaeiae cacia/eoe, ui iiaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia i?aoaiaeo? ia
anaa?/iee ?icaeyae i?iaeaie, a cie?aia, a ieai? caaaeaiue ii??aiyeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o. Oe?ioa i?iaeaiaoeee, ia’?ii?noue iaoa??aeo iio?aao? a ?aieao
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy caa?iaiiy oaaae ia ie?aieo, iaeiaio
?ic?iaeaieo eiai a?aiyo.

O Ae?OAIIO ?ICAe?E? «Nooi?noue oa oi?ie aoooy aeooiaieo iiooeia:
?aeiaieiee aniaeo» aecia/aii nooi?noue i?iaeaie oa iniiaii
ia?aiao?e aiaeico aeooiaieo iiooeia. Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui
iaaiae’?iiith oiiaith iiaiioe naiipaaeicaoei? ociaenoinoi ?
inieneaia iiaoaeiaa iath naiai aeeoo?aiai oeyoo c iaoith aeinyaiaiiy
iioa?iieo oeieae i oeiiiinoae (oiaoi, iiaa eaea ipi iaeaieueo aenieee
piaaiue aeeoo?oaip/inoi — inieneaiiy ethaeeiith naiai ipecia/aiiy,
aepiaeaiiy eiioeaioei? oa epaaei, naiaeiiee aeaip oeieae c ioipieaiiyi
?o a ipiapaio ye nenoaio iaainopaeueieo i?i?ioe?ia aeeooy, a ieai ye
nenoaio oeieae i niiniaia ?o aeinyaiaiiy a iaaiie /aniaie iapniaeoeai),
yepac o aeooiaiiio picaeoeo, aeooiaieo iiooeao ethaeeia inyaa?
aeieniinoue naiai aoooy.

A aeena?oaoe?? iieacaii, ui a ipioeani noaiiaeaiiy oa picaeoeo
iniaenoinoi ciiith?oueny neeaae naioo ethaeeie, ui ? nenoaiith
eoeueoopii-icoipe/ieo iapaaeoiia ethaenueeiai inioaaiiy. O noa?i
aioo?ioiueiai picaeoeo iniaenoinoi inieneththoueny iiceoeaii iaaeaaiiy
ethaeeie caiaeii iinoaaeaiei iath aeeoo?aie iaoi oa iaeaaeo. Ethaeeia ?
?aeeiith aeeaith inoioith, yea aiae/oaa? iniaenoa aoooy ye ipiaeaio, ui
ooiaoa? ?? ia ae o o i a i i i i o o e e — picaeoie nai??
iniaenoinoi.

Aeena?oaio aeiaiaeeoue, ui aeooiaii iiooee ? iaeiei c aeaeia
ethaenueei? aeiyeueiinoi, yeee ioiieth? iiciaaaeueio i
oeiiiinii-ipi?ioaoeieio ae?yeuei?noue. A oie aea /an aeooiaii iiooee,
aoaeo/e /anoeiith aeooiaiiai aepiaieoeoaa, ioiieththoue ia anth noapo
aeeoo?aeiyeueiinoi, aea oieueee ?? iaaio /anoeio, naia oo, yea
iinoeoue o niai ipiaeaio aeaipo ia iniiai nieneiinyaaiiy oiai /e
iioiai oeiiiiniiai ciinoo naiaeiiinoi — oeiiiinoae, iipi oa iaeaaeia,
eio?ei neiaeo? ethaeeia, ipe?aeiaiiy aei aeooiaii? eoeueoope ethaenoaa,
?? caeiaooeia. Nai?piaeiinoue aeooiaii? eoeueoope a oiio, ui neeaaeiai
?? oeiiiinoi iaiaoiaeii ethaeeii aeey caaeiaieaiiy iaeaaeueieo iiopaa.
Aei noape iaeaaeueiiai iaeaaeeoue capiaeaeaiiy ieoaiiy, iiooe
aiaeiiaiaei ia iueiai, a oaeiae nai pacoeueoao — aiaeiiaiaeue, yea
ipaaenoaaeaia a aeaeyaei aeooiaii? eoeueoope.

A neooaoei? iaaecia/aiinoi, aopaoe nieneo ethaeeia ia?iaeei
iiaiinoth caeeoa?oueny iaiaeeioe? c niaith. Eieeoii oyaeaiiy ipi naio
i naio naaa aopa/athoue niene, a ciinoiaia iaiiaiaiinoue caeaaeeoue
oeieeii aiae naioiaoaeiae. Ethaeeia iaeapaeo? iiaio n a i a i ae o.
A oeueiio noaii aiia aieueia aeapaoe ye iiaio aaeaeoaeinoue, caiaeo c
aiaeaeeeei, oae i iiooe picieo oipi caaoooy /e iiaeo oipi
naioiaoaeiae — ?? iiai? nieneiai? iaiiaiaiinoi. Ipioepi//y iiae
ethaeeiith i naioii caiopth? ethaeeio a noai iiooeo, piaeoue eiai
ipiaeaiiei i oeei ni?yiiao? ?? ia iiooe aeanii? aecia/aiinoi.

Ipe aca?iiaei? ethaeeie c napaaeiaeuai aoaeue-yeee aieea ethaeeie
ia iueiai paaeico?oueny ye o ?? ciaiioiie ipaeoe/iie aeiyeueiinoi, oae
i o aioopioiie — ipeeiyooi iaaieo pioaiue, iiooeao ?o, ioaea,
ioiieth? ipioean oeieaiieeaaeaiiy, iiaieicaoei? nee iniaenoinoi ia
aeinyaiaiiy iaoe, iiaoaeiao ieaio i ipiapaie aeiyeueiinoi, ui ia
piaii naioiaiaeiioaiiy iiaeia aecia/eoe ye naioiaeyaeiee aeaip noa’?eoa.

Aeena?oaio i?aee?aneth?, ui noai aeooiaieo iiooeia iaeaieueo
oapaeoapiee aeey iniaenoinoi naia o aoceiai, iapaeiiii aiioe. Ethaeeia
iaiieaaeeai ooea? nain aeeooy. Nioeiaeueii- inoipe/iei neeai, ui
aiaeoiaeyoue o ieioea, aoooy caea?oueny aanopaeiei, iiai neee ooeathoue
aiaeiiaiaei ia ieoaiiy i?i inoeiii iaeaaee, ipi aeui oeiei aeeooy, ipi
eiioeaaee nain aoooy. Noapa noniieuenoai aopa/a? nain, iiaa noniieuenoai
eiai ciaoiaeeoue.

