2

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaei?e

oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao

Ooia Aai Aiue

OAeE 666.97

?aaoethaaiiy oaa?aeiaiiy oeaiaio?a o aaoii?

c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae ee?iaoo A’?oiaio

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.23.05 — Aoae?aaeuei? iaoa??aee oa ae?iae

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a -1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e ia eaoaae?? “O?ceei-o?i?/ia iaoai?ea ?
oaoiieia?y aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a ? ae?ia?a”

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee oa oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, aeieoi?
oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ooa?ia-Ia?oae Ieaenaiae? Aieiaeeie?iae/,
eaoaae?a “O?ceei-o?i?/ia iaoai?ea ? oaoiieia?y aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a
? ae?ia?a” Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee oa oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani? Aicianainueeee A?oae?e Aiaoie?eiae/, caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith
“I?ioeane oa aia?aoe a oaoiieia?? aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a” Iaeanueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e;

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, Oieia/ia Na?a?e Ieeieaeiae/, aaaeo/ee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee eaoaae?e “Oaoiieia?y aei?iaeiuei-aoae?aaeueieo
iaoa??ae?a” Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

I?eaei?i?ianueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e
(i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “9” aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 1600 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 64.059.01 i?e Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, ca aae?anith: 310078, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. Iao?ianueeiai, 25.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca
aae?anith: 310078, i.Oa?e?a, aoe. Iao?ianueeiai, 25.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “12” eeiiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee _____________
Eini?i I.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

I?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/i? oiiae A’?oiaio oa?aeoa?ecothoueny cia/ieie
eieeaaiiyie iieaciee?a oaiia?aoo?e oa aieiaino? iia?o?y, /anoioe
aeiaaeaiiy oa ?ioaineaiino? aoiinoa?ieo iiaae?a, niiy/ii? ?aae?aoe??,
oaeaeeino? oa iai?yieo a?o?o. Aieea o?ii?/ieo iniaeeainoae ee?iaoe/iiai
oaeoi?a ia a?aei?io a?ae oiia nooiai oa aea?eiai ee?iaoo ia oaoiieia?th
? aeanoeaino? aaoiio aea/aio oa iienaii yaii iaaeinoaoiuei. Aiae?c
aeeiiaieo ?ai?oa aeena?oaoe?eieo ?ia?o, ii?iaoeaii-aeia?aeeiai?
e?oa?aoo?e A’?oiaio ii a?aooaaiith aieeao aieiaiai oa aea?eiai ee?iaoo
e?a?ie, ?c iiaeyaeo aaoiiiciaanoaa, iieaco?, ui caaea/? caaacia/aiiy
iaiao?aeieo aeanoeainoae aaoiio ae??ooaaeeny aac a?aeaeooy iiaeeeainoae
?aaoethaaiiy i?ioean?a oaa?aeiaiiy, oaiei- ? ianiiai?io c e?euee?niith
ioe?ieith ae?? o?i?/ieo aeiaaaie ??cieo oei?a ia e?iaoeeo ?aii?o noaae?e
a?ae?aoaoe?? ? oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e. ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeei?enoaiiy
aae?ioaoiieia?? aeey ?ioaineo?eaoe?? oaa?aeiaiiy iineee caaaeueiee
oa?aeoa? ? ia a?aoiaoaaee aianeo iieaciee?a aecioa?i?? oeaiaio?a oa
niiy/ii? ?aae?aoe?? a aia?aaoe/iee aaeain aaoiiieo ae?ia?a, ui
oaa?ae?thoue.

Ia aeaiiio aoai? ?icaeoeo oaoiieia?? aaoiio o A’?oiai? aaeeea cia/aiiy
iaaoaa? i?iaeaia ae??oaiiy aeieeath/eo caaea/ ia no/aniiio
eiii’thoa?iiio ??ai? c aeei?enoaiiyi ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i e?iaoeeo i?ioean?a
oaa?aeiaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy ii?iai? no?oeoo?e, oaiia?aoo?ii-aieia?nieo ci?i
oa ?i. Io?eiaiiy iiae?aii? ?ioi?iaoe?? iiaeeeaa i?e aeei?enoaii?
aeaiaio?a eiii’thoa?iiai i?aeoiaeo aei io?eiaiiy, iaeiie/aiiy oa
aeei?enoaiiy oa?iie?iaoe/ieo aeaieo i?i oaeaee?noue oa iiaiioo
oaieiaeae?eaiiy, a oaeiae oa?iiii?iiao?e/ii? ioe?iee no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy
oa noaio aiaee a oeaiaioiiio eaiai? i?ae aieeaii
?aoeaioo?ii-oaoiieia?/ieo ? ee?iaoe/ieo oaeoi??a.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny iaiao?aei?noth ??oaiiy caaea/
oaeineiiaethaaiiy oaoiieia?? aaoiio oa cae?ciaaoiio a oiiaao aeiiii?/ii?
oa aia?aaoe/ii? e?ece o A’?oiai? c caaacia/aiiyi ?aoe?iiaeueieo aeo?ao
oeaiaioo ? aeinyaiaiiy iaiao?aeii? yeino? ae?ia?a.

Iaoa ?iaioe — ?aaoethaaiiy oaa?aeiaiiy oeaiaio?a o aaoii? c o?aooaaiiyi
ee?iaoe/ieo oiia A’?oiaio ia iniia? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i oa?aeoa?enoeee
oaieiaeae?eaiiy, noaio aiaee oa no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy oeaiaioiiai eaiaith.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— ioe?iea iieaciee?a oaeaeeino? oa iiaiioe oaieiaeae?eaiiy i?e
a?ae?aoaoe?? oeaiaio?a A’?oiaio oa Oe?a?ie;

— oi?ioaaiiy eiii’thoa?ieo aaie?a ii?iaoeaii-oaoiieia?/ieo aeaieo i?e
aeaioiaeaii? cae?ciaaoiiieo ae?ia?a;

— aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? aieeao o?i?/ieo aeiaaaie oeio ieanoeo?eaoi?ia
oa i?enei?thaa/?a ia oaeaee?noue ?aii?o noaae?e oa iiaiioo a?ae?aoaoe??
oeaiaio?a;

— aea/aiiy ia?aiao??a ii?iai? no?oeoo?e oeaiaioiiai eaiaith oa noaio
aiaee i?ae ae??th i?ieeaeo iieaciee?a — oaiia?aoo?e ? aieiaino?;

— ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo oaiia?aoo?e a aaoii? a oiiaao
aae?ioaoiieia?? c o?aooaaiiyi aecioa?i?? oeaiaio?a;

— ?ic?aooiie oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a o aae?iiaeao? cae?ciaaoiiieo ae?ia?a;

— i?ecia/aiiy oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a aeaioiaeaiiy ae?ia?a ?c
aeei?enoaiiyi niiy/ii? aia?a??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio ui:

— anoaiiaeaii caeiiii??iino? ci?ie oaeaeeino? oa iiaiioe oaieiaeae?eaiiy
ia ?aii?o noaae?yo a?ae?aoaoe?? oeaiaio?a o i?enooiino? aeiaaaie —
?aaoeyoi??a i?ioean?a oaa?aeiaiiy;

