I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? I.I. Aiaiiieueoey.

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAe E: 616 — 018
— 089.844: 616.586

NAETHE A?EOI? IEOAEEIAE*

?AEIINO?OEOEAIA I?E?IO??O?A?ss A OOIEOe?IIAEUeI?E ?AAA?E?OAOe?? OAI?EO
C AeAOAEOAIE OA ?OAOeUeIAEIE O?AINOI?IAOe?ssIE OEAIEI

I?AeIOAIAI? IIAA?OI? NOOII?

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? ee?i?/ii? oa aenia?eiaioaeueii? o??o?a?? AII
Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: ae.i.i., caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo i?e?io??o?a?? oa
ieanoe/ii? o??o?a??

?EAO AII Oe?a?ie, caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, i?ioani?
Ae?the Ieeiea Oaaei?iae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: ae.i.i., caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo ii?e?a oa ii?eiai?
oai?iae

Ee?anueeiai IAe? aaiaoieia?? oa ia?aeeaaiiy e?ia? IIC Oe?a?ie,
i?ioani? Iianoyiee Ieeiea THoeiiae/

ae.i.i., caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeeoy/i? o??o?a?? EIAII IIC

Oe?a?ie, i?ioani? Aeai?eia
Ieaenaiae? Aiae??eiae/

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao,
eaoaae?a

aini?oaeueii? o??o?a??

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I.I. Aiaiiieueoey.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 17 a?oaeiy 1998 ?. ia 11-30 ia can?aeaii?
Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 260003.03 i?e Iaoe?iiaeueiiio
iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? I.I. Aiaiiieueoey (252054, Ee?a, aoe.
Oaa/aiea, 17)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 17 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee, i?ioani?
Ai?enaiei A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie.

Ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? aeiaaee?a aaaeeeo o?aai ieaei?o e?ioe?aie c
ooai?aiiyi aaeeeeo aeaoaeo?a oeaiei, ye? i?ecaiaeyoue ia o?eueee aei
ii?ooaiue oe?e?niino? iie?eaieo oeaiei, aea e a ia?oo /a?ao aei
ii?ooaiiy ooieoe?? e?ioe?aee, aecia/a? iaiao?aei?noue iiooeo iiaeo,
a?eueo aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy aeaii? a?oie oai?eo
(E?ueia A. N., 1986, 1987; Ae?the I. O., 1984, 1986, 1987, 1989-1992;
Ieeaiia I.I., 1988, 1993; Ioaieniia E.I., 1990, 1992; ?aaeiineee A.A.,
1994; Ikuta Y., 1984; Maj J.W., 1985; Hidalgo D..A., 1986; Rassel R.C.,
1986; Peeters R., 1986; Lahteenmaki T., 1989, 1991; Rautio J., 1989,
1992; Harris P.G., 1994).

Iaei??th c iaea?eueo neeaaeieo i?iaeai ?aeiino?oeoeaii? o??o?a?? ?
i?iaeaia e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c aeaoaeoaie oeaiei aeenoaeueieo a?aeae?e?a
e?ioe?aie, aea iiaeeeaino? canoinoaaiiy i?noeaai? ieanoeee iaiaaeai?
/a?ac a?aenooi?noue aeinoaoiueiai “iaaeeeoeo” iaaeieeoi?o caei?iaeo
oeaiei. Canoinoaaiiy ae iaoiae?a cai?uaiiy aeaoaeo?a i’yeeo oeaiei a
oeeo ciiao iiaiineieieie eeaioyie c a?aeaeaeaieo ae?eyiie — cross —
thing oa cross — leg — ieanoeee ia? nai? iaaaoeai? noi?iie, aei yeeo
a?aeiinyoueny o?eaae?noue ? aaaaoiaoaii?noue e?eoaaiiy, aenieee nooi?iue
?eceeo ?icaeoeo ai?eieo oneeaaeiaiue ?, ye iane?aeie, iani?eyoeeaee
?acoeueoao e?eoaaiiy a oe?eiio. Cai?iiiiiaaiee o 1972 ?ioe? Orthicochea
iaoiae musculocutaneous cross — leg flap i?e e?auiio e?iaiiinoa/aii?
o?ainieaioaoo ? a?eueo aenie?e aa?aio?? i?eaeeaeaiiy iiaiineieiiai
eeaioy ia iicaaaeaiee ona ae iniiaieo oea ia?ao?anii? ieanoeee.

Iniaeeao eaoaai??th neeaaeathoue iaoe??ioe c aeaoaeoaie oeaiei o ciiao c
i?aeaeuaiei ooieoe?iiaeueiei iaaaioaaeaiiyi, oae caaieo “ooieoe?iiaeueii
aaaeeeaeo ciiao” e?ioe?aie, aei yeeo a?aeiineoueny nooiiy. Iie?eai?
oeaieie i?aeioaiai? iiaa?oi? nooii? i?aeaeathoueny cia/iiio
iaaaioaaeaiith /a?ac iaiao?aei?noue aeo?eioaaoe aaao o?ea. Aiie iathoue
nai???aeio o?aaaeoey?io no?oeoo?o c “aii?oecoth/eie” aeanoeainoyie, ui ?
aeicaiey? ?i aeo?eioaaoe i?ae /an oiaee ia eeoa noaoe/iee, aea e a?eueo
?ioaineaiee aeeiai?/iee oene. Iayai?noue ia i?aeioaia?e iiaa?oi? nooii?
aeaoaeoo i’yeeo oeaiei aai ?o ?oaoeueiai-ae?aceiai? o?ainoi?iaoe??
aeeeeea? ii?ooaiiy iii?ii? ooieoe?? ieaei?o e?ioe?aie, ui i?ecaiaeeoue a
a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a aei no?eei? ?iaae?aeecaoe?? oai?eo. I?e e?eoaaii?
aeaii? eaoaai??? iaoe??io?a iio??aia ia o?eueee ? ia no?eueee
?aeiino?oeoe?y oe?e?niino? iie?eaieo oeaiei, ne?eueee ?o ooieoe?iiaeueia
a?aeiiaeaiiy.

