OI?AA?NEOAO AIOO??OI?O NI?AA

EENEOess IAAe?ss IEOAEE?AIA

OAeE:316.334.2

?AEEAIA ssE NIOe?AEUeIEE ?INOEOOO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 22.00.03 – nioe?aeueia no?oeoo?a, nioe?aeuei? ?inoeoooe
oa

nioe?aeuei? a?aeiineie

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?, I?i?noa?noai
ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aae??ia
A?eue Naaaaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e i?eeeaaeii? nioe?ieia??, ?aeoi?
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe :

Aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe ?o/ea Aiaoie?e Ieaenaiae?iae/, canooiiee
aee?aeoi?a ?inoeoooo nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo
nioe?ieia?? eoeueoo?e ? ianiai? eiioi?eaoe?? (i.Ee?a)

Aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? Iieoi?ae Aieiaeeie?
Aa?aiiae/,, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e nioe?ieia?? i?aoe? oa oi?aae?iiy
Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Aeieoi? nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe, *a?iaoeueeee TH??e Ieaenaiae?iae/,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iaiaaeaeiaioo oa ia?eaoeiao Oa?e?anueeiai ?inoeoooo
a?ciano ? iaiaaeaeiaioo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a nioe?ieia??

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “16” eeiiy 1999 ?ieo i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.700.01 Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa
(310080, i. Oa?e?a, i?iniaeo 50-??//y N?N?, 27).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Oi?aa?neoaoo
aioo??oi?o ni?aa (310080, i. Oa?e?a, i?iniaeo 50-??//y N?N?, 27).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «14»/a?aiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee A.ss. Aioe

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iaa?oioiaaia ??ceei ca?eueoaiiyi ianyao
?aeeaiii? ?ioi?iaoe?? o no/aniiio noni?euenoa?. Cia/aiiy ?aeeaie
iaaieiii c?inoa? a on?o nioe?aeueieo onoaiiaao. ?aeeaia ii/eia? iaaoaaoe
oe?iiino? ia o?eueee oiio, ui caaacia/o? oni?oio i?aeoe/io ia?eaoeiaiao
ae?yeuei?noue, aea e naia ii nia? ye iacaeaaeia no?oeoo?a c eiie?aoieie
ooieoe?yie ? oe?eyie. Iacaaaeath/e ia iaeee oa?i?i ?icaeoeo ?aeeaie a
Oe?a?i?, a?o/eciyi? ?aeeaiiaeaaoe? aaea iaaoee aeinoaoiueiai aeina?aeo
oa ? ?aeeaia noaea cia/ouith ?aaeuei?noth, aeey aea/aiiy yei? iaiao?aei?
eiie?aoi? iaoeia? i?aeoiaee.

Oaaaa aei ?aeeaie ye aei nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa iaoiiaeaia aeaiia oaeoi?aie, a naia, ia?aoiaeii aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny niaoeeo?/ieie
iniaeeainoyie oa iioe?aiith ia?aaeath ?aeeaiiiai a?ciano, ui ?iaeoue
oni?oe, aea i?e?a/aiee ia iaaaea/o o aeiaaeeo aaciaeyaeiiai eii?thaaiiy
cao?aeii? ?aeeaie.

?aeeaia noaea iaei??th c oeaio?aeueieo oai aeine?aeaeaiue o aaeoc?
aeiiii?ee, nioe?ieia??, ineoieia??, o?eieia?? a ia??iae ia?aoiaeo aei
iiaeo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy a Oe?a?i?. Aeyaeeiny, ui ?aeeaia — yaeua
iaiaeiicia/ia, ai aiia aieeaa? ia an? noi?iiaai? ?ai?oa nioe?aeuei?
?inoeoooe, aiiny/e ?yae ea?aeeiaeueieo ci?i o ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa
aeiiiiaaa? ae??ooaaoe nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie o iaaeao oeeo nioe?aeueieo
?inoeooo?a.

?ica`ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai iio?aao? aaeaioaoe??
?inoeoooe?iiaeueieo cae/ie aei iiaeo oiia. ?aeeaia ia o?eueee iiynith?
ocaaaeueiaiiio niiaeeaa/aa?, ye niiaeeaaoe ?? i?iaeoeo, o? /e ?io?
oiaa?e oa iineoae, aea e ii?yae c ?ioeie ??ciiaeaeaie ianiai?
eiioi?eaoe?? aeiiiiaaa? aaeaiooaaoeny aei iiaeo oi?i aeeooy, yea
iino?eii oa oaeaeei ci?ith?oueny. Oei naiei aiia caaacia/o? aoiinoa?o
aeia?ice/eeaino? oa aeia??e, iaaoaath/e ?ie? iianyeaeaiii?, cae/ii?
ii?aaeieoe?, yea ?aeiiaiaeo? nai? i?iaeoeoe oa iai?aaey? naith
aoaeeoi??th. Iaeiae aeineoue /anoi ?aeeaia ? aeaea?aeii aeaa?aioii?
iiaaae?iee ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a, ae?aooth/ei oaeoi?ii oa ni?ey?
?aii?oaaiith ?ioi?iaoe??, yeo aiia naia ? i?iiiio?. Aiia aa?a ia naaa
?ieue iina?aaeieea a i?aeo?eioe? a?aeiinei i?ae noni?euenoaii ye
oii?yaeeiaaiith no?oeoo?ith oa ae?th/eie a i?e ?iaeea?aeaie-niiaeeaa/aie
?aeeaie.

?aeeaia ? ca`ycoth/ith eaieith o oaeaeeiieeiiiio oa /anoi
iaia?aaeaa/aiiio na?o?, yea iaiaaa?oueny aenie?oe?thaaoe oa ni?inooaaoe
a?aei?iiino? i?ae ae??th oa oe?eeii noi?iiaaiith no?oeoo?ith,
iaeaaiaeeoe a?aeiineie i?ae ?iaeea?aeaie ye niiaeeaa/aie ?aeeaiii?
?ioi?iaoe?? ia i?e?i??ai? oa iae?i??aiaaei na?oii nioe?aeueieo
?inoeooo?a.

?ioi?iaoe?eiee ?eiie oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa ia?aiane/aiee, ? ?nio?
iaiao?aei?noue oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?, ye? caeaoi? ooieoe?iioaaoe a oiiaao
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, ui neeaaeathoueny, ? aiineoe aaaiio ??aiiaaao a
noni?eueiee ?icaeoie.

Ia oaee? /eneaiieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo iioie?a, ye? ni?yiiaai? ia ?ioaineaia
i???iooaaiiy ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a, ?aeeaia ( iaeia c iaaaaaoueio
nioe?aeueieo eiioi?eaoe?e, yea i?eaeaaea i?eoaiaii? nioe?aeueiiio
?inoeoooo oa?aeoa?enoeee.

?aeeaia noi?ioaaeanue o nioe?aeueiee ?inoeooo, ui iaae?a? neeo, yeee
cia/ii aieeaa? ia an? i?ioeane ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa, iaeaea
aeca?eaeueii a?aeaeaa? o? iniaeeaino?, ui oa?aeoa?i? aeey noni?euenoaa,
aeaiiino?oth/e ?inoeoooe?iiaeueio ?aoeaeneai?noue.

Iio?aaa ?inoeoooe?iiaeueiiai aiae?co ?aeeaie iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noth
aeine?aeeoe ?? ooieoe?? ia iae?i??ai? e i?e?i??ai? ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
?eieo, yeee ioiieth? an? aniaeoe aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? noni?euenoaa oa eiai
ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a.

Aeaia ?iaioa ni?yiiaaia ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aeeaie ye iiaiai
nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo, yeee neeaany a Oe?a?i? a inoaii? aeanyoe??//y,
ia aea/aiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe?th eiai yaieo oa eaoaioieo ooieoe?e ?
aeenooieoe?e.

Ii/eiath/e c i?aoeue eeanee?a nioe?ieia?/ii? aeoiee A.Niaina?a,
A.Aeth?eaaeia nioe?aeuei? ?inoeoooe caeeoathoueny iaei??th c iniiaieo
eaoaai??e o nioe?ieia?/i?e iaooe?.

A.Niaina? aea/aa ?inoeoooe?iiae?caoe?th ye i?ioean aeeoa?aioe?aoe??,
?ioaa?aoe?? oa aaeaioaoe??. A?i aeae?eya “onoaiiae”, oiaoi nioe?aeuei?
?inoeoooe, ye?, ia eiai aeoieo, iaee aaeeea cia/aiiy o ?aaoethaaii?
iiaaae?iee ethaeae. A.Aeth?eaaei aecia/aa nioe?ieia?th “ye iaoeo i?i
?inoeoooe, i?i ?o aaiacen, ooieoe?iioaaiiy”. Aaaeeeaa ?ieue o aea/aii?
nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a iaeaaeeoue O.Ia?niino, yeee ?icaeyaeaa ?o ye
iaeaaaeeea?o? aeaiaioe nioe?aeueieo nenoai ? iieeaa ii/aoie
nenoaiaoe/iiio aea/aiith ?o ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?e?iaee. Aea/aiiy
?inoeoooe?iiaeueiiai aniaeoo nioe?aeueii? ae?? O.Ia?niin aaaaeaa iaeiei
?c iniiaieo caaaeaiue nioe?ieia??.

Aaaaoi ?ia?o i?aaenoaaiee?a cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei? nioe?ieia?? i?enay/aii
eiie?aoiei i?iaeaiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueieo
?inoeooo?a. Oea, ia?o ca ana, ?iaioe I.Aa?aa?a, O.Eoeiaia, Ae.Oa?ia?a,
I.Aaaa?a, Aeae.Oiiaina, I.Aeao, E.Iiiia?a, A.A?aeaeaina, I.Ooiiiee oa
?ioeo. Oni?oe a aeine?aeaeaii? nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a ? e o a?o/eciyi?e
nioe?ieia??. Oea i?aoe? A.I.Aeaaeaethea, O.?.Caneaanueei?, A.I.ssaeiaa,
I.A.sseoae, A.E.Innianueeiai, A.I.*i?iiaieaiea, A.?.Oa?anaiea,
TH.A.*a?iaoeueeiai, N.A.Aieoiae/a, A.I.Ae/aieiaa.

Oe?eaa? ? ci?noiai? i?aoe? i?enay/ai? nioe?aeueiei ?inoeoooai ye
noni?eueiei yaeuai (I.A.Eino?ia, I.I.Ei?aeaanueea), ye ae?yeueiino? ?
noni?eueiei a?aeiineiai (E.I.Ao?aa), ye noa`?eoai ae?yeueiino?
(E.I.Ethaooei), ye ?aaoeyoi?ai a?aeiinei ae?yeueiino? ia iniia? ?o
aca?iica`yceo c nioe?aeueieie ii?iaie (I.I.Aiaiaaa, A.A.Aoeaoeueeee,
TH.Ae.I?eethe), ye noeoiiino? caeeaae?a, nioe?aeueieo ii?i oa
eoeueoo?ieo c?ace?a, ui aecia/athoue iiaaae?ieo oa oi?ie nioe?aeueii?
ae?? (A.I.Iao?oeia).

Eiioeaioe?y nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo ?aeeaie i?iiiio?oueny ia iniia?
aecia/aiiy nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo, cai?iiiiiaaiiai A.I.Ae/aieiaei. A?i
?icaeyaeaa nioe?aeueiee ?inoeooo “ye noeoii?noue ii?i, ui iaoiiaeththoue
? ?aaoeththoue ae?yeuei?noue ethaeeie a ??cieo aaeocyo ?? canoinoaaiiy,
ye nioe?aeueia ooai?aiiy, oiaoi iaaiei /eiii i?aai?ciaaia ia’?aeiaiiy
ethaeae, oa /e ?ioa ?nioth/a o noni?euenoa? no?oeoo?a, noaeee oei
nioe?aeueii? iiaaae?iee, yeee a?aeaeaa?oueny a iaai?e nenoai?
nioe?aeueieo ae?e, i?ioeaaeo?, iaoai?ci?a”.

Iaaeinoaoiuei ii?aoeueiaaieie o nioe?ieia?? caeeoathoueny ieoaiiy
iiaeaeueoi? ?inoeoooe?iiae?caoe?? ianiai? eiioi?eaoe??, yea io?eiaea
?icaeoie a oiiaao ?icoe?aiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?inoi?o Oe?a?ie oa iaaoooy
?ioi?iaoe??th oa?aeoa?enoee, ui aeanoeaa i?iaeoeoo ia?eaoeiao. Ieoaiiy
aecia/aiiy iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo oa aeyaeaiiy no?oeoo?e a?o/eciyii? ?aeeaie
ye nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo, ooieoe?e nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo ?aeeaie
caeeoathoueny a?aee?eoeie. sse i?ioiaeeoue i?ioean ?icaeoeo iiai?
no?oeoo?e a ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio i?inoi?? Oe?a?ie, ye aoaeothoueny
aca?iia?aeiineie aeaiaio?a oe??? no?oeoo?e a i?ioean? ?icaeoeo
noni?euenoaa a oiiaao ?eieo oa aei?noei? eiieo?aioe?? — oe? oa ?io?
ieoaiiy ia iathoue iiaieo a?aeiia?aeae o nioe?ieia?/i?e iaooe?.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
aeyaeaiiy iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo ?aeeaie ye iiaiai nioe?aeueiiai
?inoeoooo, iiaeaeae aca?iiae?? eiai aeaiaio?a o i?ioean? aaiace,
ooieoe?e ? aeenooieoe?e, eio?? ?aae?cothoueny i?e aieea? ye ia
noni?euenoai a oe?eiio, oae ? ia ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a.

Aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe iio?aaoaaei ?ica’ycaiiy iecee oai?aoe/ieo
caaaeaiue, ia?o ca ana:

 nenoaiiiai aiae?co caaaeueii-oai?aoe/ieo ia?aaeoiia nioe?iei-a?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo ?aeeaie;

 oa?aeoa?enoeee iniaeeainoae ?aeeaie ye i?iaeoeoo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo;

 aeae?eaiiy oa aiae?co an?o iiaeeeaeo aeae?a aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae
no?oeoo?ieie aeaiaioaie nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo ?aeeaie;

 ?ice?eooy iniaeeainoae aoaeeoi??? ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a ?aeeaie;

 aiae?co iniiaieo ooieoe?e ? aeenooieoe?e nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo
?aeeaie ia iae?i- ? i?e?i??ai?;

 aecia/aiiy ?aeeaiieo oaoiieia?e oa ?o oa?aeoa?enoee;

 c’ynoaaiiy niinia?a ?inoeoooe?iiaeueii? ?aoeaeneaiino? ?aeeaie;

 ioe?iee iiaeeeainoae aieeao ia ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a ?aeeaiieo
oaeno?a, aecia/aiiy aiioe?e, iio?aa, iioea?a ae?yeueiino?, oe?iiinoae,
yeeie ei?enoo?oueny no/ania ?aeeaia;

 aaeaioaoe?? nioe?ie?iaa?noe/ieo i?aeoiae?a aeey aea/aiiy aieeao
noni?euenoaa ia ?aeeaio.

Ia`?eo oa i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia`?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
??ciiiai?oia ae?yeuei?noue ethaeae, yea iia’ycaia c ?aeeaiith
(niiaeeaa/?a ?aeeaie, ?aeeaiiaeaaoe?a, ?aeeai?no?a, ?aeeaiieo aaaio?a).
I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo
?aeeaie, oi?ie e iaoai?cie nioe?aeueii? aca?iiae?? eiai no?oeoo?ieo
aeaiaio?a.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee oa aii??e/ia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy iieeaaeaia oai??y aca?iiae??. I?e aea/aii?
?aeeaie iniiai? iaoiaee caeiaoooy nioe?aeueii? ?ioi?iaoe?? —
eiioaio-aiae?c, a oaeiae iieooaaiiy, iaoiae oieoniaaiiai ?ioa?a’th;
iaoiaee aiae?co — no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee aiae?c ia iae?i??ai? ?
neiaie?ei-?ioa?aeoe?ii?nonueeee i?aeo?ae, oai??y iai?io,
oaiiiaiieia?/iee i?aeo?ae, ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aio?ii?eiee i?aeo?ae ia
i?e?i??ai?. O?eueee aaaaoia?/iee aiae?c, yeee ii?aeio? i?aeoiaee an?o
ia?aaeeai, iiaea aeaoe aeinoia??io ea?oeio noaio ?aeeaie o noni?euenoa?.