— aecia/aii e?euee?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee noaio aiaee ? ii?iai? no?oeoo?e
oeaiaioiiai eaiaith i?ae aieeaii ci?ie oaiia?aoo?e oa aieiaino?;

— ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a o iaeaoao aaoiiieo
ae?ia?a;

— ioe?iaii aianie aecioa?i?? oeaiaio?a oa niiy/ii? ?aae?aoe?? a
aia?aaoe/iee iioaioe?ae aaoiio, ui oaa?ae??;

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe?
aoaeoeaieo neeaae?a oa ?aaeei?a oaa?aeiaiiy aaoiio. ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
ae?iaieoeoaa cae?ciaaoiiieo ae?ia?a ?c aeei?enoaiiyi aae?ioaoiieia??
ia?aaeaii Oaiienueeiio caaiaeo cae?ciaaoiiieo ae?ia?a aeey ?aae?caoe??.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a:

— aeeiiaii aiae?c noaio oa iiaeeeainoae oaoiieia?? cae?ciaaoiiieo
ae?ia?a c o?aooaaiiyi ee?iaoe/ieo iniaeeainoae A’?oiaio;

— i?iaaaeaii eaei?eiao?e/i? aenia?eiaioe oa ia?iaeaii ?oi? ?acoeueoaoe
ii aecia/aiith oaieiaeae?eaiiy oeaiaio?a;

— iaa?oioiaaii canoinoaaiiy aae?iiaeao?a aeey aeaioiaeaiiy
cae?ciaaoiiieo ieeo iaeeoethaaiiy ??eaaoe?eieo eaiae?a;

— aeeiiaii ?ic?aooiee oaiia?aoo?e a cae?ciaaoiiieo ieeoao ??cieo oa??a
iaeaoa aeey eeiiy oa n?/iy i?nyoey.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe iia?aeiieai? ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo oa nai?ia?ao:
“No?ieoue – cia/eo aeoiaoue i aoaeouai” (Oa?e?a, 1996 ?.),
“Iiaeaee?iaaiea e au/eneeoaeiue yenia?eiaio a iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiee”
(Iaeana, 1996 ?.), “Eiiiuethoa?iia iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiea e iaania/aiea
ea/anoaa” (Iaeana, 1997 ?.), “Oeceei-oeie/aneea i?iaeaiu no?ieoaeueiiai
iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey” (Oa?e?a, 1998 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaai? a 9 ae?oeiaaieo
i?aoeyo: 4 noaoo? a iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ca??ieeao, 5 — o iaoa??aeao
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e c 108
iaeiaioaaiue ? 1 aeiaeaoea. I?noeoue 110 noi??iie iniiaiiai oaenoo, 50
?enoie?a, 15 oaaeeoeue.

INIIAIee CI?NO ?IAIOE

?anioae?ea A’?oiai ? ?aa?iiii o?ii?/iiai ee?iaoo c? cia/iith
aiie?ooaeith eieeaaiue iieaciee?a oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y, a?aeiinii?
aieiaino?, oaeaeeino? ? iai?yieo a?o?o, niiy/ii? ?aae?aoe?? ii oa?eoi???
e?a?ie c i?aii/? ia i?aaeaiue, ii ia??iaeai ?ieo, a oaeiae i?ioyaii
aeiae, ui iia’ycaii ia?aaaaeii c? ci?iith aeiy oa ii/?. ?noioi? a?aei?ie
oa aaaaoiaa??aioi?noue eieeaaiue oeeo iieaciee?a oo?oaeiththoue aea??
oi?o?eiaaieo oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue caaacia/aiiy noaa?eueieo aeanoeainoae
aaoiio.

Iniiai? ee?iaoe/i? ia?aiao?e aeey ?aeiio i. Oaiie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
oaiia?aoo?ith 20…350N, eieeaaiiyi aieiaino? i?ioyaii aeiae a ?ioa?aae?
25…30% ?c ?ynieie ei?ioei/anieie aai o?eaaeeie ceeaaie. ?ioaineai?noue
niiy/ii? ?aae?aoe?? iiaea aeinyaaoe 850 Ao/i2. Iano?eueee aeniea
cia/aiiy aecia/a? aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy aae?ioaoiieia?/ieo
iaoiae?a o ae?iaieoeoa? ae?ia?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?enay/ai? aieeao ee?iaoe/ieo iniaeeainoae ?anioae?ee
ia oaoiieia?th ? aeanoeaino? aaoiio, aeineoue ?ioaineaii i?iaiaeeeeny a
70-80-o ?ieao. O e?a?iao NIAe ? A’?oiai? aoei aeeiiaii aeae?eueea
aeena?oaoe?eieo ?ia?o (Iaoai Oooe O??i, Iaoai Aaiue O?iue, Iaoai O??i
Ae?i, Eai O’?i Coe). O ieo e??i o?aaeeoe?eiiai iieno niaoeeo?ee ee?iaoo
?icaeyiooi a caaaeueiiio ieai? caieoaiiy aeei?enoaiiy o?i?/ieo aeiaaaie,
oa?iiia?iaee, niiy/ii? aia?a?? a oaoiieia?/ieo oe?eyo, ??ciiiai?oi? oa
aeineoue a?aeii? niiniae ? o?eaae?noue aeiaeyaeo ca aaoiiii, ui
oaa?ae??, ?c iaoith ?aaoethaaiiy aieiaiao?ao oa ?i. Aiaeii/an, ??aaiue
?icaeyaeo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aniaeo?a aieeao oaiia?aoo?ii-aieia?nieo
eieeaaiue ia e?iaoeeo a?ae?aoaoe?? oa no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy iniiaiiai
eiiiiiaioa aaoiio — oeaiaioiiai eaiaith — iaaeinoaoi?e. Acaaae?,
aeiaiaeyoueny oa iaaiai?ththoueny ?acoeueoaoe o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo ?nieo?a.
Aenoaaeeny aii??e/ii iaa?oioiaai? “oeueo?acaoeia?” oa?aeoa?enoeee,
“e?eoe/ia uiaei aieiaiao?ao i?oei?noue” oa ?i. Ia aeei?enoai?, iaaooue
aiane?aeie oiia oiai ia??iaeo, iiaeeeaino? eiii’thoa?ii? oaoi?ee.

C iaoith onoiaiiy a?aecia/aieo iaaeie?e?a iaie i?iaiae?ciaaii no/ani?
oyaeaiiy i?i no?oeoo?o oeaiaioiiai eaiaith, ye ?acoeueoaoo aca?iiae??
oaa?aei?, ??aeei? oa iia?o?yii? oac. Iaaiai?aii ieoaiiy oi?ioaaiiy
“o?ainii?oieo oeyo?a” ?c ii?, eai?ey??a oa aeaoaeo?a no?oeoo?e, ui
aecia/athoue ?ioaineai?noue aca?iiae?? aaoiio c iaaeieeoi?i na?aaeiaeuai
/Ie?iiia N.I., Ioiaa?i A.I./. A?aecia/a?oueny ?ieue aieiaiai?noo oa
ci?ie noaio aiaee a oeaiaioiiio eaiai? oa aaoii? o aca?iica’yceo c
oaeeie aaaeeeaeie aeanoeainoyie, ye i?oei?noue, u?euei?noue,
i?iieei?noue, cn?aeaiiy oa ?i. /Ea?i?o ?., Iaa?eeue A./.