?icaeoie i?e?io??o?a?/ii? oaoi?ee i?eca?a aei iiyae iiaiai iaoiaeo
?aeiino?oeoe?? o a?aeiiai?e o??o?a?? — i?e?io??o?a?/ii?
aooio?ainieaioaoe?? neeaaeieo eeaio?a, ia?aaaaith yeiai ? iiaeeea?noue
iaeiiiiiaioiiai cai?uaiiy aeaoaeoo aaaaoioa?iaei iiaiioe?iiei aeia?a
aaneoey?eciaaiei eiiieaenii oeaiei aeinoaoiueiai ia’?io, aei oiai ae c
aenieei nooiaiai aa?aio?? i?eaeeaeaiiy. Canoinoaaiiy i?e?io??o?a?/ii?
aooio?ainieaioaoe?? aeicaiey? aeinyaoe iiceoeaieo einiaoe/ieo
?acoeueoao?a o 76,4 — 97% niinoa?aaeaiue (Rassel R.C., 1986). I?ioa
aeinyaiaiiy einiaoe/iiai ?acoeueoaoo ? eeoa iaiao?aeiith oiiaith aeey
ooieoe?iiaeueii? ?aeiino?oeoe?? i?aeioaiai? iiaa?oi? nooii?.

O a?o/eciyi?e oa ca?oa?aei?e e?oa?aoo?? nueiaiaei? ? cia/ia e?euee?noue
ioae?eaoe?e, i?enay/aieo ieanoe/iiio cai?uaiith aeaoaeo?a iii?ii?
iiaa?oi? nooii? oeyoii ia?anaaeee i?e?io??o?a?/ieo eeaio?a (May J. W.,
1985; Rautio J., 1989, 1992; Raggero R., 1993; Ieeaiia I. I., 1988,
1993; Ae?the I. O., 1984, 1987, 1990, 1992 oa ?i.). Iayai?noue ia
ia?anaaeaeaieo eeaioyo a?aeaeaeaieo aoi?eiieo oneeaaeiaiue o aeaeyae?
o?io?/ieo ?iceaae?a — a?ae a?ic?e aei aeeaieeo ae?acie — coiiaeth?
cia/ii a??o? ooieoe?iiaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy oa aeeeeea?
iaiao?aei?noue iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo e oaeineiiaeaiiy oaeiai iiaiai ?
i?ia?aneaiiai iaoiaeo ye i?e?io??o?a?/ia aooio?ainieaioaoe?y neeaaeieo
eiiieaen?a oeaiei (Ae?the I. O., 1992; Ieeaiia I.I., 1993; May J.W.,
1986; Rautio J., 1989). Iaae??oaieie caeeoathoueny ieoaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy
noaeino? ia?anaaeaeaieo oeaiei aei iaaaioaaeaiue oeyoii aeai?o
aeiii?nueeiai eeaioy, yeee caaeiaieueiy? aeiiaai ?aoeei??ioii? ciie,
eiai aaeaeaaoii? ?a?iia?aaoe?? oa a?aeoai?aiiy no?oeoo?e c
aii?oecoth/eie aeanoeainoyie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Aeena?oaoe?ei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiioaaeeny a ?aieao ieaiiaeo
iaoeiai–aeine?aeieo ?ia?o a?aeae?eo i?e?io??o?a?? oa ieanoe/ii? o??o?a??
?EAO AII Oe?a?ie – eiiieaenii? oaie “?ic?iaeoe oa oaeineiiaeeoe iaoiaee
?aeiino?oeoeaieo iia?aoe?e ia iniia? canoinoaaiiy i?e?io??o?a?/ii?
aooio?ainieaioaoe?? oeaiei i?e iane?aeeao o?aai oa caoai?thaaiiyo noaeei
e?ioe?aie”, ? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0196.0061447, oa eiiieaenii? oaie
“?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee i?e?io??o?a?/ii? aooio?ainieaioaoe?? neeaaeieo
eiiieaen?a oeaiei a e?eoaaii? ieethc?eieo o?aaeaiue a?oa??e aeenoaeueieo
a?aeae?e?a e?ioe?aie”, ? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0189.0065793, — ca?aeii ieaio
IIC Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy.

I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?aeiino?oeoeaiiai o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo
c o?aaeaiiyie i’yeeo oeaiei i?aeioaiai? iiaa?oi? nooii? ia iniia?
canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo i?e?io??o?a?/ii? aooio?ainieaioaoe?? neeaaeieo
eiiieaen?a oeaiei.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

1. I?iaanoe aiaoii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiii?nueeeo cii ethaenueeiai
i?aai?cio c iaoith aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo aeey ieanoeee i?aeioaiai?
iiaa?oi? nooii? neeaaeieo eiiieaen?a oeaiei ?c o?aooaaiiyi ?o
aiaoii?/ii? aoaeiae, aia?ia?o?oaeoii?ee, a oaeiae iiaeeeaino?
?a?iia?aaoe??.

2. Aecia/eoe i?e/eie oneeaaeiaiue, ye? i?ecaiaeyoue aei iacaaeia?eueieo
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a o a?aeaeaeaiiio ia??iae? i?ney o??o?a?/ii?
?aeiino?oeoe?? aeaoaeo?a oeaiei i?aeioaiai? iiaa?oi? nooii?.

3. Oaeineiiaeeoe ?nioth/? ? ?ic?iaeoe iia? niiniae e?eoaaiiy
oneeaaeiaiue, ui aeieeathoue i?e ieanoe/iiio cai?uaii? aeaoaeo?a oeaiei
i?aeioaiai? iiaa?oi? nooii?, oeyoii iai?aaeaieo ci?i no?oeoo?e
ia?anaaeaeaieo oeaiei.

4. Oaeineiiaeeoe ?nioth/? ? ?ic?iaeoe iia? niiniae i?io?eaeoeee
oneeaaeiaiue i?e ieanoe/iiio cai?uaii? aeaoaeo?a oeaiei i?aeioaiai?
iiaa?oi? nooii? ia iniia? canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo i?e?io??o?a?/ii?
aooio?ainieaioaoe?? c oe?eani?yiiaaiith ?a?iia?aaoe??th ia?anaaeaeaieo
oeaiei.

5. Aea/eoe ooieoe?iiaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe ?aeiino?oeoeaiiai o??o?a?/iiai
e?eoaaiiy iaoe??io?a ?c canoinoaaiiyi cai?iiiiiaaieo iaoiae?a.