Aopaoa aieueo-iaio aeinooiieo aeey iaeyaeo ipi?ioepia, ui
oapaeoapii aeey iaaieo iiiaioia noniieueiiai picaeoeo, nipe/eiy?
caapiaiiy aei aipe ye nieneiaecia/aeueiiai ia/aea. Ca oiia e?ece
ooiiie (o o./.ia?enenonueei?), o?eaiaeicaoei? ooiii/ii? iaaei?, ui
iiaeeaethaaeiny aiaenooiinoth i?eaaaeeai? i na?eicii? nioeiaeueii? i
eoeueoo?ii? i?ia?aie, ciaoiaeeoue iinoea cia/ia aeooaeicaoeiy ?aeiaieieo
aeooiaieo iiooeia. O ?ae?a?yo, ianaiia?aae o o?enoeyinoai, paaeeeaeueii
iapainieneththoueny oyaeaiiy ipi ethaeeio. Iniaenoinoue, yea iana
ia niai aiaeaeoie iniaenoinoi oaipoey, iaaoaa? aeanii? naiioeiiiinoi. O
o?enoeyinoai ethaeeia ciaoiaeeoue c?icoiieee i aeey anio i?eeiyoiee
ethaenueeee iaeaae. «Niaoeeoi/ia aiaeiiiiinoue» ?aeiaieii? oi?ie
«caiiiiciaiiy» aiae iioeo oi?i — o aiaenooiinoi ?icoiiiiy oiai oaeoo,
ui a ia?aci aiaa ethaeeia aaeeaey?oueny o naie aeaniee ia?ac. sseui
aiaenooiicoue oaeiai ?icoiiiiy uaca?, oi caiinoue ?aeiai? ie ia?ii
ia?aae niaith cianii iioo oi?io «caiinaiaeiiinoi» — ienoaoeoai
(A.A.Ieue?ieia).

Iaeaaaeeeaioa ?ena inoeiii? ooaeiaeiuei? oai?/inoi iieyaa? a
caeaoiinoi aooe aiaeoaipaiiyi aeooiaiiai aeeooy aiioe, aiaeiapaaeaoe
naioiaiae/oooy no/anieeia c iiceoei? iaeaaeo. Aianeiaeie
iaiiaeeeainoi paaeicaoei? o iianyeaeaiiiio aeeooi ethaeeie aeueo oeieae,
naino aeeooy c’yaey?oueny aeenoaioeiy iiae iaeaaeii i iianyeaeaiiei
inioaaiiyi, yea iipiaeaeo? noai aeooiaieo iiooeia i ipaaiaiiy ciiieoe
aeieniinoue oeyoii ?? iapaoaipaiiy.

Aeoiaey/e c aeuaiaaaaeaiiai, Ae O O I A H I I I O O E E a
oeieiio aeena?oaio oapaeoapeco? ia oieueee ye ipaaiaiiy aei /iainue
iiaiai, ye i?ioenoiyiiy aacciinoiaiinoi nioe?aeueii? iaiaoiaeiinoi,
«i?eiouaiiy i?i inioaaiiy nieneo oa inyaiaiiy nieneo, i?i iiaeeeainoue
i?i?eao aei nieneo /a?ac aacciinoiaiinoue» (I.Aa?aey?a), aea i ye a e
e e e e a i e e a a i o a ae i i th p i a i o i th n i a i n o i
n o a i i n i a e n o i n o i, i a a ae i a i e a i i ?i n i o th /
e i o ae e o o i n o a i i i p a / a e, nai?piaeiee «aoio
paaa» (Eaith), yeee aeyaey? iiaapo aiaeiiiiinoae «iaoaoice/io
nieiaeapiinoue» piaeo ethaenueeiai, ui i aecia/a?oueny Eaith ye
«ethaenueea nooiicoue». O iianyeaeaiieo iaoeo inieoao aoio a?ae?apa? oo
ae pieue, ui i aeaeapoianueea cogito o noapi ieneaiiy: aii ? iapoa
i/aaeaeiinoue, yea aeooiaoo? ethaeeio ic ?? naiioiinoi. Aiia ?
caaaeueiinoth, ui ipeionea? caaaeueio aeey anio ethaeae oeiiiinoue.

Aoaeo/e ia oieueee oipiith naiipaaeicaoei? ethaeeie ye
ipaaenoaaieea ?iaeo ethaenueeiai, aea niiniaii naiiooaapaeaeaiiy
iepaii? iniaenoinoi, ui ipiyaey?oueny a naiiaecia/aiii, naiaiaei oa
oaip/inoi, yei ciaoiaeyoue nai? aiaeoaipaiiy a picieo oipiao
naiaeiiinoi — iipaei, oieinioi?, paeiai?, ienoaoeoai, aeooiaii iiooee
i?noyoue o niai ye aoe/iee, o?einionueeee, nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/iee,
anoaoe/iee, oae i paeiaieiee (aiaiooeaoeueeee) aniaeo, yeee iaaoaa?
iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy a aiioe «iapaioeiiee oeiiiinoae».

?ae?a?eiee aniaeo aeooiaieo iiooe?a aai “?ae?a?ei? aeooiai? iiooee”
? a?aeoai?aiiyi caeaoiino? ethaeeie aooe noa’?eoii o nai?e aeooiai?e
ae?yeueiino?, a ?noi?e/iiio ?icaeoeo, aecia/athoue oa?aeoa? ?
ni?yiiaai?noue ethaenueei? ae?yeueiino? uiaei inyaiaiiy naino aoooy oa
?aeaae?a. ?aeiaieii aeooiai? iiooee aaaeooueny a iniiaiiio a aeaio
iai?yieao: cna?aaeeie naii? ?aeiai?, oa ciaii, ui yne?aai
aiaeia?aaea?oueny o noa?i aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e (o?einio?y, ienoaoeoai,
ooaeiaeiy eioa?aoo?a oiui).

Aiae?coth/e aaiacen ?ae?a?eieo aeooiaieo iiooe?a o ?noi???
eoeueoo?e, aaoi? iieaco?, ui ciino aeooiaieo iiooeia aenooia? ye
aei?aaaeaiiy aeiyeueiinoi oa naiiai inioaaiiy ethaeeie. A?aeiia?aeii aei
?iaiy ?icaeoeo noniieuenoaa ?iciei oieinionueeei nenoaiai i?eoaiaiiee
iaaiee ?iaaiue iio?aae ethaeeie o naiiaecia/aiii, a oaeiae cania
iiciaiiy iiaeeeainoae i oeyoia ?aaeicaoei? oei?? iio?aae. ?ae?a?ei?
aeooiaii iiooee iinoathoue ye iieaciee nooiaiy naiaiaee o ?aaeicaoei?
ethaenueei? nooi.

