IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO AEIIII?EE

OII?I ?AI? NA?A?EIAE*

OAeE 338:382

?AAOETHAAIIss CIAI?OIUeI? OI?A?AE?

A I?IOeAN? NOAA?E?CAOe?? AEIIII?EE OE?A?IE

08.02.03 — I?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy, ieaioaaiiy ? ?aaoethaaiiy
aeiiii?eith

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Eiiiiaiei A?oae?e ?aaiiae/,

?inoeooo aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo oai?aoe/ieo i?iaeai

?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ii?o/iee Aiaoie?e Ieoaeeiae/,

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e i?aeia?iaeii? aeiiii?ee

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Iaio?eiaa Oaia?a Ieaenaiae??aia,

?aaea iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ? iai?iie Oe?a?ie,

aea?aeaaiee aenia?o aiae?oe/ii? neoaeae

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

?inoeooo na?oiai? aeiiii?ee oa i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie,

a?aeae?e i?iaeai aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? ?in??, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 26 ” eenoiiaaea 1998 ?. i 14-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.150.01 a ?inoeooo?
aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie,

i. Ee?a — 11, aoe. Iaiana Ie?iiai, 26.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny

a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie,

252011, i. Ee?a-11, aoe. Iaiana Ie?iiai, 26.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 15 ” aeiaoiy 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Oaaeenoa E.I.

19

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aea/aiiy ieoaiue ?aaoethaaiiy
ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? ? iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iai?yi?a no/anii?
aeiiii?/ii? iaoee. Aiii ia? aaeeea cia/aiiy ia o?eueee a oai?aoe/iiio,
aea e o i?aeoe/iiio ieai?, ine?eueee ?acoeueoaoe ?aaoethaaiiy
ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? a cia/i?e i??? iaoiiaeththoue aoaeoeai?noue
cae?eniaiiy ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, ?? aeaaaeaiiy c
aeiiii?/ii? e?ece oa ?ioaa?aoe?th o na?oiaa ainiiaea?noai. Naia /a?ac
ciai?oith oi?a?aeth caeaa?eueoiai ae?thoue ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/i? /eiieee
?ioeyoe??, yeei iaeaaeaea cia/ia ?ieue a i?ioean? no??ieiai oa
iaiaa?oioiaaiiai c?inoaiiy oe?i, yea iaei i?noea a Oe?a?i? a 1992-1993
??. Oaeei /eiii, aea/aiiy ieoaiue ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
ia?ic?eaii iia’ycaia c aea/aiiyi i?iaeai aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
?ioeyoe??. Ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/i? oaeoi?e ?ioeyoe?? i?iaeiaaeothoue
ae?yoe ? ia no/aniiio aoai?, ni?eyth/e iaeiie/aiith ?ioeyoe?eiiai
iioaioe?aeo a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie, ui iaoiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue aaeeooy
na?eicieo aeiiii?/ii iaa?oioiaaieo caoiae?a uiaei ?o iaeo?ae?caoe??.
?nioth/? a na?o?, ianaiia?aae o ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao, iaoiaee aeinyaiaiiy
oe?eae noaa?e?caoe?eii? iie?oeee oeyoii ?aaoethaaiiy noa?e
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ia iiaeooue aooe aaoiiaoe/ii canoiniaai?
uiaei Oe?a?ie, aeiiii?ea yei? ia?aaoaa? a i?ioean? ia?aoiaeo a?ae
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeieo aei ?eieiaeo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy,
oa?aeoa?i? ?ene yeeo ? ae?aiao?aeueii i?ioeeaaeieie. O aeuacacia/aiiio
eiioaeno? iaiao?aeii oaeiae a?aoiaoaaoe nai???aei?noue oa aeeaeio
no/anii? e?ece a?o/eciyiiai ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa ? oie oaeo, ui
oe?a?inuee?e aeiiii?oe? i?eoaiaii? ?? aeani? iaoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino?
oa eiieo?aioi? ia?aaaae. Ana oea noai?th? iaa?oioiaai? i?aenoaae aeey
?ic?iaee ia aac? aea/aiiy na?oiaiai aeina?aeo nenoaie aca?iiiia’ycaieo
caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia ae??oaiiy aecia/aieo aeua i?iaeai aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeenue o oiae? aeeiiaiiy
ieaiiaeo iaoeiaeo oai a?aeae?eo oai?aoe/ieo i?iaeai ?aaoethaaiiy
aeiiii?ee ?inoeoooo aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie: «I?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieo ia Oe?a?i?» oa «?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo iniia
aca?iiiia’ycaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa eiiieaeniiai oaeineiiaeaiiy
?eieiaeo ?aaoeyoi??a».

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? a oiiaao ae?? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo
/eiiee?a ?ioeyoe??, ii?aoethaaii? ? ?icoe?aii? cania?a iaeo?ae?caoe??
oeeo oaeoi??a. A?aeiia?aeii aei aeuacacia/aii? aieiaii? iaoe aoee
iinoaaeai? oae? caaea/?:

— ?ice?eoe ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/i? iaoai?cie, ye? iaoiiaeee oaeaeea oa
/anii aeiiii?/ii iaiaa?oioiaaia c?inoaiiy oe?i ? iiaeooue caa?iaeoaaoe
iiceoeaiei ?acoeueoaoai noaa?e?caoe?eii? iie?oeee;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe aoaeoeai?noue no/anii? nenoaie ?aaoethaaiiy noa?e
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ye oaeoi? aeiiii?/ii? noaa?e?caoe??,
iieacaoe ?? ?icaeoie o ?ao?iniaeoea?, ?nioth/? aai iiaeeea? iiceoeai?
oa iaaaoeai? iane?aeee aeei?enoaiiy oeo /e ?ioeo ?? aeaiaio?a;

— ia i?aenoaa? ocaaaeueiaiiy na?oiaiai aeina?aeo, aecia/eoe iniiai?
iai?yie ?icaeoeo ?nioth/eo oi?i ? iaoiae?a ?aaoethaaiiy
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? noa?e ;

— ?ic?iaeoe i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo cania?a
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy a eiioaeno? aioe?ioeyoe?eii?
iie?oeee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui ia
aac? i?iaaaeaiiy nenoaiiiai aiae?co ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo /eiiee?a
?ioeyoe?? a Oe?a?i?, iaoai?cio ?o aieeao ia aeeiai?eo ?ioeyoe?eieo
i?ioean?a o ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa? eiiieaenii aeine?aeaeaii iai?yie
? iaoiaee aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? a oe?eyo
iaeo?ae?caoe?? ae?? cacia/aieo oaeoi??a. Oea noai?eei iniiao aeey
ianooiieo iaoeiaeo aeniiae?a, yeei i?eoaiaii? aeaiaioe iiaecie:

— aecia/aii aca?iica’ycie i?ae aaeainii ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae?,
aeao?oeeoii aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo oa aeeiai?eith ?ioeyoe?eieo
i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i?, aeyaeaii aieea iaaoaeoeaiino? no?oeoo?e aenii?oo oa
?iii?oo ia iaeiie/aiiy ?ioeyoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo a Oe?a?i? oa ?ic?iaeaii
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?e ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae?
oeyoii aea?aeaaiiai ao?o/aiiy o ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/io noa?o;

— ia iniia? oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue na?oiai? iaoee ?ic?iaeaii i?eioeeie
?aaoethaaiiy ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? a Oe?a?i? oeyoii canoinoaaiiy oa?eoieo
eaio. I?aeoe/ia ?aae?caoe?y cacia/aieo i?eioeei?a iiaea a ni?eyoe
iiceoeaiei ?acoeueoaoai o noa?? noaa?e?caoe?eii? iie?oeee ia i?aenoaa?
caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaiiai caoenoo iaoe?iiaeueiiai oiaa?iae?iaieea a?ae
iaaeoi aei?noei? eiieo?aioe?? oa aeinyaiaiiy oaeei /eiii c?inoaiiy
ianya?a aeioneo a?o/eciyii? i?iaeoeoe?? i?e caa?aaeaii? aiaeii/an
iaaiiai ??aiy oe?i ? eiieo?aioe?? ia iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?eieo;

— ?ic?iaeaii i?iiiceoe?? uiaei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueio
i?aeoeeo Oe?a?ie caeiiiaeaa/i aecia/aieo e?eoa???a aeey i?eeiyooy
aea?aeaaieie i?aei?e?inoaaie oa onoaiiaaie ??oaiue uiaei i?eaeaaiiy
oiaa??a iaoe?iiaeueiiai aai ?iicaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy (??cieoey a oe?iao,
iayai?noue aai a?aenooi?noue a?o/eciyieo aiaeia?a), ui aeicaieeoue
cia/iith i??ith caiia?aoe iaeiie/aiith ?ioeyoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo,
ni?eyth/e iaa?oioiaaiiio nei?i/aiith ?iii?oo;