6. Aecia/eoe ?ieue iai?aaeaieo ci?i no?oeoo?e oa ?a?iia?aaoe?? eeaio?a
uiaei noaeino? ia?anaaeaeaieo eiiieaen?a oeaiei aei o?ce/iiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

· Aia?oa a i?aeoeoe? a?o/eciyii? o??o?a?? i?iaaaeaii oe?eani?yiiaaia
ee?i?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?enay/aia i?iaeai? ?aeiino?oeoeaiiai
iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy i?e aeaoaeoao oa ?oaoeueiai-ae?aceiaeo
o?ainoi?iaoe?yo i’yeeo oeaiei i?aeioaiai? iiaa?oi? nooii? c
aeei?enoaiiyi aooio?ainieaioao?a o aeaeyae? neeaaeaieo eiiieaen?a
oeaiei;

· ?ic?iaeai? iieacaiiy aei i?e?io??o?a?/ii? ia?anaaeee oa e?eoa???
aeai?o aooio?ainieaioaoo caeaaeii a?ae oa?aeoa?o iaoieia??, iio?aa
?aoe?i??ioii? ciie, a oaeiae c o?aooaaiiyi aeanoeainoae neeaaeieo
eiiieaen?a oeaiei, ?o aiaoii?/ii? aoaeiae, aia?ia?o?oaeoii?ee, a oaeiae
iiaeeeaino? ?a?iia?aaoe??, ui aoee aea/ai? a ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo
aiaoii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue;

· aecia/ai? i?e/eie oneeaaeiaiue, ye? i?ecaiaeyoue aei iacaaeia?eueieo
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a o a?aeaeaeaiiio i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio
ia??iae? i?ney o??o?a?/ii? ?aeiino?oeoe?? aeaoaeo?a oeaiei i?aeioaiai?
iiaa?oi? nooii?;

· ?ic?iaeaii niiniae e?eoaaiiy oneeaaeiaiue oeyoii iai?aaeaieo ci?i
no?oeoo?e ia?anaaeaeaieo oeaiei oa aecia/aia ?ieue oeeo iaoiae?a o
oi?ioaaii? noaeino? ia?anaaeaeaieo eeaio?a aei o?ce/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy;

· aeiaaaeaii aieea ?a?iia?aaoe?? ia?anaaeaeaieo eiiieaen?a oeaiei ia ?o
noae?noue aei o?ce/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy;

· ?ic?iaeaii niiniae i?io?eaeoeee oneeaaeiaiue i?e ieanoe/iiio cai?uaii?
aeaoaeo?a oeaiei i?aeioaiai? iiaa?oi? nooii? ia iniia? canoinoaaiiy
iaoiaeo i?e?io??o?a?/ii? aooio?ainieaioaoe?? c ?a?iia?aaoe??th
ia?anaaeaeaieo oeaiei, ui aeicaiey? cia/ii i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue
e?eoaaiiy.

Iiaecia oa i?ei?eoaoi?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?aeoaa?aeaeai? iaoaioaie ia aeiaoiaee.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui ?ic?iaeai? i?eioeeie
e?eoaaiiy aeaoaeo?a oa ?oaoeueiai-ae?aceiaeo o?ainoi?iaoe?e i’yeeo
oeaiei i?aeioaiai? iiaa?oi? nooii? c aeei?enoaiiyi i?e?io??o?a?/ii?
aooio?ainieaioaoe?? neeaaeaieo eiiieaen?a oeaiei, ui aeicaieeei
i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy aeaii? a?oie oai?eo.

Aecia/ai? i?e/eie oneeaaeiaiue o a?aeaeaeaiiio i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio
ia??iae?, ?ic?iaeai? caoiaee ?o i?io?eaeoeee oa e?eoaaiiy.

Aeey canoinoaaiiy a aaeocaaeo ianooaaao ?ic?iaeai? iieacaiiy aei
?aeiino?oeoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy i?e aeaoaeoao oa ?oaoeueiai-ae?aceiaeo
o?ainoi?iaoe?yo i’yeeo oeaiei i?aeioaiai? iiaa?oi? nooii?, cai?iiiiiaaia
?iaeea?aeoaeueii-?aoe?iiaeueia oaeoeea iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy ia iniia?
aeeoa?aioe?eiiai i?aeoiaeo aei aeai?o iaoiaeo ieanoeee caeaaeii a?ae
oa?aeoa?o iaoieia??, iio?aa ?aoe?i??ioii? ciie, a oaeiae c o?aooaaiiyi
aeanoeainoae neeaaeieo eiiieaen?a ia?anaaeaeaieo oeaiei, aeeth/ath/e
ie??i naii? i?e?io??o?a?/ii? aooio?ainieaioaoe?? iiaeeea?noue oa
iaiao?aei?noue ?a?iia?aaoe?? aai iai?aaeaieo ci?i no?oeoo?e
ia?anaaeaeaieo oeaiei.

Ii oai? ?iaioe cai?iiiiiaai? iia? niiniae e?eoaaiiy, i?aeoaa?aeaeai?
iaoaioaie oa ?aoe?iiae?caoi?nueeeie i?iiiceoe?yie oa ai?iaaaeaeai? a
i?aeoe/io ?iaioo ee?i?ee i?e?inoaeeiii? oa ieanoe/ii? o??o?a?? ?EAO AII
Oe?a?ie, ee?i?ee i?e?io??o?a?? oa o??o?a?? eeno? Oe?a?inueeiai IAe?
i?oiiaae??, aeeoy/i? ee?i?ee i?e?io??o?a?? oa o??o?a?? eeno?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? aeeoy/i? e?ea?i? “Ioiaoaeeo”, ee?i?ee i?e?io??o?a?? oa
o??o?a?? eeno? Aeiiaoeueei? o?e?? Oa?e?anueeiai IAe? i?oiiaae??.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a.

Aeena?oaioii ?ic?iaeai? iieacaiiy aei i?e?io??o?a?/ii? ia?anaaeee oa
e?eoa??? aeai?o aooio?ainieaioaoo a caeaaeiino? a?ae oa?aeoa?o
iaoieia??, iio?aa ?aoe?i??ioii? ciie, a oaeiae c o?aooaaiiyi
aeanoeainoae neeaaeieo eiiieaen?a ia?anaaeaeoaaieo oeaiei, ?o
aiaoii?/ii? aoaeiae, aia?ia?o?oaeoii?ee, a oaeiae iiaeeeaino?
?a?iia?aaoe??, ui aoee aea/ai? a ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aiaoii?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue.