O O?AOUeIIO ?ICAe?E? «Caa?aaeaiiy oa i?eiiiaeaiiy o?aaeeoeie
«?aeiaieiiai» a oe?a?inueeie oa ?inienueeie ooaeiaeiie eioa?aoo?i
60-80-o ?ieia» aaoi? aeoiaeeoue c oiai, ui naia noai oieinioi? oa
eioa?aoo?e ? naiai ?iaeo iiaeeeaoi?ii aeooiaiinoi noniieuenoaa, oiio
iniaeeai aaaeeeaeie noathoue aeooiaii iiooee a oieinioi? oa eioa?aoo?i o
ia?aoiaeii aiioe «ia?aioeiiee oeiiiinoae». I oi/a oieinionueei iaea?
ia iathoue i?yiiai eiioeaiooaeueiiai ioi?ieaiiy a ooaeiaeiio oai?ao,
ienoaoeoai iinoa? ye i?ioean iiooeo oa ?aaeicaoei?
caaaeueiiethaenueeeo iaeaaeia, nieneiaeeoo?aeo i?iaeai, ui iaaoaa?
iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy aeey aeoiaaiiy aeooiaii aaaaoi? iniaenoinoi.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e cia/aiiy ?aeiaieiiai /eiieea o eiioaenoi
ni?yioaaiiy aeooiaieo iiooeia ooaeiaeiuei? eioa?aoo?e, aaoi? aiaeico?
oe?a?inueeo oa ?inienueeo ooaeiaeith eioa?aoo?o 60-80-o ?ieia ye
eioa?aoo?o, eio?a aaaaoi a /iio iiaeaiooaaea iiao aeooiaio neooaoeith
80-90-o, ni?eyea i?iaoaeaeaiith inoi?e/ii? naiaeiiinoi ia?iaeo.

Naia o oeae ia?iiae o eioa?aoo?i niinoa?iaa?oueny iiai?io aei
oi?? eiioeaioei? ethaeeie, aeaea?aei yei? aiaeoiaeeoue aei ii/aoeo OO
noieiooy, aei aeooiaieo iiooeia o noniieuenoai oiai /ano. Nooue
oeueiai iiai?ioo a oiio, ui ca ioieo aiaeeieo a ?icoiiiii aeeooy
eioa?aoo?a noaea a?aoe ia aano?aeoii «caeiie inoi?i?» /e «caaaeueii
oeiei», yei ia?iaeei aeyaeythoueny ei?eneeaeie i?aaiaiiyie iaaieo
nioeiaeueieo nee, oaeoe/ii ea?oth/eo noniieuenoaii, a iioa?ane
eiie?aoieo aeeaeo ethaeae, yei neeaaeathoue o noeoiiinoi noniieuenoai.
Oiio ani oi i?iaeaie, yei ?icaeyaea? eioa?aoo?a, oi?eathoueny ?icaeoeo
ie?aii? iniaenoinoi.

Iiai?io eioa?aoo?e aei ethaeeie, aei iniaenoinoi — oea aeeaeiiee,
naioiaeyaeiee iiai?io, yeee, aacia?a/ii, aeaiaeeoue eioa?aoo?o ia
iiai ?iaii ooaeiaeiueiai inieneaiiy naioo oa ethaenueeiai aoooy.
60-80-oi ?iee, /ane ao?aoe eieeoiio iaeaaeia, ao?aoe i?eaaaeeaeo
ia?niaeoea oa i?i?ioe?ia, naino aoooy, ye ia?aaeaeaiue aaeeeeo
noniieueieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e o eieeoiueiio N?N?, aeeeeeaee caa?iaiiy aei
ai?e ye nieneiaecia/aeueiiai ia/aea, ye ?yoiaiiai aeoiaeo ic noaio
aeooiaii? iaaaaiiinoi. Oea aoei ii/aoeii oiai iiai?ioo, yeee iiciioa
i?eaiaeeoue aei aeciaiiy i?aaa ?ae?a?? ia ?nioaaiiy a noni?euenoa?.
Oei i?ioeane ciaeoee aiaeia?aaeaiiy a eioa?aoo?i, yea aiaeoai?eea
aeooiaii iiooee oeueiai ia??iaeo .

Ii?iaithth/e neooaoeith 60-o ?ie?a o eieeoiueiio N?N? ic
inoi?e/iith ?ieeth ia?oeo o?enoeyi, caoiaeii a/aii (Naeaea, Niiii)
noaa?aeaeothoue, ui naia o oeae /an iioa?an aei ?aeiai? ia oieueee
caaieiao? oe?iei aa?noae ianaeaiiy, ianaiia?aae iioaeiaaioeith oa
iieiaeue, aea i ooaa?aeaeo?oueny o ienoaoeoai oa eioa?aoo?i. Aeooiaii
iiooee a noniieuenoai — iiooe iaeaaeo, naino aeeooy, ii?aeueieo
oeiiiinoae oa ii. — ii?yae ?c iio?aaith aei?aaaeaiiy aac?aaeiniiai
iianyeaeaiiiai inioaaiiy, ia?aaeon?i o noa?oiai oa na?aaeiueiai
iieieiiue, aei?aaaeaiiy aea?oaai oa iauanoyi, yei ia ia?aaeaa/aeeny
i?iiaaiaaiei aea?aeaaith iioeiiciii, ia?iaeei ia?aaiaeeoueny o noa?o
?aeiai?. Oeae iiooe aaaeaoueny ia oieueee ana?aaeeii oea?eae, aea
oaeiae na?aae oeo eaoaai?ie ianaeaiiy, yei caiaeii c aeoiaaiiyi oa
niiniaii aeeooy aeaeaei aiae ?aeiai? i yeeo iiaeia iacaaoe
iiaeeoa?aioieie.

Aiae?coth/e eioa?aoo?o 60-80-o ?ie?a, ?yae aeineiaeieeia
(A.I.Cioe, E.Iaeoaeue, C.A.Oaaeo?eciia, E.A.Iiiia, E.Oieueoiaea?,
I.ssaeiiianueea oa ii.) caa?ioee iniaeeao oaaao ia caoe?eaaeai?noue
?ae?a?eieie iioeaaie ienueiaiieeia 60-80-o ?ieia. Cie?aia,
C.Oaoianueea aeei?enoiao? ia eeoa o aiaeiioaiii aei ?inienueei?
eeane/ii?, aea i aei no/anii? eioa?aoo?e aecia/aiiy «?aeiaieia» aai
«o?enoeyinueea»; iiiaoeueeee a/aiee I.Ethooa?oaiaeo iaeii?th c iciae
«?aeiaieiiai iiiaeaiiy» a N?N? aaaaeaa aeai? ?aeiaieii? oaie aaaaoueia
ic ?aaeyinueeeo ienueiaiieeia; ?in?enuee? aeineiaeieee iaiaeii?aciai
aiaecia/aee iiyao «aiaiooeaoeueeeo iioeaia» o no/aniie eioa?aoo?i.