— aecia/aii iniiai? e?eoa??? aea?aeaaiiai noaneaeoaaiiy aenii?oieo
aaeocae oa ae?iaieoeoa, aeiaea?aeaiiy yeeo aeicaieeoue caiia?aoe
aaeeooth ?iicaiieie aea?aeaaaie eiiiainaoe?eieo caoiae?a uiaei ?iii?oo
oiaa??a oe?a?inueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy (oa nei?i/aiith aiane?aeie oeueiai
aenii?oo iaoe?iiaeueii? i?iaeoeoe??) o ?ac? io?eiaiiy Oe?a?iith noaoono
“e?a?ie c ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith”;

— i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy aioeaeaii?iaiai? i?aeoeee, ui
canoiniao?oueny ?iicaiieie aea?aeaaaie (ianaiia?aae NOA) ii a?aeiioaiith
aei Oe?a?ie. Aeoiaey/e c iieiaeaiue Aaia?aeueii? oaiaee c oa?eo?a ?
oi?a?ae? (AAOO), ?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ye? iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? a i?ioean? ia?aaiai??a ia i?aeia?iaeiiio ??ai? c ieoaiue
io?eiaiiy Oe?a?iith noaoono “e?a?ie c ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith”. A oeeo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo iaa?oioiao?oueny aeene?ei?iaoe?eiee oa?aeoa? cacia/aii?
aioeaeaii?iaiai? i?aeoeee oa ?? iaa?aeiia?aei?noue iieiaeaiiyi AAOO
uiaei aecia/aiiy noaoono e?a?ie a aioeaeaii?iaiaeo ?icne?aeoaaiiyo.
I?aeoe/ia ?aae?caoe?y cacia/aieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e iiaea ni?eyoe
i?enei?aiith iaaeaiiy Oe?a?i? ?eieiaiai noaoono oa ca?eueoaiith a
?acoeueoao? ianya?a aenii?oo iaoe?iiaeueii? i?iaeoeoe??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui iaea?aeai? iaoeia?
?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey iiaeaeueoiai ii?aoethaaiiy
caeiiiaeaa/i? aace Oe?a?ie, yea ?aaoeth? aca?iia?aeiineie i?ae
noa’?eoaie ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? o ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/i?e noa??.
Ia iaoa??aeao aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeenue
i?aeaioiaea i?iaeo?a Iinoaiiae Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie a?ae 28 /a?aiy
1997 ?. N 669 «I?i aianaiiy aeiiiaiaiue aei Iinoaiiae Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a
Oe?a?ie a?ae 4 ea?oiy 1997 ?. N 310» noiniaii cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia 1997 ?.
?aaeeio e?oeaicoaaiiy uiaei aenii?oo aei e?a?i-/eai?a ?a?iiaenueeiai
Nithco iaai?th iioiaeaeaiiyi c Oe?a?ie oa Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i caoeno
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oiaa?iae?iaieea a?ae noaneaeiaaieo ?iii?oieo iinoaaie c
?ioeo e?a?i, ieoieo nithc?a aai aeiiii?/ieo oa?oiiaaiue», a oaeiae
iiaeaiiy aei Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie i?iiiceoe?e oa caoaaaeaiue uiaei
ioieoo 8 ?icae?eo II I?ia?aie ae?yeueiino? Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie ia
na?iaiue 1997 — aeiaoaiue 1999 ?ie?a, yeee noino?oueny
aenii?oii-?iii?oii? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ia ae?yeuei?noue
Oe?a?ie: i?iaeaie oa ia?niaeoeae» a I?i?noa?noa? ciai?oi?o aeiiii?/ieo
ca’yce?a ? oi?a?ae? Oe?a?ie (i. Ee?a) 7-8 /a?aiy 1996 ?.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaai? a aeaio iaoeiaeo noaooyo oa a
/anoei? eieaeoeaii? iiiia?ao??. An? ioae?eaoe?? aac ni?aaaoi??a.
Caaaeueiee ianya ioae?eaoe?e neeaaea? 2,5 ae?.a?e.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 167 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai
oaenoo, neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, i?noeoue 5
oaaeeoeue, c ieo 2 ia ie?aieo noi??ieao. Nienie aeei?enoaieo
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae aeeth/a? 83 iaeiaioaaiiy ? iaaaaeaiee ia 8
noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

1.1. Nenoaiaoe/i? iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy o noa?? ?aaoethaaiiy
ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? ii/aee c’yaeyoeny a aiioo ia?eaioee?cio o XIV —
XVII noi??//yo. Ia?eaioee?noe oaeoe/ii aia?oa noi?ioethaaee iaeei c
iaeaieiai?oeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo i?eioeei?a oi?aiaaeueii? iie?oeee:
iaiao?aei?noue caaacia/aiiy iiceoeaiiai naeueaei aaeaino ciai?oiuei?
oi?a?ae? oeyoii ia?iuoaaiiy aenii?oo i?e ia?aeaeueiiio iaiaaeaii?
?iii?oo. Iaeiae ia?eaioee?nonueea iie?oeea i?ecaiaeeea aei caiaaeoi
aei?noeiai iaiaaeaiiy ?iii?oo ( yeee ?icaeyaeaany eeoa ye aeaea?aei
a?aeoieo a?ioae c aea?aeaae), aaeueioth/e oei naiei ?icaeoie
i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae?. Oea iaoiiaeei ?iceeaae ia?eaioee?cio, yeee
?icii/aany c na?aaeeie XVII noi??//y.

Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie oai?aoeei-i?aeoe/ieo canaae ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueii?
iie?oeee a?aeaoaaany ca aeaiia iniiaieie iai?yiaie: o?eo?aaea?noai oa
i?ioaeoe?ii?ci, i?aaenoaaieee yeeo aeiaea?aeoaaeeny, a?aeiia?aeii, ?aeae
oaeoe/ii iiaii? e?aa?ae?caoe?? ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? oa i?aeo?eiee
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oiaa?iae?iaieea oeyoii aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
?iii?oo.

A ?iaioao no/anieo i?aaenoaaiee?a na?oiai? oa iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?/ii?
iaoee, i?enay/aieo aeuaiacaaiei ieoaiiyi, ?icaeyaeathoueny, cie?aia,
oa?eoi? oa iaoa?eoi? caniae ?aaoethaaiiy ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae?,
iaaiaeyoueny iniiai? a?aoiaioe ia ei?enoue oa i?ioe iie?oeee
i?ioaeoe?ii?cio, aena?oeththoueny i?iaeaie, iia’ycai? c ieao?aeiei
aaeainii oa iai?yiaie iie?ioaiiy eiai noaio a ?ac? ?nioaaiiy aeao?oeeoo.
Iaeiae o ?iaioao ye ?iicaiieo, oae ? a?o/eciyieo aaoi??a ia iaaeathoueny
eiiieaeni? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei iniiaieo iai?yi?a
ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueii? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie aai ?ioeo e?a?i c ia?ao?aeiith
aeiiii?eith, ui e iaoiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy a oe?e noa??.

1.2. Iniiaiei iai?yiii aeine?aeaeaiue, cae?eniaieo o aeai?e
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, ? aea/aiiy na?oiaiai aeina?aeo ?aaoethaaiiy
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei c iaoith iaaeaiiy i?iiiceoe?e uiaei
aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ainiiaea?/i? i?aeoeee a cacia/ai?e noa??
oa iaeo?ae?caoe?? ia oe?e iniia? ae?? aeineoue oe?ieiai eiea ciai?oi?o
/eiiee?a, ui ni?eythoue iaeiie/aiith ?ioeyoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo o
a?o/eciyi?e aeiiii?oe?.

2.1. Aeey e?a?i c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith ia nueiaiaei? i?aeoe/ii ia
?nio? anaa?/ii ?ic?iaeaieo oa ii?aoeueiaaieo ?aoeaio?a ae??oaiiy
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo, a ia oe?e iniia? ? aaaaoueio ?ioeo
ainiiaea?nueeeo i?iaeai. Iaei??th c iniiaieo i?e/ei oaei? neooaoe?? ?
oa, ui i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai /aniaiai ia??iaeo a aeiiii?oe? cacia/aieo
e?a?i iaei i?noea aeii?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaii? iiiiiie?? ciai?oiuei?
oi?a?ae?. Iaeiae na?oiaee aeina?ae aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aenii?oii-?iii?oii? noa?e a ?eieiaeo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy ? oe?eeii
i?eeiyoiei o eiioaeno? cacia/aieo oe?eae.

