5

I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

EE?ANUeEEE IAOe?IIAEUeIEE AEIIII?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

EIIIIAONUeEA EA?ENA AANEE?AIA

OAeE 336.71

?AAOETHAAIIss AAIE?ANUeEI? Ae?ssEUeIINO? A OE?A?I?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.04.01 — o?iaine, a?ioiaee ia?a ? e?aaeeo

AAOI?AOA?AOaeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiyeaiaeeaeaoa
aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

EE?A — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aaie?anueei? ni?aae Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Naaeoe Ieoaeei ?aaiiae/,

Oe?a?inueea o?iainiai-aaie?anueea oeiea i?e

Ee?anueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio aeiiii?/iiio

oi?aa?neoao?, aee?aeoi?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?Neaoeuenueeee
Ieeiea ?aaiiae/,Eii?oao Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie c ieoaiue

athaeaeaoo, eiinoeueoaio

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Iia??i Aaea??e Ieoaeeiae/,Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee
oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?iain?a

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo aeiiii?/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy

IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e o?iainiaiai i?iaiicoaaiiy

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «3» a?oaeiy 1999 ?. i 16 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.006.02 Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 252057, i. Ee?a, I?iniaeo
Ia?aiiae, 54/1, aoaeeoi??y 214.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «29» aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A.I.Iiaeae??ueia?i

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeENA?OAOeIEII? ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeaia o??th ?ieeth, yeo ii/aea
a?ae?a?aaaoe aaie?anueea nenoaia Oe?a?ie a aeiiii?oe? ia?ao?aeiiai
ia??iaeo. Niaoeeo?ea aaie?anueeiai naeoi?a aeiiii?ee iio?aao? iineeaiiai
eiio?ieth ? iaaeyaeo c aieo aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a ?aaoethaaiiy.
Ae?yeuei?noue aaie?a caaacia/o? i?iaaaeaiiy ?ic?aooie?a a aeiiii?oe?,
aeoioeyoe?th a?ioiaeo eioo?a ? iiaeaeueoa aeei?enoaiiy ?o aeey
e?aaeeooaaiiy noa’?eo?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy, aieeaa? ia noaa?euei?noue
a?ioae, ia ooieoe?iioaaiiy an?o naeoi??a o?iainiaiai ?eieo, ia aeeiai?eo
?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?ioeano. Aaiee aa?ooue ia naaa iniiaio /anoeo ?ecee?a,
ye? ?niothoue ia o?iainiaiio ?eieo.

Aieiaieie oe?eyie ?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino? ? i?aeo?eiea
noaa?eueiino? aaie?anueei? nenoaie, eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua na?aae
aaie?a oa caoeno ?ioa?an?a aeeaaeiee?a ? e?aaeeoi??a. Ae??oaiiy naia
oeeo caaaeaiue aeicaieeoue, c iaeiiai aieo, aoaeoeaii aeeiioaaoe aaieaie
nai? aieiai? ooieoe??, a c ae?oaiai — caaacia/eoe no?ee?noue ?
aeeiai?/iee ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee. sse na?ae/eoue i?aeoeea,
naia a ia??iae noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ye?nii iiaiai (?eieiaiai) aoaio
ooieoe?iioaaiiy e?aaeeoii? nenoaie aaie?anueea ?aaoethaaiiy
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iniaeeaith neeaaei?noth ? aeiaaa? ae??oaiiy oe?ei?
iecee noia?a/eeaeo i?iaeai. Ioaea, iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaeie e
aeooaeueieie ? ieoaiiy aecia/aiiy ? i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy iaoai?ci?a
oa ?ino?oiaio?a aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino?,
aaeaeaaoieo noaio aeiiii?ee. Iaaaaeai? a?aoiaioe aecia/eee aea?? oaie
aeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeine?aeaeaiith i?iaeai a?ioiai-e?aaeeoii? iie?oeee, aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy a?ioiaei ia?aii, o?iainaie, ie?aieo ieoaiue ?aaoethaaiiy
aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino? i?enay/ai? ?iaioe aaaaoueio a?o/eciyieo
aeiiii?no?a. I?ioa iae/ano?oa o a?o/eciyieo ioae?eaoe?yo cono??/a?oueny
aiae?c ?aaoethaaiiy ie?aieo aaie?anueeeo iia?aoe?e aai iaaieo aniaeo?a
a?ioiai-e?aaeeoii? iie?oeee. A oie aea /an i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?
eiiieaenia, anaa?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino?, ?? aeae?a i?iyao oa ?ino?oiaio?a aieeao ia
ae?yeuei?noue eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a, iniaeeai a oiiaao ia?ao?aeiiai
ia??iaeo.

