Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee aeiiii?/iee ?inoeooo I?iaeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie

Iieyeia Iaenei Ieaenaiae?iae/

630.624

?aaoethaaiiy i?ioean?a ei?enooaaiiy

a?aeiiaethaaieie i?e?iaeieie ?ano?naie

(ia i?eeeaae? aea?aaeiieo ?ano?n?a)

08.02.03 — I?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy, ieaioaaiiy ? ?aaoethaaiiy
aeiiii?eith

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio aeiiii?/iiio ?inoeooo?
I?iaeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee Aey/aiei sse?a sseiae/, Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee aeiiii?/iee
?inoeooo I?iaeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo i?iaeai aeiiii?ee
e?nii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: Aieei Ieeiea Ieeieaeiae/, Oaeai?iaenueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
aeiiii?ee, iaiaaeaeiaioo oa ia?eaoeiao eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Aieoa Ieaa Aiaoie?eiae/, ?aaea ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie
IAI Oe?a?ie, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo i?iaeai
aeei?enoaiiy ? ioi?iie e?niaeo ?ano?n?a

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee e?nioaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a aeiiii?ee ? iaiaaeaeiaioo e?niaeo
i?aei?e?inoa, i. Euea?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 25 aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 930 ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?aeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.801.01 Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai
aeiiii?/iiai ?inoeoooo I?i?noa?noaa aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie oa
Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai i. Ee?aa
ca aae?anith: 252601 INI i. Ee?a-103, a. Ae?oaeae Ia?iae?a, 28, 5-e
iiaa?o, caea can?aeaiue.

C aeena?oaoei?th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o aiaeiioaoei Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai
aeiiii?/iiai ?inoeoooo I?iaeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252601 INI
i. Ee?a-103, a. Ae?oaeae Ia?iae?a, 28 oa a ia?aae? INTERNET ca
aae?anith http://www.l.kth.se/lm97_pom/diss

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?icineaiee 24 ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee A. A. Aaceethe

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie

O i?ioean? ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee e?niaa ainiiaea?noai ?
iniaeeai /ooeeaei aei ci?i a aeiiii?/iiio iaoai?ci? /a?ac ?yae
iniaeeainoae aaeoc? (oaeeo, iai?eeeaae, ye iaaecae/aeii aeiaaee ia??iae
ae?iaieoeoaa). O ia??iae noaeiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeiiii?ee iio?aae a
aea?aaei? caaeiaieueiyeeny c aeanieo ?ano?n?a eeoa ia o?aoeio, oi/a
iioaioe?ae e?niaiai naeoi?a aeicaiey? cia/ii ca?eueoeoe oeae iieaciee.
E??i oiaa?ieo (o?iainiaeo) e?n iinoa/a? aaaaoi noni?eueieo (oae caaieo
«iaaeaeeieo») oe?iiinoae. O ca’yceo c oeei /enoi ?eieiaa iiaeaeue
ainiiaea?thaaiiy o e?niaiio naeoi?? ia iiaea aooe noni?eueii
aoaeoeaiith. Oiio caeiiii??iei ? iiooe i?aeoiae?a aei ?aaoethaaiiy
ei?enooaaiiy e?niaeie ?ano?naie, ye? a a?aeiia?aeaee iiaei aeiiii?/iei
oiiaai ainiiaea?thaaiiy ? caaacia/eee a aeeiiaiiy aeieia?/ieo oa
nioe?aeueieo aeiia.

Aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy an?o iioaioe?eieo iiaeeeainoae e?niaiai naeoi?a
no?eio?oueny iaaeineiiaeei ainiiaea?nueeei iaoai?ciii, yeee ae?noaany o
niaaeie a?ae eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaii? nenoaie. O ca’yceo c oeei
iac??ea iaiao?aei?noue ?aoi?ioaaiiy oi?aae?iiy e?niaeie ?ano?naie, a
oiio /ene? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy e?niei?enooaaiiyi.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie

Aeena?oaoe?y iia’ycaia c aeeiiaiiyi aaoi?ii iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue o
a?aeae?e? i?iaeai aeiiii?ee e?nii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno IAeA?
I?iaeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie ii oaiao: 7-94, 11-95, 24-96, 5-97, 54-98, na?aae
yeeo iaeaaaeeea?oeie ?: 7-94 «?ic?iaea iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ?
i?aeoe/ieo i?iiiceoe?e ii ?aae?caoe?? i?ia?aie ?icaeoeo
e?niainiiaea?nueeiai oa e?nii?iieneiaiai eiiieaen?a» oa 54-98
«Ii?aoethaaiiy aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
a?aeoai?aiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy aea?aaieo ?ano?n?a».

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaea iaoai?cio oa cania?a aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaeiieie ?ano?naie, iiaoaeiaaieo ia iniia?
i?eioeei?a caaaeueii? oai??? aenieoaoaoe?? a?aeiiaethaaieo i?e?iaeieo
?ano?n?a aeey noai?aiiy noa’?eoai ??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy
ia?aaeoiia aeiiii?/ii aoaeoeaiiai aaaeaiiy e?niainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa ?c caaacia/aiiyi iaaeniaaeeeaino? ? caa?aaeaiiyi
aeieia?/ieo, nioe?aeueieo oa caoenieo ooieoe?e e?no.

Aeinyaiaiiy iaoe coiiaeei iaiao?aei?noue ae??oaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue:

cae?eniaiiy ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co oe?eae ? cania?a e?niai? iie?oeee a
e?a?iao c ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith oa e?a?iao c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith c
iaoith aecia/aiiy oaiaeaioe?e a i?aeoiaeao aei ?aaoethaaiiy ei?enooaaiiy
e?niaeie ?ano?naie;

ia??oiooaaiiy iaiao?aeiino? ?iciaaeoaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai ?
ainiiaea?nueeiai oi?aae?iiy ei?enooaaiiyi i?e?iaeieie ?, cie?aia,
e?niaeie ?ano?naie a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee;

cae?eniaiiy aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co aeaiaio?a ae?th/i? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy
e?niei?enooaaiiyi: oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? e?niaiai oiiaeo,
iai?io?a ?oaie, iaoiae?a ii?ioaaiiy ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaeiith;

?ic?iaea oeyo?a ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy e?niaeie
?ano?naie.

?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee ?aaoethaaiiy ianya?a ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaeiith.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

Oae? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe iiaeia eeaneo?eoaaoe ye aaaeeea? ? iia?:

1. Ia iniia? aiae?co i?e?iaee ? aca?iiae?e i?iaeoeo?a ? ei?eniinoae, ye?
noai?ththoueny e?nii, oa aaeineiiaeaiiy aeaiaio?a caaaeueii? oai???
aenieoaoaoe?? a?aeiiaethaaieo i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a uiaei
e?niainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa anoaiiaeaii, ui aaaeaiiy e?niaiai
ainiiaea?noaa a oiiaao ia?aaoeueiaaiiai ?eieo aaaea aei oeoeooaoe?e o
ae?iaieoeoa? aea?aaeie oa iaaeiae?iaieoeoaa «iaaeaeeieo» oe?iiinoae.

2. Ia??oioiaaii eiioeaioe?th aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ei?enooaaiiy
aea?aaeiieie ?ano?naie, iaoith yeiai ? noeioethaaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa
«iaaeaeeieo» oe?iiinoae oa i?aeo?eiaiiy iaaeniaaeeeaiai (sustainable)
aeei?enoaiiy «oiaa?ieo» oe?iiinoae (aea?aaeie), o oiio /ene? ? ca
?aooiie iaiaaeaiiy ??aiy aenieoaoaoe?? inoaii?o.

3. Aeyaeaii iniiai? eiioeaiooaeuei? i?eioeeie ?icaeoeo e?niai? iie?oeee
a e?a?iao c ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith, ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue ?iciaaeoaaiiy
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy e?niaeie ?ano?naie ? ainiiaea?nueeiai oi?aae?iiy
e?naie oa oi?o?eiaaiee i?aeo?ae aei noa’?eo?a e?niainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa ??cieo oi?i aeaniino?; caaeainiaaia aeei?enoaiiy
aaei?i?no?aoeaieo oa aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a c oaiaeaioe??th aei
aea?aaoethaaiiy ? c?inoaiiy ?ie? (aaae) aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a.

4. ?ic?iaeaii nenoaio ?aaoethaaiiy ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaeiieie ?ano?naie,
ui ii?aeio? aaei?i?no?aoeai? oa aeiiii?/i? aaaeae? oi?aae?iiy, a naia:
ii?yae c ?aaeaiaioaoe??th i?i?iaeueii aeiionoeiiai a?eo ?oaee ?
iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeii? ae?oaoaaii? ieiu? cai?iiiiiaaii aaanoe iiaeaoie
ia caian ia?ano?eieo e?ninoai?a.

5. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo anoaiiaeaiiy iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeii?
ae?oaoaaii? ieiu? c a?aooaaiiyi aeiiae iaaeniaaeeeaiai ei?enooaaiiy ia
??ai? ?aa?iio (iaeano?) ?c canoinoaaiiyi aeey ?ic?aooie?a ?nioth/iai
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy. A iaaeao ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee aia?oa
ae??oaii i?iaeaio aa?aaoaaiiy ainiiaea?nueeeo iaeeieoeue c ??cieie
iai?ioaie ?oaie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe, aeniiaee oa i?iiiceoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?
aeey ?ai?aai?caoe?? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy e?niaeie ?ano?naie.
Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee ?aaoethaaiiy iaeneiaeueii
aeiionoeiiai ianyao ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaeiieie ?ano?naie ia ??ai? ?aa?iio
aeanoue noa’?eoai e?niainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa iiaeeea?noue
aeae?aoe iioeiaeuei? a ?eieiaeo oiiaao ainiiaea?nuee? ??oaiiy,
caaacia/eaoe a oie aea /an aeio?eiaiiy iaiao?aeieo aeiia uiaei iineeaiiy
aeieia?/ieo ? caoenieo ooieoe?e e?n?a.

Aeaiaioe cai?iiiiiaaiiai iaoiaeo aoee aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe?
i?eeeaaeiiai i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy aeey ?ic?aooieo ianyao aieiaiiai
ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaeiith (1997).

Aeniiaee oa i?iiiceoe?? uiaei ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy e?niaeie ?ano?naie aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e ?ic?iaoe?
no?aoaa?/iiai ieaio ?icaeoeo e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie a ?aieao
ni?eueiiai Oe?a?inueei-Oaaaenueeiai i?iaeoo (1998-2000).

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a

Iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, io?eiai?
aaoi?ii iniaenoi.

A noaoo?, iioae?eiaai?e ni?eueii c *. A. Aaeiaiii, caeiaoaa/aa?
iaeaaeeoue ca?? noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo, ?ic?aooiee oa ioi?ieaiiy, a a
noaoo?, iioae?eiaai?e ni?eueii c I. A. Iieyeiaei, — ?ic?aooiee oa
?ioa?i?aoaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
e?niainiiaea?nueeiai oaeoeueoaoo IAO (Ee?a, 1994), ia e?oi?e oeie?
iieiaeeo iaoeiaoe?a o I?aeia?iaeiiio ?inoeooo? i?eeeaaeiiai nenoaiiiai
aiae?co (Eaenaiao?a, Aano??y, 1995), ia Oe?a?inueei-Oaaaenueeiio
nai?ia?? c ieoaiue ?ioi?iaoecaoe?? e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa (??aia — Ee?a,
1995 ?.), ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «E?n?aie/a
iaoea oa ina?oa: noai ? ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo» (Ee?a, 1995), ia
tha?eaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c iaaiaee 100-??//y Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo (Ee?a, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii 9 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
caaaeueiei ianyaii aeecueei 7,3 ae?oe. a?e., c yeeo iniaenoi aaoi?ia?
iaeaaeeoue 7 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue caaaeueiei ianyaii aeecueei 6,4
ae?oe. a?e.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoe?a caaaeueiei ianyaii
164 noi??iee. ?iaioa i?noeoue 13 ?ethno?aoe?e oa 27 oaaeeoeue. Nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae aeeth/a? 136 iaeiaioaaiue, o oiio /ene? 26 —
oe?a?inueeith, 50 — ?in?enueeith, 51 — aiae?enueeith, 8 — oaaaenueeith
oa 1 — /anueeith iiaaie.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «No/ania nenoaia ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaeiieie ?ano?naie»
?ice?eaa?oueny cia/aiiy aea?aaeiieo ?ano?n?a aeey aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie,
aiae?co?oueny noai e?niaeo ?ano?n?a a oaeiae noai ? oaiaeaioe??
ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaeiieie ?ano?naie, iaaiaeeoueny aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea
iniiaieo aeaiaio?a nenoaie ?aaoethaaiiy ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaeiieie
?ano?naie.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «Iaoiaee/i? i?eioeeie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
ei?enooaaiiyi e?niaeie ?ano?naie» ?icaeyaeathoueny aeiiii?/i? canaaee
aoaeoeaiiai ei?enooaaiiy e?niaeie ?ano?naie a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee
oa iaoiaeieia?/i? i?eioeeie aaaaoioe?eueiaiai ?o aeei?enoaiiy, ia oe?e
iniia? ia??oioiaothoueny oe?e? ? iai?yiee aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
e?niaeie ?ano?naie. A ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny iniiai? ?ino?oiaioe
aea?aeaaii? e?niai? iie?oeee oa ?o canoinoaaiiy aeey ?aaoethaaiiy
ei?enooaaiiyi aea?aaeiieie ?ano?naie a e?a?iao c ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? «Nenoaia ?aaoethaaiiy ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaeiieie
?ano?naie» cai?iiiiiaaia no?oeoo?a nenoaie ?aaoethaaiiy ei?enooaaiiy
aea?aaeiieie ?ano?naie, ui ?aoe?iiaeueii ii?aeio? i?aaia?,
aaei?i?no?aoeai? oa aeiiii?/i? caniae aieeao, a oaeiae iaoiaeeea
?aaoethaaiiy ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaeiith c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoa??ae?a
Aea?aeaaiiai e?niaiai eaaeano?o.

O aeniiaeao iaaaaeaii iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
oa i?iiiceoe??, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??

Oe?a?inuee? e?ne ? aacith ooieoe?iioaaiiy e?niaiai eiiieaeno —
ae?iaie/i-aeiiii?/ii? ?aeiino? aaeocae, ui caaacia/othoue a?aeoai?aiiy
e?nine?iaeiieo ?ano?n?a, ei?enooaaiiy e?nii ? ?aoe?iiaeueio i?iieneiao
ia?a?iaeo ne?iaeie c iaoith caaeiaieaiiy iio?aae a e?niiaoa??aeao,
i?iaeoeoe?? ia aea?aaeii?e iniia? ? iineoaao e?no. E?niaee eiiieaen ?
aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith /anoeiith ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno
Oe?a?ie. Eiai ieoiia aaaa o aaeiaiio aioo??oiueiio i?iaeoeo? neeaaea?
2,8%, a iueiio caae?yii 1,4% o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a Oe?a?ie.

Iiieo ia aea?aaeio a Oe?a?ii ia? cia/io aeanoe/iinoue. A ia?iiae
aeiiiii/ii? e?ece cieaeaiiy ianyaia niiaeeaaiiy einii?iaeoeoei?
aiaeaoaa?oueny oaeaeoeie oaiiaie, iiae niaae aaeiaiai iaoeiiiaeueiiai
i?iaeoeoo, i, a iniiaiiio, ca ?aooiie nooo?aiai nei?i/aiiy iiii?oo. I?e
a?aeiiaeaii? caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiai ianyao ae?iaieoeoaa aei ??aiy 1990
?. a 2010-2015 ??. Oe?a?i? ui??/ii iio??aii aoaea aeiaeaoeiai aeecueei
20   aea?aaeie oa e?niiaoa??ae?a (a ia?a?aooieo ia e?oaeee e?n).

Aeoiaey/e ?c cacia/aieo aniaeo?a, e?niaeiiii?/ia iaoea ciaia’ycaia
?ic?iaeoe ? cai?iiiioaaoe iai?yie ei??iiiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy
ainiiaea?nueeiai iaoai?cio, ye? caaacia/eee a ?ioaineo?eaoe?th
ae?yeueiino? e?niaiai naeoi?a aeiiii?ee aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
caaeiaieaiiy iiieoo a aea?aaei? ia ia?niaeoeao ca ?aooiie aeaniiai
ae?iaieoeoaa.

E?ne Oe?a?ie caeiathoue 15,9% oa?eoi???, ia iaeiiai aeeoaey i?eiaaea?
0,18 aa ? 22,5 , ui noaaeoue Oe?a?io ca oeeie iieacieeaie ia iaeia c
inoaii?o i?noeue o ?a?ii?. Ca oaeeo oiia aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy e?niaeo
?ano?n?a iaaoaa? iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino?. I?aeia?iaei? ni?anoaaeaiiy
aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aeniiaee, ui Oe?a?ia ia? iecueeee ??aaiue
aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?niiai iioaioe?aeo e?n?a (a?aenioie e?n?a, ye?
aenieoaoothoueny, nooi?iue aeei?enoaiiy /enoiai i?e?inoo).