Iaea?eueo ?iciianthaeaeaieie a na?o? caniaaie aenii?oiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?
aenii?oia (aea?cia) ieoi oa noeioethaaiiy aenii?oo oeyoii aaeeooy
caoiae?a ?iaanoeoe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o. Canoinoaaiiy aenii?oiiai ieoa uiaei
iinoaaie iaaiiai oiaa?o ciaioo? i?eaooee a?ae eiai aenii?oo, ni?eyth/e
i?aeaeuaiith i?iiiceoe?? oeueiai oiaa?o ia iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?eieo oa
a?aeiia?aeii ciaioaiith aioo??oi?o oe?i ia iueiai, ui iaaoaa?
aaaeeeaino? a eiioaeno? noaa?e?caoe?eii? iie?oeee. A i??o aeaiaeo
aeiiii?ee c e?eciai? neooaoe??, iaaeeaeaiiy aioo??oi?o oe?i aei
na?oiaiai ??aiy, cae?eniaiiy ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue aeioe?eueiei ?
iinooiiaee ia?ao?ae aei iie?oeee noeioethaaiiy aenii?oo oeyoii
aea?aeaaiiai noaneaeoaaiiy oa caeo/aiiy i?eaaoieo ?iaanoeoe?e.

Eeane/ieie caniaaie ?aaoethaaiiy ?iii?oo a ?eieia?e aeiiii?oe? ? aa?cia
(?iii?oia) ieoi oa ?iii?oia eaioa. A ?acoeueoao? aieeao ?iii?oiiai ieoa
ia aeeiai?eo i?eaooe?a niiaeeaa/?a, ae?iaiee?a oa iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei
aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo e?a?ia ?iii?oo a oe?eiio cacia? caeoe?a a?ae
aaeeooy cacia/aiiai caoiaeo aiane?aeie ia?aaeuaiiy noiith caeoe?a
niiaeeaa/?a aaee/eie i?eaooe?a ae?iaiee?a oa iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei
aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo a?ae iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ?iii?oo. Iaeiae, ye
na?ae/eoue na?oiaee aeina?ae, yeui a aeiiii?oe? e?a?ie ?iii?oo ?niothoue
?noioi? aioo??oi? i?iaeaie, ae??oaiiy yeeo ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy ?ioeo
cania?a aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy (iai?eeeaae, noaneaeoaaiiy,
e?aaeeooaaiiy i?ae canoaao iaeaooi?o i?eaooe?a) ? cia/ii iaio aoaeoeaiei
aai iaiiaeeeaei, canoinoaaiiy ?iii?oiiai ieoa ? iioeiaeueiei aeey oe???
e?a?ie ??oaiiyi. Oea oaa?aeaeaiiy oe?eeii canoiniaia aei e?a?i c
ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith, aeei?enoaiiy yeeie oa?eoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
?iii?oo, cie?aia a noaa?e?caoe?eieo oe?eyo, ia aeiiii?/ii iaa?oioiaaieo
canaaeao ? oe?eeii aei?aaaeaiei oa aoaeoeaiei. Oi/a i?e oeueiio o?yaee
oeeo aea?aeaa iiaeii? a?aoiaoaaoe iaaaoeai? iane?aeee aaeeooy oeueiai
caoiaeo.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae aa?ciiai ieoa, ?iii?oi? eaioe iiai?noth iaeo?ae?cothoue
aoaeue-yeee aieea ?iicaiii? eiieo?aioe?? ia oe?ie iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?eieo
e?a?ie ?iii?oo, iaaeath/e ?iii?oo e?euee?nio aecia/ai?noue. C iaeyaeo ia
aeuacacia/aia, oa a?aoiaoth/e aenieee nooi?iue iiiiiie?caoe?? aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie oa ?ioeo e?a?i, ia?iaeia ainiiaea?noai yeeo ia?aaoaa? a i?ioean?
?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe??, i/aaeaeii, ui canoinoaaiiy a oeeo aea?aeaaao
?iii?oieo eaio iiaea aeaoe iioeiaeueiee aoaeo eeoa ca oiia ia?aeaeueiiai
i?iaaaeaiiy a?aiioii? aioeiiiiiieueii? iie?oeee.

2.2. Aeao?oeeo oi?aiaaeueiiai aaeaino ? iaeiei c iaena?eici?oeo
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo /eiiee?a ?ioeyoe?? a Oe?a?i?. A?ae’?iia naeueaei
oi?aiaaeueiiai aaeaino, oiaoi neooaoe?y, eiee ?iii?o aea?aeaae ia?aaeuo?
?? aenii?o, ni?aaey? iaaaoeaiee aieea ia aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao,
ni?eyth/e aeieeiaiith eiai aeao?oeeoo. I?e iie?eoo? inoaiiueiai (ye
oeyoii ai?n?? , oae ? aeioneo iae?aaoe?e aea?aeaaii? iiceee)
noai?ththoueny ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey iineeaiiy ?ioeyoe?eii? ia??aiiaaae
?eie?a. Aiae?c ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueiiai aaeaino Oe?a?ie a ?aa?iiaeueiiio
aniaeo? na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui o 1994-1996 ??. eiai aeeiai?ea
aecia/aeany, ianaiia?aae, aeeiai?eith naeueaei ii aenii?oii-?iii?oieo
iia?aoe?yo c e?a?iaie NIAe ? Aaeo??. ?nioaaiiy iaaaoeaiiai naeueaei o
ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueieo a?aeiineiao Oe?a?ie c oeeie aea?aeaaaie
iia’ycaii, a ia?oo /a?ao, c iaaeeaeaiiyi oe?i ia ?iii?oi? aia?ai?ano?ne,
ne?iaeio ? iaoa??aee aei ??aiy na?oiaeo, a oaeiae c iaocaiaeaeai?noth
aeineoue oe?ieiai eiea ieoaiue o noa?? ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueieo a?aeiinei
c ?in?enueeith Oaaea?aoe??th, yea ? iniiaiei oi?aiaaeueiei ia?oia?ii
Oe?a?ie. ?icaeyae oi?aiaaeueiiai aaeaino Oe?a?ie a oiaa?iiio aniaeo?
na?ae/eoue i?i iaaoaeoeai?noue no?oeoo?e aenii?oii-?iii?oieo iia?aoe?e.
Oaea neooaoe?y o noa?? aenii?oo ni?ey? iinooiiaiio a?aenoaaaiith Oe?a?ie
a?ae ?icaeiooeo e?a?i o ae?iaieoeoa? no/anii? i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe?? c
aenieei ??aiai oaoi?/ieo ia?aiao??a, nei?i/oth/e iiaeeeaino? aea?aeaae
uiaei oe?ieiianooaaiiai aeoiaeo ia na?oia? ?eiee c aiaeia?/ieie oiaa?aie
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ca?eueoaiiy ia oe?e iniia? aenii?oo oa
iie?ioaiiy, oaeei /eiii, noaio oi?aiaaeueiiai aaeaino. Iaaoaeoeaia
no?oeoo?a ?iii?oieo iia?aoe?e iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia oi?aiaaeueiee aaeain,
ine?eueee iino?eia c?inoaiiy a ieo /anoee aia?aiiin??a nei?i/o?
iiaeeeaino? uiaei ?iii?oo i?iaeoeoe??, iaiao?aeii? aeey ?iii?oicai?uaiiy
oa aeey ae?iaieoeoaa oiaa??a ia aenii?o. Iniiaiei iai?yiii aeinyaiaiiy
iinooiiaiai nei?i/aiiy aeao?oeeoo oi?aiaaeueiiai aaeaino Oe?a?ie ?
aaeeooy caoiae?a aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae?,
ni?yiiaaieo ia ia?iuoaaiiy aenii?oo i?e ia?aeaeueiiio ?aoe?iiaeueiiio
nei?i/aii? ?iii?oo.

Noeioethaaiiy ?icaeoeo aenii?oiiai iioaioe?aeo a Oe?a?i? iiaeeeai
caaacia/eoe oeyoii ?aae?caoe?? eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa, iia’ycaieo ?c
aenieeie oaoiieia?yie (ye ?nioth/eie, oae ? iaeaooi?ie), iinooiiaiai
ca?eueoaiiy i?iaeoeoe?? aenieiai nooiaiy ia?iaee a caaaeueiiio ianyc?
oe?a?inueeiai aenii?oo, a oaeiae i?iaaaeaiiy aea?aeaaith iaa?oioiaaii?
aaethoii?, e?aaeeoii?, iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee, iie?oeee o noa??
no?aooaaiiy. I?enei?aiith ae??oaiiy cacia/aii? caaea/? ni?eyoeia oaeiae
?icaeoie aenii?oo ica?i?iiy oa iioe?aiiy aeei?enoaiiy iiaeeeainoae
a?enueeiai-i?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno. Caoiaee ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueiiai
?aaoethaaiiy uiaei iie?ioaiiy ?iii?oii? neeaaeiai? oi?aiaaeueiiai
aaeaino Oe?a?ie oaeoe/ii caiaeyoueny aei aeiiii?/ii iaa?oioiaaii?
?iii?oicai?iii? iie?oeee oa cae?eniaiiy eiiieaeno caoiae?a uiaei caoenoo
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oiaa?iae?iaieea. I?e i?iaaaeaii? iie?oeee
?iii?oicai?uaiiy ne?ae o?aoiaoaaoe e?eoa??e e?eoe/iino?, yeee
ia?aaeaa/a? caaeiaieaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith ?iii?oo iaia’yceiaiai ??aiy
iio?aa oa caaacia/aiiy ia oe?e i?aenoaa? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? e?a?ie. O
no/ani?e aeiiii?/i?e neooaoe?? noa? iaiao?aeiith ?ic?iaea ae??caeaoii?
nenoaie, yea a i?aai?/ii ii?aeioaaea iaa?oioiaaia ca?eueoaiiy
a?aee?eoino? iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee c iaoith caaacia/aiiy iaaiiai
??aiy eiieo?aioe?? ia aioo??oiueiio ?eieo oa aio/eee caoeno
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oiaa?iae?iaieea aeey caiia?aaiiy ?oei?aiiio aieeao
?iii?oo ia o? noa?e oa aaeoc? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie, ye?
aiane?aeie eiai no/aniiai e?eciaiai noaio iani?iiiaei? iiaiioe?iii
eiieo?oaaoe c ?iii?oiith i?iaeoeoe??th oa aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
eiieo?aioicaeaoiino? yeeo iio??aai iaaiee /an.