C iaoith e?euee?nii? ioe?iee aieeao iieaciee?a oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y oa
aaoiio, aieiaino? oa oaeaeeino? a?o?o ca aiaeia??th c iiae?aieie
?ic?aooieaie aeey nooiai oa aea?eiai ee?iaoo iiaoaeiaaia iiiia?aia
?ioaineaiino? caacaiaeithaaiiy aaoiio aeey oiia A’?oiaio.

O ?acoeueoao? aeeiiaiiai aiae?co aeae?eaia cia/ei?noue ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i
e?iaoeeo a?ae?aoaoe?? oa iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e oeaiaioiiai
eaiaith i?ae aieeaii ee?iaoe/ieo (oaiia?aoo?a, aieia?noue) oa
oaoiieia?/ieo (oaiia?aoo?a, aeiaaaee, A/Oe oa ?i.) oaeoi??a.

O ca’yceo c oeei, i?eoe?eueii ?icaeyiooi aeaye? aniaeoe aeai?o
oeaiaio?a, o?i?/ieo aeiaaaie, aeei?enoaiiy niiy/ii? aia?a?? c
o?aooaaiiyi aecioa?i?? oeaiaio?a, ye aioo??oiueiai aeaea?aea oaiea a
caaaeueiiio aia?aaoe/iiio iioaioe?ae? aaoiio, ui oaa?ae??
/Canaaeaoaeaa ?.A., Iiaeai?iia I.?., Oeo??i N.A., Io?oa?yi I.I./.

A iniiao iaoiaeieia?? aenia?eiaioaeueii? /anoeie ?iaioe iieeaaeaii
iaoiaee eaei?eiao??? — oa?iie?iaoe/iee aiae?c oaeaeeino? oa iiaiioe
oaieiaeae?eaiiy i?ioean?a oaa?aeiaiiy ? oa?iiii?iiao??y aeey
oa?aeoa?enoeee ii?enoino? ? noaio aiaee a oeaiaioiiio eaiai?.

Oa?iie?iaoe/iee aiae?c aeicaiey? ca ?acoeueoaoaie ?cioa?i?/ii?
eaei?eiao??? io?eioaaoe caeaaeiino? oaeaeeino? — dQ/d=f() oa iiaiioe —
Q=f() oaieiaeae?eaiiy a?ae /ano, a ca aeiiiiiaith iaeaoa i?eeeaaeieo
i?ia?ai ae??ooaaoe caaea/?: aeae?eaiiy oa?aeoa?ieo ia??iae?a ii/aoeiai?
a?ae?aoaoe?? — ?iaeoeoe?eiiai (?), i?enei?aiiai (i?) oa oiia?eueiaiiai
(o), i?iaiico oaieiaeae?eaiiy aeey aoaeue-yeiai ii o?eaaeino? i?ii?aeeo
/ano, e?iaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy oa?iie?iaoe/ieo caeaaeiinoae oa
aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a oaieiaeae?eaiiy a ?aaeueieo ia?cioa?i?/ieo oiiaao.

Iaoiae oa?iiii?iiao??? ca aeaieie neaioth/i? eaei?eiao??? i?i oacia?
ia?aoiaee ii?iai? ??aeeie i?e ?? caii?iaeoaaii? a ii?ao oa eai?ey?ao
oeaiaioiiai eaiaith caaacia/o? io?eiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i ?ici??e,
?iciiae?e ii ?ici??ao oa oi?i? ii?, a oaeiae noaio aiaee (a?eueii? ?
ca’ycaii?).

Oey ?ioi?iaoe?y aeicaiey? a inoaoi/iiio i?aenoieo e?euee?nii ioe?ithaaoe
iiaeeeaino? ?aaoethaaiiy ?ioaineaiino? i?ioean?a oaa?aeiaiiy oeaiaio?a
i?e ci?i? oaiia?aoo?e oa aieiaino?, aaaaeaii? o?i?/ieo aeiaaaie oa ?i.
oaoiieia?/ieo ? ee?iaoe/ieo aieeaao.

I?e i?iaaaeaii? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoaii ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioe I400
caaiaeo “Oaeoiia” (A’?oiai) oa I500 Caeieaoiianueeiai caaiaeo, o?i?/i?
aeiaaaee ieanoeo?eoth/iai oa i?enei?thth/iai oei?a — noia?ieanoeo?eaoi?
N-3, eiiieaenia aeiaaaea “?aeaenie” ? noeueoao iao??th, ae??aiee ?
e?oiiee caiiaithaa/? ?iaeiaeu iaio e?a?i. A?aeiiino? i?i aeanoeaino?
eiiiiiaio?a caianai? a eaoaeiae “Oeaiaio”, “Caiiaithaa/?”, “Aeiaaaee”
aaie?a aeaieo eiii’thoa?ii? ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aeia?aeeiai? nenoaie,
aeei?enoaii? aeey aeiai?o oa ei?eaoaaiiy neeaae?a aaoiio.

Aieea oaiia?aoo?iiai oaeoi?a ia i?ioeane oaa?aeiaiiy ioe?ithaaany ca
iieacieeaie oaieiaeae?eaiiy aeaio ??ciiaeae?a oeaiaioo. Oaiia?aoo?iee
?ioa?aae aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeoiaey/e c ?icoi?iue iiaeeeaiai i?aeaeuaiiy
oaiia?aoo?e o ae?iaao, ia?aiee 20…600N. C?inoaiiy oaiia?aoo?e
caeiiii??ii ?ioaineo?eo? ?aaeoe?? a?ae?aoaoe??. Iaeneiaeueiee i?e??no
oaeaeeino? oa iiaiioe oaieiaeae?eaiiy a?aecia/a?oueny i?e i?aeaeuaii?
oaiia?aoo?e a ?ioa?aae? 20…350N, ui a?aeiia?aea? iaeneioio oeueiai
iieacieea a e?oi? i?nyoe? A’?oiaio. I?e oeueiio aeey oeaiaioo caaiaeo
“Oaeoiia” oa?aeoa?i? a?eueo ?ioaineai? oaiie ii/aoeiai? a?ae?aoaoe??
(?en.1) ?c oaiaeaioe??th cieaeaiiy iiaiioe oaieiaeae?eaiiy i?e c?inoaii?
oaiia?aoo?e ca ?aooiie ?iia??iiai aeieoaaiiy a?ae?aoaoe??
a?ae?iaethi?iaoaie eaeueoe?th. Iaeaeaa ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioe
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iii??iith aecioa?i??th ? ?o ia iiaeia a?aeianoe aei
aoaeoeaieo a’yaeo/eo aeey i?enei?aiiai oaa?aeiaiiy.