Aii??e/io aaco aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe neeaee aeai? iieueiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo ni?a?ia?oieeaie nioe?ieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo o 1996 – 1999 ??., a oaeiae
iieooaaiiy, ye? i?iaaaeai? aaoi?ii o e?ioe? 1996 ?. oa ia ii/aoeo 1997
?. A aeena?oaoe?? oaeiae aeei?enoai? ?acoeueoaoe ainueie oieoniaaieo
?ioa?a`th, ye? aoee i?iaaaeai? aaoi?ii o 1998-99 ??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

— aia?oa i?iiiio?oueny oe?e?nia eiioeaioe?y ?aeeaie ye nioe?aeueiiai
?inoeoooo no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, i?iaiae?ciaai? aoaie
noaiiaeaiiy nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo ?aeeaie ? nioe?aeuei? iaoai?cie
aca?iiae?? eiai no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a;

— oaeineiiaeaii aecia/aiiy no/anii? ?aeeaie c o?aooaaiiyi ?? ioi?ieaiiy
o nioe?aeueiee ?inoeooo, aeai aiae?c iniaeeainoae iaio niinia?a
ni?eeoaaiiy, ye? aeei?enoiao? no/ania ?aeeaia: i?aeini-aeno?niiai ?
iaia?nii?o?eiaaiiai;

— aeyaeaia niaoeeo?ea aoaeeoi??? ?aeeaie ye a?aei?iii? a?ae aoaeeoi???
CI?, aecia/ai? i???ioe?e onoaiiaeaiiy nioe?aeueieo ca’yce?a c
ocaaaeue-iaiei niiaeeaa/ai ?aeeaie;

— i?iaiae?ciaai? iniiai? yai? ? eaoaioi? ooieoe?? nioe?aeueiiai
?inoeoooo ?aeeaie oa eiai aeenooieoe??;

— ?ic?iaeaia nioe?ieia?/ia iiaeaeue i?iaiicoaaiiy oa caaacia/aiiy
aoaeoeaiino? no/anii? ?aeeaie c o?aooaaiiyi aeyaeaiiy n?ia?aaoe/ii?
i?e?iaee aeoioieoo?e ?aeeaiii? ae?yeueiino?: oe?iiinoae, iio?aa, iioea?a
c iaoith caaacia/aiiy ?aaeueiiai aieeao ia ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a;

aeine?aeaeaii nioe?ie?iaa?noe/iee aniaeo ?aeeaie, aeiaaaeaii aieea
noni?euenoaa ia ?aeeaio, ui iaa?oioiao? iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy
?aeeaiii? eoeueoo?e;

— aecia/ai? ia?niaeoeai? iai?yiee ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? ?aeeaie a oiiaao
?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei o no/aniiio oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui cai?iiiiiaaia
aaoi?ii eiioeaioe?y nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo ?aeeaie iiaea aooe
aeei?enoaia ye iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeey iiaeaeueoeo i?aeoe/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aaciina?aaei?i ae?iaieeai ?aeeaie — ?aeeaiiei aaaioe?yi.
Iii?oi?eiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aeeaie aeiiiiiaeooue aecia/eoe iai?yiee a
eii?aeeiaoe?? ?aeeaiii? ae?yeueiino?, cie?aia, oaeineiiaeeoe ?iaioo
anioe?aoe?e ?aeeai?no?a ?aa?iiaeueieo ??ai?a.

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue noaoe iniiaith aeey
?ic?iaee eo?n?a “Nioe?ieia?y ?aeeaie”, “Nioe?aeuei? eiioi?eaoe?? o
a?cian?”, “Ia?eaoeiaia? eiioi?eaoe?? a no/aniiio noni?euenoa?”, “?aeeaia
o no/aniiio noni?euenoa?”.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y
aeeiiaia o iaaeao iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue nioe?ieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo “O?ainoi?iaoe?y oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa ? ci?ie eiai nioe?aeueii-eeaniai? no?oeoo?e”, “Nioe?aeueia
iiaaae?iea ethaeae i?e ia?aoiae? a?ae oioae?oa?iiai aei aeaiie?aoe/iiai
noni?euenoaa”.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a o ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie. Iaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??
?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? aeniiaee
iaeaaeaoue aeeeth/ii aaoi?o.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia
eiioa?aioe?? “Ooieoe?iiaeuei? oa naiaioe/i? ei?aeyoe?? iiaieo
iaeeieoeue” (Ee?a, 1990 ?.), ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “?eiie ? i?iaeaie aoiai?oa?ii? i?aeaioiaee aeiiii?/ieo
eaae??a o Aeu?e oeie?” (Ee?a, 1992 ?.), iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Aeiiii?ea ? eaae?e Oe?a?ie” (Oa?e?a, 1994 ?.), i?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe?? “E?iaai-iaoiaee/i? eiioeaioe?? iaa/aiiy iiae aeey
niaoe?aeueieo oe?eae” (Ee?a, 1995 ?.), i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “No/ani? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa” (Oa?e?a, 1997 ?.),
ia Oa?e?anueeeo nioe?ieia?/ieo /eoaiiyo “Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ia caaacia/aiiy
aeeeaaeaiiy nioe?ieia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i” (Oa?e?a, 1997 ?.), ia
Oa?e?anueeeo nioe?ieia?/ieo /eoaiiyo-98 (Oa?e?a, 1998 ?), ia
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoea ? nioe?aeuei?
i?iaeaie noni?euenoaa” (Oa?e?a, 1998 ?.), ia ??? Oa?e?anueeeo
i?aeia?iaeieo ineoieia?/ieo /eoaiiyo “Iniaeno?noue ? o?ainoi?iaoe?ei?
i?ioeane o noni?euenoa?. Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? i?iaeaie no/anii?
ina?oe” (Oa?e?a, 1999 ?.), ia i?aeeaoaae?aeueieo oai?aoe/ieo nai?ia?ao
nioe?ieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.
Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iieeaaeai? a iniiao niaoeeo?n?a “Nioe?ieia?y
?aeeaie” aeey nooaeaio?a nioe?ieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ? niaoeeo?n?a “?ieue ?aeeaie a ia?eaoeiaiaeo
eiioi?eaoe?yo” ? “Iniiae nioe?aeueieo eiioi?eaoe?e o a?cian?” aeey
nooaeaio?a oaeoeueoaoo i?aeia?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

No?oeoo?a i?aoe?. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae (262
iacae), aeiaeaoe?a (8 noi??iie). Caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe 368 noi??iie,
iaaaaeai? 10 iaethie?a, 17 oaaeeoeue, 27 ?ethno?aoe?e.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ?
iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/ai? oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i?
i?aeoiaee, aena?oeaia iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue ?iaioe,
iaaaaeaia ?ioi?iaoe?y uiaei ai?iaaoe? ?iaioe.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? “?aeeaia ye nioe?aeueiee ?inoeooo” ?icaeyiooi
?inoeoooe?iiaeueiee aniaeo ?aeeaie ye nioe?aeueiiai yaeua, yea aeeeeeaia
iaaieie noni?eueieie iio?aaaie ? noaaeoue iaoith caaeia?eueiaiiy
inoaii?o.

Nioe?ieia?/iee i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy ?aeeaie i?eionea? aiae?c oi?ioaaiiy
nioe?aeueii-oeiiaeo yeinoae iniaenoino? a?aeiinii ?aeeaie ye aei
nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo. Iaeiie/oth/ee eiiieaen oeeo yeinoae iiaea
i?iiiioaaoe nioe?aeueii-oeiia? yeino? nioe?aeueieo a?oi, ye?
aenooiathoue a iniiaiiio i???ioe?aie aeey nioe?aeueieo oi?ioaaiue, oiaoi
ia`?aeiaiue ethaeae, ye? noai?ththoue eiie?aoi? ?nioth/? a ?aeeai?
no?oeoo?e.

sse nioe?aeueiee ?inoeooo ?aeeaia ia? eiiieaen ii?i: nioe?aeueieo,
i?aaiaeo, ii?aeueieo oa ?ioeo, ui iaoiiaeththoue ?aeeaiio ae?yeuei?noue,
aiia noaiiaeoue no?oeoo?iaaia ia`?aeiaiiy ethaeae, ? aeey ia? ?
oa?aeoa?iei no?eeee oei iiaaae?iee, yeee a?aeaeaa?oueny a iaoai?ciao
aca?iiae?? oai?oe?a ?aeeaiii? i?iaeoeoe?? c aoaeeoi???th ocaaaeueiaiiai
niiaeeaa/a. Nioe?aeueiee ?inoeooo ?aeeaie ?icii?yaeaea?oueny
a?aeiia?aeieie iaoa??aeueieie ?ano?naie, ? ni?iiiaeiei caaacia/eoe
aeanio aeeoo?caeaoi?noue ? ni?eyoe ?icaeoeo ?ioeo nioe?aeueieo
?inoeooo?a.

I?e ia?aoai?aii? a iaaio no?oeoo?o ?aeeaia i?ioiaeeea e?eueea aoai?a
?icaeoeo: niaoe?ae?caoe?th, ?icoe?aiiy iina?aaeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?,
?ioaa?aoe?th oa ?inoeoooe?iiae?caoe?th. Nii/aoeo ?aeeaia a?aecia/aeany
iecueeei ??aiai aioo??oiuei? i?aai?caoe??, oa?aeoa?ecoaaeanue
aaceaaeiith ? iaeii?aeeiiaaiith ae?yeuei?noth ie?aieo ?iaeea?ae?a,
?iioeueneai?noth ?o iiaaae?iee. Ni?eeoaaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeoi?a c
?iaeea?aeoaeueiei niiaeeaa/ai iinooiiai cai?ieeiny ni?eeoaaiiyi
?aeeaiiaeaaoey ye ei?ii?aoeaiiai aeoi?a c ocaaaeueiaiei niiaeeaa/ai. A
oie aea /an aeieeea iaiao?aei?noue o niaoe?ae?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? a
?aeeaii?e no?oeoo??, ?icoe?aii? iina?aaeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, oiio ui
?aeeaiiaeaaaoeue ? ae?iaiee ?aeeaiiaaiiai i?iaeoeoo ooeaee ia?niaeoeai?
caniae ?icoe?aiiy eiai ?eieo caooo ? ca?eueoaiiy i?eaooeo.

?icoe?aiiy iina?aaeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? ei?ii?aoeaieo aeoi??a
(?aeeaiieo aaaioe?e ? oi?a?ae?) noi?iaiaeaeoaaeinue oneeaaeiaiiyi ?o
?ieae. Iiaeaeueoa ?icoa?oaaiiy ?o ?ieae aeaei ciiao i?enei?eoe i?ioean
aeiianaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? aei ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a ? i?aeaiooaaoe
iniiao aeey aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ?aeeaie, yea caiaeii ?iciiae?eeeany ia
eiia?oe?eio, nioe?aeueio ? iie?oe/io.

Eiia?oe?eiith ?aeeaiith i?iiiio?oueny aaaaeaoe iaia?nii?o?eiaaiee niin?a
ia?aaea/? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i i?iaeoeo a?ae ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aai
ei?ii?aoeaiiai aeoi??a aei ianiaiai niiaeeaa/a, yeee iiaea aooe ye
eiioi?eaoe??th, oae ? ni?eeoaaiiyi, ui ia? iaoith i?iaeaoe i?iaeoeo,
?aeaioeo?eiaaiee niiini?ii /a?c ??ci? ?aeeaii? caniae.

Nioe?aeueia ?aeeaia – oea iaia?nii?o?eiaaiee niin?a ia?aaea/?
nioe?aeueii? ?ioi?iaoe?? a?ae ?iae?a?aeoaeueiiai aai ei?ii?aoeaiiai
aeoi?a aei ianiaiai niiaeeaa/a, yeee iiaea aooe ye eiioi?eaoe??th, oae ?
ni?eeoaaiiyi oa aeeeth/a? aeo eoi?ae? aai i?iaeaaeo.

Iie?oe/ia ?aeeaia ? iaia?nii?o?eiaaiee niin?a ia?aaea/? ?ioi?iaoe?? a?ae
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aai ei?ii?aoeaiiai aeoi??a aei ianiaiai niiaeeaa/a c
iaoith noai?aiiy ?i?aeaeo iie?oe/iiio e?aea?ia? aai ia?o??, ca yeee
iiaea aooe iiea/aii aai iaiiea/aii. Oeae niin?a iiaea aooe
eiioi?eaoe??th aai ni?eeoaaiiyi ?aeaioeo?eiaaiei niiini?ii /a?ac
?aeeaii? caniae.

Eiioi?eaoe?th ne?ae ?icoi?oe ye “iaeiiiai?aaeaiee i?ioean ia?aaea/?
?ioi?iaoe??”. Ni?eeoaaiiy o ?aeeai? ia?aaeaa/a? iaia’yceiaee a?aeaoe
ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a, ye iaaio ae?yeuei?noue, aei yei? caeeeea?
?aeeaia. Ioaea, aoaeue yea ?aeeaia ? eiioi?eaoe?y, aea ia eiaeia noa?
ni?eeoaaiiyi.

Ia inoaii?e noaae?? ?inoeoooe?iiaeueii? ?ioaa?aoe?? ?aeeaia
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny cae/ieie ae?yie oeo, ooi cae?enith? oi?aae?iiy
?icaeoeii ?aeeaiii? ae?yeueiino?. Ianooia? aoai ?inoeoooe?iiae?caoe??,
yeee I.Aa?aa? ? O.Eoeiai iaceaathoue “oaa?ooae?caoe?yie”.

Nioe?ieia?/iee aiae?c aaiace ?inoeoooo ?aeeaie aea? i?aenoaao aeey ??
iiaiai aecia/aiiy: no/ania ?aeeaia ? iaia?nii?o?eiaaiee niin?a ia?aaea/?
?ioi?iaoe?? i?i i?iaeoeo a?ae ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aai ei?ii?aoeaiiai
aeoi??a (ye? caaaeaee iaea?aeothoue iaaio ei?enoue aeey naaa) aei
ianiaiai niiaeeaa/a, cacae/ae iiea/oaaiee ? ia?aeiieeaee ca oa?aeoa?ii,
yeee iiaea aooe ye eiioi?eaoe??th, oae ? ni?eeoaaiiyi, ?aeaioeo?eiaaiee
niiini?aie /a?ac ?aeeaii? caniae. A oeaio?? nioe?ieia?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaoiaeyoueny a?aeiioaiiy i?ae aeaiia aai o?ueiia
aeaiaioaie no?oeoo?e nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo ?aeeaie, ye?
ia`?aeiothoueny aai ??ciyoueny. O ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny iiaeae? ?o
aca?iia?aeiinei ia ??cieo aoaiao ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa.

Oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai ciaoiaeeoueny ia aoai? noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee. Aieea ?eieiaeo noinoie?a o ca`yceo c oeei iioe?th?oueny ia
an? nioe?aeuei? ?inoeoooe, aiiny/e ?yae ea?aeeiaeueieo ci?i a ?o
ooieoe?iioaaiiy, ? caaacia/o? ?icaeoie iiaeo iai?yie?a o an?o noa?ao
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?. ?ioi?iaoe?eiee ?eiie, ye ? an? ?io?, ia ci?a
oieeiooe oeeo ci?i. I?ioean aeoeaiiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? iaa?oaiiy ?aeeaiii?
?ioi?iaoe?? ?icoe?ea ai?eciioe aeai?o aeey niiaeeaa/?a. Ae?iaieoeoai
?aeeaiii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?iaeiaaeo?oueny, iano/e ia nia? a?aeaeoie
aaoa?iaaiiino? ?? niiaeeaa/?a, ai ia ieo aiia i???ioiaaia. Ia?aaeoiiaith
aeey aeaeeaaiiy ae?iaiee?a aoaeue-yei? neiaie?/ii? i?iaeoeoe?? (?
?aeeaiii? a oiio /ene?) a i?ioean? eiieo?aioe?? ia ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio ?eieo
iiaeooue aooe iacaai? ianooii? e?eoa???:

 a?aeiiino? i?i niiaeeaa/?a neiaie?/ii? i?iaeoeoe??;

cia/ou?noue cai?iiiiiaaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? oa ?? ye?noue;

 ??ciiiai?oi?noue ? aei?a/i?noue niiniao iiaea/? ?aeeaiii? ?ioi?iaoe??;

 ia?ciai?noue c o??th noa?ith ae?yeueiino?, a ye?e i?iiiio?oueny
?ioi?iaoe?y ye i?iaeoeo.

sse?noue iiaea/? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ?? ai?iaaoe??th, yea
?ic?aoiaaia ia cia/io aoaeeoi??th niiaeeaa/?a ? caaacia/o? aeaeeaaiiy
ae?iaiee?a i?iaeoeoo ? ?aeeaie a oiiaao eiieo?aioe?? ia ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio
?eieo, aea iiieo ieae/ee, i?ae i?iiiceoe?y. Ia ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio ?eieo
c’yaeythoueny iia? eiieo?aioe, ye? i?iiiiothoue na?e i?iaeoeo, eiai iia?
iciaee aai iiao ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th.

Caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao oa, ui ?aeeaiiaeaaaoeue ? niiaeeaa/ ?aeeaie
aoaeothoue e?i?th nai?? iiaaae?iee ia iniia? i?eioeei?a oai??? iai?io,
aenoiooi? a nioe?ieia?? Aeae.Oiiainii ? I.Aeao.

Oaeei /eiii, ?aeeaiiaeaaoe? ? i???ioiaai? ia io?eiaiiy iaeneiaeueiiai
i?eaooeo ia i?aenoaa? oiiaeiaaiue ? aaaeaiue ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a;
/ei a?eueoa iaeiioeiiai? ?aeeaie iio?aiey? ia ?eiie, oei cia/ii iaioo
caoe?eaaeai?noue aeyaey? aei ia? ocaaaeueiaiee niiaeeaa/; /anoioa, c
yeith iiaea?oueny ?aeeaiia ?ioi?iaoe?y, iiaeiia aecia/aoeny aeiiaaie
ianiaiai niiaeeaa/a. ?aeeaia, yea i?iiiio?oueny ianiaiio niiaeeaa/aa?
iiiiiie?noii (iai?eeeaae, ?aeeaiii? oaoiieia?? aai eiie?aoiiai i?iaeoeoo
?aeeaie), aoaea aei?iae/a aeey caiiaieea oiio, ui aeeo/a? eiieo?aioe?th
?aeeaiieo o??i, ye? i?iiiiothoue oa ae naia.