2.3. Ii/eiath/e c 1995 ?., a Oe?a?i? aoea aeinyaiooa iaaia o?iainiaa
noaa?e?caoe?y, ca aeiiiiiaith yei? aaeaeiny aei aeayei? i??e i?eai?eaoe
?icaeoie ?ioeyoe?? iiieoo. Ia nueiaiaei? iaei??th c iaeaieiai?oeo caaea/
uiaei aeaiaeo oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee c e?eciai? neooaoe?? ? aeinyaiaiiy
?noioiiai ciaioaiiy oaii?a ?ioeyoe?? aeo?ao ia iniia? ae??oaiiy i?iaeai,
iia’ycaieo c aia?aicaaacia/aiiyi oa iaaeaiiyi oe?a?inuee?e aeiiii?oe?
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o. Iniiaieie iai?yiaie ?aae?caoe?? cacia/aii?
caaea/? ? iaeo?ae?caoe?y aia?aaoe/ii? neeaaeiai? oe?a?inueei? ?ioeyoe??
aeo?ao /a?ac cae?eniaiiy aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? aeaea?ae caaacia/aiiy
oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee aia?aaoe/ieie ?ano?naie oa i?iaaaeaiiy iie?oeee
aia?aicaa??aaiiy, a oaeiae ca?eueoaiiy a no?oeoo?? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie
/anoee ae?iaieoeoa ?c caieiaieie oaoiieia?/ieie oeeeeaie.

3.1. O no/ani?e aeiiii?/i?e neooaoe?? noaea ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a aenii?oo
ni?aaey? noia?a/eeaee aieea ia ?ioeyoe?ei? i?ioeane a Oe?a?i?. C iaeiiai
aieo, oea yaeua i?ecaiaeeoue aei iie?ioaiiy ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueiiai
aaeaino oa aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo, no?eioth/e oei naiei ?ioeyoe?th. C
?ioiai aieo, ine?eueee c?inoaiiy aenii?oo a?aeaoaa?oueny ia oii? noaeiai
niaaeo ae?iaieoeoaa, aiii ni?ey? nei?i/aiith oiaa?ii? i?iiiceoe??
iaoe?iiaeueii? i?iaeoeoe?? ia aioo??oiueiio ?eieo Oe?a?ie, ca?eueoaiith
ia oe?e iniia? iiieoo ia ?iii?oi? oiaa?e, noeioethth/e ?icoe?aiiy
ianya?a ?iii?oo, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ae?aiao?aeueii i?ioeeaaeieo
?acoeueoao?a. C iaeyaeo ia aeuacacia/aia i/aaeaeii, ui aeey no?eioaaiiy
?ioeyoe?eieo i?ioean?a ?icoe?aiiy ianya?a aenii?oo iiaeiii
noi?iaiaeaeoaaoeny aaeaeaaoiei c?inoaiiyi aeioneo iaoe?iiaeueii?
i?iaeoeoe??, /iai iiaeia aeinyaoe ianaiia?aae oeyoii noeioethaaiiy a
iaa?oioiaaieo iaaeao ieaoini?iiiaeiiai iiieoo ia aioo??oiueiio ?eieo
Oe?a?ie. Ia?aeaeueii iiaeiii i?iaiaeeoeny a?aiioia ?aaoethaaiiy
aenii?oii? noa?e, aaaeae? yeiai oiiaii iiaeia iiae?eeoe ca ?o oa?aeoa?ii
ia aeiiii?/i?, aaei?i?no?aoeai? oa oaoi?/i?.

Aei aeiiii?/ieo aaaeae?a aenii?oiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ne?ae ianaiia?aae
a?aeianoe aenii?oia ieoi; ieoi? i?eueae, ui iaaeathoueny i?e ?iii?o?
oiaa??a, iaiao?aeieo aeey ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe?? ia aenii?o; iie?oeeo
uiaei caoenoo ?ioa?an?a aea?aeaae oa iaoe?iiaeueieo oiaa?iae?iaiee?a a
aioeaeaii?iaiaeo ?icne?aeoaaiiyo, ui ii?ooothoueny ?iicaiieie
aea?aeaaaie i?ioe Oe?a?ie; a oaeiae ?iaanoeoe?eio iie?oeeo.

A eiioaeno? noaa?e?caoe?eii? iie?oeee aeioe?eueiei ? ?icoe?aiiy noa?e
canoinoaaiiy aenii?oiiai ieoa c ?? iiaeaeueoei nei?i/aiiyi o i??o
aeaiaeo ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa c e?eciai? neooaoe??.

Ieoi? ?iii?oi? i?eueae, ui iaaeathoueny ia oiaa?e, i?ecia/ai? aeey
aeei?enoaiiy a aenii?oiii???ioiaaieo naeoi?ao aeiiii?ee, ? aoaeoeaiei
caniaii noeioethaaiiy aenii?oo oa iie?ioaiiy, oaeei /eiii,
oi?aiaaeueiiai aaeaino. Aea i?e oeueiio ne?ae o?aoiaoaaoe ?nioaaiiy
cia/iiai eiea o?iainiai-aaei?i?no?aoeaieo o?oaeiiu?a, iia’ycaieo ?c
neeaaei?noth i?ioeaaeo? iiaa?iaiiy ?ai?oa niea/aii? noie ieoa, a oaeiae
i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo ?c aecia/aiiyi /anoee ?iii?oo a i?iaeoeoe??, ui
aenii?oo?oueny. Inoaii? ?noioii oneeaaeiththoue noai?aiiy iaoai?ci?a, ui
ia?aaeaa/athoue iiaia iiaa?iaiiy niea/aiiai aa?ciiai ieoa.

Eiiieaen ae?e aea?aeaae uiaei caoenoo iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a o
aioeaeaii?iaiaeo ?icne?aeoaaiiyo — ?noioiee aaae?eue aenii?oiiai
?aaoethaaiiy. Eiai iniiaiei iai?yiii ? i?iaaaeaiiy ia?aaiai??a ia
i?aeia?iaeiiio ??ai? uiaei io?eiaiiy Oe?a?iith noaoono “e?a?ie c
?eieiaith aeiiii?eith”. Io?eiaiiy Oe?a?iith ?eieiaiai noaoono noai?eoue
i?aenoaae aeey aecia/aiiy oaeoo ?nioaaiiy aeaii?iao ia aac? ii??aiyiiy
oe?a?inueei? aenii?oii? oe?ie c aioo??oiueith oe?iith aiaeia?/ii?
i?iaeoeoe?? (a ia c ii?iaeueiith aa?o?noth, ?ic?aoiaaiith ia aac?
ae?iaie/eo oaeoi??a e?a?ie c?noaaeaiiy) oa aeicaieeoue iicaaaeoe, oaeei
/eiii, eiiiaoaioi? i?aaie ?iicaiieo aea?aeaa iiaeeeaino? caaeuaiiy
ii?iaeueii? aa?oino? oa aaeeooy aioeaeaii?iaiaeo caoiae?a
aeene?ei?iaoe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o noiniaii ?iii?oo oiaa??a iioiaeaeaiiyi c
Oe?a?ie. Oea ni?eyoeia iie?ioaiith aenii?oii? neeaaeiai? oi?aiaaeueiiai
aaeaino oa i?enei?aiith noaa?e?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a o aea?aeaa?.