Aeaeaea a?ae iioeiaeueii? a?eiaa no?oeoo?a oe?a?inueeeo e?n?a coiiaeth?
cia/io ieoiio aaao aea?aaeie a?ae ?oaie, iia’ycaieo c aaaeaiiyi e?niaiai
ainiiaea?noaa. Iayai?noue cia/ii? e?eueeino? na?aaeiueia?eiaeo ?
i?enoeaath/eo ianaaeaeaiue i?eaaaea a iaaeaeaeiio iaeaooiueiio aei
ca?eueoaiiy ianyao aieiaiiai ei?enooaaiiy. I?iaiice aeeiai?ee ianya?a
aieiaiiai ? i?ii?aeiiai ei?enooaaiiy iieacothoue iiaeeea?noue eiai
ca?eueoaiiy c 13  a 1990 ?. aei 14-15   a 2010 ?. Oaeoe/i? aeai? uiaei
aeeiai?ee ianya?a ?oaie iieacothoue i?ioeeaaeio oaiaeaioe?th. C 1990 ii
1997 ??e ianyae caaio?ae? aea?aaeie a Oe?a?i? nei?ioeeenue ia 27%.

Iniiaieie aeaiaioaie nenoaie ?aaoethaaiiy ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaeiith ?
i?aai?caoe?y e?niaiai oiiaeo, iai?ioe ? a?ee ?oaie, a oaeiae iaoai?cie
ii?ioaaiiy ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaeiith.

Aiae?c canoinoaaiiy i?eioeei?a iiae?eo e?niaiai oiiaeo ia ainiiaea?nuee?
iaeeieoe? o i?aeoeoe? e?niaii?yaeiiai i?iaeooaaiiy iieaco?, ui aiii
aaaea aei iaia??oioiaaiiai iiae??aiaiiy e?niaiai oiiaeo, oiio i?eioeeie
oa iaoai?cie ooai?aiiy ainiiaea?nueeeo iaeeieoeue iio?aaothoue nooo?aiai
aaeineiiaeaiiy. Ieiua oae caaieo «iniaeeai caoenieo ae?eyiie» e?niaiai
oiiaeo, aeeeth/aieo c aieiaiiai ei?enooaaiiy, a Oe?a?i? noaiiaeoue
aeecueei 40% ae?eoeo e?niaith ?ineeii?noth caiaeue. I?e caa?aaeaiii
inioth/i? i?aeoeee iiaeieo einia ia eaoaai?i? oa inioth/iai ?aaeeio
aaaeaiiy ainiiaea?noaa a einao, aeeeth/aieo c aieiaiiai ei?enooaaiiy, a
ia?niaeoeai neiae /aeaoe iiai?oaiiy aieiai? no?oeoo?e, naiioa?iiai
noaio, iineaaeaiiy aeieiaicaoenieo ooieoeie einia.

Iieacieeaie, ui nooo?ai aieeaathoue ia ?acoeueoaoe e?niainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino?, ? iai?io ?oaee ? a?e ?oaee. A inoaii?o ?aaeyinueeeo
e?niaii?yaeieo ?ino?oeoe?yo a?aenooi? /?oea oeoia/aiiy oa?i?io «a?e
?oaee», ui aeiionea? iaiaeiicia/ia ?icoi?iiy ? aeei?enoaiiy oeueiai
iiiyooy. Iniiaith aeey anoaiiaeaiiy iai?ioo (a?eo) ?oaee ? noeae?noue,
oiaoi oaeee noai e?no, a yeiio a?i o iaea?eueo?e i??? a?aeiia?aea? iao?
aaaeaiiy ainiiaea?noaa. ?nioth/? aeaee noeaeinoae ii»-??ciiio
a?aoiaothoue /eiieee e?niainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa. A ?aaeyinueeiio
e?niaii?yaeeoaaii? ca iniiao aeey anoaiiaeaiiy a?e?a ?oaie
aeei?enoiaoaaeany oaoi?/ia noeae?noue, yea ?aii?oaaea oae? /eiieee
ae?iaieoeoaa, ye aeo?aoe ? eai?oae, caa’ycaiee o ae?iaieoeoa?.

A aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiae?ciaaii iaoiaee ii?ioaaiiy ei?enooaaiiy
aea?aaeiith. C?iaeaii aeoeaio ia aeinyaiaii? iaeaeuiai aeiiii?/iiai
aoaeoo.

Aeey ?ice?eooy i?iaeaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy e?niaeie ?ano?naie a
oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee aaaeeeaei ? ?icoi?iiy ?oo?eieo nee, ui
ea?othoue iiaaae?ieith ae?iaieea (i?eaaoiiai aeanieea aai ei?enooaa/a),
caeiyoiai o e?niainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa?.

Ca?aeii c oai???th aenieoaoaoe?? a?aeiiaethaaieo i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a,
iaeeieoeth a?iiane, oiaoi eai?oaeo, ?iaanoiaaiiai o ae?iaieoeoai,
a?aie/iee i?e??no yei? iaioee a?ae ii?ie ?ioa?ano, aeioe?euei?oa
aeeo/eoe ? ?a?iaanooaaoe a ?icoe?aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa aai a ?ioee naeoi?
aeiiii?ee. ? iaaiaee, iiee a?aie/iee i?e??no a?eueoee, i?ae ii?ia
?ioa?ano, aea?aei?oa ca?eueooaaoe caian a?iiane, oiaoi ?iaanooaaoe. A
canoinoaaii? aei e?niei?enooaaiiy a?aeiia?aeieeii ?ioaineaiino?
ei?enooaaiiy ? iai?io ?oaee, yeee anoaiiaeth?oueny ca a?eii noeaeino?.
Iioeiaeueiee c aeiiii?/ii? oi/ee ci?o a?e noeaeino? (o?iainiaa
noeae?noue) ieae/ee, i?ae noeae?noue, i?e ye?e e?n aea? iaeneiaeueiee
iiaeeeaee aeio?ae (noeae?noue ca e?niaith ?aioith). Oiio iioeiaeueiee c
aeiiii?/ii? oi/ee ci?o ianya caaio?ae? caaaeaee iaioee a?ae iaeneiaeueii
iiaeeeaiai.

Oaeei /eiii, no/ania oai??y aenieoaoaoe?? a?aeiiaethaaieo i?e?iaeieo
?ano?n?a i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeniiaee, c?iaeai? ua ia ii/aoeo ieioeiai
noie?oy E. ?aaaioeiaii (1801), A. Eai?aii (1813), E. Aoiaeanaaaaiii
(1821), I. Oaonoiaiii (1848).

Aeiaeaaoe a iiaeaeue aenieoaoaoe?? a?aeiiaethaaieo ?ano?n?a I. Oaoa?a
?io?, oae caai? «iaaeaeei?» ei?eniino?, ooieoe?y aa?oino? yeeo a?ae
caiano a?iiane ia? aeno?aioi i?e a?eueoeo cia/aiiyo a?aoiaioa, i?ae
ooieoe?y ?inoo a?iiane, ie io?eiaee aeiiii?/ii iioeiaeueia ??oaiiy i?e
a?eueoeo cia/aiiyo a?aoiaioa, oiaoi i?e ieae/iio ??ai? aenieoaoaoe??
aea?aaeiieo ?ano?n?a aai aeiaoeo iai?ioao ?oaee.

Iiaeeeaino? e?niaeo ?ano?n?a ii iaeii/aniiio noai?aiith (ae?iaieoeoao)
??cieo aeae?a ei?eniinoae ? iaiaaeaieie. Aeaa /e a?eueoa aeae?a
ei?eniinoae iiaeooue aooe ii a?aeiioaiith iaeei aei iaeiiai:
iacaeaaeieie (noi?nieie), /anoeiai noi?nieie, ianoi?nieie.

Ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie aeai?o c ??ciiiai?ooy ae?iaie/eo aeueoa?iaoea
iiaeeeaa ca aeiiiiiaith i?eaaaeaiiy on?o aeae?a ei?eniinoae aei iaei???
nenoaie aei??o, oiaoi ae?aaeaiiy an?o aeae?a ei?eniinoae a a?ioiaiio
aea?aaeaio? ? i?iaeaia aeai?o ae??oo?oueny iaenei?caoe??th ooieoe??
noia?ii? ei?eniino?.