?en.1 Oaieiaeae?eaiiy i?e oaa?aeiaii? ii?oeaiaeoeaiaio?a
Caeieaoiianueeiai (1) ? A’?oiainueeiai (2) caaiae?a i?e: a) 300N; a)
600N

Oiio aoea i?iaaaeaia ioe?iea oaeaeeioaa?ae?th/iai oeaiaioo ia
aaca?inia?e iniia?, o neeaae? yeiai NaSO4·2H2O iiaea aooe cai?iaiee
oe?eeii aai /anoeiai i?enei?thaa/ai oaa?aeiaiiy — Na2SO4 /Naieoeueeee
I.A./. ?acoeueoaoe eaei?eiao?e/ieo aenia?eiaio?a na?ae/aoue i?i
c?inoaiiy iieaciee?a oaeaeeino? oa iiaiioe oaieiaeae?eaiiy iaa?oue i?e
/anoeia?e cai?i? a?ino noeueoaoii iao??th. Iniaeeai neeueii — o 2,5…3
?ace nei?i/o?oueny ca ?aooiie i?enei?aii? e?enoae?caoe?? Na(II)2 oa
ao??ia?oo a neeaae? iiaiooai?aiue o?eaae?noue ?iaeoeoe?eiiai ia??iaeo
a?ae?aoaoe??.

O?i?/i? aeiaaaee oaeiae cia/ii ci?iththoue oa?iie?iaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
a?ae?aoaoe?? oeaiaio?a /?ao?iia A.A., Aao?aeia A.A./. Ii iciaoe?
i?enei?aiiy oaa?aeiaiiy o?e aeine?aeaeoaai? aeiaaaee iiaeia ?icoaooaaoe
a ?yae: Na2SO4 > “?aeaenie” > N-3. Iaeiae, o oeueiio aeiaaeeo ia
iiaeooue aooe a?aoiaai? iiaeeeaino? i?aeaeuaiiy i?oeiino? ca ?aooiie
cieaeaiiy aiaeiai?noo a ?acoeueoao? ieanoeo?eoth/i? ae?? IA?. O aeiaaeeo
oaa?aeiaiiy iecueeiaethi?iaoiiai A’?oiainueeiai oeaiaioo iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaiee aieea ia oaeaee?noue oaieiaeae?eaiiy, noaey/e c caeaaeiinoae
dQ/d=f(), aeiaaaee “?aeaenie”. Oeae aenia?eiaio i?aeoaa?aeea
i?aaeeuei?noue aeai?o “?aeaeniea”, aiaeia?/iiai ii ae?? A’?oiainuee?e
eiiieaeni?e aeiaaaoe? ia iniia? /i?ieo eoa?a.

A?aeiii, ui ?ieue oaiia?aoo?iiai oaeoi?a aecia/a?oueny ia o?eueee
oaiia?aoo?iei aieeaii, aea ? oei/aniaeie ia?aiao?aie — iiiaioii,
?ioaineai?noth oa o?eaae?noth eiai canoinoaaiiy /I/aaeeia-Iao?inyi
I.I./. Aecia/aii, aeoiaey/e c aeaieo ?cioa?i?/ii? eaei?eiao???,
iieacieee ia?cioa?i?/iiai oaieiaeae?eaiiy aeey oiia, iaaeeaeaieo aei
aeiaiaeo eieeaaiue oaiia?aoo?e aeey eeiiy a ?aeii? i.Oaiie. I?aeaeuaiiy
oaiia?aoo?e aaoiio iiaea a?aeaoaaoeny /a?ac 2…10 aiae, oaeaee?noue ??
ci?ie iiaea eieeaaoeny a?ae 0,6 aei 4,30N/aiae, a, ye a?aecia/aii aeua,
?ioa?aae eieeaaiiy oaiia?aoo?iiai aieeao neeaaea? 30…600N.

Ca oeeo oiia: c?inoaiiy o?eaaeino? aeo?eioaaiiy c 2 aei 10 aiae ni?ey?
cieaeaiith oaeaeeino? oaieiaeae?eaiiy c 9 aei 5,5 eae/aaiae i?ioyaii
ia?oeo 12…17 aiae oaa?aeiaiiy; i?iii?oe?eii cieaeaiith oaeaeeino?
iaa??aaiiy cieaeo? ?ioaineai?noue oaieiaeae?eaiiy c 9 aei 6,75
eae/aaiae, a i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e i?ia??ao caeiiii??ii oi?no?
i?ioeane oaa?aeiaiiy ? iieaciee dQ/d c?inoa? a?eueo i?ae o 4 ?ace.
Ci?ith?oueny iiaiioa ?aaeoe?e a?ae?aoaoe??.

Io?eiai? aeai? i?i ia?cioa?i?/ia oaieiaeae?eaiiy iaiiaiththoue aaie
aeaieo aeey ianooiieo ?ic?aooie?a oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a o aaoii? ae?ia?a,
ui oaa?ae?thoue o i?e?iaeieo oiiaao aai a aae?iiaeaoao.

Iiaeeeaino? iaiaaeaiiy ianiiai?iieo i?ioean?a i?e ae?? ee?iaoe/ieo
oaeoi??a acaaae? ? ci?i? aieiaino? cie?aia ca’ycai? c ii?eno?noth
oeaiaioiiai eaiaith a aaoii?. Iaoiaeii oa?iiii?iiao??? iieacaii, ui
cieaeaiiy aieiaiai?noo i?e ciaioaii? A/Oe c 0,7 aei 0,5 cieaeo? ia’?i
ii? ?c 0,385 aei 0,153 ni3/a. Iaeanoue ?iciiae?eo ii? ii ?ici??ao
ci?uo?oueny i?e i?aeaeuaii? oaiia?aoo?e oaa?aeiaiiy c 30 aei 700N ?c
ae?aiaciio 8,5…21 ii o ae?aiacii 4,5…19 ii c iaeii/aniei c?ooaiiyi
iaeneioio ?iciiae?eo c 17 aei 13 ii ca ?aooiie i?enei?aiiy ?aaeoe?e
a?ae?aoaoe?? ? ca’ycoaaiiy aiaee.

I?e aaaaeaii? o?i?/ieo aeiaaaie, iai?eeeaae Na2SO4, oi?io?oueny a?eueo
ae??aiiii?enoa no?oeoo?a. Iaeneioi iaeano? ?iciiae?eo ii? o oeaiaioiiio
eaiai? c Na2SO4 ci?uo?oueny c 14 ii aei 7,4 ii. Aeiaaaea N-3 oaeiae
ni?ey? caoaeaiith iaeano? ?iciiae?eo ii? ? c?ooaiith iaeneioio
?iciiae?eo c 14 aei 7,2 ii i?e cieaeaii? a ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieueiei
c?aceii ia’?io i?e?iii? o 1,4 ?ace c 0,537 aei 0,383 ni3/a. Oea ?noioii
c iiaeyaeo i?aeaeuaiiy u?eueiino? aaoiio a oiiaao aeniei? aieiaino?.

Ua a?eueo aoaeoeaia ni?eueia ae?y eiiieaeno “?aeaenie”. Iaea?eueo
?noioia ciaioaiiy ia’?io i?e?iii? ?c ?ici??aie 4…12 ii,
a?aeiia?aeaeueieo ca ?icaeoie cn?aeaiiy oeaiaioiiai eaiaith.