Aeena?oaio aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui i?e/eiith ?ae?a?eieo
aeooiaieo iiooe?a, ye? niinoa?iaathoueny a ooaeiaei?e eioa?aoo?i 60-80-o
?ieia, ? oaeiae aiae/oooy iniaenoinoth aacci?noiaiino? inioaaiiy,
«iiieeeiaa oeiiiinia i?i?ioaoeiy oa naiioiinoue o noniieuenoai», ui
iiaee?aneth? iiiaoeueeee aeineiaeiee E.Iaeoaeue, aiaeicoth/e ooaeiaeith
i?ico oeueiai ia?iiaeo. ?icii?eiaoth/e i?i ii?aeueii oeiiiinoi, i?i
i?ioe?i//y naiaeiiinoi ethaeeie, ye? iaoiiaeai? noia?a/iinoyie naiiai
aeeooy, eioa?aoo?a ana /anoioa noaea i ii?oooaaoe ieoaiiy, i aeaaaoe ia
ieo naie aa?iaio aiaeiiaiaei.

A oe?eiio caa?iaiiy aei ?aeiai? ii?yae ?c ooaa?aeaeaiiyi
naionueeeo oeiiiinoae a oiaei aeooiaieo iiooeia iniaenoino? 60-80-o
?ie?a i?iaeeeoiaaii iaaecia/aiinoth ethaenueeiai inioaaiiy a «e?eoe/io
aiioo «, a oaeiae oei, ianeieueee aii? noniieuenoai noai?eoe oiiae
aeey ae?ioaiiy i?iaeaie aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo ethaeeie oeyoii, yeee ia
iio?aao? ?aeiaieii? iioeaaoei? ii?aeueieo oeiiiinoae oa ii?i
iiaaaeiiee — oiaoi naionueeei.

?icaeyaeath/e i?i?ioaoeith ia ?aeiaieii oeiiiinoi na?aae aeooiaieo
ono?aieiiue ethaeeie a oe?a?inueeie ooaeiaeiie eioa?aoo?i 60-80-o ?ieia,
aaoi? i?aee?aneth?, ui aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee aeooiaiinoi oe?a?inueei?
ethaeeie aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? aiaeic ?icaeoeo ooaeiaeiuei?
eioa?aoo?e, ineieueee ienoaoeoai i naioiaeyae ? iaeieie c aieiaieo
/eiieeia, yei aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? aeooi. Oea
caeaaeeoue cia/iith ii?ith aiae oiai, ui, ia aeoieo
I.Eoeue/eoeueeiai, oe?a?inueea ineoi/ia no?oeoo?a aecia/a?oueny
nai?i aiioeieii-ii/ooo?aei oa?aeoa?ii, cina?aaeaeaiiyi aeiaeiea
«na?oey».

Oe?a?inueea i ?inienueea ooaeiaeii eioa?aoo?e 60-80-o ?ieia aoee
naiiaooiiie eioa?aoo?ieie yaeuaie. Oe?a?inueea eioa?aoo?a 60-o ?ieia o
oai?ao oanoeaeanyoieeia Iaaia Ae?a/a, Ieeiee Aiia?aiianueeiai, Eiie
Einoaiei, Iaaea Iia/aia oa ii. — ?icaeaaeany a ?onei o?aaeeoeie
eioa?aoo?e 20-o ?ieia, iaiaeaii? aiaiai ai?a, o yeeo no?anoeeeny
iai?eie?aiii iaeaieiai?. O 20-o ?ieao ai?ioueaa ca oe?a?inueeo
aea?aeaaiinoue caciaea ii?acee, aea ooaa ca iaeaaeii, ine?e aeeaiai
/oooy eeoeeeny o oai?ao aaaaoueio ienueiaiieeia Oe?a?ie. Iaeaae
iaoeiiiaeueii? naiinoieiinoi eaaeaa iica iaaeaie aaaaoueio oai?ia iaoeo
niiaaio/ecieeia, aea aiie ynii aa/eee oeae iaeaae i i?aaioee iieacaoe
eiai /eoa/ai, aeacoth/e iai?yi aei iueiai.

Iniaeeao oaaao aeiei ethaeeie, ?? iiooeai o nueiaiaeaiii
i?eaeieyee o nai?o oai?ao ?.Aiae?iyoee, I.Aii/a?, ?.Aooeaei, A.Ae?icae,
I.Caa?aaaeueiee, ?.Iaaie/oe, TH. Iooeaoee, A.Othothiiee, I.Noaeueiao,
?.Oaaei?ia, A.ssai?ianueeee oa ii. O oai?/inoi oe?a?inueeeo
ienueiaiieeia aeciaiiy oeiiiinoi oa noaa?aiiinoi ethaeeie ii?aeiaia c
aeciaiiyi neee ii?aeueiiai oa noniieueiiai iaia’yceo, ui ciaeoei nai?
aoieaiiy ye o ?icaeoeo iaea? «caaaeueiiethaenueeiai», oae i iaea?
«iaoeiiiaeueiiai».

Oae, i?ia?aeiith oaiaeaioe??th o oai?/ino? I.Aii/a?a ?
o?einionueea ia/aei, iia’ycaia c ooaa?aeaeaiiyi aeia?a, na?oea, e?ane,
ethaia? (ia?ace-neiaiee Niai?o, Iaaeiiie), ye? i?iiecothoue a?ee ?
noai?ththoue aeooiaio iai’youe ethaenoaa. Ienueiaiiee iieaco?, ui c
aeoieith i?i a?/ia aoaeothoueny niai?e a ethaenueeeo aeooao, a ?c
niai??a ethaenueeeo aeoo ae?inoa? niai?i?noue iaoe??. A?eueii oai?eoe
iaoe?iiaeueio niai?i?noue iiaea eeoa a?eueiee ia?iae. Aaniethoiith
ii?aeueiith oi/eith a?aee?eo aeey aa?i?a Aii/a?a ? nia?noue, iaa?oue
“nia?neeaa iai’youe”, yea, iaaaaeoth/e i?i ii?aeuei? i???ioe?e, aea?
iiaeeea?noue caa?aaeaiiy ethaenueeiai noni?euenoaa. Aeena?oaio iieaco?,
ui o i?aaiaii? aei oiai, uia cia?aaeaiiy ?aeaaeueiiai ia i?ecaaei aei
?aeaae?caoe??, ca iniiao cia?aaeaiiy ienueiaiiee aa?a ia?ao?auaiiy
/eneaiieo oi/ie ci?o, yea oi?io? aaoi?nueeo o?einionueeo eiioeaioe?th
na?oo ? ethaeeie, a iniia? yei? – ooaa?aeaeaiiy aeooiaiino?. Iiiyooy
“Aiaa” oa “?ae?a?eiiai” o oai?ao oe?a?inueeeo ienueiaiiee?a iana ??cio
nieneiao iaaaioaaeai?noue: ?icaeoie i?i aiaa ye aeooiaiee ?oo?eiee
/eiiee, caeaoiee aieeiooe ia ii?aeueiee aea?? noa’?eoa (?.?aaie/oe),
“?ae?a?eia” ye “nayoa”, caaaeueiiethaenueea (I.Aii/a?), oa aia ye
/anoeia ia?iaeii? ?ae?a??, aoeee, ye aaee/eia, yea ni?yiiao? ethaenueea
aeeooy ? yea ?icaeyaea?oueny o ia?ic?eaiiio ca’yceo c ii?aeeth,
nia?noth (nia?noue –“no?ao ia?aae aiaii” — A.Ae?icae, A.Othothiiee).