Aeey oiai, uia ioe?iee ??cieo ei?eniinoae, aeaea?aeii yeeo ? e?nia?
?ano?ne, iiaee aooe a?aoiaai? aeanieeii (ei?enooaa/ai) a oiiaao ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee, oe? ei?eniino? iiaeii? aieeaaoe ia ?acoeueoaoe eiai
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?. Nooiiiue a?aooaaiiy oi?? /e iioi?
ei?eniinoi i?ae /an i?eeiyooy ainiiaea?nueeeo ?ioaiue caeaaeeoue aiae
i?eaooeo, yeee i?eiineoue aiaeiiaiaeia ei?eniinoue aeanieeiai
(ei?enooaa/aai). Oiio c aeiiii?/ii? oi/ee ci?o ei?eniino? e?no iiaeooue
aooe (?en. 1): o?iainia? (oiaa?i?), ui aacothoueny ia ae?iaieoeoa?
aea?aaeie; aeueoa?iaoeai? o?iainia? (oiaa?i?); iao?iainia? (iaoiaa?i?).

?en. 1: Aca?iiaei? iiae oeiiiinoyie, iniaaie, yei i?eeiathoue ?ioaiiy, i
caniaaie oi?aaeiiiy

Ine?eueee iaa?oue ca oiia ?nioaaiiy ia’?eoeaii? ioe?iee ia an? aeaee
ei?eniinoae iiaeooue aooe a?aoiaai? aeanieeii (ei?enooaa/ai) e?niaeo
?ano?n?a i?e aeai?? ainiiaea?nueeeo aeueoa?iaoea a oiiaao ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee, ia?aaoeueiaaiee ?eiie ia iiaea caaacia/eoe nioe?aeueii
iioeiaeueiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ??cieie aeaeaie oiaa??a ? iineoa
(ei?eniinoae), ui ae?iaeythoueny ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy e?niaeo
?ano?n?a. Oiio a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee iaiao?aeia aea?aeaaia
?aaoethaaiiy e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa.

Ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa ia caia?a/othoueny ia?aaaae
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee uiaei aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa, iaeiae aecia?oueny
?? iani?iiiaei?noue aeinyaoe nioe?aeueiiai iioeioio a aeayeeo noa?ao.
Oiio a a?eueoino? aea?aeaa e?niaa ainiiaea?noai iacaeaaeii a?ae oi?ie
aeaniino? aaaeaoueny ia ?eieiaeo canaaeao ? a oie aea /an ? ia’?eoii
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy (e?niai? iie?oeee) (?en. 1).

Iaiao?aei?noue ao?o/aiiy aea?aeaae a i?ioeane ei?enooaaiiy i?e?iaeieie
?ano?naie, cie?aia e?niei?enooaaiiy, ia aeeeeea? caia?a/aiue. Aaaeeeaei
ieoaiiyi caeeoa?oueny eeoa i??a ? nooi?iue oaeiai ao?o/aiiy, a oaeiae
iaa?? aeiionoeieo cania?a ? aaeain i?ae «aei?noeeie» —
aaei?i?no?aoeaieie oa «i’yeeie» — aeiiii?/ieie ? ?eieiaeie caniaaie.

A aeena?oaoe?? ia iniia? aea/aiiy e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, e?niaiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa 10 ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i, NOA oa Eaiaaee, iieooaaiiy,
i?iaaaeaiiai caniaaie INTERNET na?aae iaoeiaoe?a ? i?aeoee?a,
i?iaiae?ciaaii canoinoaaiiy iniiaieo cania?a e?niai? iie?oeee a e?a?iao
c ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith.

Na?aae i?aaiaeo cania?a (ye? ? iaia’yceiaeie) iaeaaaeeea?oei ? nenoaia
i?aa uiaei aieiae?iiy ? ei?enooaaiiy e?niaeie ?ano?naie Oai, aea i?aaa
ia ?ano?ne /?oei aecia/ai?, ? aeeeth/ieie ? aeiaaino?ieiaeie, ?eiie
caaacia/o? iiaeeea?noue aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?n?a. E?niaa
caeiiiaeaanoai aeeth/a?, ye i?aaeei, e?niaee caeii, ui aecia/a? iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy e?niai? iie?oeee, a oaeiae iaa?? i?aecaeiiieo aeo?a, ui
aeaoae?cothoue oe? iieiaeaiiy aei eiie?aoieo noa? ? i?aeoe/ieo
canoinoaaiue.

Ana /ano?oa ciaoiaeyoue canoinoaaiiy aeiiii?/i? (aeia?ia?euei?) caniae
?aaoethaaiiy e?niainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?, oae?, ye caioi/aiiy,
eiiiainaoe??, noeioee ? a?aioe, iiaeaoee oa ca?eueiaiiy a?ae iiaeaoe?a.
Ooieoei?th oaeeo iino?oiaioia ? ia?aaaaeaiiy ciaiioiio aoaeoia o
aioo?ioii (internalisation of externalities).

Aea?aaeia iaeaaeeoue aei «o?iainiaeo» oe?iiinoae, ye? o?aaeeoe?eii
iai?iththoueny ia ?eieo ? i?eiinyoue i?eaooie aeanieeo
?ano?n?a/ae?iaieeo, aaciina?aaeiuei aieeaath/e ia i?eeiyooy ieie
ainiiaea?nueeeo ??oaiue a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. O ia?aaaaei?e
a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a iia?/i? aoaeoe, oa?aeoa?i? aeey iaaeineiiaeiai
?eieo, a e?niaiio ainiiaea?noa? i?eaiaeyoue aei ia?aae?iaieoeoaa
aea?aaeie ca ?aooiie ?ioeo oe?iiinoae ? ia?aaeniaaeaiiy e?niaeo
?ano?n?a. E??i oiai i?eaaoia ii?ia ?ioa?ano aeua ca noni?eueio ? oea a
ii?aeiaii? c iaaecae/aeii aeiaaei ia??iaeii ae?iaieoeoaa, iane?aeeii
yeiai ? niia?eueiaiee cai?ioiee ca’ycie, aaaea aei caa?ice cia/ieo
oeeee?/ieo eieeaaiue a aenieoaoaoe?? aea?aaeiieo ?ano?n?a. C iaoith
caiia?aaiiy ia?aaeniaaeaiiy e?niaeo ?ano?n?a, caaacia/aiiy iaiao?aeiiai
??aiy ae?iaieoeoaa «iaaeaeeieo» oe?iiinoae, ae??aithaaiiy
e?niei?enooaaiiy a /an? aeei?enoiaothoueny iaiaaeoaaeuei? caoiaee
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o oa i?yiee ? iiina?aaeeiaaiee aieea
aeiiii?/ieie iaoiaeaie.

I?yi? aaei?i?no?aoeai? iaiaaeaiiy uiaei ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaeiith
iae/ano?oa noinothoueny i?i?iaeueii aeiionoeiiai a?eo ?oaee ?/aai
iai?ioo ?oaee, iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeii? ca ieiuath aai caianii ??/ii?
e?nin?ee, i?i?iaeueiiai caiano aea?aainoai?a ia i?ioyc? iai?ioo ?oaee,
caai?iie iaaieo niinia?a ?oaie, caai?iie ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaeiith ia
iaaieo ae?eyieao.

Oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy iathoue caniae o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiai aieeao. Aiie
iathoue i?eoeeueiee?a /a?ac oa, ui ?o cae?eniaiiy aeaoaaoa ? i?ino?oa
aeey ?aae?caoe??. Aeiiii?/i? caniae i?yii? ae?? canoiniaothoueny o
aeiaaeeao, eiee c oeo /e ?ioeo i?e/ei iaiiaeeeai aai iaaaaeaii
canoiniaoaaoe i?yia aaei?i?no?aoeaia ao?o/aiiy a i?aaa ?icii?yaeaeaiiy
i?eaaoiith aeani?noth, aai aeey noeioethaaiiy aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy
iayaiiai caiano aea?aaeie.

O ca’yceo c aeiaaei ia??iaeii ae?iaieoeoaa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeo?ao ?
aeioiae?a, iniaeeai ia ?aii?o noaae?yo ae?iaie/iai oeeeeo, e?eoe/ii
aieeaa? ia e?ioeaaee ?acoeueoao. Oiio aeiiii?/i? caniae iiina?aaeeiaaii?
ae?? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey aieeao ia ia?aiao?e e?niainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? ia ??cieo noaae?yo ae?iaie/iai oeeeeo c iaoith ci?ieoe a
aaaeaiiio iai?yi? ainiiaea?nuee? ??oaiiy aeanieea uiaei ei?enooaaiiy
aea?aaeiieie ?ano?naie, a naia iai?io ?oaee ? ?ioaineai?noue
ei?enooaaiiy.