Ci?ia aieiaino? iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua — ae??oaeueiee oaeoi?
i?io?eaiiy aca?iicaeaaeieo i?ioean?a i?a?aoe??, caacaiaeithaaiiy oa
eiiaeainaoe?? aieiae a ii?ao oa eai?ey?ao ca ?aooiie a?aae??ioo oene?a.
C?inoaiiy aieiaino? c 70 aei 90% ci?uo? iaeneioi ?iciiae?eo ii? a ciio
iecueeeo cia/aiue ca ?aooiie ?? eiiaeainaoe?? a ii?e iaioeo ?ici???a c
iaeii/aniei ca?eueoaiiyi noia?iiai ia’?io ii?, caiiaiaieo aiaeith, c
0,28 aei 0,41 ni3/a.

O i?ioean? a?ae?aoaoe?? i?ae aieeaii i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo? oa aaaaeaieo
aeiaaaie ci?ith?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiy e?eueeino? a?eueii? oa ca’ycaii?
aiaee. Aeiaaaea “?aeaenie” cieaeo? ia’?i aaeni?aoe?eii-ca’ycaii? aiaee a
ii?ao oeaiaioiiai eaiaith a ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieueiei neeaaeii ?c
0,0985 aei 0,056 ni3/a. Oey ianoaaeia, aacoiiaii, aoaea ni?eyoe
ciaioaiith ?ioaineaiino? ?icaeoeo cn?aeieo yaeu.

sse ia’?eo canoinoaaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aiee Oaiienueeee
caaiae aaoiio ? cae?ciaaoiiieo ae?ia?a. Ia caaiae? ia canoiniaothoueny
aia?aaoe/i? i?eeiie ?ioaineo?eaoe?? oaa?aeiaiiy aaoiio, iai?eeeaae
i?iia?thaaiiy. C iiiaieeaoo?e i?iaeoeoe?? noaiiaeyoue ?ioa?an
oiieino?ii? cae?ciaaoiii? ieeoe iaeeoethaaiiy ??eaaoe?eieo eaiae?a
?ici??ii 3000150080 ii oa iaeiiionoioi? ieeoe ia?ae?eoo?a 3250580200 ii.

Aeey oeeo ae?ia?a ca aeiiiiiaith iaeaoa i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai “Caaiaenueea
eaai?aoi??y” ?c aeei?enoaiiyi aaieo aeaieo aeeiiaii aeiai?e neeaae?a
aaoiio. Aeiaaaee N-3 oa “?aeaenie” caaacia/othoue cieaeaiiy aiaeiai?noo
aaoiiii? noi?o? ia 5…18% ?, aeeth/ath/e Na2SO4, iaiao?aei? oaiie ?inoo
i?oeiino? a ia?o? 3 aeiae oaa?aeiaiiy. Aeai? eaei?eiao?e/iiai aiae?co
iieeaaeaii a iniiao cai?iiiiiaaii? aeey caaiaenueeeo oiia
aae?ioaoiieia?? ieineeo cae?ciaaoiiieo ieeo.

O ?acoeueoao? oaoiieia?/iiai aiae?co iiaeeeainoae oa iio?aa caaiaeo
cai?iiiiiaaiee niin?a oaa?aeiaiiy ae?ia?a o aae?iiaeao? c i’youeio ieeo.
Iaeao neeaaea?oueny c iaoaeaaiai neeiaiai i?aeaeiia, eiiieaeoo
iaoaeioi?i ? aae?ieiaiaea c iaeiiai ai?eciioaeueiiai oa /ioe?ueio
aa?oeeaeueieo na?oeii?ici?eo iie?eoo?a oeio NA?OAI. Eiino?oeoeaiee
?ic?aooiie iaeaoa a?aoiao? aaaa?eoi? ?ici??e ieeo iaeeoethaaiiy.

C o?aooaaiiyi ee?iaoe/ieo iniaeeainoae A’?oiaio iiaeeeaa aeei?enoaiiy
aeaio oei?a iie?eoo?a. Aeey aea?eeo oiia — na?oeia?aeaeaath/a, aeey
ceiiaiai ? iii??ii aea?eiai ia??iaeo — na?oeii?ici?a ? oaiei?ciethth/a.
Caci?e i?ae ai?eciioaeueiith e?eoeith aae?ieiaiaea oa aa?oii aaoiio, a
oaeiae i?ae aa?oeeaeueieie iai?iaeaeaiiyie oa aieiaeie iiaa?oiyie
neeaaeathoue 2…3 ni, ui caiia?aa? ?ioaineaiiio aeia?o aieiae c aaoiio.

Oaoiieia?y aeaioiaeaiiy ae?ia?a aeeth/a? an? caaaeueiii?eeiyo?
iia?aoe??, ui aeiiiaiai? onoaiiaeith, cae??ieaiiyi ? ciyooyi
aae?ieiaiaea /a?ac iaiao?aeiee /an. Eiai o?eaae?noue eieeaa?oueny a?ae
20 aei 22 aiae o caeaaeiino? a?ae iiaiaeieo oiia ? oaoiieia?/ii?
aeioe?eueiino? — iaeei iai?io oi?iiinianoee a aeiao.

Aeey aecia/aiiy o?eaaeino? ia?aaoaaiiy oi?i ?c ae?iaaie a aae?iiaeao?
iaiao?aeii c?iaeoe i?iaiic aai ?ic?aooiie oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a o ae?iaao.
I?e oaa?aeiaii? iaeaoa a?aeaoaa?oueny: oaieiaa aca?iiae?y (oaieiia?aiin)
aaoiio ae?ia?a i?ae niaith ca ?aooiie aecioa?i?? oeaiaioo, iaa??aaiiy
niiy/iith ?aae?aoe??th, oo?aoe oaiea /a?ac aeii iaeaoa oa iie?eooy
eiaiaea. Aeey ei?aeoiino? cae?eniaiiy ?ic?aooieo i?eeiyoee ?yae
aeiiouaiue, ui noinothoueny iaeiii??iiai oa?aeoa?o ?iciiae?eo
oaiia?aoo?e ii aenio?, noaeino? oaiia?aoo?e ia iaeiiio ??ai?, a oaeiae
iaci?iiino? oaiia?aoo?e i?ioyaii 2 aiae. Aeai? i?i ci?io aeiaiai?
oaiia?aoo?e, ?ioaineaiino? niiy/ii? ?aae?aoe?? ?aeiio i. Oaiie ocyo? c
aeia?aeeiai? ?ioi?iaoe??. Aeei?enoiao?oueny ??aiyiiy oaieii?ia?aeiino?,
aeey ??oaiiy yeiai ?ic?iaeaia niaoe?aeueia iaoiaeeea. Iaeao ae?ia?a ii
iaoiaeo noaiaea?oieo n?oie ?icaeaa?oueny ia ?yae oa??a. ?iciiae?e
oaiia?aoo? ia eiaeiiio ianooiiiio oei/aniaiio oa?? a?aoiao? ?iciiae?e
oaiia?aoo?e ia iiia?aaeiueiio. A?aoiaothoueny oaeiae ia’?ie aaoiio,
ia’?ie oa e?euee?noue oa??a, u?euei?noue oa oaieii?ia?aei?noue aaoiio, a
oaeiae oaieiaeae?eaiiy oa ?ioaineai?noue niiy/ii? ?aae?aoe??.

?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieo oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a o aa?oiueiio oa ieaeiueiio
ae?iaao aeey eeiiy i?eaaaeaii ia ?en. 2.