Iiaaae?iea ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a caiaeeoueny aei oaeeo iniiaieo
c?ace?a: niiaeeaa/? iiaoi?ththoue nai? ae?? i?ae aieeaii ?aeeaie o?eueee
ca oiiae i/?eoaaii? aeiaai?iaee (yea iiaea aooe ye iaoa??aeueiith, oae ?
aeooiaiith), niiaeeaa/? a?aeiia?aeathoue ia noeioe ?aeeaie (a?aecia/aio
aenie?oeeoii ?aoe?iiaeuei?noue aeai?o; aiioe??; aeiyoeia?noue i?iaeoeoo
?aeeaie; iane/ai?noue ? /anoioo, c yeith iiaea?oueny ?aeeaiia
?ioi?iaoe?y oa ?i.), ui anioe?eiaai? c aeiaai?iaeith; niiaeeaa/?
ae?thoue ia i?aenoaa? ni?eeiyooy oe?iiinoae, ye? aiie ii?aeiothoue c
i?iaeoeoe??th ?aeeaie.

?aeeaia i?iiiio? aeaa niiniae ni?eeoaaiiy: i?aeiniaeno?niee oa
iaia?nii?o?eiaaiee, a?aeaeath/e ia?aaaao inoaiiueiio c iaoith ?icoe?aiiy
aoaeeoi??? nai?o niiaeeaa/?a. Ni?eeoaaiiy a ?aeeai? — ? iai?i ??cieie
aeaeaie ae?yeueiino?, ye? ianooue eiie?aoio ?ioi?iaoe?th, i?e oeueiio
noi?iie, ?iie?oeeoii ?ioa?i?aooth/e iia?aeiieaiiy, aecia/athoue,
ooi/iththoue, ia?aaeyaeathoue iioeaaoe?eii-nieneia? i?aenoaae
nioe?aeueii? iiaaae?iee. A i?aeiniaeno?niiio oa iaia?nii?o?eiaaiiio
ni?eeoaaii? ii-??ciiio i?iyaeythoueny aeei?enoai? ?aeeaiith: aieea,
aeaaea, aca?iia aeaiaea oa aea?aeiee iai?i. Iaia?nii?o?eiaaia
ni?eeoaaiiy, yea i?iiiio?oueny ?aeeaiith, iniiaaia ia ?aoe?iiaeueiino?
aeai?o ? aca?iiaea?aeiiio iai?i?.

?aeeaia aaco?oueny ia oaeeo ao?eaooao aeaaee, ye: aenieee nioe?aeueiee
noaoon, o?ce/ia i?eaaaeea?noue, oa?ecia, aeinooi aei aieeaiaeo in?a,
aieiae?iiy aeani?noth (iai?eeeaae, CI?). Iaia?nii?o?eiaaia ni?eeoaaiiy a
?aeeai? ?icoe?th? iiea aeey naii?aeaioeo?eaoe??. ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y naaa c
/eiinue ?aaeueiei ? ciaeiiei aeicaiey? ianiaiio niiaeeaa/aa? ?aeeaie
caeaaaoeny noaa?eueiei, aiaaiaiei aai aoaeoaaoe ieaie ia iaeaooi?.
?aeaioeo?eaoe?y naaa c /eiinue ia?aaeueiei aea aaaeaiei i?ecaiaeeoue aei
aeaa?aioiino? iiaaae?iee aai ?aii?oaaiiy ?aeeaiii? ?ioi?iaoe??.

Oaeei /eiii, ?aeeaia i?iiiio? ??ciiiai?oi?noue ia?ac?a aeey
naii?aeaioeo?eaoe??. O a?aeiia?aeue ia iaia?aaeaa/ai? ianoaaeie a aaeoc?
eiioi?eaoeaiiai i?ioeano ?aeeaiiaeaaoe? iaiaaathoueny aeeiiaoe naiai
?iaeo neiaeaeio?/io ooieoe?th — i?aae`yaeoe iacia/i? iiae??, ?iiae?
iaeii?acia?, ye caaaeuei? iiae?? aeey oiai, uia aieeiooe ia aoaeeoi??th
niiaeeaa/?a ?aeeaie, aai aeoeaiooaaoe aaaeeea?noue iiae?? ? ia oeueiio
iiaoaeoaaoe no?aoaa?th ? oaeoeeo ni?eeoaaiiy c ocaaaeueiaiei
niiaeeaa/ai.

Aca?iia?aeiineie ae?iaieea ?aeeaie ? ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a ia oii?
aeaiie?aoe/ieo ci?i, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a noni?euenoa?, ae?iaieoeoaa ?
ia?aae?iaieoeoaa ?ioi?iaoe??, i?aeaeuaiiy aeiia c? noi?iie niiaeeaa/a
aeicaieythoue aiai?eoe i?i iinooiiaee ia?ao?ae aeaaee a ?oee
niiaeeaa/?a.

Niiaeeaa/ ?aeeaie noa? oei, ooi aeeeoo? caiiaeaiiy, a?i ea?o? i?ioeanii
ae?iaieoeoaa ?aeeaiii? ?ioi?iaoe?? e /eieoue cia/iee aieea ia
eiieo?aioio ai?ioueao naieo ae?iaiee?a ?aeeaie. ?aeeaia ?ioi?io?
ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a ? noaaeoue ia?aae iei iaoo. Iioa?iii aai
a?aee?eoi aiia ni?ey? noai?aiith noaio aiii??, yeee, ye a?aeiii,
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ii?ooaiiyi ??aiiaaae i?ae caniaaie e oe?eyie ye oacaie
nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e. ?aeeaia aenooia? ye oaeoi? caiaiiei?iiy
aoaeeoi??? ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a. Noeeath/enue c yeith-iaaoaeue
ia?aoeiaeith, ui caaaaea? cae?eniaiith oiai, aei /iai caeeeea? ?aeeaia,
ocaaaeueiaiee niiaeeaa/ a?ae/oaa? aeeneiioi?o, o?ono?aoe?th,
iaaiaaiai?noue, a?ae/oaeaiiy.

Ia?aaoaath/e i?ae iaoeneii ?aeeaiii? ?ioi?iaoe??, niiaeeaa/ ?aeaioeo?eo?
naaa c “aa?i?i” nthaeao?a, ai?cia? naith iianyeaeaii?noue o noeaiao
?aeeaie. Iath/e caniae aeey ciyooy iai?oaeaiiy ? i?iaeai, i?eaeaath/e
aai ei?enooth/enue oei, aei /iai caeeeea? ?aeeaia, ocaaaeueiaiee
niiaeeaa/ iiaea cae?enieoe ?ai?aai?caoe?th iai???a oa i???ioaoe?e,
oi?ioth/e /ano?oa anueiai nioe?aeueia noaaeaiiy aei i?iaeoeoo, yeee
?aeeaio?oueny. ?ioeie neiaaie, ?aeeaia iiaea i?eaiaeeoe aei noaio
eieaeoeaiiai caoaeaeaiiy ? aooe noeioeii “nioe?aeueii? ?ioaeoe??” aai
cieaeoaaoe nioe?aeueiee ii?? ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a.

Aoaeeoi??y ?aeeaie ia ? aea?aaeaioii aoaeeoi??? CI?, oiio ui ia any
aoaeeoi??y ?aeeaie — oea aoaeeoi??y CI?, ? iaaiaee. Aoaeeoi??y ?aeeaie
iiaea aooe iioaioe?eiith (c iai??ii /e aac), ?aaeueiith (c iai??ii /e
aac). Iieooaaiiy niiaeeaa/?a eiia?oe?eii? ?aeeaie iieacaee, ui ?o
ia’?aeio? aaaeaiiy eoieoe i?iaeoeoe ?aeeaie, a a?ae??ciy? aea??
i???ioe??a: 68% iieooaaieo a?aecia/eee, ui eoiothoue ?aeeaiiaai?
i?iaeoeoe aeey aeaniiai aeei?enoaiiy, 22% — aeey iiaea?oiea, ? o?eueee
10% — aeey ?iaioe. Aea/aiiy aoaeeoi??? ?aeeaie noeioeth? iiooe iiaeo
?aeeaiieo cania?a ? ni?ey? ?icaeoeo oa oi?ioaaiith nioe?aeueieo ca`yce?a
c ocaaaeueiaiei niiaeeaa/ai. Nioe?ieia?y ye iaoea aeicaiey? i?iieeiooe a
oa?iieoe? iioeaaoe?? iiaaae?iee niiaeeaa/?a, o ca`ycie iii?ae
oe?iiinoyie, eoeueoo?ith, o?aaeeoe?yie oa iiaeaeyie niiaeeaaiiy. Uia
oieeiooe ?ia?oiino? niiaeeaa/a, iaiao?aeii ooeaoe o? e?eoa???, ye?
aieeaathoue ia aeoeai?noue ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a, iia? iaoiaee
oi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueieo ca`yce?a c iei. Oea cae?enith? nioe?aeueiee
?inoeooo ?aeeaie. Oe? e?eoa??? ia iiaeooue aooe iino?eieie. Aiie
iiaeooue aooe cina?aaeaeai? ia oa?aeoa?enoeeao i?iaeoeoo ?aeeaie aai ia
iniaeeainoyo ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a. Noeioeii aeey aeoeaiino?
aoaeeoi??? ?aeeaie caaaeaee aenooiathoue ??ci? ci?ii?. A oeueiio iieyaa?
neeaaei?noue ?aeeaie, aea o oeueiio ?? ia?aaaaa.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Ooieoe?? nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo ?aeeaie ?
oaiaeaioe?? eiai ?icaeoeo” i?aaenoaaeaiee aiae?c iniiaieo yaieo ?
eaoaioieo ooieoe?e nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo ?aeeaie, aeenooieoe?e oa ?o
iane?aee?a aeey noni?euenoaa. Cai?iiiiiaaia eiioeaioe?y neia?aaoe/ii?
i?e?iaee ?icaeoeo ?aeeaie. I?aee?aneaia iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaa ?ieue
aiioe?e a ?aeeai?.

Ua 20 ?ie?a oiio iaa?yae /e iiaeeeai aoei ia?aaeaa/aoe iane?aeee
?icaeoeo ?aeeaie, ye? ie niinoa??aa?ii ca?ac. O na?o? iiaeo
eiioeaiooaeueieo iiaeeeainoae ?? ?icaeyaeo ye ??ciiaeaeo ianiai?
eiioi?eaoe?? oa nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo, aiia iinoa? ?aeeiith nenoaiith
c aeanieie iaoai?ciaie aaiethoe??.

Caa?iaiiy aei ?aeeaie ye aei i?aaeiaoa nioe?ieia?/iiai aiae?co
iaa?oioiao?oueny ianooiieie oaeoi?aie: noaiiaey/e niaith aeeeth/ii
aio/eee niin?a eiioi?eaoe??, ?aeeaia ni?ey? ci?i? ooieoe?e ?inoeoooe?e
ii ae?iaieoeoao neiaie?/ii? i?iaeoeoe?? oa naii? no?oeoo?e oe???
i?iaeoeoe??: noaiiaeaiith iiai? eoeueoo?e a?aeiinei ae?iaieoeoaa,
iaa?oaiith e niiaeeaaiith ?ioi?iaoe??; oi?ioaaiith nioe?aeueii ??cieo ca
nai?i oa?aeoa?ii naaiaio?a niiaeeaa/?a ?aeeaie. ?aeeaiia ?ioi?iaoe?y a
i??o naiai c?inoaiiy e ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ana a?eueoa aieeaa? ia an?
nioe?aeuei? ?inoeoooe noni?euenoaa, ?ica’ycoth/e oeyoii aeoeaiooaaiiy oa
i?eaa?iaiiy oaaae neeaaei? ieoaiiy nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo, a naia:
aeaiiino?o? ?ioi?iaoe?eio i?ici??noue ?eieiaeo no?oeoo? o an?o noa?ao
aeeooy noni?euenoaa, aea aaeathoueny aei ?? aeei?enoaiiy; caaeiaieueiy?
c?inoath/? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? iio?aae ethaeae; noai?th? ?inoeoooe?ei? oiiae
aeey oaeaeeiai ?inoo e aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a
o an?o nioe?aeueieo ?inoeoooao.

?aeeaia noa? aaaeeeaith nioe?aeueiith neeith, oiio ui ni?ey? noai?aiith,
ia?a?iciiae?eo aeiiii?/ieo, nioe?aeueieo, iie?oe/ieo ?ano?n?a. Aea/aiiy
nueiaiaei?oiueiai noni?euenoaa i?aeoaa?aeaeo?, ui ?ioi?iaoe?eia
ia??ai?noue cae??ieth? e iineeth? nioe?aeueio ia??ai?noue. Aeei?enoaiiy
?aeeaiii? ?ioi?iaoe??, yeo io?eiothoue niiaeeaa/? /a?ac CI? a aaeoc?
aeiiii?ee, iie?oeee, eoeueoo?e, iiaeeeaa o?eueee i?e noai?aii?
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua noni?euenoaa aai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai ?aeeaiiiai
i?inoi?o (oiaoi i?inoi?o, a yeiio noai?th?oueny, ia?ai?uo?oueny e
niiaeeaa?oueny ?aeeaiia ?ioi?iaoe?y).

Aeeiai?ea ?icaeoeo ?aeeaie a?aeia?aaeo? aeeiai?eo ci?i ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
i?inoi?o, iane/ai?noue ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai ?eieo ??cieie aeaeaie neiaie?/ii?
i?iaeoeoe??, aeieeiaiiy oa o?ae i?ioeano iaaeineiiaei? eiieo?aioe??.
Aeniei aoaeoeaiei ?ioi?iaoe?eiee ?aeeaiiee ?eiie iiaea noaoe o?eueee o
oiio aeiaaeeo, yeui a?i aoaea eiieo?aioiini?iiiaeiei. Naia oiio aaaeeeaa
iie?oeea aea?aeaae, yea caeaoia e?aa?ae?coaaoe ?ioi?iaoe?eiee ?eiie a
e?a?i? ? yea i?eionea? ?nioaaiiy aeueoa?iaoeaieo aeaea?ae ?ioi?ioaaiiy,
aeaiiiiiie?caoe?th aieiae?iiy caniaaie ?ioi?ioaaiiy oa aeaiie?aoe/iee
?eiie ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??.

Ia iiaeyae aaoi?a, iiae?aia iie?oeea c aieo aea?aeaae aeicaieeoue
cieceoe e?euee?noue aeaea?ae, ye? aeathoue ia?ae?o/aio aai iaaeinoia??io
?ioi?iaoe?th, ui i?iiiio?oueny ianiaiio niiaeeaa/aa? ia ei?enoue
iaiaaeaiiai eiea in?a.

?icaeoie ?aeeaie ni?ey? iaiiaiaiith ?eieo neiaie?/iith i?iaeoeoe??th a
noa?? aeiiii?ee, iie?oeee, nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?i?e oa
nioe?aeueii-i?aaia?e noa?ao. Iniaeeaino? ?aeeaie ia oeueiio ?eieo
aeyaeythoueny oaea ia o?eueee a i???ioaoe?? ia naaiaioe niiaeeaa/a, aea
e o niaoeeo?/iino? neiaie?a, yeeie iia?o? ?aeeaia.

Aeiiii?/ia nenoaia a noni?euenoa? ooieoe?iio? ia iniia? i?eioeeio
aaeaioaoe?? (oiaoi i?enoinoaaiiy nenoai, ye? naiii?aai?cothoueny, aei
i?ieeaeo oiia na?aaeiaeua), ui, o naith /a?ao, caaacia/o? i?ioean
iaea?aeaiiy ?ano?n?a c o?ceei-i?aai?/iiai na?aaeiaeua oa ?icoe?aiiy
eiio?ieth iaae iei. Aeiiii?/ia nenoaia ?icoe?th? noa?e naiai eiio?ieth
/a?ac ?aeeaio oa ooieoe?? aaeaioaoe?? ca ?aooiie ?aeeaie. Ni?eyth/e
?icoe?aiith ?eie?a caooo, ?aeeaia aaciina?aaeiuei aai iia?/ii ?icoe?th?
ei?aeiie o??? aeiiii?ee, a iaae?ao yei? aiia ca?iaeeeanue. ?aeeaia
i?iiiio? iia? i?iaeoeoe aeey i?eaeaaiiy, ca?eueooth/e oiaa?iiai?i oa
iia?/ii aieeaath/e ia i?enei?aiiy i?ioeano i?eaaoecaoe??, ?icaeaath/e
i?ioean niiaeeaaiiy. Aiia caaacia/o? aeeth/aiiy niiaeeaa/a aei a?aeiinei
aeaniino?. ?aeeaia aieeaa? ia c?inoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa, iiioey?ecoth/e
iaoa??aeuei? ? eoeueoo?i? iiaeeeaino? a?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa,
ca?eueoo? c?inoaiiy i?eaooe?a aeey CI?.

?aeeaia ? /anoeiith “aeooaeueii? eoeueoo?e” — iiiyooy, yea ii/aee
aeei?enoiaoaaoe eeoa ia ii/aoeo 70-o ??. Ia iiaeyae aaoi?a, iiaeia aeaoe
ei?ioea aecia/aiiy aeooaeueii? eoeueoo?e ye aeeeeeaii? /anii,
ii?iaeaeaii? i?ioeanii nioe?aeueieo ci?i o an?o noa?ao ae?yeueiino?
ethaeae a aeaiee ia??iae ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa. Aeooaeueia eoeueoo?a
iiaea aooe i?aaenoaaeaia oe?eei niaeo?ii ?? ??ciiaeae?a. Iaeiei ?c ??
??ciiaeae?a ? eoeueoo?a ae?eiaa.