Aaaeeeaei caaaeaiiyi uiaei ?aoi?ioaaiiy e?niaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie ?
?iciaaeoaaiiy ainiiaea?nueeiai ? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy e?niaeie
?ano?naie. Oaea ?iciaaeoaaiiy a oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii? iiaeiii noinoaaoeny
ye no?oeoo?e oi?aae?iiy, oae ? nenoaie caeiiiaeaa/eo ? ii?iaoeaieo
aeo?a. Ia?oi/a?aiaei caaaeaiiyi ? oi?ioaaiiy caeiiiaeaa/i? aace, ui
caaacia/eea a iiaeeea?noue aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy e?niaeie ?ano?naie a
oiiaao ieth?ae?cio oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy, a, a ia?niaeoea?, iiaeeeai, ?
oi?i aeaniino? ia e?nia? ?ano?ne.

Nenoaia aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy e?niei?enooaaiiy a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo
aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee iiaeiia iaoe ca iaoo: caaacia/aiiy ??aiii??iiai
iaaeniaaeeeaiai e?niei?enooaaiiy, caiia?aaiiy iaaaoeaiiai aieeao
ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaeiith ia ae?iaieoeoai «iao?iainiaeo» oe?iiinoae,
caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaiiai ? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?n?a
aea?aaeie. Aiia iiaeiia ?aoe?iiaeueii ii?aeioaaoe i?aaia?,
aaei?i?no?aoeai? oa aeiiii?/i? caniae aieeao ? neeaaeaoeny c oaeeo
aca?iiiia’ycaieo /anoei, ye ?ioi?iaoe?eia caaacia/aiiy, i?aai?caoe?y
e?niaiai oiiaeo, anoaiiaeaiiy iai?io?a oa a?e?a ?oaie, ?aaoethaaiiy
ianya?a ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaeiith.

A no/anieo oiiaao aeey ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy e?niaeie ?ano?naie iaiao?aeiee ia?ao?ae aei aea??eiaeo
(noaoenoe/ieo) iaoiae?a ?iaaioa?ecaoe??. Aaaeeeaeie iieacieeaie,
iaiao?aeieie aeey aiae?co noaio ? aecia/aiiy no?aoaa?? ei?enooaaiiy
aea?aaeiith, ? iioi/iee i?e??no oa ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i a?eiao no?oeoo?o
e?n?a a ?ic??c? eean?a a?eo.

A aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiae?ciaai? no/ani? i?eioeeie anoaiiaeaiiy a?e?a ?oaie
? c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui aiie ia a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiaai ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee ? iio?aaothoue nooo?aiai aaeineiiaeaiiy. Cai?iiiiiaaii
?icae?eeoe i?i?iaeueiee aeiionoeiee a?e ?oaee ? a?e iai?ioo ?oaee,
ooi/ieoe aecia/aiiy iia’ycaieo c a?eii ?oaee iiiyoue.

?nioth/ee i?aeo?ae aei anoaiiaeaiiy ?ic?aooieiai? e?nin?ee, ii?aeioth/e
a nia? aeaiaioe ainiiaea?nueeiai oi?aae?iiy e?niaei ainiiaea?noaii ?
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy e?niaeie ?ano?naie, ? a?aeia?aaeaiiyi iaoiae?a
eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaii? aeiiii?ee. sse aeaiaio aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy e?niaeie ?ano?naie ?ic?aooieiaa e?nin?ea iiaeiia aecia/aoe
iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeiee ??aaiue ?oaie aeey eiaeiiai e?niei?enooaa/a c
oi/ee ci?o caa?aaeaiiy caoenieo, aeieia?/ieo, nioe?aeueieo ooieoe?e
e?no. Ieaiiaee ?ici?? ?oaie ia iiaeiai ia?aaeuoaaoe ?ic?aooieiai?
e?nin?ee.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iaie nenoaia iaiaaeaiue aeey aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
e?niei?enooaaiiy aeeth/a?:

i?i?iaeueiee a?e ?oaee aeey eiaeiiai e?ninoaio, yeee nai ii nia?
iaiaaeo? ?ici?? ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaeiith iayai?noth e?ninoai?a, noa?oeo,
i?ae i?i?iaeueii aeiionoeiee a?e ?oaee;

iaeneiaeueiee ianya aieiaiiai ei?enooaaiiy, yeee ? aeiaeaoeiaei
iaiaaeaiiyi, iai?aaeaiei ia ae??aithaaiiy e?niei?enooaaiiy a /an?;

iiaeaoie ia caian ia?ano?eieo e?ninoai?a, iiaeeeaeo aeey aenieoaoaoe??.

Oaeei /eiii, ?aaoethaaiiy ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaeiieie ?ano?naie a oiiaao
?eieo aoaea neeaaeaoeny c «aei?noeeo» iaoai?ci?a aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai
aieeao ? «i’yeeo» aeiiii?/ieo iaoai?ci?a, ui aeicaieeoue caaacia/eoe
aacia?a?aia, iaaeniaaeeeaa ? ?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy aea?aaeiieo
?ano?n?a.

Aiae?c canoinoaaiiy i?eioeeio iaaeniaaeeeaiai ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaeiith
aei ??cieo ia’?eo?a (e?ninoai, a?ioeaiic, ainiiaea?nueea naeoe?y,
ainiiaea?nueea /anoeia, e?niaee oiiae i?aei?e?inoaa, e?ne ?aa?iio, e?ne
aea?aeaae) c ??cieo oi/ie ci?o (ae?iaieoeoai aea?aaeie, «aeueoa?iaoeaieo
o?iainiaeo» oe?iiinoae oa «iao?iainiaeo» oe?iiinoae, ui i?iaeoeo? e?n),
aeicaiey? i?eeoe aei aeniiaeo, ui aeioe?eueiei aoaea canoinoaaiiy aeiia
iaaeniaaeeeaino? aei iaeneiaeueiiai ianyao aieiaiiai ei?enooaaiiy ia
??ai? ?aa?iio, iai?eeeaae, iaeano?. Iaea?eueo aeioe?eueiei ?aaoeyoi?ii
iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeiiai ianyao e?niei?enooaaiiy, iniaeeai a oiiaao
e?nin?/iiai ainiiaea?noaa, ? ieiua, ae?oaoaaia ca iaaiee ia??iae,
iai?eeeaae, ??e, aai aeey ae??aieo e?niei?enooaa/?a — i’yoe??//y /e
aeanyoe??//y.

?icaeyiaii nenoaio M ainiiaea?nueeeo naeoe?e, aea K — aeiaaeeia eeano
a?eo, Nj — e?euee?noue eean?a a?eo ? K×Nj a?e iai?ioo ?oaee j-?
ainiiaea?nueei? naeoe??, sij — ieiua i-ai eeano a?eo j-? ainiiaea?nueei?
naeoe??, iiaeaenaoeiy eeania aieo cai?ioiy, oae, ui sjN — ieiua ia?oiai
eeano, a sj1 — ieiua eeano iai?ioo ?oaee i anio noa?oeo eeania aieo.
Aeey aeiaaeeo, eiee aiee iai?ioo ?oaee iaeiaeiai aeey anio
ainiiaea?nueeeo naeoeie, aoei aeiaaaeaii, ui ?ici?? ei?enooaaiiy,
aecia/aiee ca oi?ioeith

caaacia/eoue iaaeniaaeeea?noue ei?enooaaiiy aeey nenoaie ainiiaea?nueeeo
iaeeieoeue ? aoaea ia iaioei, i?ae noia ?ici???a ei?enooaaiiy,
aecia/aieo ?c canoinoaaiiyi aeiiae iaaeniaaeeeaino? aei eiaeii? c
ainiiaea?nueeeo iaeeieoeue iacaeaaeii.