Aiae?c ?ic?aooieo aeiaiaeeoue ?noioiee aieea ni?eueii? ae?? niiy/ii?
?aae?aoe?? oa aecioa?i?? oeaiaioo. Aa?oi?e ae??a o iaeao? i?ia??aa?oueny
c? oaeaee?noth 4,270N/aiae a?ae 26 aei 600N. Oaeaee?noue inoeaaiiy
— 1,220N/aiae aei 430N. Aia?aaoe/iee iioaioe?ae — 1100 a?aaeaiae.
Oaeaee?noue i?ia??ao ieaeiueiai ae?iao 1,380N/aiae aei 490N, a
oaeaee?noue inoeaaiiy onueiai 0,20N/aiae aei 480N. Cia/aiiy
aia?aaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo — 946 a?aaeaiae. Aac o?aooaaiiy aecioa?i??
cia/aiiy oaeaeeinoae i?ia??ao aa?oiueiai ? ieaeiueiai ae?ia?a iaioa
— 3,89 ? 0,90N/aiae a?aeiia?aeii.

Aa?oi?e ae??a ciiaea i?ia??oeny aei 530N, a ieaei?e aei 380N.
Ieae/a ? cia/aiiy aia?aaoe/ieo iioaioe?ae?a — 950 ? 759 a?aaeaiae. Aea,
ye aeaeii c aeaieo ?en. 2, o oeueiio aeiaaeeo cia/aiiy niiy/ii?
?aae?aoe?? ia?aaeuo? aianie aecioa?i??. Cia/aiiy aia?aaoe/ieo
iioaioe?ae?a iiaeooue neeaaeaoe a oeueiio aeiaaeeo onueiai 763 oa 794
a?aaeaiae.

?en.2 Oaiia?aoo?a o aa?oiueiio (1) ? ieaeiueiio (2) ae?iaao

aae?iiaeaoa a eeii? i?nyoe?:

a) c o?aooaaiiyi aecioa?i?? ? niiy/ii? ?aae?aoe??;

a) aac o?aooaaiiy aecioa?i??;

a) aac o?aooaaiiy ?aae?aoe??;

I — ci?ia oaiia?aoo?e uiaiaeeie;

II — o?ae oaiia?aoo?iee e?eaeo.

Io?eiai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui canoinoaaiiy aenieiaecioa?i?/ieo
oeaiaio?a oa aeiaaaie — ?ioaineo?eaoi??a oaa?aeiaiiy aeicaieeoue
ca?eueoeoe cia/aiiy aia?aaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo aaoiio a oiiaao
aae?ioaoiieia??.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie i?iaaaeaii? ?iaioe Oaiienueeiio caaiaeo aaoiio oa
cae?ciaaoiiieo ae?ia?a ia?aaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaethaaiiy
oaoiieia?? c aeei?enoaiiyi o?i?/ieo aeiaaaie oa niiy/ii? ?aae?aoe??.

CAAAEUeI? AENIIAEE

1. Aeeiiaii aiae?c noaio oaoiieia?? aaoiio c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae
aieiaiai ? aea?eiai ee?iaoo A’?oiaio, niaoeeo?ea yeiai aecia/a?oueny
cia/ieie eieeaaiiyie oa?aeoa?enoee oaiia?aoo?e (6…80N) oa aieiaino?
(25…30%) o e?oi?e oa ceiiaee ia??iaee i?ioyaii aeiae c
aeniei?ioaineaiith niiy/iith ?aae?aoe??th — aei 850 Ao/i2. ?icaeyiooi
iiaeeeaino? ?aaoethaaiiy oaa?aeiaiiy oeaiaio?a o aaoii?, ui iieyaathoue
o ??oaii? caaea/ iaiaaeaiiy aioo??oiueiai ? ciai?oiueiai ianiiai?io ia
?aii?o noaae?yo oaa?aeiaiiy ca ?aooiie aeai?o aoaeoeaieo oeaiaio?a oa
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ? eiiieaenieo o?i?/ieo aeiaaaie oeio i?enei?thaa/?a
a?ae?aoaoe?? oa aiaeicieaeoaa/?a, a oaeiae aeei?enoaiiy niiy/ii?
?aae?aoe?? aeey ?ioaineo?eaoe?? oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a.

2. Iaa?oioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy eaei?eiao?e/ieo iaoiae?a
aeey io?eiaiiy, iaeiie/aiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i oaeaee?noue
oa iiaiioo oaieiaeae?eaiiy, a oaeiae i?i ia?aiao?e ii?iai? no?oeoo?e
oeaiaioiiai eaiaith ? noaio aiaee ia ?aii?o noaae?yo a?ae?aoaoe??
oeaiaio?a o i?enooiino? aeiaaaie i?e aeai?? ?aoeaioo?ii-oaoiieia?/ieo
??oaiue. Noi?iiaaii aaie aeaieo ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aeia?aeeiai? nenoaie, ui
i?noeoue eaoaeiae ii?iaoeaii-oaoiieia?/ieo aeiia ? aeanoeainoae
a’?oiainueeeo oa oe?a?inueeeo oeaiaio?a, aeiaaaie oa caiiaithaa/?a aeey
?ic?aooieo ? ei?eaoaaiiy neeaae?a aaoiio a caeaaeiino? a?ae ee?iaoe/iiai
oaeoi?a.

3. Aecia/aii oa?iie?iaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee — ?ici??e aeciaoaeo?a,
o?eaae?noue ?iaeoeoe?eiiai oa i?enei?aiiai ia??iae?a i?e a?ae?aoaoe??
a’?oiainueeiai oa oe?a?inueeiai oeaiaio?a o i?enooiino?
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo oa eiiieaenieo aeiaaaie ieanoeo?eoth/i? oa
i?enei?thth/i? ae?? a ?cioa?i?/ieo oa ia?cioa?i?/ieo oiiaao. Iieacaii,
ui ?ioaineo?eaoe?y oaa?aeiaiiy, ui aeinyaa?oueny, aeicaiey? caanoe aei
i?i?ioio aeiaeyae ca aaoiiii.

4. I?iaaaeaii e?euee?nio ioe?ieo aieeao eieeaaiue oaiia?aoo?e oa
aieiaino? iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ia ia?aiao?e ii?iai? no?oeoo?e
oeaiaioiiai eaiaith. Iieacaii, ui ca?eueoaiiy oaiia?aoo?e oa aieiaino?
ni?eythoue ciaioaiith ?ici???a oa cnoao iaeneioio ?iciiae?eo ii? ii
?ici??ao ?c 17 aei 13 ii c iaeii/aniei ca?eueoaiiyi noia?iiai ia’?io
ii?, caiiaiaieo aiaeith, c 0,28 aei 0,41 ni3/a ? ia?aaaaeaiith i?ioean?a
eiiaeainaoe?? iaae aeia?ii aieiae a aaoii?, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue
ciaioeoe e?euee?noue aiaee, ui aeia?iao?oueny, ? oei naiei cieceoe
aaee/eio cn?aeaiiy aaoiio.

5. Aecia/aii ?ieue o?i?/ieo aeiaaaie o ci?i? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a?eueii? oa
ca’ycaii? aiaee a oeaiaioiiio eaiai?. Iieacaii, ui aeiaaaea “?aeaenie”
ni?ey? cieaeaiith ia’?io aaeni?aoe?eii-ca’ycaii? aiaee a oeaiaioiiio
eaiai? a ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieueiei neeaaeii ?c 0,0985 aei 0,056 ni3/a ?
ni?ey? ciaioaiith ?ioaineaiino? ?icaeoeo cn?aeieo yaeu.