I?iaaaeaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eii? iie?oeee, ni?yiiaaii? ia ?icoe?aiiy
eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue a aenii?oiii???ioiaai? naeoi?e, caioi/aiiy
i?eaaoieo (ye ?iicaiieo, oae ? a?o/eciyieo) ?iaanoeoe?e o iaoe?iiaeueio
aeiiii?eo, ?o caoeno oa caiia?aaiiy ?iaanooaaiith, yea noia?a/eoue
iaoe?iiaeueiei ?ioa?anai, oaeiae noeioethaaoeia ?icaeoie aenii?oiiai
iioaioe?aeo Oe?a?ie, noai?thth/e i?aenoaae aeey no?eioaaiiy ?ioeyoe??.

Iniiaieie aaei?i?no?aoeaieie caniaaie aenii?oiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?
eaiooaaiiy ? e?oeaicoaaiiy aenii?oo. ?noioia nei?i/aiiy e?eueeino?
oiaa?ieo iiceoe?e, ia ye? iioe?th?oueny ?aaeei aenii?oiiai eaiooaaiiy,
ia? ye iiceoeai? (iie?ioaiiy ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueiiai aaeaino,
i?aeaeuaiiy aaethoieo iaaeoiaeaeaiue a?ae ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? ca
?aooiie c?inoaiiy aenii?oo, caiia?aaiiy cia/iith i??ith i?eeiyooth
iaiaa?oioiaaieo ??oaiue uiaei aenii?oiiai ?aaoethaaiiy), oae ? iaaaoeai?
iane?aeee (nei?i/aiiy iiaeeeainoae Oe?a?ie uiaei caiia?aaiiy ciaioaiith
oiaa?ii? i?iiiceoe?? ia iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?eieo, ui ni?ey? c?inoaiith
ianya?a ?iii?oo oa a?aeiia?aeii iia??oaiith noaio oi?aiaaeueiiai
aaeaino). Inoaii? na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui aeey aoaeoeaii? iaeo?ae?caoe??
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo /eiiee?a ?ioeyoe?? ?aaeei aenii?oiiai eaiooaaiiy a
Oe?a?i? ne?ae canoiniaoaaoe eeoa uiaei iinoaaie ia aenii?o
aino?iaeao?oeeoii? oa no?aoaa?/ii aaaeeeai? i?iaeoeoe??. C 1993 ?.
?aaeei aenii?oiiai e?oeaicoaaiiy a Oe?a?i? oaeiae caciaa ci?i o a?e
e?aa?ae?caoe??. Ia no/aniiio aoai? aeioe?eueiei ? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ii
ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? oiaa?ieo iiceoe?e oae caaiiai aaoiiaoe/iiai
e?oeaicoaaiiy aenii?oo, yea ia?aaeaa/a? aeaea/o aea?aeaaith aenii?oieo
e?oeaic?e oaeoe/ii an?i noa’?eoai ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?,
ye? ca ieie caa?oathoueny, ui iaaeanoue iiaeeea?noue i?aaiai aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee cae?enithaaoe iae?e aenii?oieo iinoaaie, i?inoaaeoaaoe ?o
aeeiai?eo oa ia oe?e i?aenoaa? aoaeoeaii ?aaaoaaoe i?e aeieeiaii?
iaaaoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e a aenii?oi?e noa??, ye? iiaeooue ni?aaeoe aieea
ia noai oi?aiaaeueiiai aaeaino.

Iniiaiith iaoith aaeeooy oaoi?/ieo caoiae?a aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aenii?oo a Oe?a?i? iiaeiai aooe eiio?ieue ca ye?noth aenii?oii?
i?iaeoeoe??, ui aeicaieeoue ?noioii i?aeaeueoe ?? eiieo?aioicaeaoi?noue,
?icoe?eoe ia oe?e iniia? ianyae aenii?oo, iie?ioeoe noai oi?aiaaeueiiai
aaeaino, ni?eyth/e oei naiei i?enei?aiith noaa?e?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a o
aea?aeaa?. Ia no/aniiio aoai? aea?aeaaiee eiio?ieue yeino? iiaeiai
iioe?thaaoeny ia ia?aaaaeio a?eueo?noue aenii?oiii???ioiaaieo oiaa??a.
Ciaioaiiy ?aae?ono eiai ae?? iiaeeeaa a i??o c?inoaiiy a no?oeoo??
ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie /anoee e?oiieo ae?iaiee?a i?iaeoeoe??
ia aenii?o, a oaeiae i?aei?e?inoa, ui aoiaeyoue a aaeocaa? anioe?aoe??
ae?iaiee?a ? aenii?oa??a, ye? aoaeooue ni?iiiaei? /anoeiai acyoe ia naaa
ooieoe?? eiio?ieth ca ye?noth cacia/aii? i?iaeoeoe??.

3.2. Iniiaiei iai?yiii ?aaoethaaiiy ?iii?oo ? ii?aeiaiiy a iioeiaeuei?e
i?iii?oe?? caoiae?a uiaei e?aa?ae?caoe?? ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? oa
caoiae?a iaiaaeaiiai i?ioaeoe?ii?cio. C o?aooaaiiyi e?eciaiai noaio
a?o/eciyii? aeiiii?ee ia no/aniiio aoai? ia?aaaaa iiaeiia iaaeaaaoeny
inoaii?i. Iaoiaee aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?iii?oo oiiaii iiaeia
iiae?eeoe ia aeiiii?/i?, aaei?i?no?aoeai?, aaei?i?no?aoeaii-aeiiii?/i?
oa oaoi?/i?.

Na?aae aeiiii?/ieo aaaeae?a ?iii?oiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ne?ae ianaiia?aae
aeae?eeoe ?iii?oia ieoi, ieoi? cai?e oa ?iii?oi? iiaeaoee, a oaeiae
aioeaeaii?iaia? oa eiiiainaoe?ei? caoiaee.

O oe?eiio ?iii?oia ieoi ni?ey? ?icaeoeo i?ioeeaaeieo oaiaeaioe?e o
aeeiai?oe? ?ioeyoe?eieo i?ioean?a a aea?aeaa?. Eiai cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
i?ecaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy oe?i ye ia ?iii?oio i?iaeoeoe?th (ia aaee/eio
noaaee ieoa), oae ? ia aiaeia?/i? oiaa?e iaoe?iiaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa,
aiane?aeie nei?i/aiiy oiaa?ii? i?iiiceoe?? oa ciaioaiiy eiieo?aioe?? ia
aioo??oiueiio ?eieo. C ?ioiai aieo, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aa?ciiai ieoa ni?ey?
?iii?oicai?uaiith, caoenoo aaeocae iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy eiieo?aioicaeaoiino? yeeo iio??aai iaaiee /an, ni?aaeyth/e
oei naiei iiceoeaiee aieea ia noai oi?aiaaeueiiai aaeaino. Ioaea, aeey
io?eiaiiy iioeiaeueiiai iiceoeaiiai aoaeoo a?ae aaeeooy caoiae?a
oa?eoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?iii?oo aiie iiaeii? noi?iaiaeaeoaaoeny
i?iaaaeaiiyi a?aiioii? aioeiiiiiieueii? oa oe?iiai? iie?oeee.

O na?oia?e i?aeoeoe? ?aaoethaaiiy ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? noaaee ie?aii
acyoeo ieoieo cai??a ? iaaenieeie, aea a oe?eiio aiie iiaeooue neeaaeaoe
?noioio noio ? neoaeeoe, oaeei /eiii, ?ino?oiaioii caoenoo aioo??oiueiai
?eieo. C iaeyaeo ia aeuacaaaeaia, aeineoue aoaeoeaiei iiaea aooe iaaia
i?aeaeuaiiy noaaie ieoieo cai??a a Oe?a?i? aai ?o ii?aeiaiiy a ?aeeiee
eiinie?aeiaaiee ?iii?oiee iiaeaoie. Ia a?aei?io a?ae aa?ciiai ieoa
?iii?oi? iiaeaoee ia ?aaoeththoueny i?aeia?iaeieie oaiaeaie oa ?o
canoinoaaiiy iaioith i??ith iia’ycaia ?c ciaia’ycaiiyie ca oi?aiaeie
aeiaiai?aie, ui ?iaeoue ?o a?eueo aio/eei ?ino?oiaioii ?aaoethaaiiy
?iii?oo. Iaeiae aeei?enoaiiy cacia/aiiai ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueiiai
aaaeaey iiaeiii cae?enithaaoeny c o?aooaaiiyi oaoi?/ieo, ainiiaea?nueeeo
iiaeeeainoae oa ?ioeo ia’?eoeaieo oiia cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaaiiai iiaeaoeo
ia ?iii?o.

Ia no/aniiio aoai? ?ieue aioeaeaii?iaiaeo oa eiiiainaoe?eieo caoiae?a o
nenoai? caoiae?a i?ioaeoe?ii?nonueei? iie?oeee a?eueoino? e?a?i na?oo
iino?eii c?inoa?. Iniiaiith caaea/ath, ui noi?oue ia nueiaiaei? ia?aae
Oe?a?iith a oe?e noa?? ? caaa?oaiiy iaeaeeae/ei /anii ?iaioe iaae
aioeaeaii?iaiaei oa eiiiainaoe?eiei caeiiiaeaanoaii, ui aeicaieeoue
caoenoeoe iaoe?iiaeueiiai oiaa?iae?iaieea a?ae iaaeia?inia?nii?
eiieo?aioe?? c aieo ?iii?oo, noai?thth/e aeiaeaoeia? i?aenoaae aeey
iie?ioaiiy noaio ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueiiai aaeaino oa i?enei?aiiy
noaa?e?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a o ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa?.