Iai?ioe ?oaie oa i?i?iaeuei? a?ee ?oaie aeey ??cieo ainiiaea?nueeeo
naeoe?e iiaeooue cia/ii eieeaaoeny, ui ? iaiaaeaiiyi aeey canoinoaaiiy
iaaaaeaieo o oi?ioe? (1) ia/eneaiue aeey aa?aaoaaiiy a?aei?iieo ca a?eii
?oaee ainiiaea?nueeeo naeoe?e. Aea ine?eueee ne?aeoaaiiy oiia?
iaaeniaaeeeaino? aaaea eiaeio ainiiaea?nueeo naeoe?th aei ??aiii??iiai
?iciiae?eo ca eeanaie a?eo ia i?ioyc? ia??iaeo iai?ioo ?oaee,
i?eionoeii, ui

Oaia?, aeey nenoaie c P e?niei?enooaa/?a ?aa?iio iaeneiaeueia ieiua,
aeiionoeia aeey ui??/ii? ae?oaee, iiaea aooe ?ic?aoiaaia oaeei /eiii:

Iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeiee ianya ei?enooaaiiy, aecia/aiee aeey ?aa?iio ca
(3) ? ?iciiae?eaiee i?ae ei?enooaa/aie i?iii?oe?eii iayaiino? noeaeeo ?
ia?ano?eieo e?ninoai?a, iaaea? ei?enooaa/aa? iiaeeea?noue aeai?o i?ae
??cieie e?ninoaiaie. Aeey iiia?aaeaeaiiy iaeiinoi?iiiuei? aenieoaoaoe??
a ia?oo /a?ao «e?aueo» aeey e?nicaaio?aaeueieea e?ninoai?a a eiiieaen? c
iaiaaeaiiyi iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeii? ieiu? aieiaiiai ei?enooaaiiy iiaeia
cai?iiiioaaoe iiaeaoie ia caian aai ieiuo e?ninoai?a, a?e yeeo ia?aaeuo?
a?e iai?ioo ?oaee a?eueoa, i?ae ia iaeei aai aeaa eeane a?eo. Oaeee
iiaeaoie i?eioneoue e?niei?enooaa/?a i?e iiaeeeaino? aeai?o
aeei?enoiaoaaoe a ia?oo /a?ao e?ninoaie noa?oiai a?eo, ye? iathoue
iaioee i?e??no ? a??oa aeeiiothoue nai? aeieia?/i? ooieoe??.

Aieea nenoaiiiai aoaeoo ia ?ic?aooiie iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeiiai ??aiy
aieiaiiai ei?enooaaiiy aea/aany iaie ia i?eeeaae? A?iieoeueei? oa
Noinueei? iaeanoae c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoa??ae?a aaieo aeaieo «E?niaee
oiiae Oe?a?ie», aeooae?ciaaiiai noaiii ia 1 n?/iy 1996 ?. ii
i?aei?e?inoaao, i?aeii?yaeeiaaieo Aea?aeaaiiio eii?oaoia? e?niaiai
ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie oa iaoa??ae?a Aea?aeaaiiai e?niaiai eaaeano?o ii
an?o e?niei?enooaa/ao iacaaieo iaeanoae.

?ic?aooiee e?nin?e ??aiii??iiai ei?enooaaiiy, ca noeae?noth,
ianiaaeath/eo e?nin?e, oa aa?aaiaaii? ianiaaeath/i? e?nin?ee ii an?o
ainiiaea?nueeeo iaeeieoeyo i?aei?e?inoa, i?aeii?yaeeiaaieo Aea?aeaaiiio
eii?oaoia? e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa, iieacaee iayai?noue cia/iiai
nenoaiiiai aoaeoo.

Ii??aiyiiy ?ic?aooieo noie ianiaaeath/eo e?nin?e ? aa?aaiaaii?
ianiaaeath/i? e?nin?ee ca iaoa??aeaie aaieo aeaieo «E?niaee oiiae
Oe?a?ie» (84% aeey A?iieoeueei? ? 30% aeey Noinueei? iaeanoae) oa
Aea?aeaaiiai e?niaiai eaaeano?o (a?aeiia?aeii 76% oa 28% — oaae. 1)
aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy iaoa??ae?a
Aea?aeaaiiai e?niaiai eaaeano?o aeey aecia/aiiy iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaiai
??aiy aieiaiiai ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaeiieie ?ano?naie ia ??ai? ?aa?iio
(iaeano?).

Canoinoaaiiy ?ic?aooie?a ca cai?iiiiiaaiith noaiith aei e?niaiai oiiaeo
iaeano?, oiaoi c a?aooaaiiyi ia o?eueee i?aei?e?inoa, i?aeii?yaeeiaaieo
Aea?aeaaiiio eii?oaoia? e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa, a e ?ioeo
e?niei?enooaa/?a iieacaei, ui nenoaiiee aoaeo aeey «?ioeo ei?enooaa/?a»
ia?aaeuo? 100%, a aeey iaeano? a oe?eiio a?i aeuee i?ae ie?aii aeey
i?aei?e?inoa, i?aeii?yaeeiaaieo Aea?aeeiie?nainio Oe?a?ie (oaae. 1).

Oaaeeoey 1: ?ic?aooiee iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeiiai ?ici??o ei?enooaaiiy ca
ieiuath c ??cieie ??aiyie aa?aaoaaiiy ca iaoa??aeaie Aea?aeaaiiai
e?niaiai eaaeano?o,

Iieaciee Iaeano?, ei?enooaa/?

A?iieoeueea Noinueea

AeEEA ?io? ?acii AeEEA ?io? ?acii

Noia e?nin?e ca ainiiaea?nueeeie naeoe?yie

  ??aiii??iiai ei?enooaaiiy 1,55 0,73 2,27 2,15 1,07 3,22

  ca noeae?noth 1,30 0,83 2,12 1,08 0,54 1,62

  ianiaaeath/eo 0,61 0,26 0,88 0,85 0,20 1,05

Aa?aaiaaia aei ??aiy iaeano? ianiaaeath/a e?nin?ea 1,08 0,57 1,77
1,08 0,54 1,62

Nenoaiiee aoaeo 76% 117% 102% 28% 168% 54%

Ii??aithth/e aa?aaiaaio e?nin?eo ? noio ianiaaeath/eo e?nin?e ca
ainiiaea?nueeeie iaeeieoeyie c e?nin?eith ??aiii??iiai ei?enooaaiiy,
iiaeia i?eeoe aei aeniiaeo, ui aa?aaiaaia e?nin?ea ? a?eueo preferable,
ine?eueee aiia aeeae/a aei e?nin?ee ??aiii??iiai ei?enooaaiiy ?
ne?aeoaaiiy ?e oaeaeoa i?eaaaea aei ??aiii??iiai ei?enooaaiiy
aea?aaeiith.

Aeniiaee

1. Aiae?c na?oiaiai aeina?aeo oa no/aniiai ??aiy aeei?enoaiiy e?niaeo
?ano?n?a Oe?a?ie aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui Oe?a?ia ia? iecueeee
??aaiue aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?niiai iioaioe?aeo e?n?a.

2. Iaeiei c aieiaieo caaaeaiue e?niaeiiii?/ii? iaoee ? ?ic?iaea oa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy caoiae?a ei??iiiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy ainiiaea?nueeiai
iaoai?cio e?niainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ye? caaacia/eee a
?ioaineo?eaoe?th aaeocaai? ae?yeueiino? aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
caaeiaieaiiy iiieoo ia aea?aaeio ca ?aooiie aeaniiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

3. Ca?aeii c oai???th aenieoaoaoe?? a?aeiiaethaaieo i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a
iioeiaeueiee c aeiiii?/ii? oi/ee ci?o ianya caaio?ae? caaaeaee iaioee
a?ae iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaiai ? iaa?iaii i?iii?oe?eiee aei ii?i ?ioa?ano,
oiio i?e a?aenooiino? ?aaoethaaiiy iiaeeeaa neooaoe?y, eiee aeiiii?/ii
aea?aeiei aoaea aenieoaoaoe?y oiaa?iiai ?ano?no (aea?aaeie) aei iiaiiai
aeniaaeaiiy.

4. Iiaeeeaino? e?niaeo ?ano?n?a ii iaeii/aniiio noai?aiith ??cieo aeae?a
ei?eniinoae ? iaiaaeaieie, iniaeeai yeui oe? ei?eniino? ? /anoeiai
noi?nieie, aai ianoi?nieie. Ine?eueee a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee ia an?
aeaee ei?eniinoae aieeaathoue ia ?acoeueoaoe ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? (aeathoue i?eaooie ae?iaieeia?), ia?aaoeueiaaiee ?eiie ia
iiaea caaacia/eoe nioe?aeueii iioeiaeueia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ??cieie
aeaeaie ei?eniinoae. Oaeei /eiii, a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee iaiao?aeia
aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy ei?enooaaiiy e?niaeie ?ano?naie.

5. Aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy e?niaeie ?ano?naie (aea?aeaaia e?niaa iie?oeea)
cae?enith?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith aa?iii?eiiai ii?aeiaiiy
aaei?i?no?aoeaieo, i?aaiaeo, o?iainiaeo oa ?eieiaeo cania?a aieeao ia
e?niaeaniee?a/e?niei?enooaa/?a o iai?yi? ni?yioaaiiy ?o aei aaaeaiiy
e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa c a?aooaaiiyi nioe?aeueieo iio?aa.