Aaoi?ii i?iaiae?ciaaii ee?i?/iee iaoa??ae a?aeiia?aeii aei ae?iaeaieo
e?eoa???a, aeyaeaii iniiai? i?e/eie oneeaaeiaiue, ye? i?ecaiaeyoue aei
iacaaeia?eueieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a o a?aeaeaeaiiio
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae?, oaeineiiaeaii ?nioth/? ? ?ic?iaeaii iia?
caoiaee ii i?io?eaeoeoe? oa e?eoaaiith oeeo oneeaaeiaiue i?e ieanoe/iiio
cai?uaii? aeaoaeo?a oeaiei i?aeioaiai? iiaa?oi? nooii?, aecia/aia ?ieue
iai?aaeaieo ci?i no?oeoo?e ia?anaaeaeaieo oeaiei oa aeiaaaeaii aieea
?a?iia?aaoe?? ia?anaaeaeaieo eiiieaen?a oeaiei ia ?o noae?noue aei
o?ce/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy.

Aeena?oaio aaniina?aaeiuei i?eeiaa o/anoue o e?eoaaii? oa an?o
iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiiyo ? naiino?eii i?iiia?oaaa iiiaae 50% aiae?ciaaieo
iaoe??io?a.

Cai?iiiiiaai? iaoiaee e?eoaaiiy caoeuai? 2-ia iaoaioaie ia aeiaoiaee.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??.

Iaoa??aee ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny ia O c’?cae? o?aaiaoieia?a Oe?a?ie
(Iaeana, 1987); OVI c’?cae? o??o?a?a Oe?a?ie (Iaeana, 1988);
eiioa?aioe?? “Eiaeiay ieanoeea a aiieiie oe?o?aee” (Iineaa, 1990);
/aoaa?oiio i?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? ii ieanoe/i?e oa ?aeiino?oeoeai?e
i?e?io??o?a?? (Iineaa, 1991); iaoeiai — i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie iaaeaiiy aeno?aii? aeiiiiiae i?e iaa?aeeeaaeieo
noaiao” (Ee?a, 1995); iaoeiai — i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oaeoeea
a?aeiiaiiai e?eoaaiiy ? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? i?e o?aaiao oa o?aaeaiiyo ieaei?o
e?ioe?aie” (Caii??aeaey, 1995); tha?eaei?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 25
— ??//th ?EAO AII Oe?a?ie (Ee?a, 1997).

Ioae?eaoe??.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoei? iiai?noth aeeeaaeaii a 7 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeyo, na?aae yeeo 5 — oea aeo?iaeuei? noaoo?, iioaeieiaai? o oaoiaeo
aeaeaiiyo, ?aeiiaiaeiaaieo AAE Oe?a?ie, oa o 2 iaoaioao ia 5 aeiaoiae?a.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??.

?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, 4 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, i?aeoe/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e oa nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e, ui i?noeoue 339
aeaea?ae, cie?aia 158 a?o/eciyieo ? 181 ?iicaiieo aaoi??a. Caaaeueiee
ianya aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 148 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, 26
oaaeeoeue oa 66 ?enoie?a.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaoa??aee oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A iniiao aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieeaaeaii aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a
ieanoe/ieo ?aeiino?oeoeaieo iia?aoe?e ?c canoinoaaiiyi i?e?io??o?a?/ii?
aooio?ainieaioaoe?? neeaaeieo eiiieaen?a oeaiei o 74 oai?eo c aeaoaeoaie
oa ?oaoeueiai-ae?aceiaeie o?ainoi?iaoe?yie i’yeeo oeaiei i?aeioaiai?
iiaa?oi? nooii?, ye? c 1982 ?ieo ii 1997 ??e ciaoiaeeeenue ia e?eoaaii?
o a?aeae?eaii? i?e?inoaeeiii? oa ieanoe/ii? o??o?a?? ?EAO AII Oe?a?ie.
??ci? ca ?ici??aie aeaoaeoe oa o?io?/i? ae?acee aoee o 51 oai?iai,
?oaoeueiai-ae?aceia? aeaoi?iaoe?? oeaiei — o 23 oai?eo. I?e/eiith
aeieeiaiiy aeaoaeo?a oa ?oaoeueiai-ae?aceiaeo ci?i oeaiei o 50
iaoe??io?a aoea iaoai?/ia o?aaia, o 4-o — aiaiaiaeueia oa i?iii-aeaooiaa
o?aaia, o 9 — oa?i?/i? ooeiaeaeaiiy ??ciiai aaiaco, o 7 oai?eo aoee
iae?io?io?/i? ae?acee ? o 4 iaoe??io?a — aeaoaeoe oeaiei yo?iaaiiiai
iioiaeaeaiiy. O?eaae?noue caoai?thaaiiy eieeaaeany a?ae 2 oeaei?a aei 30
?ie?a. O 57 oai?eo (77 %) iayai?noue aeaoaeo?a aai ?oaoeueiai-ae?aceiaeo
ci?i oneeaaeithaaeanue iayai?noth ?aiueiai? ?ioaeoe??.

Aiaoii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aeeiiai? ia 112 ethaenueeeo o?oiao ia
aac? ath?i iaeanii? noaeiai-iaaee/ii? aenia?oece oa eaai?aoi???
eiina?aaoe?? oeaiei Ee?anueeiai IAe? i?oiiaae??. Aoei aea/aii 15 eeaio?a
a 11-oe aeiii?nueeeo ciiao ethaenueeiai i?aai?cio, 10 c yeeo a
iiaeaeueoiio canoiniaoaaeenue aeey ?aeiino?oeoe?? i?aeioaiai? iiaa?oi?
nooii?. Na?aae ieo: eeaiioue ia iniia? i’yca iai?oaeoaa/a oe?iei?
oanoe?? noaaia, eaoa?aeueiee eeaiioue iea/a, eeaiioue coa/aoiai i’yco,
aaeeeiai a?oaeiiai i’yco, “eeoaenueeee” eeaiioue oa ?io?.