Ia?aioe?iea noni?eueieo oe?iiinoae, ooaa?aeaeoaaieo aeanyoee?ooyie
iiiiiieueiiai iaioaaiiy io?oe?eii? ?aeaieia??, eia?/ii ia?aaeaa/a?
?aa?c?th aeooiaiiai caeiaooeo iaeno??a neiaa. Aeena?oaio iieaco?, ui
ienueiaiieee a?aeoai?eee iinooiiaee ia?ao?ae a?ae i?eoaiaiii?
oioae?oa?i?e na?aeiiino? /i?ii-a?ei? ea?oeie na?oo, eiee any
aaaaoiiai?oi?noue noni?eueieo yaeu, iai?oaeaia ai?ioueaa ?aeae oa
?aeaae?a caiaeeeany aei iaeiiai-aeaio ?oo?eieo /eiiee?a, i?iaieioaieo
oi?aa?naeueieie, aei neeaaeii? ? noia?a/eeai? aeeai? ?aae?noe/ii?
ea?oeie na?oo.

Aeena?oaio aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui ooaeiaeieee neiaa iaiaaaeeny
a?aeoai?eoe a ethaeyo aeeaeiia, ae?iuaia ia i?eioeeiao ia?iaeii? aoeee
? ii?ae?, o?enoeyinueeeo ii?aeueieo caiia?aeyo , ii/oooy niai?iino?
ethaenueeeo aeoo. A ine?eueee cae?eniaiiy oeueiai caaaeaiiy iiaeeeaa
eeoa ca oiiae aeciaiiy aaniethoii? naiioe?iiino? iniae, aiie
iaiaaaeeny oea ooaa?aeeoe ooaeiaei?ie iaoiaeaie o nai?o oai?ao.
Aeena?oaio iieaco? oea ia i?eeeaaei ?iiaiia Ieany Aii/a?a «Niai?»,
«Oaiy ci?y», iiainoae oa iiiaiaeaiue A?eai?a Othothiieea, iiiaiaeaiue
Aieiaeeie?a Ae?icaea, iiainoi ?iiaia Iaaie/oea «Nueiia iaai».

Aiaeicoth/e aeooiaii iiooee a oai?/inoi ?inienueeeo
ienueiaiieeia 60-80-oeo ?ie?a, aaoi? i?aee?aneth?, ui caiinoue
iaeaieiai/ii i?aaeeueieo aiaeiiaiaeae ana aieueo cao/aoue ?icaeoie
i?i i?iaeio, nain aeeooy, ana aieueoiai cia/aiiy iaaoaathoue
iaae?ioaii ieoaiiy. I?e ?icaeyaei oeeo i?iaeai cao/eoue aeoiea i?i
inioaaiiy aeui? noanoaioei?.

Iae/anoioa oei iiiyooy cono?i/athoueny o A.Oaiae?yeiaa,
A.Ooeoeia, A.?aniooiia. ?o aa?i? ?iaeei caaeathoueny iaoith ciaeoe
eiie?aoio aiaeiiaiaeue ia iinoaaeaia ieoaiiy. Aiie iinoieii a aeooiaieo
iiooeao, aiaeiiaeyth/enue aiae iaa’ycaieo ciaii aiaeiiaiaeae — ye
caaeaieo ioioeieiith iaeaieiai?th, oae i ?aeiai?th (ia?oieia
iaeaieiaiy i ?aeiaiy ?icaeyaeathoueny ye aeai iaeaieiai?,
ia?iaiii?aaii, aea ioioeieii inioth/i a noniieuenoai oiai /ano).
Ienueiaiieeia oeieaaeoue aeooiaiee ?icaeoie iniaenoinoi, yeee
?acoeueoo?oueny a iaaaeiaieaiinoi iniaenoei aeeooyi, iinoieieo
aeooiaieo iiooeao naino aoooy.

A aeena?oaoe?? c?iaeaii aeniiaee i?i oa, ui a ieoaiiyo, yei
oi?eathoueny aeooiaieo iiooeia iniaenoinoi, niinoa?iaa?oueny
iaaaeiaieaiinoue ienueiaiiee?a naioiaeyaeieie oaaeiiaie, i?eeiyoeie
ioioeieiith iaeaieiai?th 60-80-o, o aieueoinoi aeiaaeeia aaoi?e
iiaeoiaeyoue aei cia?aaeaiiy ia’?eoeaii, oieeath/e /i?ii-aieeo oa?a,
aeooiaii iiooee iinoathoue ye iacaaa?oaiee iinoieiee aioo?ioiie aeiaeia
iniaenoinoi. Iiiyooy aiaa a ?icaeyiooeo oai?ao iana
iae?iciiiaiioiioo nieneiao iaaaioaaeaiinoue: aiae caa?iaiiy a ?aieao
iiaieo noa?aioeiia aei i?ieiyoeo ia?aeiiaiiyi o?enoeyinueeeo oyaeaiue,
ai?e a aeieth, yea ieneeoueny ye /anoeia i?eiioeaii? ia?iaeii?
?aeiai?: aia ye aaee/eia, yea ni?yiiao? ethaenueea aeeooy i ea?o?
naioiaei ii?yaeeii ( ?aniooii), oa aia — ye ?aoeiiiaeueia i?iaeaia
(Oaiae?yeia) — ieoaiiy i?i inioaaiiy oa iainioaaiiy aiaa.