?aeeaia, aacoiiaii, ? iin??i ae?eiai? eoeueoo?e, oiio ui aeoeaii
aeei?enoiao?oueny a a?cian?. ?aeeaiiaeaaoe? ? ?aeeai?noe iaeiie/othoue
aeina?ae aeey noaiiaeaiiy ?aeeaiii? eoeueoo?e. Ae?eiaa eoeueoo?a /anoi
iia`yco?oueny c iiiyooyie “oeea?e?ciaaiee ?eiie” oa “oni?oiee
i?aei?e?iaoeue”. Caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao oa, ui iniiaiith iciaeith oaei?
eoeueoo?e iaceaathoue ?ai?acaioaoeai?noue. Aiia, eoeueoo?a, ae?iaey?
?aea?, cia/aiiy ? oe?iiino?, ye? ? ae??aeie a neeo ?o oaeoe/iiai
aeciaiiy, oiaoi i?eieno? ei?eni? e aea?aei? ae??.

Aieea ?aeeaie ia iie?oeeo iiynith?oueny iniaeeainoyie, ye? i?eoaiaii?
?aeeai? ye niaoeeo?/iiio ??ciiaeaeo ianiai? eiioi?eaoe??. A iie?oe/i?e
ae?yeueiino? iaiao?aeii iia?aoeaii anoaiiaethaaoe ca`ycie c aoaeeoi???th
niiaeeaa/?a, aeei?enoiaoaaoe caniae, ye? i?eioneathoue naaiaioaoe?th
niiaeeaa/?a oa oa?aeoa?iee aeey ?aeeaie oaeaeeee aoaeo aieeao. Ooieoe?y,
yeo ?aeeaia aeeiio? a iie?oe/i?e noai?, a oe?eiio iiaea aooe iacaaia
“ae?iaieoeoaii iie?oe/ieo iiae?e, iie?oe/iiai eai?oaeo” iie?oe/iiai
e?aea?a.

A aaeoc? ina?oe oa iaoee ?aeeaia aeeiio? ooieoe?th a/eoaey,
i?enei?thth/e aaeaioaoe?th iiaiai ? iaai?iaiaaiiai, ni?eyth/e ao?eaiith
a ?aaeueia aeeooy aeinyaiaiue iaoee e iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano,
ona?aeiieaiith ia?aaaae caei?iaiai niiniao aeeooy, iuaaeeeaiai
a?aeiioaiiy aei aia?ai?ano?n?a oa i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a. O iaooe?
aeyaey?oueny ?aeeaiia iiaaae?iea – i?eoeeuei?noue aei nainaoe?? ye
niiniao i?eaa?iaiiy oaaae niiini??a.

O aaeoc? i?aaa ?aeeaia aeoeaioo? a?ae/oooy iaaaciaee, i?iiiioth/e
?ioi?iaoe?th i?i i?io?eaeoeeo i?aaiii?ooaiue, ni?ey? iaiao?aeiino? ci?ie
i?aaiaeo ii?i a ?ioeo nioe?aeueieo ?inoeoooao.

Aeei?enoiaoth/e ?aeeaio, ?ae?a?ei? oa/?? iaiaaaeeny caaithaaoe iiaeo
i?ea?/iee?a, i?eeeaaeii oiio iiaea aooe “A?ea a?aonoai”, oiui.

?aeeaia ?icaeaa? aeani? oaoiieia??, oiaoi aeai?eoi?ciaai? niiniae
oii?yaeeoaaiiy e i?aai?caoe?? aeioe?eueii? oa aoaeoeaii? ?aeeaiii?
ae?yeueiino?, yea caaacia/o? aeiianaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? aei ocaaaeueiaiiai
niiaeeaa/a ?aeeaie. ?aeeaia iino?eii ?icoe?th? ae?aiacii nai?o
oaoiieia?e, ana a?eueoa caaieiaoth/e ?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino?? CI?.

CI? — oea a?cian, aei oiai ae aaeeeee a?cian o iao /an. A?i
eai?oaeii?noeee oa oaoiieia?/ii ?ioaineaiee, c? neiioeaio?iaaiei o ?oeao
iaaaeeei? e?eueeino? ethaeae aieiae?iiyi. A?i aeei?enoiao? o?aaeeoe?ei?
iaoiaee aeey io?eiaiiy iaea?eueo aea?aeieo oe?i ia i?iaeoeo ? iineoae,
i?aeo?eio? aei?noeo ?aeeaio e ?ici??e oe?aaeo, i?aeoeeo? aei/iee iaoiae
i?iaeaaeo ?aeeaiiiai i?inoi?o. CI? caeaaeaoue a?ae ?aeeaie, yea, a naith
/a?ao, aeiiiiaaa? ?i aeaeeoe, ?aeeaia caeaaeeoue a?ae oe?aaeo aai
aoaeeoi???, eio?a iiaea aooe cai?iiiiiaaia ?aeeaiiaeaaoeai.

?aeeaia iiaiiao? iia? oa?eoi??aeuei? ianooaae, ?iciianthaeaeoth/e na?e
aieea ia iia? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia??, a iaoo /a?ao “Internet”;
?icaeaath/e iia? iaoai?cie aieeao ia nioe?oie aai naaiaioe niiaeeaa/?a,
ye? noai?ai? c i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo nioe?oi?a. Nenoaia “Internet”
?icoe?th? aoaeeoi??th niiaeeaa/?a ?aeeaie aei ??aiy i?aeia?iaeieo
ca`yce?a, aeicaiey? a?aooaaoe aeina?ae caei?aeiiieo ?aeeai?no?a. ?aeeaia
— oea /anoeia aeiiii?/ii? aeieia??, ui iiaea ?iaeoe e?a?io
i?ioea?oath/ith.

Nueiaiaei? ?ioi?iaoe?eiee ?eiie Oe?a?ie ia a?ae??ciy?oueny oe?ieith
ia?aaeath aeei?enoaiiy ?aeeaie a “Internet”. Oea iiynith?oueny
iaaeinoaoi?i ?icaeoeii eiioi?eaoe?e, aenieith aa?o?noth iineoa
i?iaaeaea??a, a?aenooi?noth aeinoaoiuei? e?eueeino? niaoe?ae?ciaaieo
?aeeaiieo oa ia?eaoeiaiaeo no?oeoo?, ye? caeiathoueny i?inoaaiiyi
iiae?aii? ?aeeaiii? iineoae.

Na?o ?aeeaie ci?ith?oueny, e ?acii c iei ci?iththoueny iao? oyaeaiiy
uiaei ?ie? ?aeeaie a noni?euenoa? ? ?? aca?iia?aeiinei c ocaaaeueiaiei
niiaeeaa/ai. Ii?o/ c ia?inoath/eie oaiiaie naiii?aai?caoe?? ?aeeaie a
?aeeio ?inoeoooe?iiae?ciaaio nenoaio, a?aeaoaa?oueny iineeaiiy
iino?eiiai eiio?ieth c ?? aieo iaae iaeaea on?ia noa?aie aeeooy
ethaeeie.

Neia?aaoeea iiaea aooe iacaaia iaoiaeieia?/iith aacith oi?aae?iiy
no/aniiai noni?euenoaa ? iniiaith aeey neeaaeaiiy i?iaiic?a eiai
iaeaooiueiai. Neia?aaoeea iieeeeaia ni?yiiaoaaoe iiooe oaiaeaioe?e
aaiethoe?? ? naiii?aai?caoe?? ?aeeaie. I?aaiaiiy ciaeoe caaaeueiee
ciaiaiiee aeey aace?/? aeniiae?a, ?aeae aeanoeaa aeey no/anii? ethaeeie
? c?icoi?ea, oiio ui aea? iniiao aeey iiaeaeueoeo aeinyaiaiue oa a?eueo
aaaiieo ?acoeueoao?a, aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy iaeaooiueiai, yea /anoi
caea?oueny e?auei ca no/ania.

Canoinoaaiiy neia?aaoe/iiai aiae?co ? iiaeeeaei ? aei oaeiai yaeua ye
?aeeaia. Ooai?thth/e iiaee ii?yaeie ?c oaino, ?aeeaia /ano?oa ca ana
aeiiaaa?oueny ii?yaeeo, aea ia aeeeth/a? iayaiino? oaino. O ?icae?e?
iieaco?oueny, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny iiaee i?ioean o iaaeao ?aeeaiii?
ae?yeueiino?, i?ioean naiii?aai?caoe??, yeee iio?aao? iiaeaeueoiai
?iciiae?eo nioe?aeueieo ?ieae i?ae no?oeoo?ieie aeaiaioaie ?aeeaie. Oea
coiiaeth? oeoeoothaaiiy a a?e ?ioeo nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a. Oeoeooaoe??
a ioi/aii? ?ioeo nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a aeaoa?i?iiaai? iio?aaith o
a?aeiiinoyo i?i iiae??, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a on?o noa?ao
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a, i?i ci?ie a oeeo noa?ao;
iiaeeea?noth oi?ioaaiiy iaaii? ea?oeie ia?ciaiino?.

?aeeaiia aeoioieoo?a (iaeee aieea ia niiaeeaa/a o a?aeiia?aeieo oi/eao),
oaeei /eiii, aeeth/a?: iio?aao, iioea, oe?ii?noue. Aiia naia aea? iiaa
neia?aaoe/ia ai?iiy aieeaaoe ia o? oi/ee ?aeeaiii-?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
na?aaeiaeua, ye? iio?i iiaeooue cae?enieoe iaaiee aieea ia anth ?aeeaiio
ae?yeuei?noue, a /a?ac ia? ? ia ana noni?euenoai.

A nioe?ieia?? ?yae a/aieo aiae?coaaee oai??th ae??, ?icoe?thth/e ?? aei
iiaeae? ?aoe?iiae?caoe??, yea aeei?enoiao?oueny aeiiii?noaie ? yea
nenoaiaoeco? eiioeaioe?th oe?eani?yiiaaii? ae??. O.Ia?niin cai?iiiioaaa
oai??th ae??, ?icaeaath/e iaoiaeieia?/io i???ioaoe?th, yeo caii/aoeoaaee
I.Aaaa?, A.Ia?oaee oa A.Ia?aoi. ?iaeea?aee ?icaeyaeaeenue ye oae?,
eio?eo aaaeooue ?ioa?ane e aeiaai?iaee, a oaeiae iaiaaeaiiy, ye?
iaa`ycai? ?i nioe?aeueiei ioi/aiiyi. Oea aoei aaaeeeai, oiio ui
aeicaieeei c`?aeiaoe iai??e ?iaeea?ae?a c iae?inioe?aeueieie
iane?aeeaie. Ooieoe?iioaaiiy noni?euenoaa iiaea aacoaaoeny ia
oe?eani?yiiaaieo ae?yo ?iaeea?ae?a o eiie?aoieo ?inoeoooao oa
no?oeoo?ao, ye? iaaeaaaee oi?io ?i?oe?aoeaai ? ae??. Iiaoaeiaaia ia
oae?e iniia? nioe?aeueia oai??y ni?eyea ca`yceo i?ae ?iaeea?aeii oa
noni?euenoaii.

A aneiao?e/i?e no?oeoo?? noni?euenoaa i?e?iaei? nioe?aeuei? i?ioeane
i?ecaaee aei aneiao??? ?ioi?iaoe??, /a?ac ni?eyiiy c?inoath/?e aneiao???
aeaaee i?ae ei?ii?aoeaieie aeoi?aie oa ?iaeea?aeaie. Oea, a naith /a?ao,
aecaaei iiao i?iaeaio, iia`ycaio c ?iciiae?eii i?aa ia ?ioi?iaoe?th a
noni?euenoa? oa aecia/aiiyi oeyoo, ca yeei oeae ?iciiae?e aieeaa? ia
?ioa?ane ethaeae.

Ooieoe?? nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo ?aeeaie iiaeooue aooe ye yaieie, oae ?
eaoaioieie. Aei iniiaieo ooieoe?e ?aeeaie ia i?e?i??ai?, oiaoi ia ??ai?
ni?eeiyooy ?? ocaaaeueiaiei niiaeeaa/ai, ne?ae a?aeianoe ooieoe??:
eiioi?eaoeaio, ?aaoeyoeaio. Aiie aecia/athoue, ia iiaeyae aaoi?a,
niiniae ?icoe?aiiy nioe?aeueieo ca`yce?a, ye? iiaeooue aooe
ioa?aeoa?eciaai? ye oae?, ui iathoue ?ioaa?aoeaiee oa?aeoa?. Oe?
ooieoe?? nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo ?aeeaie ni?eythoue noaiiaeaiith
nioe?oi?a, ?o ?icaeoeo. I?ioeane aaeaioaoe??, aeinyaiaiiy iaoe,
?ioaa?aoe?? oa a?aeoai?aiiy nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e i?ioiaeyoue /a?ac
i?ecio aeuaiacaaieo i?ii?aeieo ooieoe?e. Ia`?eoii, ia yeee oe? ooieoe??
?inoeoooo ni?yiiaai?, ? aoaeeoi??y niiaeeaa/?a ?aeeaie. Eiaeia ?c oeeo
ooieoe?e, iath/e aecia/aio a iaca? ooieoe?? iaoo, i?eaiaeeoue aei ??cieo
?acoeueoao?a, oiaoi aenooia? ye ooieoe?y (yaia aai eaoaioia) aai
eaoaioia aeenooieoe?y.

O ?icae?e? ?aeeaia o?aeoo?oueny ye iniaeeaee ??ciiaeae ianiai?
eiioi?eaoe??, yea a?ae??ciy?oueny ?yaeii iniaeeainoae, a naia:

 ?aeeaia caaaeaee ia? nai?th e?ioeaaith iaoith ni?eeoaaiiy c
naaiaioiaaiei niiaeeaa/ai. Aei oiai ae aeaea?aeii naaiaioaoe??
aenooiathoue ia eeoa “oaiaoe/i? ?aia?ooa?e”, a a?eueo oe?ieee ae?aiacii
e?eoa???a: a) i?iaeoeo (eiai aa?o?noue ? ye?noue); a) oa?eoi??y; a)
iio?aae; a) nioe?aeueiee noaoon;

 aaaeaiith iaoith ?aeeaie ? aeaaaeaiiy i?ioeano eiioi?eaoe?? ia ??aaiue
ni?eeoaaiiy, aea a?aeaoe ?aoeei??ioa o aeaeyae? iaaii? ae?yeueiino?
iiaea ?icaeyaeaoenue ye cai?ioi?e ca`ycie, yeee aeicaiey? ?ioa?i?aooaaoe
?aeeaio ye ni?eeoaaiiy ? yeee ? iieacieeii aoaeoeaiino? ?aeeaie;

 ?aeeaia ia?aaeaa/a? ia?aaea/o iaeneioio ?ioi?iaoe?? i?e i?i?ioi? iiaieo
cania?a;

 ?aeeaia ye i?iaeoeo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei caaaeaee ? aaaaoi??aiaaei
niiniaii iaaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??, ??ai? yeiai a?aeiia?aeathoue aoaiai
aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo;

 ?aeeaia — ?aeeia c on?o oi?i ianiai? eiioi?eaoe?? — i?eionea?
a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae iiaieo ii?i (iiieeee, iaii?iiaaiee ii?yaeie ne?a). Oae?
a?aeoeeaiiy a ?aeeai? aaaaeathoue i?eeiiii i?eaa?oaiiy oaaae
naaiaioiaaieo ?ai?oa niiaeeaa/?a.

ssaia eiioi?eaoeaia ooieoe?y nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo ?aeeaie
i?iyaey?oueny o ianooiieo aeiaaeeao:

 ?aeeaia ia?aaea? ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i iie?ooieoe?iiaeuei?noue i?iaeoeoo,
ni?ey? aeieeiaiith iiaeo noi??i noa?eo iio?aa, ?icniaoth/e ei?aeiie
iio?aa, ye? noi?ioaaeeny ?ai?oa (caiia?aath/a aeieeiaiith ea???na coaia
ianoa oaia? niiaeeaa?oueny ia o?eueee c iaoith aeiaeyaeo ca coaaie, a e
?c i?io?eaeoe/iith iaoith i?ioe aeieeiaiiy ea???no; oaiioiue o??ie “Head
and Shoulders” eoiothoue ia o?eueee c iaoith aeiaeyaeo ca aieinnyi, a e
o i?io?eaeoe/ieo oe?eyo i?ioe eoie);

 ?aeeaia caa?oa? oaaao ia ii?aeueia noa??iiy oiaa?o (an? i?eeeaaee oae
caaii? “?aeeaie a?ae cai?ioiueiai”, ?aeeaia ieth/eo cania?a, ye? ia
iiaeooue aeaoe oaeiai aoaeoo, ye iia?, ui ?aeeaiothoueny ca?ac). Ia
i?inoi “Iii”, a iiaee “Iii”; ia i?inoi “Ariel”, a iiaee “Ariel”, ia
i?inoi “Gala”, a “Gala” c eeiiiii oa ?io.

 ?aeeaia ni?ey? naa?aaaoe?? aai naaiaioaoe?? niiaeeaa/a, i?aeoi
aeacoth/e “nioe?aeueio aae?ano” naiai iioaioe?eiiai niiaeeaa/a:
iai?eeeaae, “o?eueee aeey aaaaoeo ethaeae”;

 ?aeeaia iaieth? nioe?aeueio ia??ai?noue o nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e oa
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?i?e noa?ao, aea nioe?aeueia ia??ai?noue
ni?eeia?oueny c iaaaoeaiei a?aeo?ieii.