6. I?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaeiith aeeth/a? iaiaaeaiiy, ui
noinothoueny i?i?iaeueii aeiionoeiiai a?eo ?oaee ?/aai iai?ioo ?oaee,
iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeii? ca ieiuath ??/ii? e?nin?ee, caai?iie iaaieo
niinia?a ?oaie, aai ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaeiith ia iaaieo ae?eyieao.

7. Aeiiii?/i? caniae i?yii? ae?? ia?aaeaa/athoue cia/i? ca?eueiaiiy a?ae
iiaeaoe?a aeey e?niaeaniee?a, eio?? aaaeooue ainiiaea?noai ca
caoaa?aeaeaiei aea?aeaaiith e?niaith neoaeaith e?niainiiaea?nueeei
ieaiii, yeee na?aae ?ioeo iieaciee?a aeeth/a? ? ??aaiue ei?enooaaiiy
aea?aaeiith.

8. Aeiiii?/i? caniae iiina?aaeeiaaii? ae?? iiaeii? ia?aiineoe iiaeaoee
ia e?ioeaa? noaae?? ae?iaie/iai oeeeeo, ia?aaeaa/aoe noaneae?? ia
e?nia?aeiiaeaiiy, e?nieoeueoo?i? ? no?aoia? oiiaee, ye?, aieeaath/e ia
aeiiii?/i? ia?aiao?e ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?, ci?ithaaoeiooue o
aaaeaiiio iai?yi? ainiiaea?nuee? ??oaiiy aeanieea uiaei ei?enooaaiiy
aea?aaeiieie ?ano?naie, a naia iai?io ?oaee ? ?ioaineai?noue
ei?enooaaiiy.

9. ?nioth/a nenoaia ?aaoethaaiiy ei?enooaaiiy e?niaeie ?ano?naie a
Oe?a?i? ii?aeio? a nia? ooieoe?? ainiiaea?nueeiai ? aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy, /ei i?aeoe/ii caa?aaea ?ene eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai
aieeao ia ainiiaea?thth/? noa’?eoe: athaeaeaoia o?iainoaaiiy iniiaieo
aeae?a ?ia?o, aea?aeaaia oi?ia aeaniino? ia e?ne, oeaio?ae?ciaaia
ii?ioaaiiy a?aeoai?aiiy oa ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaeiieie ?ano?naie.

10. Nenoaia aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy e?niei?enooaaiiy a oiiaao
ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee iiaeiia iaoe ca iaoo: caaacia/aiiy
??aiii??iiai iaaeniaaeeeaiai e?niei?enooaaiiy; caiia?aaiiy iaaaoeaiiai
aieeao ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaeiith ia ae?iaieoeoai «iao?iainiaeo»
oe?iiinoae; caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaiiai ? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
?ano?n?a aea?aaeie. Nenoaia iiaeiia neeaaeaoeny c oaeeo aca?iiiia’ycaieo
/anoei: ?ioi?iaoe?eia caaacia/aiiy; i?aai?caoe?y e?niaiai oiiaeo; a?ee
oa iai?ioe ?oaie; ?aaoethaaiiy ianyao ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaeiith.

11. Nenoaia ?aoi?ioaaiiy ainiiaea?nueeiai iaoai?cio iiaeiia aeeth/aoe:
?iciaaeoaaiiy ainiiaea?nueeiai ? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy e?niaeie
?ano?naie, oi?ioaaiiy aaeaeaaoiiai ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai caaacia/aiiy,
nenoaie iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, a oaeiae nenoaie aeiiii?/ieo aaaeae?a oa
noeioe?a. Aea?aeaaiee i?aai oi?aae?iiy e?niaeie ?ano?naie iiaeiai
caeiaoeny o?eueee iaaeyaeii ? eiio?ieai ca aeei?enoaiiyi e?niaeo
?ano?n?a on?ia e?niaeanieeaie (ei?enooaa/aie), o oiio /ene? a
aea?aeaaieo e?nao.

12. Aeey iiaiioe?iiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy e?niaeie ?ano?naie iaiao?aeia nooo?aa ooi/iaiiy iiiyo?eiiai
aia?aoo (iai?io ?oaee, a?e ?oaee ? oaea ?ioa), cai?iaaaeaeaiiy nenoaie
?iaaioa?ecaoe?? e?n?a aea??eiaeie iaoiaeaie, aecia/aiiy iioi/iiai
i?e?inoo e?n?a, aaaeaiiy Aea?aeaaiiai e?niaiai eaaeano?o iaeii/anii c
Aea?aeaaiei caiaeueiei eaaeano?ii.

13. Nenoaia a?aeianaiiy ae?eyiie e?niaiai oiiaeo aei a?oi e?n?a ?
eaoaai??e caoeniino? oa iniaeeai caoenieo ae?eyiie aeiaaa? ia?aaeyaeo a
iai?yi? onoiaiiy iaaei??ii? ?o e?eueeino?. A a?eueoino? ae?eyiie, aea
caai?iiaia i?iaaaeaiiy ?oaie aieiaiiai ei?enooaaiiy, aeioe?eueiei iiaeia
aaaaeaoe ia?ao?ae aei ?aaeeio aea??eiaeo oa aocueeie?nin?/ieo ?oaie c
iaoith a/anii? cai?ie e?ninoai?a ye c oi/ee ci?o iineeaiiy ?o caoenieo
ooieoe?e, oae ? c oi/ee ci?o ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy aea?aaeie.

14. Aeiiae ??aiii??iino?, aacia?a?aiino? ? iaaeniaaeeeaino? uiaei
iaeneiaeueiiai ianyao aieiaiiai ei?enooaaiiy ye ?ino?oiaioa aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy e?niaeie ?ano?naie, aeioe?eueii canoiniaoaaoe aei ?aa?iio
(iaeano?). Iaea?eueo aeioe?eueiei ?aaoeyoi?ii iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeiiai
ianyao e?niei?enooaaiiy ? ieiua, ae?oaoaaia ca iaaiee ia??iae (??e,
i’yoe??//y, aeanyoe??//y).

15. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aeicaiey? cae?enithaaoe ?ic?aooiie
ianiaaeath/iai ianyao ei?enooaaiiy aeey nenoaie ainiiaea?nueeeo
iaeeieoeue c ??cieie iai?ioaie ?oaee c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoa??ae?a
Aea?aeaaiiai e?niaiai eaaeano?o. ?ic?aooiee ia i?eeeaae? A?iieoeueei? ?
Noinueei? iaeanoae iieacaee, ui nenoaiiee aoaeo i?e canoinoaaii?
iaeiaeiaeo aeiia iaaeniaaeeeaino? aei ainiiaea?nueeeo naeoe?e ? aei
nenoaie a oe?eiio iiaea neeaaeaoe a?ae 30 aei 80% aeey i?aei?e?inoa,
i?aeii?yaeeiaaieo Aea?aeeiie?nainio Oe?a?ie ? a?ae 50 aei 100% aeey an?o
e?niei?enooaa/?a.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo aaoi?ii i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

[1] Poliakov M. Ukrainian Forest Sector and Market for Timber Products.
WP-95-116. — Laxenburg: IIASA, 1995. — 35 pp.

[2] Iieyeia I. I., Aaeiai *. A. Iaoiaeieia?/i? aniaeoe aeiaaino?ieiaeo
i?iaiic?a ae?iaieoeoaa ? niiaeeaaiiy e?niiaoa??ae?a // Oi?ioaaiiy
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?. — E.: Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee aeiiii?/iee
?inoeooo, 1996. — Aei. 3. — C. 172-184.

[3] Iieyeia I. I. ?aca?ae ?ioaineo?eaoe?? e?niei?enooaaiiy // Oi?ioaaiiy
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?. — E.: Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee aeiiii?/iee
?inoeooo, 1996. — Aei. 3. — C. 235-241.

[4] Iieyeia I. I. Oe?a?ia a ?a?iiaenueeiio ?eieo e?niiaoa??ae?a //
E?n?aie/a iaoea oa ina?oa: noai ? ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo. — E.: IAO, 1997.
— C. 42-44.

[5] Iieyeia I. I., Iieyeia I. A. Aei ioe?iee no/anii? nenoaie
oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? e?niaiai oiiaeo // E?n?aie/a iaoea oa
ina?oa: noai ? ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo. — E.: IAO, 1997. — C. 47-51.

[6] Iieyeia I. I. Oi?aae?iiy e?niei?enooaaiiyi a oiiaao ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee: ia?niaeoeae aeei?enoaiiy a Oe?a?i? aeaiaio?a oaaaenueei?
nenoaie // Oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?. — E.:
Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee aeiiii?/iee ?inoeooo, 1997. — Aei. 4. — C. 136-141.