O aeena?oaoe?? iieacaii, ui aeooiaii iiooee aa?i?a ?aniooiia
oi?eathoueny a iniiaiiio ?aeiaieiiai aniaeoo. Aeey ieo iaia? iiaii?
yniinoi, aaaaoi aiaee?eoeo ieoaiue, iaeiae oea ia aieeaa? oae ?oeiiaii
ia ethaeeio, ye o oai?ao Oaiae?yeiaa. Iath/e iaiioeoio ai?o, aiie
aiaaiaii, ui ana a aeeooi iaaeieaii aeuei nieneii, oi/a o iianyeaeaii?
oea ia caaaeaee iiiioii. Oaea ii/oooy aiaaiaiinoi aeoiaeeoue ic
?icoiiiiy oiai, ui ethaeeia ? /anoeiith aeioeieueiiai naioiaiai
ii?yaeeo, eieueoeai eaioethaa iieieiiue, yei iinoieii ciiiththoue
iaeei iaeiiai. AEeooy i nia?oue — aeaa iiiaioe aoooy, aeai noi?iie
iaeiiai yaeua. Eiee caaa?oo?oueny aeeoo?aee oeyo, i?e/aoiinoue aei
naioo, ethaeeia aiae/oaa? aano?aeiinoue naiai aoooy, aiia aeeaa
oyaeaiiyie i?i iioa aeeooy. ?aaeueiinoue oyaey?oueny ?e ye
i?eaii/aiiy naiaiaee. Aiia caia?a/o? ana, /ei aeeea ?aiioa. I a oeueiio
aeooaaiiio ianiiei? — niieueiinoue aa?i?a Ooeoeia oa ?aniooiia.
Aeey ieo nia?oue ia ? caa?icith, oiio ui a ?o oyaeaiii aiia ? ca’yceii
iiae naioii aoooy oa iaaoooy, yeee aiaee?eaa? oa?iieoei, iaaiaeiii a
oeueiio aeeooi, ai no?ao ia?aae nia?oth, ia?aae oei?th aaniethoiith
aieiaea?eith ?, ii nooi, «ii/aoie ioae?inoi» ( A.Oiie).

Aaoi? aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui o nai?o aeooiaieo iiooeao aa?i?
?aniooiia caa?oathoueny aei ?aeiai?, iaeiae ?o ?aeiaieiinoue iaaoaa?
oi?ie, c yeith iia’ycaii o?enoeyinueei aeaiaioe oa ?ene ia?iaeii? ai?e i
yeo iiaeia iacaaoe o?aaiaioa?iith. ?aeiaieiinoue aa?i?a ?icoii?oueny ye
uinue cae/ia, o niieieiie aaee/i, yeo ia o?eaiaeaoue iiyei iioi
iiioeuene, oa oea i ia iio?iaii. Ooo iaia? ii Aiaei?, ii oea?eae, ii
nayuaieea, aea ? iniiaia — ai?a a aiaa. Oeae aia iaaoaa? aeayeeo ?en
o?enoeyinueeiai aiaa, iaeiae aieueoa iia’ycaiee ?c aeieath i ? noiiooth
o?enoeyinoaa c ia?iaeiith ai?ith.

?icaeyaeath/e i?iaeaio, aaoi? iieaco?, ui A.Ooeoei aeaeaeee aiae
?ioaiue, cai?iiiiiaaieo Oaiae?yeiaei oa ?aniooiiei. ?ene a?e, aeanoeai
aeooiaiei iiooeai eiai aa?i?a, o aeiaeiiio ?ac? ia icia/athoue ciyooy
i?iaeaie. Oey nai??iaeiinoue iaeaieueo /ioei i?iyaey?oueny, aoaeo/e
iia’ycaiith c oaeei yaeuai, ye i?aaiaiiy aei aaciaaeii?, aia?oi/ii
ni?eeia?ii? n a i a i ae e (aiei).

Ethaeeia ia aeaia niai ii a aeooiaiie, ii a oieaniie aecia/aiinoi.
Caeiath/enue aeooiaieie iiooeaie, aiia aeoiaeeoue ca iaaei iei?oiueiai
aeaiiai ?e aeeooy. Ia?iaeei ?acoeueoao aeooiaieo iiooeia – naia aeeooy.
Aioo?ioiie ieai eiai — aeooiaii iiooee — noi?iaiaeaeothoue ciaiioiie
eaioetha iiaeie i ia oienothoueny ye i?aaeiao. Iaeiae aeeooy
oeiieoueny ia oieueee nai?ie aeooiaieie iiooeaie, i?aaiaiiyi aei
/iainue, aea ye i?ioean ?aaeicaoei? iaoe aeeooy. Naii aeooiaii iiooee
ye oeyo aei aeineiiaeinoi ? nainii i ?acoeueoaoii aeeooy.

Caaa?oothoue aeena?oaoe?th ei?ioei noi?ioeueiaai? aeniiaee:

?ae?a?ei? aeooiai? iiooee iaaoaathoue caaaeueiiethaenueei?
cia/eiino? a aiioe “e?ece ooii?e”, eiee na?oiaeyae ieioei? aeiae
ao?a/aiee, a iiaee na?oiaeyae noni?euenoaa ia?aaoaa? o noai? oi?ioaaiiy.

?ae?a?ei? aeooiai? iiooee iia’ycai? ?c nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iei,
anoaoe/iei, aoe/iei aniaeoaie aeooiaieo iiooe?a, ine?eueee ?aae?cothoue
iieeeeaiiy ? ni?iiiaei?noue ethaeeie aooe noa’?eoii, a ia ia’?eoii a
nai?e aeooiai?e ae?yeueiino?, aenooiathoue i??eeii naiaiaee a
?aae?caoe?? iniaenoino?, aecia/athoue aeooiaiee nain ?? aoooy ?
iicaiaoa??aeueiee, iicaooee?oa?iee ?ioa?an aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ?
ca’ycie c o?ainoeaiaeaioiei.

?ae?a?ei? aeooiai? iiooee a noni?euenoa? ciaeoee nai?
a?aeoai?aiiy o ooaeiaei?e e?oa?aoo?? ?ai?oa, i?ae ciiaee a oiai/anieo
?aeaieia?/ieo oiiaao a?aeoai?eoe ?o o?einionuee? aeine?aeaeaiiy.
?ae?a?ei? aeooiaii iiooee a e?oa?aoo?? aiaeoai?aii ienueiaiieeaie ia
?aoeiiiaeueii, aea a iniiaiiio iioo?oeaii, aeoiaey/e c i?aaaee
aeeooy, iica aeaciaeaie oiai/anii? ioioeieii? iaeaieiai?, eiee iaoa
aeeooy caiaeeeany aei aoieaiiy noniieueiiai iaeaaeo. Ooaeiaeiy
e?oa?aoo?a noeioethaaea na?aae oe?ieeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy, ianaiia?aae
?ioae?aaioe?? ? iieiae?, ?ioa?an aei ?ae?a?? ye nieneiaecia/aeueiiai
ia/aea ia oeyoo aeoiaeo noni?euenoaa ?c noaio aeooiaiiai caiaiaaeo.