Aeey ?aeiino?oeoe?? i?aeioaiai? iiaa?oi? nooii? aoee aeei?enoai?
ianooii? aeaee o?ainieaioao?a: oe??yii — i’ycia? eeaio? — o 36
aeiaaeeao ia?anaaeee, i’ycia? eeaio? c aooiaea?iio?ainieaioaoii — o 13
aeiaaeeao, oe??yii — oanoe?yeuei? eeaio? — o 28 aeiaaeeao. Na?aae
oe??yii — i’yciaeo oa i’yciaeo eeaio?a iae/ano?oa canoiniaoaaee eeaiioue
iaeoe?oiai i’yca nieie — o 40 aeiaaeeao, c oe??yii — oanoe?yeueieo —
eaoa?aeueiee eeaiioue iea/a (8), “eeoaenueeee” eeaiioue (7), oeeueiee
eeaiioue nooii? (5). Anueiai aoei aeeiiaii 77 iia?aoe?e, ?c ieo 67
aooio?ainieaioaoe?e, ui neeaei 87,0%, oa 10 o?ainiiceoe?e (13,0%).
Iaa?aeiia?aei?noue e?eueeino? aeeiiaieo iia?aoe?e ? e?eueeino?
iaoe??io?a coiiaeaia oei, ui a 2-o aeiaaeeao aeeiioaaeany iiaoi?ia
i?e?io??o?a?/ia aooio?ainieaioaoe?y eeaio?a, a o 1-ai iaoe??ioa aeeiiaia
iaeiiiiiaioia ieanoeea aeaiia ?aeaioe/ieie eeaioyie iaio i’yoeiaeo cii,
o?aaeaieo neiao?e/ii. Ie??i oeacaieo aeeiiaia cia/ia e?euee?noue
noiooi?o iia?aoe?e oa iia?aoe?e c i?eaiaeo oneeaaeiaiue: oia ? ieanoeea
ia?a?a (38), aooiaea?iiieanoeea aeiii?nueei? ciie ? iaeeaaeaiiy
aoi?eiieo oa?a (39), iae?aeoii?y (12), oei/aniaa aeeiaea?iiieanoeea
aeiii?nueei? oa ?aoeei??ioii? cii (21), ei?aaoth/? iia?aoe?? ia e?noeao
(9), iiaoi?i? ei?aaoth/? iia?aoe?? ia ia?anaaeaeaieo oeaieiao (46).

I?eaeeaeaiiy ia?anaaeaeaieo eeaio?a aeinyaiooa o 69 aeiaaeeao, ui
noaiiaeei 89,6%. O 8 iaoe??io?a (10,4%) ?icaeioany oioaeueiee iae?ic
eeaioy. E?aeiaee iae?ic eeaioy a?aei?/aiee o 8 aeiaaeeao ia?anaaeee.

Ianoaaeaiiy oai?eo c aeaoaeoaie ? ?oaoeueiai — ae?aceiaeie ci?iaie
i’yeeo oeaiei nooii? i?iaiaeeee ii caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo ee?i?/ieo
iaoiaeao. Niaoe?aeueia ianoaaeaiiy canoiniaoaaee aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
oa?aeoa?o aiaoii?/ieo ? ooieoe?iiaeueieo ii?ooaiue o?aaeaii? e?ioe?aee.
O iia?iaaieo oai?eo i?iaiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aa?iiaeueii?
aaiiaeeiai?ee, ?aioaaiia?ao?/ia oa ieaioia?ao?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy nooii?,
i?e iaiao?aeiino? aeeiioaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy ooieoe?? ia?eoa?e/ieo
ia?a?a, aecia/aiiy i?e?iaii? oei?e ?aie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aa?iiaeueii? aaiiaeeiai?ee i?iaiaeeee aeey ?ica’ycaiiy
ieoaiiy i?i i?eaeaoi?noue noaeei aii?eee ? nooii? aei iaeeaaeaiiy
i?e?inoaeeiieo aianoiiic?a oa aeeth/aei aeei?enoaiiy ?iaaceaieo
(?aioaaii-eiio?anoia aia?ia?ao?y) oa ia?iaaceaieo (oeueo?acaoeiaa
aeiiea?ia?ao?y) iaoiae?a.

Ieaioia?ao?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiioaaee niiniaii oioiieaioia?ao??.

Ioe?iea a?aeiiaeaiiy /ooeeaino? aoea ianooiiith:

· iacaaeia?eueia — a?aenooi?noue a?aeiiaeaiiy /ooeeaino? acaaae?;

· caaeia?eueia — a?aeiiaeaiiy aeeaiei? aieueiai? /ooeeaino?;

· oi?ioa — a?aeiiaeaiiy iiaa?oiaai? aieueiai? ? oaeoeeueii? /ooeeaino?.

O iaoe??io?a c a?aeiiaeaiiyi oaeoeeueii? /ooeeaino? aeeiioaaee ioe?ieo
aeene?ei?iaoe?eii? /ooeeaino? ca aeiiiiiaith oanoo Aaaa?a. I?ioean
?aaaia?aoe?? ia?aiaeo aieieii a aeeiai?oe? ioe?ithaaee ca aeiiiiiaith
neiioiio O?iiaey.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy.

I?aaeeueiee aea?? iioeiaeueiiai aooio?ainieaioaoo caeaaeii a?ae
eieae?caoe?? aeaoaeoo, eiai ciai?oi?o ia?aiao??a, iayaiino? /eiiee?a, ui
oneeaaeiththoue iaoieia?/iee i?ioean (e?noeia? aeaoi?iaoe??,
?io?eiaai?noue ?aie, iayai?noue inoaii??e?oo, o?aaeaiiy noaeei, ia?a?a
oa ?io.), a oaeiae oe?eiai ?yaeo nooi ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo /eiiee?a, ?
iaei??th c iniiaieo oiia oni?oo i?e i?e?io??o?a?/i?e aooio?ainieaioaoe??
neeaaeieo eeaio?a. A naith /a?ao oea aeeeeea? iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy
aiaoii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeey aea/aiiy aeanoeainoae oa iiaeeeainoae
eiiieaen?a oeaiei, i?eaeaoieo aei ia?anaaeee, oa aea/aiiy ?
nenoaiaoecaoe?th /eiiee?a, ye? oi?iothoue aeiiae aei aooio?ainieaioao?a
c aieo ?aoe?i??ioii? ciie.