?aaoeyoeaia ooieoe?y (aai aeenooieoe?y) ?aeeaie iiaea i?iyaeyoenue
eaoaioii o aeiaaeeao, eiee :

 ?aeeaia, noeioethth/e iieoieo, ?icoe?th? ae?aiaciie iiaeeeainoae oa
oe?eae niiaeeaa/?a (oie, ooi eoiea aaoiiia?eue i?ae aieeaii ?aeeaie,
io?eio? a?eueoee nooi?iue “naiaiaee” o ia?anoaaiiyo);

?aeeaia iaiaaeo? “naiaiaeo” naiai niiaeeaa/a, yeee iio?aiey? a
caeaaei?noue a?ae ae?iaieea, ui ?aeeaio? i?iaeoeo, ? a?ae
?aeeaiiaeaaoey, yeee iiaea? ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i i?iaeoeo: niiaeeaa/
ia?anoa? aeoiaoe naiino?eii a i/?eoaaii? aioiaeo “?aoeaio?a” a?ae
?aeeaie;

 ?aeeaia ni?ey? ?icoe?aiith noa?e eiio?ieth niiaeeaa/a iaae iaaeieeoi?i
na?oii (i?eaeaath/e iiao i?aeueio iaoeieo, niiaeeaa/ o ciic?
eiio?iethaaoe i?ioeane, ye? iia`ycai? ia o?eueee c i?aiiyi a?eecie, aea
e c ?? i?anoaaiiyi oa ?i.);

 ?aeeaia iioeao? ? iaoiiaeth? aea??, ni?eyth/e cieaeaiith aio?ii??,
aeiaeath/e oii?yaeeiaaiino? a i?ioean eoi?ae?, aeai?o, oi?ioth/e aea??;

 ?aeeaia ni?ey? aca?iicai?i? oe?iiinoae ?c ??cieo aniaeo?a
iianyeaeaiiiai aeeooy (?aeeaia i?iaeoeo?a a?aeiieie iniaaie);

 ?aeeaia ni?ey? aeieeiaiith noaio aeeniiaino a iiaaae?ioe? niiaeeaa/a.

?acoeueoaoe iieooaaiiy ?aniiiaeaio?a i?aeoaa?aeeee, ui ?aeeaia ae?enii
?aaoeth? iiaaae?ieo niiaeeaa/?a. I?e/eiaie ci?ie iiaaae?iee i?ae aieeaii
eiia?oe?eii? ?aeeaie iaceaathoueny: aa?o?noue ?aeeaiiaaiiai i?iaeoeoo –
60%, i?aaiaiiy i?ciaoe iiaee i?iaeoeo – 32%, ianiaa niiaeeaaiiy
i?iaeoeoo – 5%, i?anoeae i?iaeoeoo – 3%.

Nioe?aeueia ?aeeaia aeeeeea? aaaeaiiy aano?aaoaaoeony a?ae
iianyeaeaiiiai aeeooy o 72% ?aniiiaeaio?a, i?aaiaiiy aei aeooiaiiai
iiooeo – 15%, aaaeaiiy ci?oeieoe caei?ia’y – 13%.

Nioe?aeueiee i?aaiaoeci ?aeeaie aecia/a?oueny cia/ou?noth ?acoeueoao?a
oi?aae?iiy ?aeeaiiith ae?yeuei?noth. Oni?oia oi?aae?iiy a ?aeeaii?e
ae?yeueiino? aeicaiey? ?ic?aoiaoaaoe ia iiceoeai? i?aeoe/i? iane?aeee.
Iaeaaaeeea?oith ia?aaeoiiaith aeey nioe?aeueiiai i?aaiaoecio ?aeeaie ?
ciaiiy iniaeeainoae eiaeiiai aeaiaioo ?aeeaiii? aaaioe??,
aca?iia?aeiinei ?aeeaiii? aaaioe?? c aoaeeoi???th niiaeeaa/?a ?aeeaie.
Nioe?aeueiei a?i iacaaiee oiio, ui ia iiaea aooe noai?aiee o ?acoeueoao?
naiino?eii? ioe?iee i?aeoe/ieo iane?aee?a ?aeeaie.

Cia/ou?noue i?aeoe/ieo iane?aee?a aecia?oueny ia ??ai? a?oie (n?i`?,
ae?oc?a, eieaa ii ?iaio?) ? ni?ey? ?icaeoeo ?aeeaiiiai a?ciano. Aeey
i?aaiaoee?a a aaeoc? ?aeeaiii? ae?yeueiino? “i?aaaea” aai “?aaeuei?noue”
aeoeaii noai?th?oueny a oiae? naii? ae??. Ocaaaeueiaiee niiaeeaa/
?aeeaie a??eoue oiio a ?aeeai?, ui eiio aeiaaaeaia ye ei?enia.

?aeeaia aeoeaioo? aca?iica`ycie i?ae ?iaeea?aeaie ? iaaeieeoi?i
nioe?aeueiei na?aaeiaeuai, i?e oeueiio /eieoue iano?eueee na?eiciee
aieea ia ?o iiaeyaee ? iiaaae?ieo, ui ia??aeei ni?ey? ?o iiaeeo?eaoe??.

Aeineoue aaaeeeaa ?ieue nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo ye oaeoi?o
nioe?ae?caoe??. Nioe?aeueiee ?inoeooo ?aeeaie ? noeioeii ae?oai?yaeii?
nioe?ae?caoe?? ianiaiai niiaeeaa/a.

Iiaioaaiiy oa oi?ioaaiiy ocaaaeueiaiei niiaeeaa/ai ?aeeaie c?ace?a
iiaaae?iee, nioe?aeueieo ii?i oa oe?iiinoae, iaiao?aeieo aeey
ii?iaeueiiai aeeooy ?iaeea?aea o noni?euenoa? aeieea? iaeii/anii c
i?ioeanii ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?inoeoooo ?aeeaie.

Oia?aaeaeaiiy ye oaeoi? a?aeoi?aiaiiy eiia?oe?eii? ?aeeaie
cono??/a?oueny aeineoue /anoi. Aeaea?aeaie oia?aaeaeaiiy ?: nioe?aeueia
ioi/aiiy a ia??iae ia?aeiii? nioe?ae?caoe??, noaiiaeaiiy iniaenoino?,
aeoiaaiiy niaeo, i?eaeaaiiy aeaiaioa?ieo aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue i?i iiaeeea?
niiniae ?iciiae?eo n?iaeiiai athaeaeaoo; nioe?aeuei? oe?iiino?, ia
iniia? yeeo oi?iothoueny iniiai? ? ae?oai?yaei? aeeoo?a? iio?aae, a,
ioaea, iioeae, ye? iiaoaeaeothoue aei ae?? a aaeoc? iieoiie.

Niiaeeaa/?, c?oeioaoenue ?c iaa?aeiia?aei?noth cai?iiiiiaaieo ?aeeaiith
?aaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?iaeoeo?a oa i/?eoaaieo ?o oa?aeoa?enoee,
a?aeooiaoothoue oa ?aii?othoue ?aeeaiio ?ioi?iaoe?th.

?aeeaia aieeaa? ia aiioe?? ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a, aeei?enoiaoth/e
“oaoi?eo oi?aae?iiy a?aaeaiiyie”. Aiioe?? aea/aeenue a nioe?ieia??
iaiaeii?aciai o ?aieao neiaie?ei-?ioa?aeoe?ii?nonueei? oai???.
Caniiaieeii nioe?ieia?? aiioe?e aaaaea?oueny A?e? ?annae Oiooeeueae.
Aaaeeea?noue aiioe?e i?aee?anethaaee I.Aaaa? oa A.C?iiaeue.

Aiioe?? ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a, cacia/ai? o ?aeeaiiiio oaeno?,
iiaeooue aenooiaoe ye o ?ie? ioe?iee i?iaeoeoo, ui ?aeeaio?oueny, oae ?
a ?ie? eiai oe?iiino?. Iaeiei ?c niinia?a oi?ioaaiiy iio?aa ca
aeiiiiiaith ?aeeaie ? iai/ia i?iiiceoe?y aiioe?eii iioa?aiaaieo ia?aaaa
oiai, ui ?aeeaio?oueny.

?aeeaiiaeaaaoeue ei?ii?aoeaiee aeoi? aeei?enoiao? ae?oioii?th ioe?iie.
Iaaaoeai? aiioe?? o ?aeeai? i?iiiiothoueny ye oii aeey ianooiieo
iiceoeaieo ioe?iie, ye? iaaeathoueny ocaaeueiaiiio niiaeeaa/aa? ?acii c
i?iaeoeoii, yeee ?aeeaio?oueny. Iane?eueee aiioe?eii i?aaenoaaeaia
?aeeaia, iane?eueee aeoeaii aiia aeei?enoiao? oe?iiino?, iano?eueee aiia
aoaeoeaia ye noeioe aeey aeieeiaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo iioea?a ae?yeueiino?.

Iaoiae naiaioe/iiai aeeoa?aioe?aeo, yeee ?ic?iaeaii *. Inaoaeii,
aeicaiey? aea/eoe ineoinaiaioe/iee i?ino?? ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a
?aeeaie. A aiioe?yo, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny a ?aeeai?, i?aaenoaaeaii
oe?e?nia a?aeiioaiiy ?aeeaiiaeaaoe?a aei na?oo ocaaaeueiaiiai
niiaeeaa/a. ??ci? nioe?aeuei? a?oie, ye? aeae?eai? ca ?o i?e/aoi?noth
aei ?aeeaiii? ae?yeueiino?, a?ae??ciythoueny ca nooiaiai aiioe?eiiai
ni?eeiyooy ?aeeaie, ui iia’ycaii c iayai?noth aai a?aenooi?noth
caoe?eaaeaiino? a aoaeoeaiino? oa ?icaeoeo ?aeeaie. Aeeiai?/ia ?aei?noue
i?ioeano i?ciaiiy aiioe?e iaio noi??i, ?aeeaiiaeaaoe?a oa niiaeeaa/?a
?aeeaie, aeicaiey? i?aaeeueii ia?aoe no?aoaa?th ? oaeoeeo ?icaeoeo
?aeeaie o eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio noni?euenoa?.

O oe?eiio iiaeia a?aecia/eoe aeinoaoith aea/ai?noue no?aoaa?/ieo
iiaeaeae ?aeeaiiie ae?yeueiino? o aia?eeainueeiio noni?euenoa? e
iaaea/ai?noue inoaiiuei? a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?.

No?aoaa?y ? oaeoeea ?aeeaie aaco?oueny ia aeaoaeueiiio aiae?c? iio?aa oa
iioeaaoe?e ?? niiaeeaa/?a. A?aenoaaeoaaiiy iianyeaeaiieo ia?oi?yaeieo
iio?aa niiaeeaa/a — oea iaeei ?c iai?yie?a, o yeiio ?icaeaa?oueny
oe?a?inueea ?aeeaia; iiaa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y noa?eo iio?aa — oea ae?oaee
iai?yiie, yeee aeoeaii aenieoaoo?oueny ?aeeaiith; a?aee?eooy “a?ath/eo”
ia /oaeiio, caii?nueeiio, iaciaeiiiio ?ai?oa, iiaeo iianyeaeaiieo iio?aa
— o?ao?e iai?yiie ?aeeaie. Iiae?ai? oaiaeaioe?? a ?icaeoeo ?aeeaie — oea
ia iaaeie?e ??, a nei??oa — iiaeeo /ano ? ?aoeaeneaia a?aenoaaeoaaiiy
?aaeueiino?.

Ii?ea caaeiaieueieoe iio?aae aeeeeea? iioea. Ciaiiy iioeaaoe?e
niiaeeaa/?a aea? iiaeeea?noue ?aeeaiiaeaaoeth aai eii??aeoa?o aoaeoeaii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe /ioe?e i?eioeeie: 1) cia/ouino? i?iaeoeoo o ?aeeaiiiio
iia?aeiieai?; 2) aeio?eioaaiiy anioe?aoe?e c a?aeiiei oa ia?aa??aiiei o
aeeoo?; 3) ia?oeyiee aeiaai?iaee, aeaiaee o ?ac? aeei?enoaiiy oiai, ui
?aeeaio?oueny; 4) iii??iino? o i?ee?aoaii? oiai, ui ?aeeaio?oueny.

Ine?eueee ?aeeaia iaa?yae /e ciiaea ci?ieoe ianyae niiaeeaaiiy i?e
noaa?eueieo ianieaoao ca?ia?oiuei? ieaoi?, ino?eueee aiia, a nei??oa ??
??ciiaeae — eiia?oe?eia ?aeeaia, caeeoa?oueny ia iaeiiio ??ai?
niiaeeaaiiy i?iaeoeo?a. ?aeeaia a iniiaiiio iieaco? ?o ??ciiiai?oi?noue,
noai?th? iiaee ?i?aeae, i?iiiio? iiao eoeueoo?o niiaeeaaiiy, i?aeaeuo?
anoaoe/i? yeino? niiaeeaaiiy.

Naia a oeae ia??iae iaci?ii?noue ? noae?noue ianya?a niiaeeaaiiy i?ae
aieeaii eiia?oe?eii? ?aeeaie iiaeii? ia?iaeaeoaaoe iia? ianyae
niiaeeaaiiy nioe?aeueii? ?aeeaie. Iinoiaoa??aeuei? oe?iiino?, ia yeeo
o?eia?oueny aeooiaia aeeooy noni?euenoaa a ia??iae aeiiii?/ieo e?ec,
noathoue oaaoeith nioe?aeueii? ?aeeaie ? caa??aathoue noai nioe?aeueii?
aeoeaiino? e oii?yaeeoaaiiy a noni?euenoa?.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “?aeeaia a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?”
i?iiiio?oueny aeieeaaeiee aiae?c ?inoeoooe?iiaeueii? ?aoeaeneaiino?
?aeeaie a Oe?a?i?. A?aecia/athoueny iniiai? iai?yiee ?inoeoooe?iiaeueii?
?aoeaeneaiino?: “iiceoeai?noue”, “aeecuee?noue aei iianyeaeaiiino?”,
“naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?y niiaeeaa/?a ?aeeaie”, aeei?enoiaothoueny ciaiiy
nioe?ie?iaa?noeee oa ?acoeueoaoe eiioaio-aiae?co aeey aeaiiino?aoe??
iniaeeainoae oe?a?inueei? ?aeeaie.

Iiiyooy “iiceoeaiino?” i?aeoi iaiaaeaia “nioe?aeueiith iiceoeai?noth”,
oiaoi oei, ui i?eeiyoi iaceaaoe iiceoeaiei o noni?euenoa?. Iaeiae iaoith
?aeeaiiaeaaoe?a ? a?aeaa?iaiiy oaaae niiaeeaa/a a?ae i?iaeai
iianyeaeaiiino? c ?? o?oaeiiuaie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iiai oa?aeoa?o, a oaeiae ?icaaao aeey ianaeaiiy, /ee
?ioi?iaoe?eiee ? eiioi?eaoeaiee i?ino?? caoceany ca aeayeeo i?e/ei:

1) iecueeee ??aaiue i?eaooe?a ianaeaiiy, yeee ciooo? ocaaaeueiaiiai
niiaeeaa/a ?aeeaiii? ?ioi?iaoe?? aeoiaoe i?i oa, ye caaeiaieueieoe
iecuee? o?c?ieia?/i? iio?aae;

2) nai???aei?noue aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i, o yeeo eeane/i? iiaeae?
ia?eaoeiao, cai?oai? ia iniaeeainoyo eoeueoo?e ? ianoaa?euei?e
iie?oeoe?, i?iyaeythoueny iaia?aaeaa/aii.

?aeeaio /anoi caeioaa/othoue a ia?aiane/aiino? iiceoeaiith
caaa?aeai?noth. Ae?enii, iiceoeai?noue — oea iniiaa ?aeeaie, yeo aiia,
aei ?a/?, aa?a c iaoiai iianyeaeaiiiai aeeooy ? aei yei? ?iie?oeeoii
i?aaia eiaeiee. Nioe?aeueiee ?inoeooo ?aeeaie aoaeo? ia oeueiio naith
oaoi?eo ni?eeoaaiiy c? niiaeeaa/ai. A nioe?aeueieo neooaoe?yo
?iaeea?aeoie iiaeooue ni?eeoaaoeny iaeei c iaeiei o iiaiiio ?icoi?ii?
oeueiai neiaa ia o?eueee aaciina?aaeiuei, a e /a?ac iina?aaeieea, oiaoi
/a?ac ?aeeaio. C?icoi?ei, ui niiniae aaeaioaoe?? ?niothoue a
aoaeue-yeiio noni?euenoa?, aiie aeeth/athoue nenoaio ii?iaoeaiiai
no?eioaaiiy aeey oi?aae?iiy ?eceeii ? niaoeeo?/ieie aeey nioe?aeueieo
neooaoe?e iiaeeeainoyie. ?ioa?an aei nioe?aeueieo neooaoe?e iaoiiaeaiee
oei, ui naia a oaeeo eiioaenoao ?iaeea?aee iiaeooue ?aeaioeo?eoaaoe
naaa, ? oea a?aeia?aaea? ?aeeaia. A?aeaeooy noai?aeeiaoe?? aai
aeii?iaioiino? /a?ac neooaoe?ei? caniae — oea a?eueo i?ae i?inoa
a?aenoaaeoaaiiy, neiaie?/ia aai ?eooaeueia i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii?
???a?o?? ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a.