[7] Iieyeia I. I. Nenoaiiee aoaeo aa?aaoaaiiy e?nin?e a oi?aae?ii?
e?niaeie ?ano?naie ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai? // Iaoeiaee a?niee
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. — E.: IAO, 1998. — Aei. 8. —
C. 213-220.

[8] Iieyeia I. I. Oi?aae?iiy ei?enooaaiiyi e?niaeie ?ano?naie ia
?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai? // Oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?. — E.:
Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee aeiiii?/iee ?inoeooo, 1998. — Aei. 5. — C. 215-223.

[9] Iieyeia I. I. Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aeaiaio?a nenoai ?aaoethaaiiy
ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaieie ?ano?naie a e?a?iao c ?eieiaeie aeiiii?eaie //
Oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?. — E.: Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee
aeiiii?/iee ?inoeooo, 1998. — Aei. 6. — C. 193-201.

Aiioaoe?y

?aaoethaaiiy i?ioean?a ei?enooaaiiy a?aeiiaethaaieie i?e?iaeieie
?ano?naie (ia i?eeeaae? aea?aaeiieo ?ano?n?a). ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.02.03 — I?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy, ieaioaaiiy ?
?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?eith. — Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee aeiiii?/iee ?inoeooo
I?iaeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiae?ciaaii c aeiiii?/ii? oi/ee ci?o aeaiaioe ae?th/i?
nenoaie oi?aae?iiy e?niei?enooaaiiyi: oa?eoi??aeueio i?aai?caoe?th
e?niaiai oiiaeo, iai?ioe ?oaie, iaoiaee ii?ioaaiiy ei?enooaaiiy
aea?aaeiith. Iieacaia a?aei?ii?noue i?aeoiae?a aei aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy ei?enooaaiiy e?niaeie ?ano?naie a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee
a?ae i?aeoiae?a, ye? aoee i?eoaiaii? eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeai?e
aeiiii?oe?. I?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c oe?eae ? cania?a e?niai?
iie?oeee a e?a?iao c ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith oa e?a?iao c ia?ao?aeiith
aeiiii?eith c iaoith aecia/aiiy oaiaeaioe?e a i?aeoiaeao aei
?aaoethaaiiy ei?enooaaiiy e?niaeie ?ano?naie. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea
?aaoethaaiiy iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeiiai ??aiy ei?enooaaiiy aea?aaeiieie
?ano?naie ia ??ai? ?aa?iio ? ioe?iaia iiaeeea?noue ?? canoinoaaiiy c
aeei?enoaiiyi ?nioth/iai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy, e?niei?enooaaiiy, aeiiii?/i?
canaaee, i?aaia? iniiae, aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy.

Aiiioaoeey

?aaoee?iaaiea i?ioeannia iieueciaaiey aiciaiiaeyaiuie i?e?iaeiuie
?ano?naie (ia i?eia?a ae?aaaniuo ?ano?nia). ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.02.03 — I?aaiecaoeey oi?aaeaiiey, ieaie?iaaiey e
?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieeie. — Iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee yeiiiie/aneee
einoeooo Ieiyeiiiieee Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?iaiaeece?iaaiu n yeiiiie/aneie oi/ee c?aiey yeaiaiou
aeaenoaothuae nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey eaniiieueciaaieai: oa??eoi?eaeueiay
i?aaiecaoeey eaniiai oiiaea, iai?iou ?oaie, iaoiaeu ii?ie?iaaiey
iieueciaaiey aeaaaneiie. Iieacaii ioee/ea iiaeoiaeia e ainoaea?noaaiiiio
?aaoee?iaaieth iieueciaaiey eaniuie ?ano?naie a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee io iiaeoiaeia, eioi?ua auee i?enoue
eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiie yeiiiieea. I?iaaaeai n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec
oeaeae e n?aaenoa eaniie iieeoeee a no?aiao n ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie e a
no?aiao n ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieeie n oeaeueth ii?aaeaeaiey oaiaeaioeee a
iiaeoiaeao e ?aaoee?iaaieth iieueciaaiey eaniuie ?ano?naie. ?ac?aaioaia
iaoiaeeea ?aaoee?iaaiey iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeiiai o?iaiy iieueciaaiey
ae?aaaniuie ?ano?naie ia o?iaia ?aaeiia e ioeaiaia aiciiaeiinoue a?
i?eiaiiaiey n eniieueciaaieai nouanoaothuaai eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
iaacia/aiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea, eaniiieueciaaiea, yeiiiie/aneea
i?eioeeiu, i?aaiaua iniiau, ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea.

Abstract

Regulation of processes of renewable natural resources utilisation (on
the example of timber resources). Manuscript.

Dissertation for a Candidate of Economical Sciences degree by speciality
08.02.03 — Organisation of Management, Planning and Regulation of
Economy. — Scientific-Research Economical Institute of the Ministry of
Economics of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the development of mechanism and means of
regulation timber resources utilisation in Ukraine for the conditions of
market economy.

Forest sector is an important part of the national economy. It’s share
in NMP is 2.8%. Approximately 1.4% of labour resources is employed in
forest sector. The demand for timber and forest products is
characterised by significant elasticity. During recent economic crisis
consumption of timber and timber products was decreasing slower than NMP
and merely by reducing share of import. But if production will be
restored to the level of 1990 Ukrainian economy will need additionally
20 mln. m3 of timber in terms of roundwood annually.

The comparative study of the forest resources exploitation levels in
European countries and in Ukraine had shown that potential of Ukrainian
forests is utilised with low efficiency.

Economic analysis of key elements of existing forest resources
management system was conducted. Existing practice of forest fund
organisation leads to its unnecessary fragmentation and high share of
forests excluded from timber utilisation. Principles of rotation ages
establishment do not take into account all the productive factors and
need to be reviewed.

The goals and directions of the state regulation of timber resources
utilisation were explored. With the aid of the renewable natural
resources exploitation model applied to the forest resources and
analysing the nature and interactions between goods and services
produced by forest there were shown the main reasons why forestry
operating in conditions of perfect (unregulated) market gives results
deviating from the socially optimal ones. Thus, the goals of the state
regulation are maintenance of «financial» values (e.g. timber)
sustainable utilisation and stimulation of «intangible» values
production even by limiting utilisation of the former.

There was conducted comparative study of goals and means of state forest
policies in countries with market economy and countries with economy in
transition. The main features and development directions of forest
policies are splitting supervision and management functions of state
forestry authorities; unified approach to supervision of forest
management in private, community and state forests; balanced use of
administrative and economical means with the tendency to deregulation
and increasing role of economical means.

On the base of analysis there were developed proposals concerning
reformation the system for regulation timber resources utilisation as
the part of state forest resource management system. The main its
components are: informational base, system of forest fund territorial
organisation, rotation ages, principles and methods of maximum allowable
cuts determination.

Appropriate informational support of state forest resource management
requires clarification of some concepts connected with rotation and cut
ages. There also needed introduction of statistical methods to the
system of national forest inventory, determination of current annual
increment in course of national forest inventory.

The system of allocation of forest parcels to forest groups and
categories of protection requires its reviewing toward reducing quantity
of these categories. In the most of parcels where timber utilisation is
prohibited conducting of selective and narrow strip fellings could be
considered as appropriate both from the ecological and economical point
of view.

There was proposed system for regulation timber resources utilisation
which combines administrative and economical management means:
limitation of minimum allowed cutting age, maximum allowed cut and tax
on the volume of overmature stands.

Analysis of application sustainability principle to the timber resources
utilisation on the different objects and from the different points of
view allowed to conclude that the most reasonable solution for
regulation maximum allowable cut is limitation of maximum cutting area
for each forest owner (holder) determined aiming the sustainable timber
utilisation on the regional level.

The method for determination of such maximum allowable cutting area
based on aggregation of individual forest management unit within region
(oblast) was developed. Application of sustainability principles to the
oblast level instead of its independent application to each forest
management unit leads to the system effect resulting in higher and more
even over time allowable cut.

There was evaluated the possibility to use the method with the existing
informational base. Calculations on the examples of Vinnytska and Sumska
oblasts had shown that the system effect could reach 50-100%.

Key words: natural resources utilisation, forest utilisation, economical
principles, legal basics, state regulation.

Eiieia A. A., Iienaaa I. A., Aeaienaiei I. E. Iioeiecaoeey ?acia?a
eaniiieueciaaiey aeey nenoaiu oicyenoaaiiuo naeoeee // Eaniia oicyenoai.
— 1981. — N 9. — C. 11-17.

PAGE 1

Похожие записи