Iaea?eueo iioe?aieie o na?oia?e i?aeoeoe? aaei?i?no?aoeaieie aaaeaeyie
?iii?oiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ? eaiooaaiiy, e?oeaicoaaiiy ?iii?oo oa
iaiaaeaiiy aaico ?iicaiieo oiaa??a o ?aieao aea?aeaaieo caeoiie. O
oe?eiio ia nueiaiaei? ?icoe?aiiy ?aae?ono ae?? ?aaeeio eaiooaaiiy
?iii?oo ca oiia ia?aeaeueiiai i?iaaaeaiiy a?aiioii? aioeiiiiiieueii? oa
oe?iiai? iie?oeee a Oe?a?i? iiaea iaa?oue a?eueoith i??ith ni?eyoe
iie?ioaiith noaio oi?aiaaeueiiai aaeaino, i?ae aaeeooy caoiae?a
oa?eoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy, i?ecaiaey/e aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a?eueo aei?noei?
nenoaie caoenoo iaoe?iiaeueiiai oiaa?iae?iaieea, ine?eueee eaioe ia
a?aei?io a?ae ieoa caaacia/othoue no?iao o?enaoe?th ianya?a ?iii?oo.
Ie??i caaacia/aiiy ?iciiae?eo eaio i?ae ?iii?oa?aie, ca ?iii?oiei
e?oeaicoaaiiyi cae??ieaia oaeiae ooieoe?y caiia?aaiiy aaacaiith ia
oa?eoi??th aea?aeaae iaaeia?iye?nii? oa/aai oe?aeeeai? i?iaeoeoe??, ui
aeicaiey? oieeiooe athaeaeaoieo aeo?ao, iia’ycaieo c o?iainoaaiiyi
caoiae?a uiaei e?ea?aeaoe?? caeoe?a, caaaeaieo ?? ?iii?oii noa’?eoai
ainiiaea?thaaiiy oa ianaeaiith. O oeueiio eiioaeno? aeioe?eueiei ?
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? nenoaie aaoiiaoe/iiai e?oeaicoaaiiy ii ?iii?oo
ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? oiaa??a, ui iaaeanoue iiaeeea?noue oaeaeei
ia?ae?eoe eaiaee aaacaiiy i?iaeoeoe??, niiaeea/? aai oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i?
ia?aiao?e yei? ia a?aeiia?aeathoue oe?a?inueeei oa i?aeia?iaeiei
noaiaea?oai, ?ioei ii?iaoeaai, oeyoii a?aeiiae ?? ?iii?oa?ai o aeaea/?
e?oeaic?e.

Aeey noai?aiiy nenoaie iaiaaeaiiy ?iii?oo a ?aieao aea?aeaaieo caeoiie a
Oe?a?i? iaiao?aeieie ? ?ic?iaea oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a oi?aiaaeueio
i?aeoeeo caeiio, ui aecia/aa ae e?eoa???, yeeie aea?aeaai? i?aei?e?inoaa
oa onoaiiae iathoue ea?oaaoeny a i?ioean? i?eeiyooy ??oaiue uiaei
i?eaeaaiiy oiaa??a iaoe?iiaeueiiai aai ?iicaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy.
Iniiaieie c oeeo e?eoa???a iiaeii? aooe ??cieoey a oe?iao oa iayai?noue
aai a?aenooi?noue a?o/eciyieo aiaeia?a.

Iniiaiei aaei?i?no?aoeaii-aeiiii?/iei caniaii ?iii?oiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?
oa?eoi? eaioe, ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue aaacaiiy iaiaaeaii? e?eueeino?
iaaiiai oiaa?o ca cae/aeieie noaaeaie ieoa a ?aieao eaioe oa
iaiaiaaeaii? e?eueeino? oeueiai oiaa?o — ca noaaeaie ieoa, ?ici?? yeeo
c?inoa? a i??o ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a ?iii?oo. Cai?iaaaeaeaiiy a
oi?aiaaeueio i?aeoeeo Oe?a?ie oa?eoieo eaio noai?eoue ni?eyoeea? oiiae
aeey caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaiiai caoenoo iaoe?iiaeueiiai oiaa?iae?iaieea oa
aeinyaiaiiy ia oe?e iniia? c?inoaiiy ianya?a aeioneo a?o/eciyii?
i?iaeoeoe?? i?e ia?aeaeueiiio caa?aaeaii? iaaiiai ??aiy eiieo?aioe?? ia
aioo??oiueiio ?eieo c aieo ?iii?oo.

Aeei?enoaiiy oaoi?/ieo cania?a ?iii?oiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
(noaiaea?oecaoe?y, na?oeo?eaoe?y, ieoia ioi?ieaiiy ?iii?oii?
i?iaeoeoe??, anoaiiaeaiiy aeiia uiaei ?? iaeoaaiiy oa ia?eoaaiiy,
canoinoaaiiy ??cieo oi?i nai?oa?iiai oa o?oinai?oa?iiai eiio?ieth oiui)
ca ?o aaciina?aaei?i i?ecia/aiiyi, ye oea i?aeoeeo?oueny a Oe?a?i?, aea?
iiaeeea?noue caiia?aoe iaaeoiaeaeaiith ia iaoe?iiaeueio ieoio oa?eoi??th
iecueeiye?nii? aai oe?aeeeai? i?iaeoeoe?? ?iicaiiiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa
cae?eniaiith athaeaeaoieo aeo?ao ia e?ea?aeaoe?th iane?aee?a oaeeo
?iii?oieo iinoaaie. Ii?yae ?c oeei aeioe?eueiei ? oaeiae cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
a ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueio i?aeoeeo Oe?a?ie canoinoaaiiy oaoi?/ieo
?ino?oiaio?a ?aaoethaaiiy ?iii?oo a i?ioaeoe?ii?nonueeeo oe?eyo, yea
ne?ae cae?enithaaoe i?ae i?ee?eooyi caoenoo i?aa niiaeeaa/?a (ye oea
?iaeoueny a aaaaoueio e?a?iao na?oo), ca aeiiiiiaith /iai iiaeia
caaacia/eoe ye aeinyaiaiiy iaiao?aeiiai ??aiy caoenoo iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oiaa?iae?iaieea, oae ? aaeeooy caoiae?a o a?aeiia?aeue uiaei
oe?a?inueeiai aenii?oo c aieo ?iicaiieo aea?aeaa.

AENIIAEE

1. Aei ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo /eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia iaeiie/aiiy
?ioeyoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo a ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa? Oe?a?ie, iaeaaeaoue
ianaiia?aae aeao?oeeo oi?aiaaeueiiai aaeaino oa oaeoe/ii iiiiiieueia
caeaaei?noue a?ae iinoaaie aia?aiiin??a c e?a?i NIAe. Iineaaeaiiy ae??
aeuacacia/aieo oaeoi??a iiaeia aeinyaoe, ianaiia?aae, ia i?aenoaa?
aaeeooy caoiae?a aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae?, a
oaeiae i?iaaaeaiiy aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? aeaea?ae aia?aicaaacia/aiiy
oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee oa ca?eueoaiiy a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie ae?iaieoeoa
?c caieiaieie oaoiieia?/ieie oeeeeaie.

2. Ia no/aniiio aoai? caoiaee ?aaoethaaiiy aenii?oii? noa?e iiaeii?
aaeeaaoeny o ii?aeiaii? c aioo??oiueiaeiiii?/iith iie?oeeith,
ni?yiiaaiith ia noeioethaaiiy iiieoo ia a?o/eciyio i?iaeoeoe?th ia
iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?eieo, ui aeicaieeoue caaacia/eoe ?icoe?aiiy aenii?oieo
iinoaaie aac a?aeiia?aeiiai nei?i/aiiy oiaa?ii? i?iiiceoe?? a aea?aeaa?.
?aaoethaaiiy aenii?oo ne?ae cae?enithaaoe ia i?aenoaa? eiiieaeniiai
aaeeooy aeiiii?/ieo, aaei?i?no?aoeaieo oa oaoi?/ieo ?ino?oiaio?a
oi?aiaaeueii? iie?oeee.