6. ?ic?iaeaii aa??aio aeaioiaeaiiy ieineeo cae?ciaaoiiieo ae?ia?a o
aae?iiaeao? c? na?oeii?ici?ei iie?eooyi ?c aeei?enoaiiyi niiy/ii?
aia?a?? aeey ?ioaineo?eaoe?? oaa?aeiaiiy oa onoiaiiy iaaaoeaiiai aieeao
eieeaaiue oaiia?aoo?e oa aieiaino?.

7. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo i?iaiico oa ?ic?aooieo oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a o
ae?iaao aae?iiaeaoa i?ae aieeaii aecioa?i?? oa niiy/ii? ?aae?aoe?? c
aeei?enoaiiyi ??aiyiiy oaieii?ia?aeiino? oa iaoiaeo noaiaea?oieo n?oie.
Anoaiiaeaii iniiai? caeiiii??iino? ci?ie oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a
cae?ciaaoiiieo ae?ia?a ii aenio? aae?iiaeaoo. Iieacaii, ui aeey
e?oiueiai ? ceiiaiai ia??iae?a ?ici?? aia?aaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo aaoiio,
ui oaa?ae??, iiaea eieeaaoeny a iaaeao 760…1100 a?aae·aiae. Aianie
aecioa?i?? oeaiaioo a aia?aaoe/iee iioaioe?ae ci?ith?oueny a iaaeao a?ae
25 aei 50%.

8. ?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaethaaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo
??oaiue i?e aeaioiaeaii? cae?ciaaoiiieo ae?ia?a ?c aeei?enoaiiyi
aeaiaio?a eiii’thoa?ecaoe??, o?i?/ieo aeiaaaie oa aae?ioaoiieia??.
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? i?eeiyoi Oaiienueeei caaiaeii aaoiio oa cae?ciaaoiio
“A?iue Oo?”.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a ?iaioao:

1. Ooia Aai Aiue. O/ao iniaaiiinoae eeeiaoa Aueaoiaia a oaoiieiaee
aaoiia // Iaoeiaee a?niee aoae?aieoeoaa. – Oa?e?a: OAeOOAA, OIOA AAO. –
1998. – Aei. 3. – N.175-176.

2. Ooa?ia-Ia?oae A.A., Neiyeei A.A., Aeeue TH.A., Ooia Aai Aiue.
?acaeoea oaoiieiaee aaoiia ia iniiaa eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iiaeoiaea //
Aii?inu nia?aiaiiiai no?ieoaeueiiai iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey e no?ieoaeuenoaa.
– Eueaia: Eueaianeee oeeeae ia?aciaaoaeueiie eiiiaiee “IIC”. – 1998. –
N. 134-140.

3. Ooia Aai Aiue. Oaiia?aoo?iue oaeoi? a oaa?aeaiee aaoiia // Iaoeiaee
a?niee aoae?aieoeoaa. – Oa?e?a: OAeOOAA, OIOA AAO. – 1998. – Aei. 4. –
N. 172-174.

4. Ooia Aai Aiue. Caaea/e oaoiieiaee aaoiia a oneiaeyo aea?eiai
aeaaeiiai eeeiaoa // Iaoa?eaeu iao/iuo /oaiee “Oeceei-oeie/aneea
i?iaeaiu no?ieoaeueiiai iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey”. – Oa?ueeia. – 1998. – N. 47.

5. Ooa?ia-Ia?oae A.A., Ooia Aai Aiue. Aiciiaeiinoe ?aaoee?iaaiey
i?ioeannia oaa?aeaiey oeaiaioia a oneiaeyo aea?eiai aeaaeiiai eeeiaoa //
Iaoa?eaeu 36 iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai naieia?a ii i?iaeaiai iiaeaee?iaaiey e
iioeiecaoeee eiiiiceoia. – Iaeanna. – 1997. – N. 109.

6. Oeoiaiei E.A., Neiyeei A.A., Ooia Aai Aiue. Auai? ?aoeeiiaeueiuo
?aaeeiia oaa?aeaiey aaoiiia ia iniiaa aiaeeca eieoaoeeiiiuo iiaeaeae
oaieiauaeaeaiey e i?i/iinoe // Iaoa?eaeu XXXV iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai naieia?a
ii i?iaeaiai iiaeaee?iaaiey e iioeiecaoeee eiiiiceoia. – Iaeanna. –
1996. – N. 17.

7. Niiia A.I., Ooia Aai Aiue. Oa?aeoa? ii?iia?aciaaiey a oeaiaioiii
eaiia // Oacenu aeieeaaeia 51-e iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee. –
Oa?ueeia: OAOONA. — 1996. — N.147-148.

8. Neiyeei A.A., Ooia Aai Aiue, Ia?oeia E.A. Enneaaeiaaiea
oaieiauaeaeaiey i?e aeae?aoaoeee auno?ioaa?aeathueo oeaiaioia n
oeie/aneeie aeiaaaeaie // Oacenu aeieeaaeia 51-e iao/ii-oaoie/aneie
eiioa?aioeee. – Oa?ueeia: OAOONA. — 1996.- N.145.

9. Ooia Aai Aiue, Ceaoeianeee I.A., Neiyeei A.A. ?an/ao oaiia?aoo?iuo
iieae i?e oaa?aeaiee aaoiiiuo ecaeaeee a iaeaoao // Iaoeiaee a?niee
aoae?aieoeoaa.–Oa?e?a: OAeOOAA, OIOA AAO. – 1999. – Aei. 6. – N.79-83.

AIIOAOe?ss

Ooia Aai Aiue. ?aaoethaaiiy oaa?aeiaiiy oeaiaio?a o aaoii? c o?aooaaiiyi
iniaeeainoae ee?iaoo A’?oiaio. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.23.05 – aoae?aaeuei? iaoa??aee oa ae?iae. –
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaei?e oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,
Oa?e?a, 1999.

O ?iaio? ia iniia? ioe?iee aieeao i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo iniaeeainoae
A’?oiaio ia oaa?aeiaiiy oa aeanoeaino? aaoiio iaoiaeaie eaei?eiao?e/iiai
aiae?co (oa?iie?iaoeea ? oa?iiii?iiao??y) aeine?aeaeai? ?aii? noaae??
a?ae?aoaoe?? oa no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy a’?oiainueeiai oa oe?a?inueeiai
oeaiaio?a o i?enooiino? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo oa eiiieaenieo o?i?/ieo
aeiaaaie ieanoeo?eoth/iai oa i?enei?thth/iai oei?a o ?ioa?aae? 20…600N.