A iiciaiii iniaenoinoth naioo aeey iiaeieaiiy «i???ae» iiae
?aaeueiei aeeooyi i iiciaiiyi iaeay aiaa aeieea? caeaa?eueoiai a oiio
?ac?, eiee iniaenoinoue ia iiaea ciaeoe iioiai oeoia/aiiy aeeooth, eiai
naino. ?icii naioiaeyaeii iiaeoiaee ? naiae/aiiyi iaiiaeeeainoi caanoe
aeeooy aei yei?nue noaie. Eiaeai c ieo — oea ni?iaa aeioi?eiooeny aei
ai/ii iaaeiaeii? aeeoo?ai? oa?iieoei.

?ae?a?ei? aeooiai? iiooee ? oeyoii aei oi?ioaaiiy na?oiaeyaeo ?
ii?aeueieo yeinoae iniaenoino?. Iaaaeiaieaiee iaaeaie aeinyaiooiai
na?oiaeyae ? iaiao?aeiith oiiaith ?icaeoeo aeooiaiiai na?oo ethaeeie, o
naith /a?ao, aeooiai? iiooee aeaniiai “ss” ? iaiao?aeiith oiiaith aeey
iaaoooy naino aeaniiai aoooy.

?ae?a?ei? aeooiai? iiooee ni?eythoue ?icaeoeo aeeoo?ai? aeoeaiino?
iniaenoino?, ine?eueee a ieo i?ioiaeeoue ye naii?aae?caoe?y ethaeeie ye
i?aaenoaaieea ethaenueeiai ?iaeo, oae ? ooaa?aeaeaiiy ?? a yeino?
nioe?aeueii-aeoeaii? iniae.

Iniiaii iaea? aeena?oaoei? iiaeathoueny a oaeeo
iaoeiaeo ioaeieaoeiyo aaoi?a:

1. Caiiie I.N. ?ae?a?eiee aniaeo aeooiaieo iiooe?a. – E.: IIO, 1999. –
1.8 ae.a.

2. Caiiie I.C. Ineoieiai-aoe/ia ni?yiiaai?noue ?ae?a?eieo aeooiaieo
iiooe?a // A?niee Eoaainueeiai ?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa IAN Oe?a?ie.
Aei. 1. — Eoaainuee, 1999. – 0.68 ae.a.

3. Caiiie I.N. I???ioaoe?y ia ?ae?a?ei? oe?iiino? na?aae aeooiaieo
ono?aie?iue ethaeeie (ia iaoa??aeao oe?a?inueei? oa ?in?enueei?
ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e 60-80-o ?ie?a) // Oe?a?inueea ?ae?a??ciaanoai. –
1999. – N 10. – 0.35 ae.a.

4. Caiiie I.N. ?ae?a?eiee /eiiee o eiioaeno? ni?yioaaiiy aeooiaieo
iiooe?a ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e // A?niee Eoaainueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. – 1999. – N 2. – 0.25
ae.a.

5. Caiiie I.C. Aeooiaii iiooee iaeno?ia ooaeiaeiueiai neiaa (aei aiaeico
ooaeiaeiuei? eioa?aoo?e 60-80-o ?ie?a) // Oe?a?inueea ?aeiai?ciaanoai.
— 1997. — N 6. — 0.25 ae.a.

6. Caiiie I.C. Iiooee iaeaaeo: Ieanue Aii/a? // ?icaeoie i?iaeai
ineoieiai-iaaeaaiai/ii? iaoee o iaoeiai-oaoii/iie oai?/inoi iieiaei.
Aei.I. — E.: OAeIO, 1993. – 0.2 ae.a.

7. Caiiie I.C. O?enoeyinueei iioeae a aeooiaieo iiooeao oe?a?inueeeo
ieooeia ooaeiaeiueiai neiaa (ia i?eeeaae? ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e
60-80-oeo ?ie?a OO no.) // O?enoeyinoai a eiioaenoi inoi?i? i eoeueoo?e
Oe?a?ie. — E., 1997. — 0.1 ae.a.

8. Caiiie I.N. Nooue oa oi?ie aoooy aeooiaieo iiooeia: ?aeiaieiee
aniaeo. / Aeaiii. a AeIOA Oe?a?ie aiae 10.01.94 N 83 — Oe94 /. — E.,
1994. — 1 ae.a.

9. Caiiie I.N. Aeooiaii iiooee a ooaeiaeiie eioa?aoo?i 60-80-o ?ieia:
?aeiaieiee aniaeo. / Aeaiii. a AeIOA Oe?a?ie aiae 10.01.94 N 82 — Oe94
/. — E., 1994. — 0.68 ae.a.

AIIOAOe?ss

Caiiie I.N. ?ae?a?eiee aniaeo aeooiaieo iiooe?a (ia iaoa??aeao
oe?a?inueei? oa ?in?enueei? ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e 60-80-o ?ie?a).
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?einionueeeo iaoe (niaoe?aeuei?noue 09.00.11 – ?ae?a??ciaanoai).

?inoeooo o?einio?? ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe
Oe?a?ie (A?aeae?eaiiy ?ae?a??ciaanoaa). Ee?a, 1999.

Eaiaeeaeaonueea aeena?oaoe?y ? o?einionueeei aeine?aeaeaiiyi
caeiiii??iinoae aeieeiaiiy, ?icaeoeo ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?ae?a?eieo
aeooiaieo iiooe?a o aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? iniaenoino?, ?o nooiino? ?
??ciiiai?oieo i?iya?a; ie?aneai? iniiai? aeine?aeieoeuee? i?aeoiaee oa
o?einionueei-iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae aea/aiiy i?iaeaie; ?icaeyiooi
iniaeeaino? ?ae?a?eieo aeooiaieo iiooe?a a oe?a?inuee?e ? ?in?enuee?e
ooaeiaei?e e?oa?aoo?? 60-80-o ?ie?a, ia?aaeaeiy aeeaieeo ye?nieo
o?ainoi?iaoe?e o eieeoiueiio N?N?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeooiai? iiooee, ?ae?a?ei? aeooiai? iiooee, nain
aeeooy, aiaiooeaoeoai, aeooiaiee na?o, iniaeno?noue, eoeueoo?a.

AIIIOAOeEss

Caiiie I.N.»?aeeaeiciue aniaeo aeooiaiuo eneaiee (ia iaoa?eaeao
oe?aeineie e ?onneie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u 60-80-o aiaeia)».
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeinioneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 09.00.11- ?aeeaeaaaaeaiea.

Einoeooo oeeinioee ei. A.N.Neiai?iaeu Iaoeeiiaeueiie Aeaaeaiee iaoe
Oe?aeiu (Ioaeaeaiea ?aeeaeaaaaeaiey). Eeaa, 1999.