Aecia/aii, ui iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaieie na?aae aea/aieo a ?acoeueoao?
aiaoii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue eeaio?a ? “eeoaenueeee” eeaiioue
ia?aaeie?//y, eeaiioue ia iniia? i’yca iai?oaeoaa/a oe?iei? oanoe??
noaaia oa eaoa?aeueiee eeaiioue iea/a, /a?ac iayai?noue a ?oiueiio
neeaae? /ooeeaeo ia?a?a, i?eaeaoieo aeey ?a?iia?aaoe?? ia?anaaeaeaieo
oeaiei.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co iayaieo aeaoaeo?a i?aeioaiai? iiaa?oi?
nooii? ie cai?iiiioaaee nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei oi?ioaaiiy iio?aa
?aoe?i??ioii? ciie. C o?aooaaiiyi ciai?oi?o ia?aiao??a aeaoaeoo
a?aeaoaa?oueny aea?? eeaioy c a?aeiia?aeieie caaeaieie ?ici??aie oa
ia’?iii. Oae i?e iaeeo, aea aeeaieeo aeaoaeoao, iniaeeai i?e iayaiino?
ooeiaeaeaiiy e?noeiaeo no?oeoo? ie canoiniaoaaee i’ycia? eeaio? o
aeaeyae? o?aaiaio?a i’yc?a c aooiaea?iio?ainieaioaoii. Iayai?noue
oioaeueiiai aeaoaeoo an??? i?aeioaiai? iiaa?oi? nooii?, iacaeaaeii a?ae
eiai aeeaeie, aeiaaa? canoinoaaiiy iaaaeeaio?a, ui aeicaieythoue
iaeiiiiiaioii cae?eoe ?aio cia/ieo ?ici???a, ye iai?eeeaae, eeaiioue ia
iniia? i’yca iai?oaeoaa/a oe?iei? oanoe?? noaaia. Caeaaeii a?ae
iayaiino? ?aiueiai? ?ioaeoe?? ie ?ic??ciy?ii oneeaaeiai? oa
iaoneeaaeiai? ai?eiith ?ioaeoe??th o?aaeaiiy. Aei inoaii?o /ano?oa
a?aeiinyoueny ?oaoeueiai-ae?aceia? aeaoi?iaoe?? i’yeeo oeaiei.
Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue aeaoaeo?a oeaiei nooii? ? ?io?eiaaieie, a
ia?anaaeea oe??yii — i’yciaeo oa i’yciaeo eeaio?a aeicaiey? aeinyaiooe
i?eaeeaeaiiy eeaioy aac aenieiai ?eceeo ai?eieo i?neyiia?aoe?eieo
oneeaaeiaiue. Ii eieae?caoe?? ooeiaeaeaiiy ie aeae?ey?ii aeaoaeoe a
iii?ieo ? iaiii?ieo ciiao. A iii?ieo ciiao nooii? ia?aaaaa iiaeiia
a?aeaeaaaoeny eeaioyi, no?eeei aei o?eaaeiai e ?ioaineaiiai iaoai?/iiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy.

C o?aooaaiiyi on?o aeiia ?aoe?i??ioii? ciie, nenoaiaoeciaaieo ia iniia?
cai?iiiiiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo, ? aeanoeainoae aeiii?nueeeo oeaiei, aea/aieo
o oiae? aiaoii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, iaie ?ic?iaeaii
?iaeea?aeoaeueii-?aoe?iiaeueio oaeoeeo aeai?o iaoiaeo ieanoeee ?
iioeiaeueiiai aooio?ainieaioaoo.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? aei caaea/ aeine?aeaeaiiy on? iaoe??ioe aoee
?icae?eai? iaie ia 2 a?oie, ui eia?/ii a?aeiia?aea? ??ciei aoaiai oa
iai?yieai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? aeeiioaaeeny iia?aoe?? ia?anaaeee oa o?ainiiceoe??
neeaaeieo eeaio?a aeey ieanoe/iiai cai?uaiiy aeaoaeo?a i?aeioaiai?
iiaa?oi? nooii? ca o?aaeeoe?eiei iaoiaeii aac ?a?iia?aaoe??
aooio?ainieaioao?a. Ia?oo a?oio neeaee 39 iaoe??io?a, o yeeo aoei
aeeiiaii 40 oaeeo iia?aoe?e (o 1 aeiaaeeo iiaoi?ii). Iae/ano?oa a oe?e
a?oi? canoiniaoaaee oe??yii-i’ycia? eeaio? (26 ia?anaaeie). A?aeiia?aeii
aei eieae?caoe?? /ano?oa cai?uoaaee aeaoaeoe oaei? iii?ii? ciie ye
i’yoeiaa iaeanoue (24 aeiaaeee).

Ae?oao a?oio neeaee 36 iaoe??io?a (37 iia?aoe?e), yeei ia ae?oaiio aoai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiioaaee i?e?io??o?a?/io aooio?ainieaioaoe?th neeaaeieo
eeaio?a c oe?eani?yiiaaiith ?a?iia?aaoe??th oeaiei (32 aeiaaeee) aai
o?ainiiceoe?th eeaio?a c? caa?aaeaiiyi /ooeeai? ?iia?aaoe?? inoaii?o (5
aeiaaee?a). O oe?e a?oi? /ano?oa canoiniaoaaee oe??yii-oanoe?yeuei?
eeaio?. A?aeiia?aeii aei eieae?caoe??, oaeiae ye ? a ia?o?e a?oi?,
/ano?oa aeeiioaaee cai?uaiiy aeaoaeo?a a i’yoeia?e iaeano? (30
aeiaaee?a).

Iniiaiei e?eoa???i ioe?iee iaeaeeae/eo ?acoeueoao?a o??o?a?/iiai
e?eoaaiiy aoei i?eaeeaeaiiy eeaio?a. Ioe?iea a?aeaeaeaieo
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a i?iaiaeeeany ii noaeino? ia?anaaeaeaieo
eeaio?a aei iaoai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy. Iacaaeia?eueiei ?acoeueoaoii
aaaaeaee aeieeiaiiy o?io?/ieo ae?acie ia?anaaeaeaieo oeaiei,
caaeia?eueiei — ia??iaee/ia aeieeiaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo a?ic?e oa
iiae?aciaiue oe??e c ianooiiei caai?iiyi, oi?ioei aaaaeaee ?acoeueoao
i?e a?aenooiino? aoaeue-yeeo o?io?/ieo ?iceaae?a oa iiai?e
ooieoe?iiaeuei?e ?aaa?e?oaoe??.