A?aiaoeea eiioi?eaoeaii? ae??, yeo i?iaieo? ?aeeaia, i?iiiio? neiaie?/i?
i?ioioeie ? c?acee aeey naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?? iae??ciiiai?oi?oiai
oa?aeoa?o. A ieoaiiyo ?aeaioe/iino? “y” — oea oa, ui ? aeey niiaeeaa/a
?aeeaie eiai ?aeaioe/i?noth. Oi?ioaaiiy oaeoe/ii? ?aeaioe/iino?
iaa?ae`?iia a?ae oe?ii?nii? ?aeaioe/iino?, ia yeo i?aoaiaeothoue
niiaeeaa/? ?aeeaie. I???ioe?aie naii?aeaioe/iino? a ?aeeai? ? oeie
iiaaae?iee c iaaieie aeanoeainoyie ? oe?ii?noth, ye? i?eienothoueny oe?e
?aeaioe/iino? a oiae? aca?iiae?? c nioe?aeueiei na?oii.

I?iiiioth/e ia?ace c iianyeaeaiiiai aeeooy, ?aeeaia i?eiooo? caieneeoeny
i?i iiaa oa ianiiae?aaia a iianyeaeaiiino?, i?iaiae?coaaoe a?aaeaiiy,
ia?ace, iano??e, ye? ia?iaeaeothoueny a aoaeiyo.

Ioaea, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui, iae?ath/e no?aoaa?th ? oaeoeeo
?aeeaiii? eiiiai?? c o?aooaaiiyi “?inoeoooe?iiaeueii? ?aoeaeneaiino?”
?aeeaie, ae?iaiee ?aeeaie e ?aeeaiiaeaaaoeue ye ei?ii?aoeai? aeoi?e
iiaeii? i?iyaeyoe oaaao aei ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a, iiaaaeaoe oa
aea/aoe eiai.

?aeeaia i?iiiio? ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i iiaeeeaino? iaaaeii? ?aae?caoe??
aaaeaiue, ye? aiia i?iaiico? i?e naaiaioaoe?? nai?o iaeaooi?o
niiaeeaa/?a. I?e iineeaii? ia ?aaeuei? a?aoiaioe ?aeeaia, ye i?aaeei,
aeiiaaa?oueny oni?oo. Aiia noa? noaa?eueiei i???ioe?ii o ianooiieo
ae?yo, ui ia?aaeaa/athoue neooaoe?th aeai?o. ?aeeaia aenie?oeeoii
i?iiia?aeo? caaeiaieaiiy, eiioi?o, ethaia, naiiiiaaao, aeia?? noinoiee,
oei??ithth/e aaaeii?noe/iee niin?a aeeooy. ?aeeaia cae??ieth? noa?aioeie
ae?ii/eo oa /ieia?/eo ?ieae, oi/a e ia ia?ane?aeo? oe??? iaoe.
?aeeaiiaeaaoe? caiaiiei?i? e?ioeaaei ?acoeueoaoii. ?i iio??aai o?eueee
oni?o, yeee o naith /a?ao caaacia/eoue ?i i?eaooie, iiioey?i?noue,
aaoi?eoao, ?aiooaoe?th.

Cia/ii oe?oee ia?ae?e oe?iiinoae a?o/eciyii? ?aeeaie aiai?eoue i?i
i?ioean ?? iiaeaeueoiai noaiiaeaiiy, iiooeo nai?o i?o aieeao, i?i
iniaeeaino? aoaeeoi??? ?? niiaeeaa/?a, /e? iio?aae ci?iththoueny a neeo
ianoaa?eueiino?, iaoa??aeueiiai noaiiaeua ye iane?aeeo ianoaa?eueiino?
aeiiii?ee. I?ioean “ae?iaieoeoaa neiaie?/ieo aeaa” ca aeiiiiiaith
?aeeaie iaaeinoaoiuei ciiaeaeueiaaiee ia a?o/eciyiiio ?eieo.
Eiia??i?noue iiaeaethaaiiy iiaeia o?eueee ia?aaeaa/aoe, iaeiae, yeui oea
noaia iiaeeeai, oi iiaeae? aoaeooue a?ae??ciyoenue a?ae cao?aeieo
iiaeaeae ?aeeaie oae, ye a?ae??ciythoueny niiaeeaa/? ?aeeaie, a ioaea, ?
iao? noni?euenoaa.

Aa?oa oaaae oa, ui a nioe?ieia?? aea/aeeny i?ioeane naii?aeaioeo?eaoe??
?iaeea?ae?a ia iniia? i?eeiaoe “?inoeoooe?iiaeueii? ?aoeaeneaiino?” i?e
aiae?c? ?iaeea?ae?a ca iciaeith “noaoue”. Oea ?iaioe E.Aaaa?ai?,
A.*e?eeiai?, ?.I?aeeonueei?, O.Noie?ii?, E.Oeiae?ai?, ?.ssiianueeiai,
A.E?ina oa ?i.

Eiaeia noni?euenoai ?icaeaa? naith eiioeaioe?th oiai, ui ? nooo?aa ? ui
? oa?aeoa?ia aeey ae?ii/i? ? /ieia?/i? “noao?”. Oey eiioeaioe?y ioiieth?
ye ia?aaaae, oae ? iaaeie?ee ?iaeea?ae?a, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny ca
aaiaea?iith iciaeith. Oe?eaai a?aecia/eoe, ui iaa?yae /e iiaeeeai
aiai?eoe i?i aaiaea?i? ia?aaaae aai iaaeie?ee, ye? oa?aeoa?i? aeey
yeiainue iaeiiai noni?euenoaa. I?e yaieo iacia/ieo a?aei?iiinoyo, aiie o
caaaeuei?e ian?, iaeiaeia?. ?aeeaia i?iiiio? noa?aioeie o aeai?? aeae?a
ae?yeueiino?. *anoi i?iaeoeo ?aeeaie, oi?ia eiai i?aeianaiiy aeathoue
i?aenoaao aeey ?iciiae?eo ?ieae i?ae noaoyie.

Iiae?ai? noa?aioeie oei?aiythoueny c naiiai aeeoeinoaa e noathoue
no?eeeie. Ana oea iieaco?, ui noni?euenoai c? nai?ie noa?aioeiaie
iiaaae?iee, ye? neeaeeny a iueiio, nioe?aeueieie ii?iaie, oe?ii?nieie
i???ioaoe?yie aieeaa? ia noai?aiiy ?aeeaiiiai ia?aco, ia ?aeeaio. O?noue
aieiaieo e?eoa???a “?inoeoooe?iiaeueii? ?aoeaeneaiino?” ca aaiaea?ieie
iciaeaie, ye aeca?eaei, a?aeia?aaea? oe?a?inueea ?aeeaia :

aeiiaoi? iaia`ycee;

aeoiaaiiy ae?oae;

i?noey iiyae;

?iaioa;

aiein;

i?eeiyo? o noni?euenoa? niiniae caa?oaiiy.

Iaia? oi?aa?naeueieo iciae “ae?ii/ino?”, “/ieia?/ino?”, ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny ye iaiaoeay o eiaeiiio noni?euenoa?. Aiie caaaeaee
coiiaeai? e iioeaiaai? na?aaeiaeuai, a yeiio aiie ca?iaeaeothoueny.
I?e?iaei?i iiaeia aaaaeaoe oie oaeo, ui ?aeeaia ? o??th eaieith a CI?,
yea yaii i?iaeaiiino?oaaea aaciaaio ia aaiaea?i?e ia??aiino?
?inoeoooe?iiaeueio ?aoeaeneai?noue. Caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao e oa, ui
?inoeoooe?iiaeueia ?aoeaeneai?noue ?aeeaie i?iyaey?oueny a oiio, ui aiia
a?aeia?aaeo? ana, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny a noni?euenoa?.

?aeeaia cae??ieth? an? oe? i?ioeane o iania?e na?aeiiino?.

O ca`yceo c aea/aiiyi ?aeeaie ? i?iaeai iianyeaeaiiino?, aeieea?
iaiao?aei?noue aiae?co aeia??e, yeo aeeeeea? aai ia aeeeeea? ?aeeaia.

?eieiaa aeiiii?ea oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa aieeioea ia ?icaeoie oeo
oi?i iiaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??, ye? aaciina?aaeiuei iia`ycai? c? noaiiaeaiiyi
?eieo a?ciano a on?o noa?ao aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeae. Iaeiae
iaea?eueoa aeiey iaeaaeeoue ?aeeaii?e ?ioi?iaoe??, yea iin?ea
aeii?ioth/a i?noea c o?ueio i?e/ei: 1) ioiieea an? noa?e
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeae, caoi?eioaoe no?oeoo?o an?o iniiaieo
nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a; 2) aeyaeeanue iaea?eueo aio/eith, iiaioaaaoe
oi?io, ii?aeiaaoe o nia? c?acee eeaneee, iiaea?i?cio, acyaoe ca iniiao
iinoiiaea?i?ci ye noeeue iaienaiiy; 3) i?inoioa aeeeaaeaiiy aeyaeeanue
ia iaio aaaeeeaith iciaeith, ai aeinyaaeany i???ioaoe??th ia aeia??o
niiaeeaa/?a. Aeia??a aecia/aeany ciaiiyi noni?euenoaa, a yeiio aeic??ea
?aeeaia, ui ia?aaeaa/aei ei?ioe?noue aeeeaaeaiiy, ciaiiy eoeueoo?e
c?ace?a iiaaae?iee, oe?iiinoae, iiaeaethaaiiy iianyeaeaiiino?, aeecueei?
eiaeiiio ?iaeea?aeo, iacaeaaeii a?ae aeaiia?ao?/ieo aai ineoia?ao?/ieo
iciae. Aeey noai?aiiy ee?iaoo aeia??e /anoi aeei?enoiaothoue
a?aee?eo?noue aeneiaethaaiiy ii/ooo?a oa aeaiiino?aoe?th ia?aaeeaaiiy
cia?aaeaiiai aa?aaeueii aai ia?acii aeina?aeo. Inoaii? ni?ey? noai?aiith
“ineoieia?/ii? aaciaee” oa caaacia/o? aae?aeio eiioi?eaoe?th, yea
ia?aaeaa/a? aoiinoa?o aeia??e.

?aeeaia i?iiiio? e?eueea niinia?a aeeeeeo aeia??e. Ia?oei niiniaii ?
iai/ia “i?aeaeuaiiy noaaie” oei ia?oia?ii, yeee oi/a noi?ioaaoe ii/oooy
aeia??e a ?ioiai. Oe? “noaaee” iiaeooue aooe ao?a/ai? o aeiaaeeo
ii?ooaiue ciaia`ycaiue.

Ua iaeiei niiniaii aeeeeeo aeia??e aei ?aeeaie ? aeei?enoaiiy ?ioeo
ethaeae aeey caaacia/aiiy iiaii? aeia??e ii a?aeiioaiith aei naaa.
Ethaee /ano?oa aeia??ythoue a?oi?, i?ae ie?aiei ?iaeea?aeai. Aeey
oeueiai aeei?enoiaothoue oae? caoiaee: iai?ioethaaiiy iiiyooyi
“eieaeoeaiino?”; iineeaiiy ia a?eueo?noue; aeneiaethaaiiy c oeueiai
i?eaiaeo a?aeiieo in?a, oao?aoe?a. Ianooiiee niin?a aeeeeeo aeia??e —
oea “niaethaaiiy iino?a”. Oey no?aoaa?y aeicaiey? i?iaeaiiino?oaaoe
ia?oia?ia?, ui aeey aan aaea iaia? aei?iae iacaae, ui ? ? caii?oeith
aeia??e. Oaeee niin?a aeeeeeo aeia??e iiee ui iaei aeei?enoiao?oueny
?aeeaiith. Aea aaea ? ni?iae canoinoaaoe eiai oeyoii ?inoeaioaaiiy
ai?ciae?a iianyeaeaiiiai aeeooy, ia oii? yeiai i?iiiio?oueny
?aeeaiiaaiee i?iaeoeo ye niin?a ae??oaiiy uiaeaiieo i?iaeai. O
i?enay/ai?e ?aeeai? iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? ?nio? oaea iiiyooy ye
“eiia?oe?eiee ?aae?ci” — noaiaea?oia o?ainoi?iaoe?y, yea canoiniao?oueny
no/aniith ?aeeaiith, eiee i?iiiio?oueny uinue oaea, ye “oiaoi/ie
aeeooy”.

?aeeaia o?nii iia`ycaia c iaae?e ?eeaeoeic (I?), ye? a oiiaao ?icaeoeo
no/aniiai noni?euenoaa noaee aeooaeueieie oa caieoaieie a Oe?a?i?.

I? ia? a?eueo oe?ie? ii??aiyii c eiai iniiaieie neeaaeiaeie (?aeeaia,
ia?aaiai?e, i?acaioaoe??) iaae?. Ia aeieea? noii?ao, ui I? — iaea?eueo
iiaooi?e ??ciiaeae nioe?aeueii? eiioi?eaoe??, yea aeei?enoiao? ?aeeaio,
ia?aaiai?e, i?acaioaoe??, aenoaaee ye neeaaeia? aeaiaioe.

Nioe?aeueia ei?enoue I? c?inoa?, eiee aiie: 1) i?iniaothoue a?eueio oa
aoe/io oe?ii?noue ?aeae; 2) iineeththoue noaiaea?oe ae?yeueiino? o??? /e
?ioi? i?aai?caoe?? a noni?euenoa?; 3) a?aee?eaathoue ia?aae
a?iiaaenuee?noth ni?aaaei? iai??e i?aai?caoe??, yea caeia?oueny I?.

Nioe?aeueia ei?enoue I? ciaioo?oueny, eiee aiie: a) i?eai?/othoue
naiaiaeo oa eiieo?aioe?th ?aeae; a) i?eoiaothoue a?ae noni?euenoaa
ni?aaaei? iai??e nai?? i?aai?caoe??; a) aeei?enoiaothoue ia/ani?,
iaaoe/i? iaoiaee.

Iaeiei ?c iniiaieo i?ecia/aiue I? ? anoaiiaeaiiy eiioi?eaoe?eiiai
i?ioeano c aioo??oi?ie oa ciai?oi?ie eiioaeoieie a?oiaie. Oea
aeinyaa?oueny oeyoii ia?aaea/? ?ioi?iaoe?? ii ??cieo eaiaeao CI?.

Neiaiee ?aeeaie o I? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey noeneoaaiiy oa ia?aaea/?
neeaaeieo iia?aeiieaiue aeey aaeeeeo aoaeeoi??e oa i?iiiiothoue
ia?aeiieeaa cia/aiiy.

?aeeaia a?aeoai?th? nioe?aeueiee i?ino?? ca aeiiiiiaith neiaie?a,
aeiae?ath/e neiaa, iiiyooy, ye? caeaoi? ia?aaeaoe aaa?oon naiai
iioaioe?aeueiiai niiaeeaa/a, i?iiiioth/e ci?iai? iiaeae? aeey
naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?? o ??ciiiai?oieo noa?ao aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?. O ?aeeai?
neiaie?/ia aeaaea noai?th?oueny c iii?ith ia aeina?ae ethaeae, ye?
aieiae?thoue eaa?oeiiaaieie nioe?aeueieie ?inoeoooaie oeooeaie (iaoeia?
caaiiy, caaiiy caneoaeaieo a?oeno?a oa ?io.).

O?aaa a?aei?oeoe, ui iiae?aia noai?aiiy y?eee?a ?aeeaiiaaiiai caaaeaee
?aea c iaei??th ?aeeiith iaoith: ia?aeiiaoe a eiai iiceoeai?e yeino? ye
/anoeie aaea ?nioth/iai ?i?aeaeo, c yeei niiaeeaa/ ?aeaioeo?eoaaa naaa ?
?ai?oa, a oaia? iaiaaa?oueny eeoa aeiiiaieoe, ye oea iaiieaaeeai
?aeiiaiaeo? ?aeeaia.

?aeeaia i?iiiio? ia?aioe?ieoe naiiai naaa oa neiino?othaaoe icia/aio
iiao iiaeaeue iiaaae?iee, ianoaiiao ia ?aeeaiiaaia. ?iiae? aiia aeeeeea?
i?aaiaiiy aei aeaiiino?aoeaiiai niiaeeaaiiy aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy
?nioth/iai nioe?aeueiiai noaoono, yeee ci?ieany a neeo aeiiii?/ieo aai
ineoieia?/ieo i?e/ei.

Aei nioe?aeueieo eiioi?eaoe?e, eio?? ?icaeaathoueny a Oe?a?i? o ca`yceo
c? noaiiaeaiiyi ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, a?aeiinyoueny: ?aeeaia, ia?aaiai?e,
i?acaioaoe??.

?aeeaia, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, — oea aaaeaiiy ia?aaiai??a ia a?iiaaenueeiio
??ai?, aac i?eoiaoaaiiy aoaeue-yeeo ithain?a. O/anieeaie oaeeo
ia?aaiai??a aenooiathoue ?aeeaiiaeaaoe? oa niiaeeaa/? ?aeeaie.
I?iaaaeaiiy ia?aaiai??a ia?aaeaa/a?, oaeei /eiii, ianooiio noaio:
anoaiiaeaiiy iaoe; ioe?ieo ??aiiaaae nee; aecia/aiiy no?aoaa??, yea ?
iane?aeeii iiia?aaei?o aoai?a; oi?ioaaiiy oaeoeee, a iniia? yei? —
caoiaee ?aeeaie. Ia?aaiai?e, ia a?aei?io a?ae ?aeeaie, noaiiaeythoue
niaith i?eeeaae i?aeiniaeno?niiai ni?eeoaaiiy oa a ca`yceo c oeei ?
iin?yie an?o caaaeueieo oa a?aei?iieo c iaia?nii?o?eiaaiei ni?eeoaaiiyi
?en.