Anoaiiaeaii iniiai? iieacieee oaeaeeino? oa iiaiioe oaieiaeae?eaiiy
eiiiiceoe?e, ui oaa?ae?thoue, c iaoith aeai?o aoaeoeaieo oaoiieia?/ieo
ia?aiao??a. Aeai? uiaei oaieiaeae?eaiiy iieeaaeaii ca iniiao ?ic?aooieo
oa i?iaiico ii ?ic?iaeai?e iaoiaeeoe? oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a o iaeaoao
cae?ciaaoiiieo ae?ia?a ?c canoinoaaiiyi aae?ioaoiieia??. ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?? aaoiio c aeei?enoaiiyi o?i?/ieo aeiaaaie
oa niiy/ii? aia?a?? ia?aaeaii Oaiienueeiio caaiaeo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aieia?noue, oaieiaeae?eaiiy, no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy,
ii?eno?noue, oaiia?aoo?iee oaeoi?, oaiia?aoo?i? iiey, aae?ioaoiieia?y.

SUMMARY

Fung Bao Anh. Regulation of cement hardening in concrete with allowance
of climatic features of Vietnam. – Manuscript.

Dissertation for degree of the candidate of technical sciences in
speciality 05.23.05 – “building materials and products”. – The Kharkov
State Automobile and Highway Technical University, Kharkov, 1999.

The ways of regulation of cement hardening in concrete in the
conditions of hot and humid climate of republic are presented. Kinetics
of heat evolution during hydration of vietnamic and ukrainian cements in
the presence of additives – plastificators and hardening accelerators is
investigated. The indexes of intensity and the completeness of reaction
under the influence of temperature factor and additives are found, the
parameters of pore structure of the basic component of concrete – the
cement stone with additives and shaped of water bonding in investigated
temperature interval are defined by means of thermoporosimetry.

Methodology is proposed and the calculation is carried out for
determination of temperature fields and solar radiation in geliopackage.
The proposition as to regulation of cement hardening in concrete with
the application of chemical additives and solar energy are worked out
and handed over to the Hanoi factory of armored concrete products.

Key words: humidity, heat evolution, structure formation, porosity,
temperature factor, temperature fields, gelio-technology.

AIIIOAOeEss

Ooia Aai Aiue. ?aaoee?iaaiea oaa?aeaiey oeaiaioia a aaoiia n o/aoii
iniaaiiinoae eeeiaoa Aueaoiaia. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.23.05 – no?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu e ecaeaeey. –
Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue aaoiiiaeeueii-aei?iaeiue oaoie/aneee
oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Auiieiai aiaeec e ii?aaeaeaiu iooe ?aaoee?iaaiey i?ioeannia oaa?aeaiey
oeaiaioia a aaoiia a oneiaeyo aea?eiai e aeaaeiiai eeeiaoa ?anioaeeee
Aueaoiai, oa?aeoa?ecothueony cia/eoaeueiuie eieaaaieyie aiaeiauo,
n?aaeiaiany/iuo e nooi/iuo iieacaoaeae oaiia?aoo?u e aeaaeiinoe
aicaeooa, nei?inoe e iai?aaeaiey aao?a, nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee. Ioia/aii,
/oi aeinoeaiooue o?iaaiue oaoiieiaee aaoiia iineo ea/anoaaiiue oa?aeoa?
e iaaeinoaoi/ii o/eouaaao aiciiaeiinoe ?aaoee?iaaiey i?ioeannia
oaa?aeaiey, oaiei — e ianniiaiaia ia iniiaa eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiee
yooaeoeaiinoe i?eiaiyaiuo oeaiaioia, oeie/aneeo aeiaaaie e
eniieueciaaiey yia?aee nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee n i?eiaiaieai n?aaenoa
eioi?iaoeee aeey ?aoaiey oaoiieiae/aneeo caaea/.

Enneaaeiaaia eeiaoeea oaieiauaeaeaiey i?e aeae?aoaoeee aueaoiaineiai e
oe?aeineiai oeaiaioia a i?enoonoaee aeiaaaie – ieanoeoeeaoi?ia e
onei?eoaeae oaa?aeaiey. Onoaiiaeaiu iieacaoaee eioaineaiinoe e iieiiou
i?ioaeaiey ?aaeoeee iiae aeeyieai oaiia?aoo?iiai oaeoi?a e aaiaeeiuo
aeiaaaie. Iaoiaeii oa?iiii?iiao?ee ii?aaeaeaiu ia?aiao?u ii?iaie
no?oeoo?u iniiaiiai eiiiiiaioa aaoiia – oeaiaioiiai eaiiy, ioeaiaiu
oi?iu nayce aiaeu a eioa?aaea 20…60N. Iieacaii, /oi aaaaeaiea
aeiaaaie e ?aaoee?iaaiea oaiia?aoo?u iaania/eaaao niaethaeaiea
o?aaiaaiee nieaeaiey aiaeiniaea?aeaiey n oeaeueth ono?aiaiey iaaaoeaiuo
yaeaiee enia?aiey aiaeu e oaiia?aoo?ii-aeaaeiinoiuo aeaoi?iaoeee.

Noi?ie?iaaiu eioi?iaoeeiiiua (eiiiuethoa?iua) aaiee
ii?iaoeaii-oaoiieiae/aneeo aeaiiuo, n eaoaeiaaie eiiiiiaioia e
oa?iieeiaoe/aneeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie i?ioeannia oaa?aeaiey oeaiaioia aeey
iiaeai?a ninoaaia, ii?aaeaeaiey ?aaeeiia oaa?aeaiey aaoiia a oneiaeyo
Aueaoiaia. Iiaeoaa?aeaeaiu ecaanoiua iieiaeaiey i ?iee oaieiauaeaeaiey e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe aai o/aoa i?e ?aoaiee ?aoeaioo?ii-oaoiieiae/aneeo caaea/
aeey eiie?aoiuo eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaee a ia?eiaeu “eaoi-ceia”.

Iainiiaai aa?eaio aaeeioaoiieiaee aeaeaciaaoiiiuo ecaeaeee a iaeaoao ni
naaoii?ic?a/iuie iie?uoeyie aeey eioaineoeeaoeee i?ioeannia oaa?aeaiey e
caueou oaa?aeathuaai aaoiia io oaeaaeiaiey. ?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea e
auiieiai ?an/ao oaiia?aoo?iuo iieae n o/aoii aeeaaea yecioa?iee e
nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee a aaeeiiaeaoa ecaeaeee. Ii?aaeaeaiu iieacaoaee
yia?aaoe/aneiai iioaioeeaea aaoiia, i?i/iinoiua oa?aeoa?enoeee aaoiia a
?aciuo neiyo iaeaoa. Iieacaia oeaeaniia?aciinoue aa?uee?iaaiey ninoaaia
aaoiiiie niane aeey aeinoeaeaiey iaeii?iaeiinoe naienoa aaoiia n o/aoii
oaieiauaeaeaiey i?e oaa?aeaiee oeaiaioia a i?enoonoaee oeie/aneeo
aeiaaaie.

?ac?aaioaiu e ia?aaeaiu Oaiieneiio caaiaeo aeaeaciaaoiiiuo ecaeaeee
oaoiieiae/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii ?aaoee?iaaieth oaa?aeaiey oeaiaioia a
aaoiia n eniieueciaaieai oeie/aneeo aeiaaaie e nieia/iie yia?aee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeaaeiinoue, oaieiauaeaeaiea, no?oeoo?iia?aciaaiea,
ii?enoinoue, oaiia?aoo?iue oaeoi?, oaiia?aoo?iua iiey, aaeeioaoiieiaey.

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