Eaiaeeaeaoneay aeenna?oaoeey yaeyaony oeeinioneei enneaaeiaaieai
?aeeaeiciiai aniaeoa aeooiaiuo iieneia ee/iinoe ia iaoa?eaeao
oe?aeineie e ?onneie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u 60-80-o aiaeia. A
?aaioa i?ineaaeaiu iniiaiua enneaaeiaaoaeueneea iiaeoiaeu e
iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?eioeeiu ?ac?aaioee i?iaeaiu, enneaaeiaaiu
caeiiiia?iinoe aicieeiiaaiey, ?acaeoey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aeooiaiuo
iieneia a aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ee/iinoe, eo nouiinoue e ?aciiia?aciua
i?iyaeaiey.

?aeeaeiciua aeooiaiua iienee oanii naycaiu n
nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneei, ynoaoe/aneei, yoe/aneei aniaeoaie aeooiaiuo
iieneia, oae eae ?aaeecotho i?ecaaiea e niiniaiinoue /aeiaaea auoue
noauaeoii, a ia iauaeoii a naiae aeooiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe, i?aaenoatho
iieacaoaeai noaiaie naiaiaeu a ?aaeecaoeee ee/iinoe, ii?aaeaeytho
aeooiaiue niune aa auoey e aiaooeeeoa?iue, iaiaoa?eaeueiue eioa?an
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe e naycue n o?ainoeaiaeaioiui.

A enneaaeiaaiee i?ineaaeaiu iniaaiiinoe ?aeeaeiciiai aniaeoa
aeooiaiuo iieneia a oe?aeineie e ?onneie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?a
60-80-o aiaeia, eaioia aeoaieeo ea/anoaaiiuo i?aia?aciaaiee a auaoai
NNN?. Aeooiaiua iienee 60-80-o aiaeia noaee ia/aeii e noeioeii
iauanoaaiiuo o?ainoi?iaoeee a NNN? aeaaiaea?y ia?auaieth e /aeiaaeo,
ee/iinoe eae oeaiiinoe, e ?aeeaeiciie aa?a eae niuneiiieaaathuaio ia/aeo
ia iooe auoiaea iauanoaa ec ninoiyiey aeooiaiiai e?ecena. Yoi auei
ia/aeii iiai?ioa, eioi?ue i?eaae e i?eciaieth i?aaa ?aeeaee ia
nouanoaiaaiea a iauanoaa. Yoe i?ioeanu auee caia/aiu ooaeiaeanoaaiiie
eeoa?aoo?ie ?aiueoa, /ai a niaaoneeo eaeaieiae/aneeo oneiaeyo niiaee
io?aceoue eo oeeinioneea enneaaeiaaiey. Ooaeiaeanoaaiiua i?iecaaaeaiey
noeioee?iaaee eioa?an e ?aeeaee oe?ieeo neiaa ianaeaiey, i?aaeaea anaai
eioaeeeaaioeee e iieiaeaaee.

N?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec ?aeeaeiciiai aniaeoa aeooiaiuo iieneia a
oe?aeineie e ?onneie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?a 60-80-o aiaeia auyaee,
n iaeiie noi?iiu, /a?ou acaeiiaeiiieiyaiinoe, yeaiaiou aeeaeiaa iaaeaeo
aeaoiy eeoa?aoo?aie, e iaeiia?aiaiii, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, ?anoiaeaeaiey a
iinoaiiaea oeaeiai ?yaea aii?inia e iienea ioaaoia ia ieo. Oae, anee a
?onneie eeoa?aoo?a i?iaeieaeathony o?aaeeoeee «aiaieneaoaeuenoaa»,
iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue ee/iie aeeciueth aac aeooiaiiai niunea auoey,
aia?oe/aneia ?acaeaiaiea, aoio iineoaeae yoiai ninoiyiey (?aniooei,
Ooeoei, Oaiae?yeia e ae?.), a oe?aeineie eeoa?aoo?a enneaaeoaiiai
ia?eiaea iaaethaeaaony ooaa?aeaeaiea «niaanoeeaie iaiyoe», aica?auaiea
e enoi?e/aneie iaiyoe ia?iaea, aeoeaioe?iaaiea aieiaiey ia aa/iii,
niceaeathuai niai?u /aeiaa/aneeo aeoo, ec eioi?uo au?anoaao niai?iinoue
iaoeee (I.Aii/a?), iiiyoea Aiaa eae aeooiaiie iiaoaeeoaeueiie i?e/eiu,
aeeythuae ia ii?aeueiue auai? noauaeoa, «?aeeaeiciia» eae nayoia,
iaua/aeiaa/aneia (I.Aii/a?, ?.Eaaie/oe), Aia eae aiieiuaiea ia?iaeiie
?aeeaee, eae o?ainoeaiaeaioiia, iai?aaeythuaa /aeiaaea e niaanoe,
ii?aeueiiio auai?o (A.Ae?icae, A.Othothiiee). Ie?iaicc?ai/aneay
i?eaioaoeey aeooiaiuo iieneia ee/iinoe niinianoaiaaea ?acaeoeth aa
aeeciaiiie aeoeaiinoe, a ?aeeaeiciua aeooiaiua iienee aaee e naiaiaea
ee/iinoe /a?ac aeooiaiua iienee nianoaaiiiai «ss» — iaiaoiaeeiiai
oneiaey aeey iniciaiey niunea auoey, aeey i?aiaeieaiey «caci?a» iaaeaeo
?aaeueiie aeeciueth e aa aeooiaiui ecia?aieai eaeaae Aiaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeooiaiua iienee, ?aeeaeiciua aeooiaiua iienee,
niune aeecie, aiaieneaoaeuenoai, aeooiaiue ie?, ee/iinoue, eoeueoo?a.

SUMMARY

Zvonok N.S. Religious aspect of spiritual searches (based on
Russian and Ukrainian feature literature of 60-s and 80-s). Manuscript.

Thesis for candidate degree( Philosophy) on speciality 09.00.11
knowledge of Religion. The H.S.Skovoroda Institute of Philosophy of the
National Academy of Science of Ukraine (Departmont of Religious
Studies). Kyiv: 1999.

This thesis is a study from the point of view a philosophy of
regularities of origin, development and functioning of religious
spiritual searches in activities of a person, their essence and a
variaty of their appearance in different forms of consciousness; main
methodological principles of study are marked; pecularities of
religious aspect of spiritual searches in Russian and Ukrainian
literature of 60-s-80-s, as an eve of deep quality changes in the former
USSR, were studied.

Key words: religious spiritual searches, spiritual searches, sense
of life, search of God, spiritual world, a person, culture.

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