I?acaioaoe?? ? ua iaeiei niiniaii nioe?aeueii? eiioi?eaoe??, oea
caeaoi?noue ia?aaeaaaoe iia?aeiieaiiy a oiiaao eiioeaio?iaaii? oaaae c
aieo aaeeei? e?eueeino? ?iaeea?ae?a, oiaoi ocaaaeueiaiiai
niiaeeaa/a-ei?ii?aoeaiiai aeoi?a. O?oaeiiu?, c yeeie c?oea?oueny
aenooiath/ee o ?ie? aeeiioth/iai i?acaioaoe?th ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee
a?aei?aaiee ?ioi?iaoe??, caiaeyoueny aei ianooiiiai: aeinyaiaiiy
iinoaaeaii? iaoe; caaeia?eueiaiiy i/?eoaaiue aoaeeoi???; ia?aaeaa/aiiy
neeaaeieo ieoaiue c aieo ei?ii?aoeaiiai aeoi?a. I?ioean i?acaioaoe??
iiaea aooe iiae?eaiee ia aeae?eueea iniiaieo aoai?a: ii/aoie; nooue
i?acaioaoe??; cai?ioi?e ca`ycie; i?aeaeooy i?aenoie?a.

I?acaioaoe?? /ano?oa anueiai aeei?enoiaothoue ?inoeaioaaiiy ye
ai?iaiaaiee ?aeeaiith o iaia?nii?o?eiaaiiio ni?eeoaaii? c ei?ii?aoeaiei
aeoi?ii cao?ae. Caoiaee aeeth/aiiy ei?ii?aoeaiiai aeoi?a o cai?ioi?e
ca`ycie aoaeooue caeaaeaoe a?ae neeaaeo a?oie, a?ae ?? aeaiia?ao?/ieo,
eoeueoo?ieo oa?aeoa?enoee. Aeoeaiee i?ioean cai?ioiueiai ca`yceo
a?aeaoaa?oueny, eiee i?aai?caoi? i?acaioaoe?? oa ?? aeeiioaa/ ciathoue
iniaeeaino? naiai ei?ii?aoeaiiai aeoi?a, eiai eoeueoo?e.

I?e aacoiiai?e ?ioa?oa?aioe?? ?aeeaie ? i?acaioaoe?e, inoaii?
noaiiaeyoue niaith, ia iao iiaeyae, iniaeeaee aeae ?aeeaioaaiiy, yeee
neie?aoe/ii ?aae?co? iaeaeaa aeaee ni?eeoaaiiy: i?aeiniaeno?nia oa
iaia?nii?o?eiaaia. Naaiaioaoe?y ei?ii?aoeaiiai aeoi?a — aoaeeoi???
niiaeeaa/?a, cae?enith?oueny i?ioyaii i?ioeano ni?eeoaaiiy a
i?acaioaoe?yo. Oiio ei?ii?aoeaiee aai ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee aeoi?, yeee
i?aai?co? i?acaioaoe?th, ye i?aaeei ia? aeae?eueea aa??aio?a no?aoaa?? e
oaeoeee aeey aeinyaiaiiy nai?? aieiaii? iaoe. ??ciiiai?oi?noue inoaii?o
caniiaaia ia ciaiiyo nioe?ie?iaa?noe/ieo iniaeeainoae ia?aii?
nioe?aeueii? eiioi?eaoe?? ?, ia?aaeon?i, ?aeeaie.

A ?aeeai? aeoae?ci e?iaa?noe/iiai ciaea i?noeoueny a aeoeaiooaaii? ia
o?eueee aiioe?eiino? e ?aoe?iiaeueiino? niiaeeaa/?a, aea e o iaaeaii?
?ioi?iaoe?? ye oiaa?o, yeee ia? oe?ii?noue.

Oaoiieia?y noai?aiiy ?aeeaie aeicaiey? aeei?enoiaoaaoe i’youe aaaeeeaeo
oaeoi??a aeey caa?iaiiy aei aoaeeoi??? ?aeeaie:

?noi?e/ia ei??iiy;

o?aaeeoe??;

aaoi?eoao;

iianyeaeaii?noue;

i?iaiice ia iaeaooi? ye can?a i?eaa?iaiiy oaaae.

An? aiie aeicaieythoue a?aoiaoaaoe oe?iiino?, yeeo o?aaeeoe?eii
aeio?eio?oueny niiaeeaa/ ca ??cieo i?e/ei: ii/oooy iaoe?iiaeueii?
ai?aeino?, iane?aeoaaiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a ?aoa?aioieo a?oi.

Aeoae?ci aeuaiacaaieo oaeoi??a caaacia/o? ?i?aeae ?aeeai?. Ei??iiy
iiae?aiiai aeoae?cio a noni?euenoa?. Aeoae?ci i?iyaey?oueny a
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? aeaio a?aoiaio?a, ia yeeo caniiaaia ?aeeaia:

o?aaeeoe?? oa iianyeaeaii?noue; iianyeaeaii?noue oa i?iaiice ia
iaeaooi?; o?aaeeoe?? oa i?iaiice ia iaeaooi?; ?noi?e/i? ei??iiy oa
iianyeaeaii?noue oa ?io.

Nueiaiaei? ioi/aiiy na?oo ethaeeie ia? oe?ii?noue ca eiai
?ioi?iaoeai?noue, iane/ai?noue aeooaeueieie oaeoaie, eiio?ieueiaai?noue,
aio/e?noue, yea i?eionea? i?ieea?noue. Oea caaacia/o? nioe?ie?iaa?noeea,
yea noai?th? aa?aaeueiee na?o. Aio/e?noue nioe?ie?iaa?noeee ?aeeaie
iieyaa? a caa?aaeaii? a??iino? aea?aiiio ?aeeaiiiin?th, oiio ui oea
icia/a? iaaiee noeeue. Aea iiaeeeaa e aaaeaia ci?ia oi?ie iaaeaiiy
?ioi?iaoe?? i?e iaia`yceiaiio caa?aaeaii? ci?noo ?aea? aai oi?ie
yei?-iaaoaeue /anoeie ?aeeaiiiai caa?oaiiy, iai?eeeaae, caaieiaeo.
Aoaeoeai?noue ?aeeaie caeaaeeoue ia o?eueee a?ae ciaiue ocaaaeueiaiiai
niiaeeaa/a, eiai iiieoo, aea e ?aeeaiii? eoeueoo?e oa ai?iiy i?aoethaaoe
c ?aeeaiiei iia?aeiieaiiyi, ciaiue noee?noeee, naiaioeee, i?aaiaoeee.
Aeey noai?aiiy ?aeeaiiiai oaenoo aeei?enoiaothoueny /eneaii?
e?iaa?noe/i? i?eeiie. Nioe?ie?iaa?noeea ?aeeaie aeicaiey? noeioethaaoe
ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a ae?yoe.

I?yi? cayae a ?aeeai?, c?iaeai? c eieaeoeaii? naieoe??, iiaeooue aooe
iaiiaiai? neiaaie c aiioe?eiith eiiioaoe??th aeey oiai, uia a?aceoe
ethaeae. C oe??th iaoith aeei?enoiaothoueny noee?noe/ii caaa?aeai?, aea
ciaeii? caniae: 1) aeneiae c a?aeiieo eacie, i?ene?a`?a, i?eeacie;
2) i?yi? cayae iiaeooue noi?iaiaeaeoaaoenue aeanoaie, ae?aiaoo?a??th, ui
aeicaiey? iaaeaoe eiiioaoeaiee a?aeo?iie ia?aeiieeaino?, ue?ino?,
?inoeaioaaiith, aai, iaaiaee, a?aeaie?eaoe a?ae noo? ?aeeaie, ia?aaanoe
oaaao ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a ia iacia/i? ae??aieoe?, ye? o?eueee
i?ee?aoathoue ?aeeaiia iia?aeiieaiiy noiniaii noa?iai i?iaeoeoo, ia
caaaeaee iio??aiiai, e naia oiio a?i iio?aao? ooo/ii noai?aieo i?ee?an.

Aaoi?ii ?aoaeueii i?iaiae?ciaai? i?eeeaaee iiae ?aeeaie a Oe?a?i? ?
?in?? a iaeano? eiia?oe?eii?, nioe?aeueii? oa iie?oe/ii? ?aeeaie. I?e
an?e ??ciiiai?oiino? iiaieo cania?a eiioaio-aiae?c i?eeeaae?a ?aeeaie
aeicaiey? aeyaeoe iaai? eeane ??cieo /anoei iiae, ye? ii?aeiai?
ooieoe?iiaeueiith ni?yiiaai?noth: o?aaeeoe?eii-noaaeaiith oa
?iiaaoe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o.

?aeeaia o?aaeeoe?eii noaaeaiiai iai?yieo a?aecia/aia iiaieie caniaaie,
ye? iienothoue a?aei?noue, ia?aaaae, aeiyoeia?noue oiai, ui
?aeeaio?oueny.

Ie?aii o?aaa coieieoeny ia iia? ?aeeaie ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o. Ca
na?ae/aiiyi oao?aoe?a-aiae?oee?a, aoaeo oaei? ?aeeaie aeyaey?oueny
cia/ii aeuei. Iaiao?aeii eiinoaooaaoe, ui any noaia iiaoaeiae iiae?aii?
?aeeaie ?ic?aoiaaia ia noai?aiiy eiio?anoo “iaaaoeaiiai/iiceoeaiiai”,
aea ?aeeaiiaaiiio iaaea?oueny noaoon iaiaoea? a?ae on?o eeo.
Nii?oaeaeoth/e eia?/ii ci?noiaiee eaioetha, ia?oa iieiaeia oaeiai
?aeeaiiiai oaenoo a iiae?iaeoeyo ciaeueiao? iaaeie?ee /iai-iaaoaeue, uia
iio?i a?eueo aeinooiieie aeey ?icoi?iiy oa a?eueo ia?aeiieeaeie aoee
ia?aaaae, iiceoeaia ye?noue ?aeeaiiaaiiai ye a?aoiaioe ia ei?enoue
inoaiiueiai.

Nioe?aeueia na?aaeiaeua — oea aieeaiaee oaeoi?, yeee aecia/a? oa?aeoa?
?aeeaie, iniaeeai a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, eiee i?iaeoeo ?aeeaie
noa? oiaa?ii ia ?eieo neiaie?/ii? i?iaeoeoe??.

AENIIAEE

 ?aeeaia noi?ioaaeanue ye nioe?aeueiee ?inoeooo, i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oiio
? a?aeiia?aei?noue i?eoaiaiiei nioe?aeueiiio ?inoeoooo iciaeai:
iayai?noue aeciaieo Caeiiii “I?i ?aeeaio” ii?i ?aeeaiii? ae?yeueiino?,
noaa?eueia no?oeoo?a, noaeee oei nioe?aeueii? iiaaae?iee ei?ii?aoeaieo
aeoi??a — no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a iiaiai nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo.

 ?aeeaia ? i?iaeoeoii ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ? aeei?enoiao? iaeaeaa niiniae
ni?eeoaaiiy: iaia?nii?o?eiaaiee ? i?aeiniaeno?niee c iaoith i?aeo?eiee
nioe?aeueieo ca’yce?a c ocaaaeueiaiei niiaeeaa/ai. Eaea i?ioean
noaiiaeaiiy ?aeeaiii? eoeueoo?e.

 Aoaeeoi??y niiaeeaa/?a ?aeeaie a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae aoaeeoi??? CI?,
aiia ? i???ioe?ii no?aoaa?? ? oaeoeee ?aeeaiii? ae?yeueiino? o no/aniiio
noni?euenoa?. Aea/aiiy aoaeeoi??? niiaeeaa/?a ?aeeaie — caaaeaiiy
nioe?ieia?a.

 Nioe?aeueiee ?inoeooo ?aeeaie aeeiio? ?yae ooieoe?e ia iae?i??ai? — a
nenoai? nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a oa ia i?e?i??ai? — a na?aaeiaeu?
ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a. Eiioi?eaoeaia oa ?aaoeyoeaia ooieoe??
nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo ?aeeaie iiaeooue aooe yaieie ? eaoaioieie. sse ?
aoaeue-yeee nioe?aeueiee i?aai?ci ?aeeaia aeeiio? aeenooieoe??.
Nioe?aeuei? iane?aeee aeenooieoe?e a?aeaeaathoueny a ??cieo aeaeao
aeaa?aioii? iiaaae?iee ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a ?aeeaie.

 Nioe?ieia?/iee aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? ?aeeaie iiaea a?oiooaaoeny ia
aea/aii? neia?aaoe/ii? i?e?iaee ?aeeaiii? aeoioieoo?e: oe?iiinoyo,
iio?aaao, iioeaao. Ci?noiaio iniiao oe?iiinoae, iio?aa, iioea?a
aecia/athoue niiaeeaa/? ?aeeaie.

 Aiioe?eiee iioaioe?ae ?aeeaie ni?ey? oi?ioaaiith iiaeo ? i?aeo?eioe?
noa?eo iio?aa ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a. Naiaioe/iee aiioe?eiee i?ino??
?aeeaie ? nenoaiith eaoaioieo oaeoi??a, ye? oi?iothoue ianiao
na?aeii?noue aoaeeoi??? niiaeeaa/?a ?aeeaie.

 Nioe?ie?iaa?noeea ?aeeaie, yea aeyaeaia a i?ioean? eiioaio-aiae?co
no/anii? oe?a?inueei? ?aeeaie, ? iniiaith aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
nioe?ieia?? ?aeeaie. I?ioean oi?ioaaiiy no?aoaa?? ? oaeoeee ?aeeaie ia
i?aenoaa? a??ii aea?aieo iiaieo cania?a caaacia/o? aoaeoeai?noue aieeao
?aeeaie ia noni?euenoai ? eiino?oth?oueny ia aea/aii? a?iiaaenueeeo
i?ioean?a oa a?iiaaenueei? iaioaeueiino?.

 Aea/aiiy oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo ?aeeaie aecia/a?
???a?o?th ia?niaeoea eiaeiiai c ??ciiaeae?a ?aeeaie: eiia?oe?eiiai,
nioe?aeueiiai, iie?oe/iiai. ?icea?o eiia?oe?eii? ?aeeaie a oe?a?inueeiio
noni?euenoa? iaoiiaeaiee ?icaeoeii ?eieiaeo noinoie?a, iaiao?aei?noth
caa?aaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai ?eieo oa eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noth
neiaie?/ii? i?iaeoeoe??.

 ?aeeaia a?aeia?aaea? an? nioe?aeuei? ci?ie, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a
oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?, aeaiiino?oth/e oaeei /eiii
?inoeoooe?iiaeueio ?aoeaeneai?noue ca oaeeie iciaeaie, ye iiceoeai?noue,
iianyeaeaii?noue, aaiaea?i? a?aei?iiino?.

 ?aeeaia ye nioe?aeueiee ?inoeooo — iiaooi?e can?a ea?oaaiiy o no/aniiio
noni?euenoa?, yeee ia iiai?noth caiio?aaiaaiee. Noni?euenoai iiaeiii
noaoe ia o?eueee iniiaiei niiaeeaa/ai ?aeeaie, aea ? ?? caiiaieeii.

IOAE?EAOe??

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? a iiiia?ao??, 20 noaooyo,
12 oacao aeiiia?aeae:

1. Eeneoea I.I. ?aeeaia a nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa. — Oa?ueeia: “Iniiaa”,
1999. — 272 n.

2. Eiiaeiaa I.?., Eeneoey I.I., I??ioi?eia A.?. Ia?eaoeia ?
noni?euenoai: Iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee. — E.: ?NAeI, 1993. — 132 n.

3. Eeneoea I.I. E aii?ino i nioeeieeiaaenoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoyo ?aeeaiiuo
oaenoia // Aanoiee Oa?uee. oieaa?. No?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/. e i?aaiaoe/.
iien. ?iiaine. e aa?iaine. ycueia. — 1992. — ?367. — N. 67-68.

4. Eeneoea I.I. ?aeeaia eae /anoue i?ioeanna eiiioieeaoeee a
iaiaaeaeiaioa // Yooaeoeaiue iaiaaeaeiaio. — Oa?ueeia: AI “Aecian
Eioi?i”. — 1996. — N. 88-90.

5. Eeneoea I.I. Iioeaaoeee iio?aaeoaeae ?aeeaiu // Aecian Eioi?i. —
1996. — ?21. — N. 45-46.

6. Eeneoea I.I. Aeaeu nioeeaeueiie ?aeeaiu a n?aaenoaao ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee Oe?aeiu // Iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey. Iiuo. Iienee: Oa?uee. na.
iao/i. o?oaeia. Oa?uee. ainoae. oieaa?neoao — Oa?ueeia: AEOA. — 1997. —
Aui. 1. — N. 154-156.

7. Eeneoea I.I. E aii?ino ia aoaeeoi?ee iio?aaeoaeae eiiia?/aneie
?aeeaiu (ia iniiaa aiaeeca noieiinoe i?aaeiaoa ?aeeaiu) // A?niee
Oa?e?anuee. oi?aa?. Nioe?ie. aeine?aeae. no/ani. noni?euenoaa:
iaoiaeieia?y, oai??y, iaoiaee. — 1997. — ? 393. — N. 144-147.