Iaeaeeae/? ?acoeueoaoe o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy iaoe??io?a ia?oi? a?oie
aoee ianooiieie: o 30 aeiaaeeao — ia?aeiia (aai iaoneeaaeiaia)
i?eaeeaeaiiy eeaio?a, o 5 aeiaaeeao — oneeaaeiaia i?eaeeaeaiiy a
?acoeueoao? e?aeiaiai iae?ico aeiii?nueeeo oeaiei, o 5 aeiaaeeao —
oioaeueiee iae?ic eeaioy a ?acoeueoao? o?iiaico noaeei, ui caaacia/oaaee
e?iaiiinoa/aiiy aooio?ainieaioao?a.

Iaaeae? ioe?iea a?aeaeaeaieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a a oe?e a?oi?
i?iaiaeeeany o 31 iaoe??ioa (32 aeiaaeee ia?anaaeee). Noae?noue eeaio?a
aei iaoai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy a 1-?e a?oi? iaoe??io?a aoea ianooiiith:
oi?ioa — a 37,5% aeiaaee?a, caaeia?eueia — a 18,8% ? iacaaeia?eueia — a
43,7% aeiaaee?a. I?e oeueiio iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe, ui i?aeoe/ii an?
iacaaeia?euei? ?acoeueoaoe i?eiaaeathoue ia ieanoeeo aeaoaeo?a a iii?ieo
ciiao nooii? .

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? /ooeeaino? ia?anaaeaeaieo eeaio?a a on?o 11
iaoe??io?a c oi?ioeie ?acoeueoaoaie iaie aoea a?aecia/aia iayai?noue
aeeaiei? aieueiai? /ooeeaino? ii e?ath eeaioy ia a?aenoai? 1,5 — 3,5 ni
a?ae i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ?oaoey, ca oiiae caa?aaeaiiy /ooeeaino? aeanieo
oeaiei nooii?. Iaaeae? ie ?icoe?ithaaee iiae?aiee ?acoeueoao ye
iayai?noue aeeaiei? aieueiai? /ooeeaino? aeanieo oeaiei nooii?. O 12 ?c
14 iaoe??io?a c iacaaeia?eueieie ?acoeueoaoaie ie ia niinoa??aaee
aoaeue-yeiai a?aeiiaeaiiy /ooeeaino? ii ia?eoa??? eeaio?a, aei oiai ae o
8 ?c ieo aoei a?aecia/aii ii?ooaiiy /ooeeaino? aeanieo iaaeieeoi?o
oeaiei nooii?.

Cia/ia e?euee?noue iacaaeia?eueieo ?acoeueoao?a o oe?e a?oi? iaoe??io?a
aeiaaaea aeeiiaiiy cia/ii? e?eueeino? ei?aaoth/eo iia?aoe?e. Iiaoi?i?
ei?aeoe?? o aeaeyae? aeaeaeaiiy ae?acie oa cai?uaiiy ?o aeanieie
oeaieiaie eeaioy eeoa a 1-io aeiaaeeo aeicaieeee iie?ioeoe ?acoeueoao
e?eoaaiiy aei caaeia?eueiiai. O oie aea /an a ?ioeo 7-ie aeiaaeeao
iiae?aia ei?aeoe?y aoea aaconi?oiith. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui a on?o naie
aeiaaeeao niinoa??aaeiny ii?ooaiiy /ooeeaino? iaaeieeoi?o oeaiei
aiane?aeie o?aaie ia?aiaeo noiaao??a, aai nai? ia?aeii? aeaoaeoe aoee
iae?io?io?/ieie ae?aceaie (3 aeiaaeee). Ca ?acoeueoaoaie niinoa?aaeaiiy
iia?iaaieo iaie iaoe??io?a e?eoaaiiy iiae?aieo iae?io?io?/ieo ae?acie
oeyoii i?e?io??o?a?/ii? aooio?ainieaioaoe?? neeaaeieo eeaio?a aac
?a?iia?aaoe?? ia?anaaeaeaieo oeaiei ? i?aeoe/ii aacia?niaeoeaiei.

O 4 aeiaaeeao ia iniia? ni?anoaaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a Rg-a?ao?/iiai ?
ieaioia?ao?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a i?iaeoe?? aeieeeeo o?io?/ieo ii?ooaiue
aoee aeyaeai? e?noeia? aeaoi?iaoe??. O 3 aeiaaeeao aoei aeeiiaii
ei?aeoe?th inoaii?o, ui aeicaieeei iie?ioeoe ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy o 2-o
iaoe??io?a c iacaaeia?eueiiai aei caaeia?eueiiai, a a 1-ai iaoe??ioa c
caaeia?eueiiai aei oi?ioiai.

Iii?i? ciie nooii? caeiathoue aei 60% ?? i?aeioaiai? iiaa?oi? (Simon S.
et al., 1981). ??aiii??iee ?iciiae?e iaoai?/iiai noaoe/iiai ?
aeeiai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy a oeeo ciiao caaacia/o?oueny niaoe?aeueiith
a?ae?aae?/iith nenoaiith i’yeeo oeaiei i?aeioae (Raggero R., 1993).
Noae?noue aei iaoai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy caaacia/o?oueny ca ?aooiie
a?eueo ??aiii??iiai ?iciiae?eo oeneo, ooai?thaaiiai e?noeiaei neaeaoii
nooii? /a?ac oeacaio a?ae?aae?/io nenoaio ia anth iiaa?oith oe??yiiai
iie?iao a iii?ieo ciiao i?aeioae. Oaeei /eiii, aeey onoiaiiy o?io?/ieo
oneeaaeiaiue o?ainieaioiaaieo eeaio?a iiaeeeaa canoinoaaiiy ni?yiiaaii?
ci?ie ia?anaaeaeaieo oeaiei c iaoith iaaeeaeaiiy ?o no?oeoo?e aei
no?oeoo?e i’yeeo oeaiei i?aeioaiai? iiaa?oi? nooii?.

Aeey e?eoaaiiy o?io?/ieo ii?ooaiue, ye? aeieeee i?ney ia?anaaeee
eeaio?a o iaoe??io?a 1-i? a?oie, iaie aoee ?ic?iaeai? 2 iiaeo iaoiaee
e?eoaaiiy caoeuai? 2-ia iaoaioaie ia 5 aeiaoiae?a.