3. A oe?eyo aeinyaiaiiy iae?iaeiiii?/ii? noaa?e?caoe?? aeiiii?/i? caniae
aenii?oiiai ?aaoethaaiiy a Oe?a?i? ne?ae aaeeaaoe o iai?yieo
noeioethaaiiy aenii?oo ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? oiaa??a i?e ia?aeaeueiiio
iaiaaeaii? aeaico aino?iaeao?oeeoieo oiaa??a iaoe?iiaeueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa , a oaeiae caiia?aaii? ?aaenii?oo aia?aiiin??a. A i??o
aeaiaeo iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee c e?eciai? neooaoe?? cia/aiiy
iaiaaeoaaeueii? ooieoe?? aenii?oiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ia? ciaiooaaoeny. Aei
aeiiii?/ieo caoiae?a ?aaoethaaiiy aenii?oo, ui iathoue iaiaaeoaaeueiee
oa?aeoa?, iaeaaeeoue, ianaiia?aae, aenii?oia (aea?cia) ieoi,
canoinoaaiiy yeiai ni?ey? ca?eueoaiith i?iiiceoe?? oiaa??a a?o/eciyiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa ia aioo??oiueiio ?eieo oa iaaiiio c?inoaiith athaeaeaoieo
iaaeoiaeaeaiue a?ae ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae?. Canoinoaaiiy oaeeo
?ino?oiaio?a noeioethaaiiy aenii?oo , ye ieoi? i?eueae, ui iaaeathoueny
i?e ?iii?o? oiaa??a, iaiao?aeieo aeey ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe?? ia
aenii?o, caoeno iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a a aioeaeaii?iaiaeo
?icne?aeoaaiiyo, ii?ooaieo ?iicaiieie aea?aeaaaie i?ioe Oe?a?ie oa
aaeeooy caoiae?a ?iaanoeoe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o, iaaeanoue iiaeeea?noue
ca?eueoeoe aenii?oi? ianyae a?o/eciyieo oiaa??a oa iie?ioeoe ia oe?e
iniia? oi?aiaaeueiee aaeain.

4. Iniiaieie aaei?i?no?aoeaieie caniaaie aenii?oiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?
eaiooaaiiy oa e?oeaicoaaiiy aenii?oo. A?aoiaoth/e cia/iee iaaaoeaiee
aoaeo canoinoaaiiy eaiooaaiiy aenii?oo, a oe?eyo i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? iaeo?ae?caoe?? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo /eiiee?a ?ioeyoe??
cacia/aiee oi?aiaaeueiee ?aaeei iiaeiai iioe?thaaoeny ia iinoaaee ia
aenii?o aino?iaeao?oeeoii? oa no?aoaa?/ii aaaeeeai? i?iaeoeoe??.

Ia nueiaiaei? aeioe?eueiei ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ii ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino?
oiaa?ieo a?oi ?aaeeio aaoiiaoe/iiai e?oeaicoaaiiy aenii?oo. Oea
iaaeanoue aea?aeaaiei i?aaiai Oe?a?ie iiaeeea?noue cae?enithaaoe iae?e
aenii?oieo iinoaaie, i?inoaaeoaaoe ?o aeeiai?eo oa ia oe?e iniia?
oaeaeei ? aoaeoeaii ?aaaoaaoe i?e aeieeiaii? iaaaoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e a
aenii?oi?e noa??, ye? iiaeooue ni?aaeoe iaaaoeaiee aieea ia noai
ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueiiai aaeaino, ianyae oiaa?ii? i?iiiceoe??
a?o/eciyii? i?iaeoeoe?? ia aioo??oiueiio ?eieo oa ni?eyoe, oaeei /eiii,
iiaeaeueoiio ?icai?oaiith ?ioeyoe?eieo i?ioean?a.

5. Iniiaiith iaoith aaeeooy oaoi?/ieo caoiae?a aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aenii?oo (noaiaea?oecaoe?y oa na?oeo?eaoe?y) iiaeiii aooe cae?eniaiiy
a?eueo ?aoaeueiiai eiio?ieth ca ye?noth i?iaeoeoe??, ui ae?iaey?oueny ia
aenii?o. Oea aeicaieeoue ?noioii i?aeaeueoe ye?ni? iieacieee
eiieo?aioicaeaoiino? oe?a?inueeeo oiaa??a, aeinyaoe ?o a?aeiia?aeiino?
na?oiaei aeiiaai uiaei yeino?, iie?ioeoe ia oe?e iniia?
ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueiee aaeain ca ?aooiie inai?iiy iiaeo ?eie?a oa
?icoe?aiiy aenii?oieo iinoaaie, ui noai?eoue ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey
aeinyaiaiiy iae?iaeiiii?/ii? noaa?e?caoe??.

6. ?aaoethaaiiy ?iii?oo a oe?eyo noaa?e?caoe?eii? iie?oeee iiaeiii
cae?enithaaoeny o iai?yieo ii?aeiaiiy caoiae?a uiaei e?aa?ae?caoe??
ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae?, ui caaacia/oaaoeia eiieo?aioe?th i?ae ?iicaiieie
oa a?o/eciyieie oiaa?aie ia aioo??oiueiio ?eieo, ? caoiae?a iaiaaeaiiai
i?ioaeoe?ii?cio. I?e/iio, ia no/aniiio aoai?, yeee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
iani?iiiaei?noth i?iaeoeoe?? aaaaoueio aaeocae iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee
iiaiioe?iii eiieo?oaaoe c ?iii?oieie oiaa?aie, ia?aaaaa iiaeiia
iaaeaaaoeny i?ioaeoe?0ii?nonueeei caoiaeai, ye? iathoue aaeeaaoeny ia
aac? canoinoaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo, aaei?i?no?aoeaieo,
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-aeiiii?/ieo oa oaoi?/ieo ?ino?oiaio?a ?aaoethaaiiy
?iii?oo.

7. Aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie aeiiii?/ieo cania?a ?iii?oiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
(aei yeeo ianaiia?aae iaeaaeaoue ?iii?oia (aa?cia) ieoi, ieoi? cai?e oa
?iii?oi? iiaeaoee, aioeaeaii?iaia? oa eiiiainaoe?ei? caoiaee) oa
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy a oi?aiaaeueio i?aeoeeo Oe?a?ie
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-aeiiii?/ieo ?ino?oiaio?a ao?o/aiiy aea?aeaae o noa?o
?iii?oo (oa?eoi? eaioe) ni?eyoeia aeinyaiaiith iiceoeaieo ?acoeueoao?a
o aaeoc? noaa?e?caoe?eii? iie?oeee oeyoii caaacia/aiiy caoenoo
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oiaa?iae?iaieea a?ae iaaeoi aei?noei? eiieo?aioe?? c
aieo ?iii?oo, ui iaoiiaethaaoeia c?inoaiiy ianya?a aeioneo a?o/eciyii?
i?iaeoeoe?? oa, a?aeiia?aeii, i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iie?oeee
?iii?oicai?uaiiy, i?e caa?aaeaii? o oie aea /an iaaiiai ??aiy
eiieo?aioe?? ia iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?eieo c aieo ?iicaiieo oiaa??a, ui
caiia?aaoeia iiiiiieueiiio c?inoaiith aioo??oi?o oe?i oa ni?eyoeia ?o
cieaeaiith;

8. Aaei?i?no?aoeai? caoiaee ?iii?oiiai ?aaoethaaiiy (iniiaieie c yeeo ?
eaiooaaiiy, e?oeaicoaaiiy oa iaiaaeaiiy ?iii?oo o ?aieao aea?aeaaieo
caeoiie) a cia/ii a?eueo?e i??? ni?eythoue iaiaaeaiith ?iii?oo,
ciaioaiith eiieo?aioe?? c aieo ?iicaiieo oiaa??a ia aioo??oiueiio
?eieo, ?icaeoeo ia aac? oeueiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. C iaeyaeo
ia aeuacacia/aia oa aeoiaey/e c e?eciaiai noaio ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino?
aaeocae ? ae?iaieoeoa iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee, ia no/aniiio aoai?
aeioe?eueiei ? ?noioia ?icoe?aiiy ?aae?ono ae?? oa a?naiaeo cania?a
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?iii?oo a Oe?a?i?. Oea iaaeanoue ciiao
a cia/i?e i??? iie?ioeoe noai ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueiiai aaeaino,
caiia?aoe aaacaiith ia oa?eoi??th Oe?a?ie iaaeia?iye?nii? i?iaeoeoe?? oa
oieeiooe athaeaeaoieo aeo?ao, iia’ycaieo c o?iainoaaiiyi caoiae?a uiaei
e?ea?aeaoe?? caeoe?a, caaaeaieo oaeei /eiii iaoe?iiaeueiei noa’?eoai
ainiiaea?thaaiiy oa ianaeaiith, ianeoeoe aioo??oi?e ?eiie oiaa?aie
a?o/eciyiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ni?eyth/e i?enei?aiith iae?iaeiiii?/ii?
noaa?e?caoe?? a aea?aeaa?. Aea o aeuacacia/aiiio eiioaeno? ne?ae
a?aoiaoaaoe oa, ui a oe?eyo caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? caoiae?a
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?iii?oo a Oe?a?i?, oe? caoiaee iiaeii?
noi?iaiaeaeoaaoeny a?aiioiith oe?iiaith oa aioeiiiiiieueiith iie?oeeith
oa aaeeaaoeny (iniaeeai i?ney anooio Oe?a?ie aei NIO) o a?aeiia?aeiino?
aei ii?i i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa, ianaiia?aae aeiia AAOO/NIO.