8. Eeneoea I.I. I?iaeaiu iaiaaeaeiaioa a ?aeeaiiii aeciana // A?niee
Oa?e?anuee. aea?ae. aeiiii. oi?aa?. — 1997. — ?3. — N. 93-95

9. Eeneoea I.I. Eiioaio-aiaeec neiaa?y ?aeeaiiuo oaenoia (nioeeaeueiay e
eiiia?/aneay ?aeeaia) // Na. iao/i. o?oaeia ii eaeneeia?aoee. —
Oa?ueeia. — 1997. — aui. 4. — N. 65-68.

10. Eeneoea I.I. AEeciaiiue oeeee nioeeaeueiie e eiiia?/aneie ?aeeaiu //
Ia?eaoeia e ?aeeaia. — 1997. — ?3-4. — N. 16-17.

 Eeneoea I.I. ?aeeaia eae ?aaoeyoi? nioeeaeueiiai iiaaaeaiey // Ca??iee
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. Oa?e?anuee. nioe?ieia?/. /eoaiiy — 97. Iaoeiai-iaoiae.
caaania/. aeeeaaeai. nioe?ieia?/. aeenoeeie. (Aeiiia?ae? oa iia?ae.
o/anoi. nai?ia?o aeeeaae. nioe?ieia. aoc?a Oe?a?ie). — Oa?e?a: “Iniiaa”.
— 1997. — N. 284-288.

 Eeneoey I.I. ?aeeaia ye nioe?aeueiee ?inoeooo // Nioe?ieia?y: oai??y,
iaoiaee, ia?eaoeia. — 1998. — ?3. — N. 125-130.

 Eeneoea I.I. ?aeeaia eae oi?ia nioeeaeueiie eiiioieeaoeee a aeciana //
A?niee Oa?e?anuee. aea?ae. aeiiii. oi?aa?. — 1998. — ?1. — N. 30-32.

 Eeneoea I.I. Ooieoeey nioeeaeecaoeee ?aeeaiu, aa yaiua e eaoaioiua
i?iyaeaiey // A?niee Oa?e?anuee. aea?ae. aeiiii. oi?aa?. — 1998. — ?4
(8). — N. 77-80.

 Eeneoea I.I. Neia?aaoe/aneay ea?oeia ?aeeaiu // Aanoiee Oa?uee. ainoae.
iieeoaoi. oieaa?neo. — 1998. — Aui. 25. — N. 103-107.

 Eeneoea I.I. ?aeeaia — iniiaa nioeeaeueiuo eiiioieeaoeee // Aanoiee
Oa?uee. ainoae. iieeoaoi. oieaa?neo. — 1998. — Aui. 25. — N. 108-110.

 Eeneoea I.I. Nia?aiaiiay ?aeeaia, aeeaaeu e o?eaaeu A.Ceiiaey // Ca??i.
iaoeia. i?aoeue. Oa?e?anuee? nioe?ie. /eoaiiy — 98. — Oa?e?a: OeAIAe
“?aaea?”. — 1998. — N. 75-80.

 Eeneoea I.I. ?aeeaia eae iaia?niieoeoee?iaaiiue niinia oi?aaeaiey a
nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa // A?niee Oa?e?anuee. aea?ae. oi?aa?neo. Iaoea ?
nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie noni?euenoaa. — 1998. — ?414. — N. 64-67.

 Eeneoea I.I. Ooieoeee nioeeaeueiiai einoeoooa ?aeeaiu // A?niee
Oa?e?anuee. aea?ae. oi?aa?neo. Nioe?aeuei? aeine?aeae. no/ani.
noni?euenoaa: Iaoiaeieia?y, oai??y, iaoiaee. — 1999. — ?433. — N. 20-28.

 Eeneoea I.I. Niiniaiinoe noeioee?iaaiey nioeeaeueiiai ioiioaiey e
?aeeaia // Aanoi. Oa?uee. ainoae. iieeoaoi. oieaa?. — 1999. — ?36. —
N. 70-73.

 Eeneoea I.I. Yiioeee a ?aeeaia eae i?aaeiinueea ?acaeoey ineoieiaee
iaiaaeaeiaioa e ?aeeaiu // Ca??iee iaoeia. i?aoeue. A?ni. Oa?e. aea?ae.
oi?aa?. — 1999. — ?439. — N. 79-82.

Eeneoey I.I. Aiioe?? a ?aeeai? ye noeioe aei ca’yceo c a?iiaaenuee?noth
// A?niee Oi?aa?. aioo?. ni?aa. – 1999. – aei. 5. – N. 283 – 287.

 Eeneoea I.I., Oa?anaiei N.A. sscue e noeeue ?aeeaiu aeaeeo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo nenoai // Oac. aeiee. iae. iao/.-i?aeoe/. eiio.:
“Iaoiaeieiae/aneea e i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aeoe/aneea i?iaeaiu oi?ie?iaaiey
aeaeeo aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo i?iecaiaenoa”. — Oa?ueeia, 1989. — N. 59-60.

 Eeneoea I.I. Nioeeaeueiia a ycuea ?aeeaiu ?iaioia // Oac. aeiee. iae.
iao/.-i?aeoe/. eiio.: “Iaoiaeieiae/aneea e i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aeoe/aneea
i?iaeaiu oi?ie?iaaiey aeaeeo aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo i?iecaiaenoa”. —
Oa?ueeia, 1989. — N. 61.

 Eeneoea I.I. E aii?ino i noeeenoe/aneii aa?uee?iaaiee ?aeeaiiuo oaenoia
// Oac. eiio.: “Ooieoeeiiaeueiua e naiaioe/aneea ei?aeyoeee ycueiauo
aaeeieoe”. — E.: EAO. — 1990. — N. 156.

 Eeneoea I.I., Oa?anaiei N.A. Eiiioieeaoeaiay oa?aeoa?enoeea ?aeeaiiuo
oaenoia // Iaoa?. ?anioae. iao/.-iaoiae. eiio.: “Aii?inu
niaa?oainoaiaaiey iao/aiey (eiino?aiiiio) ycueo eae n?aaenoao
iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiiai iauaiey”. — /anoue 2. — Oa?ueeia: OEEAO. — 1991. —
N. 50-52.

 Eeneoey I.I. I?aaiaoe/i? iniaeeaino? caaieiae?a ?aeeaiieo oaeno?a //
Oace aeii. ?anioae. iaoe.-iaoiae. eiio.: “?eiie ? i?iaeaie aoiai?oa?ii?
i?aeaioiaee aeiiii?/ieo eaae??a o aeu?e oeie?”. — E.: IIE AI. — 1992. —
N. 202-203.

 Eeneoea I.I. E aii?ino ia eco/aiee ni?ina ycueiaie ?aeeaiu ia Oe?aeia
// Na. oac. aeiee. Oe?aeine. iao/.-i?aeo. eiioa?.: “Yeiiiieea e eaae?u
Oe?aeiu”. — /. 3. — Oa?ueeia: OEYE. — 1994. — N. 31.

 Eeneoea I.I. I?yiay e einaaiiay iiieiaoeey a caaieiaeao ?aeeaiiuo
oaenoia // Oace iaoe. eiio. oa 3-ai Oe?.-I?iaoeuee. neiiic.: “Aeaee
iiaeaii? ae?yeueiino?: e?iaa?noe/i? oa aeeaeaeoe/i? aniaeoe”. — Oa?e?a:
OAeO. — 1995. — N. 37-39.

 Eeneoea I.I. Iniaaiiinoe ooieoeeiiaeueiiai noeey ycuea ?aeeaiu // Oace
I?aeia?. iaoe. eiio.: “Iaa/aiiy ae?eia?e aiae?enuee?e oa i?iaoeuee?e
iiaai a i?ioean? i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a aeey ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee”. —
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee. — 1995. — N. 42.

 Eeneoea I.I. I ?iee caaieiaea-aii?ina a ?aeeaiiii oaenoa //
Iaoe.-iaoiae. iaoa?. 2-? I?aeia?. eiio.: “E?iaaiiaoiaee/i? eiioeaioe??
iaa/aiiy iia? aeey niaoe?aeueieo oe?eae”. — E.: Iaoe?iiaeueiee
Oi?aa?neoao. — 1995. — N. 193-194.

 Eeneoea I.I. Eoeueoo?a ycuea ?aeeaiu — iaycaoaeueiue yeaiaio oniaoa
?aeeaiu // Iaoa?. iaaeaoc. iao/.-iaoiae. eiio.: “Aeooaeueiua aii?inu
iao/aiey nooaeaioia-iaoeeieiaia oe?aeineiio e ?onneiio ycueo ia
nia?aiaiiii yoaia”. — Oa?ueeia: AAANOA. — 1996. — N. 167-168.

 Eeneoea I.I. I?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a e nioeeaeueiia acaeiiaeaenoaea
yeaiaioia ?aeeaiiie eaiiaiee // No/ani? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa:
Ca??i. aeii. Ae?oai? I?aeia?. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. iieiaeeo aeiiii?no?a. —
Oa?e?a: AO “A?cian ?ioi?i”. — 1997. — N. 120-121.

 Eeneoea I.I. Iaia?aiey iio?aaeoaeae ?aeeaiu eae iniiaa oi?ie?iaaiey
no?aoaaee ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a ia?eaoeiaiaii ieena // Oac. aeiee.
?aaeii. iao/.-i?aeo. eiio.: “Yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu i?aaei?eyoee”. —
Oa?ueeia: OAYO. — 1997. — N. 40.

AIIOAOe?ss

Eeneoey I.I. ?aeeaia ye nioe?aeueiee ?inoeooo. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 22.00.03 — nioe?aeueia no?oeoo?a, nioe?aeuei?
?inoeoooe oa nioe?aeuei? a?aeiineie. — Oi?aa?neoao aioo??oi?o ni?aa,
Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ?icaeyaeo ?aeeaie ye nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo
no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa. I?iiiio?oueny eiiieaeniee ?
aaaaoi??aiaaee aiae?c nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo ?aeeaie, i?iaiae?ciaai?
eiai yai? ? eaoaioi? ooieoe??, aiae?cothoueny aeenooieoe?? ?aeeaie.
?icaeyaeathoueny iiaeeeaino? aieeao ?aeeaie ia nioe?aeuei? ?inoeoooe
noni?euenoaa, ye? noi?ioaaeeny ?ai?oa, oa ia ocaaaeueiaiiai niiaeeaa/a.
?ic?iaeaii nioe?ieia?/io iiaeaeue i?iaiicoaaiiy ?aeeaie ? aecia/aiiy ??
aoaeoeaiino? ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aeeaiii? aeoioieoo?e: oe?iiinoae,
iio?aa, iioea?a. Aiioe?eiee iioaioe?ae ?aeeaie ?icaeyaea?oueny ye noeioe
aei ni?eeoaaiiy c ocaaaeueiaiei niiaeeaa/ai o i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo
oa i?ae?oeiee noa?eo iio?aa. Nioe?ie?iaa?noeea ?aeeaie aeei?enoiao?oueny
aeey aea/aiiy nioe?ieia?? ?aeeaie. Aea/athoueny iniaeeaino?
?inoeoooe?iiaeueii? ?aoeaeneaiino? oe?a?inueei? ?aeeaie ? aecia/athoueny
iai?yiee ?? ?icaeoeo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?aeeaia, nioe?aeueiee ?inoeooo, ooieoe?y,
nioe?ie?iaa?noeea ?aeeaie, ?inoeoooe?iiaeueia ?aoeaeneai?noue, ?aeeaiia
aeoioieoo?a.

AIIIOAOeEss

Eeneoea I.I. ?aeeaia eae nioeeaeueiue einoeooo. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a nioeeieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 22.00.03 — nioeeaeueiay no?oeoo?a, nioeeaeueiua
einoeooou e nioeeaeueiua ioiioaiey. — Oieaa?neoao aioo?aiieo aeae,
Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?anniio?aieth ?aeeaiu eae nioeeaeueiiai
einoeoooa nia?aiaiiiai oe?aeineiai iauanoaa. I?aaeeaaaaony eiiieaeniue e
iiiaio?iaiaaue aiaeec nioeeaeueiiai einoeoooa ?aeeaiu, i?iaiaeece?iaaiu
aai yaiua e eaoaioiua ooieoeee, aiaeece?othony aeenooieoeee ?aeeaiu.
?anniao?eaathony aiciiaeiinoe aeeyiey ?aeeaiu ia noi?ie?iaaaoeany ?aiaa
nioeeaeueiua einoeooou iauanoaa e ia iaiauaiiiai iio?aaeoaey.
?ac?aaioaia nioeeieiae/aneay iiaeaeue i?iaiice?iaaiey ?aeeaiu e
ii?aaeaeaiey aa yooaeoeaiinoe ia iniiaa enneaaeiaaiey ?aeeaiiie
aeoioieoo?u: oeaiiinoae, iio?aaiinoae, iioeaia. Yiioeeiiaeueiue
iioaioeeae ?aeeaiu ?anniao?eaaaony eae noeioe e iauaieth n iaiauaiiui
iio?aaeoaeai a i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey iiauo e iiaeaea?aeaiey noa?uo
iio?aaiinoae. Nioeeieeiaaenoeea ?aeeaiu eniieuecoaony aeey eco/aiey
nioeeieiaee ?aeeaiu. Eco/athony iniaaiiinoe einoeoooeeiiaeueiie
?aoeaeneaiinoe oe?aeineie ?aeeaiu e ii?aaeaeythony iai?aaeaiey aa
?acaeoey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?aeeaia, nioeeaeueiue einoeooo, ooieoeey,
nioeeieeiaaenoeea ?aeeaiu, einoeoooeeiiaeueiay ?aoeaeneaiinoue,
?aeeaiiay aeoioieoo?a.

SUMMARY

Lisitsa N.M. Advertising as a social institution. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by speciality 22.00.03 — social structure,
social institution and social relations. — University of Internal
Affairs, Kharkiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the consideration of advertising as a
social institution of contemporary Ukrainian society. The periods of
establishing of a new social institution of advertising are studied. In
the process of establishing of advertising into new social institution
it underwent the periods of specialization, expanding the mediatorial
activity, integration, institualisation. Interactions between the
structural elements of the new social institution are based upon the
models of interaction, suggested by George Simmel.

Advertising is characterized as the product of development of marketing
relations. Filling the information market and stimulating the increase
of competition, advertising uses different means of communication with
the generalized consumer. Interpersonal and non-personal means of
communication with the audience of consumers are supposed to be the main
ones. The peculiarities of both means of communication are used by
contemporary advertising. The advantages of non-personal means of
communication with the generalized consumer are motivated by profit for
advertisers and possibilities to expand the influence of advertising in
all aspects of human activity.

The characteristics of the audience of consumers are given together with
the models of behavior of generalized consumer: conformity, innovations,
ritualism, apostasy, depression. The means of establishing social
connections with generalized consumer of advertising are motivated.

Complex and multilevel analysis of social institution of advertising is
given. Advertising is positioned in the system of the previously
established social institutions.

Those functions, which are realized by advertising in other social
institutions are analyzed. The importance of advertising, its influence
in society is confirmed. The functions of advertising at the microlevel
are also ninsidered. The functions of advertising are characterized as
explicit and implicit. Communicative function is realized as explicit
and regulative function of advertising is realized as explicit and
implicit.

In the process of realization of explicit or implicit regulative
function it may become implicit disfunction, reducing the adaptation of
the generalized consumer to social environment. The reasons of
realization of implicit disfunction are mainly linguistic ones. These
are: mistakes, unreal promises, etc — they are the forms which are used
very often without intention by advertisers, but stimulate ignoring the
ads.

Motives, demands and values which are used by contemporary advertising
with the aim of influencing on the consumers are studied.

The tables of demands, stimulating several motives are presented in
application. These tables are made on the results of the focus -group
interviews. Sociological model of forecasting advertising and defining
its effectiveness on the basis of studying advertising acupuncture:
values, demands, motives, is worked out.

Emotional potential in advertising is mentioned as a stimulus to the
contacts with the generalized consumer in the process of making new and
supporting old demands. Content analysis of advertising texts gives the
possibility to name the list of emotions which are used by contemporary
Ukrainian advertising.

The peculiarities of the institutional reflexivity of Ukrainian
advertising are studied, directions of its development are determined:
positivity, daily occurrence, as the device to draw and to keep
attention of generalized consumer, gender peculiarities, which are
typical for the Ukrainian society.

Sociolinguistics of advertising is used for studying sociology of
advertising. Socioliguistic analysis of advertising, connected with the
content-analysis of ads, allows to open new, not studied before aspects
of influence of the language, its interpretation in the consumer
environment.

Knowledge of sociolinguistic peculiarities of advertising will open new
opportunities for the development of advertising activity in Ukraine and
will allow to choose correctly the form of communication with
generalized consumer, for whom advertising is created.

Key words: advertising, social institution, function, sociolinguistics
of advertising, institutional reflexivity, advertising acupuncture.

Aeth?eaaei Y. Nioeeieiaey. Aa i?aaeiao, iaoiae, i?aaeiacia/aiea. I.:
1995. – N. 20.

Au/aieia A.I. Einoeooou: naa?oeieeaeoeaiua ia?aciaaiey e aacee/iua
oi?iu nioeeaeueiie noauaeoiinoe. I.: ?ANI, 1996. – N. 23.

Eaaai I.N. Ie? iauaiey: i?iaeaiu noauaeoiuo ioiioaiee. I.: Iieeoecaeao,
1988. – N. 7.

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