Aeey onoiaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo a?ic?e oa iaaeeaieeo o?io?/ieo ae?acie, ye?
aeieeathoue o ?acoeueoao? iaaeeeoeiai? ?ooeeaino? ??cieo oa??a oeaiei
ia?anaaeaeaiiai eiiieaeno, cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a a?ioaaiiy eeaioy, ui
aeicaiey? ?i?ooaaoe nai???aeio o?aaaeoey?io no?oeoo?o i’yeeo oeaiei
i?aeioaiai? iiaa?oi? nooii? (iaoaio ?O ?2026021 ia 4 aeiaoiaee). Niin?a
canoiniaaiee iaie o 6 iaoe??io?a. Oea aeicaieeei iie?aueoe ?acoeueoaoe
e?eoaaiiy o 4 ?c ieo (o 3-o ?c 4-o c ii/aoeiai caaeia?eueiei
?acoeueoaoii ? a 1 ?c 2-o ?c iacaaeia?eueiei).

Aeey e?eoaaiiy aeeaieeo o?io?/ieo ae?acie ia?anaaeaeaieo oeaiei
cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a oi?ioaaiiy «aooa?ii?» iiaeooee (aeoie?eaoo?e oe??e)
c aeaai?aea?i?ciaaieo oe??yieo eeaio?a ca ?aooiie iaaeeeoeo
ia?anaaeaeaieo oeaiei, ui aeicaiey? a?eueo ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eyoe
iaoai?/iee oene a iii?ieo ciiao nooii? (iaoaio Oe?a?ie ?10421A). Niin?a
oni?oii canoiniaaiee o 3 oai?eo.

Aiae?coth/e on? aeaee ei?aaoth/eo iia?aoe?e, ye? canoiniaoaaeeny iaie,
iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe, ui iaeiaioith aoaeoeai?noth c-iii?ae ieo
a?aecia/a?oueny iaoiae ieanoeee i?noeaaeie oeaieiaie, a iaea?eueoith —
cai?iiiiiaai? iaie ? caiaoaioiaai? niiniae a?ioaaiiy ia?anaaeaeaieo
eeaio?a ? noai?aiiy aeoie?eaoo?e oe??e (?enoiie 2).

?enoiie 2. ?acoeueoaoe canoinoaaiiy ??cieo aeae?a ei?aaoth/eo iia?aoe?e
o iaoe??io?a aac ?a?iia?aaoe?? aooio?ainieaioao?a.

Canoinoaaiiy iiaeo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy, ?ic?iaeaieo o iao?e ee?i?oe? oa
ni?yiiaaieo ia onoiaiiy oneeaaeiaiue, ui aeieeathoue i?e
aooio?ainieaioaoe?? eeaio?a, aeicaieeei iie?aueoe ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy
a aeai?e a?oi? iaoe??io?a ?, cie?aia, i?aeaeueoe e?euee?noue oi?ioeo
?acoeueoao?a ?c 37,5% aei 56,3% (?enoiie 3).

AIIOAOe?ss

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia i?iaeai? ?aeiino?oeoeaii-a?aeiiaiiai e?eoaaiiy
iaoe??io?a c o?aaeaiiyie i’yeeo oeaiei i?aeioaiai? iiaa?oi? nooii? ?c
canoinoaaiiyi iaoiaeo i?e?io??o?a?/ii? aooio?ainieaioaoe?? neeaaeieo
eiiieaen?a oeaiei.

Ia iniia? aiaoii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii aeeoa?aioe?eiee i?aeo?ae
aei aeai?o iaoiaeo ieanoeee oa aeaeo aooio?ainieaioaoo. Cai?iiiiiaaii
iia? aeaee iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue aeey e?eoaaiiy oa i?io?eaeoeee
o?io?/ieo ?iceaae?a ia?anaaeaeaieo oeaiei.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy 74 iaoe??io?a ?c
canoinoaaiiyi ??ciiiai?oieo iaoiae?a ieanoeee aeaoaeo?a iii?ii? iiaa?oi?
nooii? aeiaiaeeoue aeioe?euei?noue oa iaiao?aei?noue i?e?io??o?a?/ii?
aooio?ainieaioaoe?? c ?a?iia?aaoe??th ia?naaeaeaieo oeaiei.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaia ?aeiino?oeoeaii-ainnoaiiaeoaeueiiai
ea/aiey iaoeeaioia n ii?aaeaieyie iyaeeo oeaiae iiaeioaaiiie iiaa?oiinoe
noiiu n i?eiaiaieai iaoiaea iee?ioe?o?ae/aneie aooio?ainieaioaoeee
neiaeiuo eiiieaenia oeaiae.

Ia iniiaaiee aiaoiie/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee ?ac?aaioai aeeooa?aioee?iaaiue
iiaeoiae e auai?o iaoiaea ieanoeee e aeaea aooio?ainieaioaoa.
I?aaeeiaeaiu iiaua aeaeu iia?aoeaiuo aiaoaoaeuenoa aeey ea/aiey e
i?ioeeaeoeee o?ioe/aneeo ?anno?ienoa ia?anaaeaiiuo oeaiae.

Aiaeec ?acoeueoaoia oe?o?ae/aneiai ea/aiey 74 iaoeeaioia n i?eiaiaieai
?aciiia?aciuo iaoiaeia ieanoeee aeaoaeoia iii?iie iiaa?oiinoe noiiu
aeieacuaaao oeaeaniia?aciinoue e iaiaoiaeeiinoue iee?ioe?o?ae/aneie
aooio?ainieaioaoeee n ?aeiia?aaoeeae ia?naaeaiiuo oeaiae.

ANNOTATION

The Thesis deals with the problem of reconstruction and restorative
treatment of patients with weight-bearing soft tissues defects by means
of the microsurgical flaps autotransplantation method.

Differential approach to plastic method selection and autotransplant
type selection has been developed based on anatomic research. New types
of operations to treat and prevent transplanted tissues trophic
disorders have been proposed.

The analysis of surgical treatment results of 74 patients by means of
using different methods of weight-bearing defects plastic proves the
expediency and necessity of microsurgical autotransplantation with
transplanted tissues reinnervation.

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