9. A eiioaeno? noaa?e?caoe?eii? iie?oeee iaiao?aeiei ? canoinoaaiiy a
Oe?a?i? oaoi?/ieo cania?a ?aaoethaaiiy ?iii?oo a i?ioaeoe?ii?nonueeeo
oe?eyo i?ae i?ee?eooyi caoenoo i?aa niiaeeaa/?a. Oea iiaea aeaoe
iiceoeaiee noaa?e?caoe?eiee aoaeo ia aac? iie?ioaiiy noaio
oi?aiaaeueiiai aaeaino, iaaeath/e ciiao, c iaeiiai aieo, caaacia/eoe
nei?i/aiiy ?iii?oo, a c ?ioiai, caiia?aoe aaeeooth ?iicaiieie
aea?aeaaaie caoiae?a o a?aeiia?aeue oa nei?i/aiith aiane?aeie oeueiai
aenii?oo.

10. C iaeyaeo ia aeuacacia/aia i/aaeaeii, ui iaeo?ae?caoe?y ae??
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo /eiiee?a ?ioeyoe?? ? iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo
caaea/ no/anii? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie, ae??oaiiy yei? iiaeiii
aacoaaoeny ia aeeaieiio oa anaa?/iiio aiae?c? ye naieo oeeo oaeoi??a,
oae ? iaoiae?a neanoaaiiy ?oiuei? ae??, iia?/ieo aoaeo?a oa iiceoeaieo
iane?aee?a ?o canoinoaaiiy.

IOAE?EAOe?? CA OAIITH

1. Oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo ?aaoeyoi??a o ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie /
Eiiiiaiei A.?., Oaaeenoa E.I., Oaa/aiei E.?. oa ?i. — E.: ?inoeooo
aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie, 1996. — 164 n. (aaoi?a — N. 132 — 139).

2. Oii?i ?.N. Aeei?enoaiiy na?oiaiai aeina?aeo i?e ae??oaii? o?iainiaeo
i?iaeai ?icaeoeo aenii?oiiai iioaioe?aeo Oe?a?ie // I?iaeaie
aeei?enoaiiy na?oiaiai aeina?aeo aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee:
Ca. iaoe. I?. — E.: ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie, 1997. — N. 108 —
116.

3. Oii?i ?.N. Aeao?oeeo oi?aiaaeueiiai aaeaino ye iaeei c iaeaieiai?oeo
/eiiee?a ?ioeyoe?? a Oe?a?i? //Aeiiii?/i? ?aoi?ie nueiaiaei?. — 1997. —
? 1. — N.27 — 30.

AIIOAOe?ss

Oii?i ?.N. ?aaoethaaiiy ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? a i?ioean? noaa?e?caoe??
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.02.03 — I?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy, ieaioaaiiy ?
?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?eith. — ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998.

O aeena?oaoe?? ia aac? i?iaaaeaiiy nenoaiiiai aiae?co
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo /eiiee?a ?ioeyoe?? a Oe?a?i? aeine?aeaeaii iai?yie
? iaoiaee aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? a oe?eyo
iaeo?ae?caoe?? ae?? cacia/aieo oaeoi??a. Aecia/aii aca?iica’ycie i?ae
aaeainii ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae?, aeao?oeeoii aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo oa
aeeiai?eith ?ioeyoe?eieo i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i?. ?ic?iaeaii i?eioeeie
cae?eniaiiy ?aaoethaaiiy ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? a Oe?a?i? oeyoii
canoinoaaiiy oa?eoieo eaio. ?ic?iaeaii i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aecia/aiiy a
caeiiiaeaa/iio ii?yaeeo e?eoa???a i?eaeaaiiy oiaa??a iaoe?iiaeueiiai aai
?iicaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy a ?aieao aea?aeaaieo caeoiie. Aecia/aii iniiai?
i?eioeeie aea?aeaaiiai noaneaeoaaiiy aenii?oieo ae?iaieoeoa. ?ic?iaeaii
i?iiiceoe??, ye? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a i?ioean? ia?aaiai??a c
ieoaiue io?eiaiiy Oe?a?iith noaoono “e?a?ie c ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith”.
Cie?aia, aeiaaaeaii aeene?ei?iaoe?eiee oa?aeoa? e?eoa???a aecia/aiiy
noaoono Oe?a?ie a aioeaeaii?iaiaeo ?icne?aeoaaiiyo, ye? canoiniaothoueny
?iicaiieie aea?aeaaaie ia no/aniiio aoai?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/i? /eiieee ?ioeyoe??, aaeain
ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae?, ?icaeoie aenii?oiiai iioaioe?aeo,
?iii?oicai?uaiiy, aeiiii?/i?, aaei?i?no?aoeai?,
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-aeiiii?/i? oa oaoi?/i? iaoiaee ?aaoethaaiiy ciai?oiuei?
oi?a?ae?.

AIIIOAOeEss

Oiiei E.N. ?aaoee?iaaiea aiaoiae oi?aiaee a i?ioeana noaaeeecaoeee
yeiiiieee Oe?aeiu. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.02.03 — I?aaiecaoeey oi?aaeaiey, ieaie?iaaiey e
?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieeie. — Einoeooo yeiiiieee IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998.

A aeenna?oaoeee ia iniiaa inouanoaeaiey nenoaiiiai aiaeeca
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo oaeoi?ia eioeyoeee a Oe?aeia enneaaeiaaiu
iai?aaeaiey e iaoiaeu ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey aiaoiae oi?aiaee a
oeaeyo iaeo?aeecaoeee aeaenoaey oeacaiiuo auoa oaeoi?ia. Ii?aaeaeaia
acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo aaeainii aiaoiae oi?aiaee, aeaoeoeeoii
ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa e aeeiaieeie eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia a
Oe?aeia. ?ac?aaioaiu i?eioeeiu inouanoaeaiey ?aaoee?iaaiey aiaoiae
oi?aiaee a Oe?aeia iooai eniieueciaaiey oa?eoiuo eaio. ?ac?aaioaiu
i?aaeeiaeaiey ioiineoaeueii ii?aaeaeaiey a caeiiiaeaoaeueiii ii?yaeea
e?eoa?eaa i?eia?aoaiey oiaa?ia iaoeeiiaeueiiai eee eiino?aiiiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey a ?aieao ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeoiie. Ii?aaeaeaiu iniiaiua
i?eioeeiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai noaneaee?iaaiey yenii?oiuo i?iecaiaenoa.
?ac?aaioaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu a
i?ioeanna ia?aaiai?ia ii aii?inai i?aaeinoaaeaiey Oe?aeia noaoona
“no?aiu n ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie”. A /anoiinoe, ?ane?uo
aeene?eieiaoeeiiiue oa?aeoa? e?eoa?eaa ii?aaeaeaiey noaoona Oe?aeiu a
aioeaeaiieiaiauo ?anneaaeiaaieyo, eioi?ua eniieuecothony eiino?aiiuie
ainoaea?noaaie ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aiaoiayeiiiie/aneea oaeoi?u eioeyoeee, ?acaeoea
yenii?oiiai iioaioeeaea, caiauaiea eiii?oa, yeiiiie/aneea,
aaeieieno?aoeaiua, aaeieieno?aoeaii-yeiiiie/aneea e oaoie/aneea iaoiaeu
?aaoee?iaaiey oi?aiaee.

ANNOTATION

Fomin I.S. External Trade Regulation in the Process of Stabilization of
the Economy of Ukraine. — Manuscript.

The dissertation for candidata degree in economics by speciality
08.02.03 — Organization of management, planning and regulation of
economy. — The Institute of Economics of the National Academy of
Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1998.

In the dissertation directions and methods of external trade which
should be used to nullify the effect of the external economic factors of
inflation in Ukraine are explored on the basis of systematic analysis of
these factors. The connection among the external trade balance, budget
deficit and trends in the process of inflation in Ukraine is defined.
The principles of carrying out external trade in Ukraine through using
tariff quotas are worked out. The proposals regarding definition of the
legislative criteria of handling government procurement of goods
originating either in Ukraine or in foreign states are made. The main
principles of state subsidization of export industries are defined. The
proposals regarding use in the process of negotiations of obtaining by
Ukraine the market economy status of the arguments connected with
discriminating character of the criteria of the Ukraine’s status
definition in the anti-dumping investigations used by the foreign states
at the present stage are devised.

Key words: external economic factors of inflation, external trade
balance, the development of export potential, import substitution,
economic, administrative, administrative and economic, technical
methods of external trade regulation.

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