O nai?io aeine?aeaeaii? aaoi? nie?aany ia aeinyaiaiiy no/anii?
aeiiii?/ii? iaoee a aaeoc? noaiiaeaiiy oa iniaeeainoae ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aaie?anueei? nenoaie Oe?a?ie oa ?ioeo aea?aeaa, iaaeyaeo oa ?aaoethaaiiy
aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino?, aena?oeaieo, cie?aia, a i?aoeyo oe?a?inueeeo
a/aieo: I.?. Aa?aneaanueei?, I.A. Aecthaethea, N. Ieoaeee/aiea, A.I.
Ii?ica, O. Ion??iei, I.Ae. Ieaen??iei, E.I. I?eiinoee, I.?. Naaeoea,
I.I. Oa?iaa, A.A. THuaiea; ?in?enueeeo a/aieo A.I. Aioeiai?, I.C. Ai?a,
A.I. Aaneeeoeia, A.?. Eieani?eiaa, A.A. Eenaeueiaa, I.?. Eaa?ooeia,
?.Ae. Iaiiiiai?, A.I. Iieyeiaa, A.A. Iiiiia?ueiaa, I.A. O?ioiai?, A.I.
Onine?ia, I.A. Oe?einueei?, I.I. ssiiieueneiai; cao?aeieo a/aieo Aae.
Aeieeaia, AE. Iaooea, Iie?oeaooi A?inaioa, Ii?oa?a ?iaa?oa, A. ?eaea,
?oaeieueoa Aa?iaea, Neiiniia Oiiana, Aeae. Neiee, E. Oa???na, A. Oaiaa
oa ?ioeo.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c ieaiaie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o. Aeena?oaoe?y
aeeiiaia ye neeaaeiaa eiiieaenii? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? oaie «Aaie?anueea
nenoaia Oe?a?ie: ?? noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoie a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae aei
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee» (iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 01-96V023340), yea
?ic?iaeyeany eieaeoeaii eaoaae?e aaie?anueei? ni?aae Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ? ?ic?iaea iaoiaeieia?/ieo iniia,
i?aeoe/ieo oi?i ? cania?a ?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino?,
aecia/aiiy i?noey aaie?anueeiai iaaeyaeo a nenoai? aea?aeaaieo
?aaoeyoeaieo caoiae?a oa eiai aaeineiiaeaiiy ia i?aenoaa? ?acoeueoao?a
aiae?co ?nioth/i? i?aeoeee a Oe?a?i? oa aeina?aeo ?icaeiooeo e?a?i
na?oo.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? c iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy a i?ioean? aeeiiaiiy ?iaioe
aoee iinoaaeai? ianooii? caaea/?:

— ?ic?iaeoe oai?aoe/i? canaaee iiaoaeiae nenoaie ?aaoethaaiiy
aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino?, ?? noo? ? iaiao?aeiino?;

— aecia/eoe ? iaa?oiooaaoe aeaee aaie?anueeiai ?aaoethaaiiy ? iniiai?
?ino?oiaioe eiai cae?eniaiiy;

— ?icaeyiooe na?oiaee aeina?ae i?aai?caoe?? ?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei?
ae?yeueiino? ? aecia/eoe aeioe?euei?noue iieeaaeaiiy oe??? ooieoe?? a
Oe?a?i? ia Iaoe?iiaeueiee aaie Oe?a?ie;

— aeine?aeeoe ae?th/ee iaoai?ci aeiioneo eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a ia ?eiee;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe iniaeeaino? canoinoaaiiy iniiaieo aeae?a aieeao IAO ia
ae?yeuei?noue eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a;

— ?icaeyiooe ? aecia/eoe oeyoe aaeineiiaeaiiy ?aaoethaaiiy aioo??oiuei?
no?oeoo?e eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a, ?o e?aaeeoieo, aeaiiceoieo ? aaethoieo
iia?aoe?e.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? nai???aeia noa?a aeiiii?/ieo ? i?aaiaeo
a?aeiinei, ui aeieeathoue a i?ioean? ?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei?
ae?yeueiino? i?ae ?inoeoooaie aea?aeaaiiai iaaeyaeo (a inia?
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie) ? eiia?oe?eieie aaieaie Oe?a?ie.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aaie?anueea nenoaia a ?? aca?iiae?? c
aea?aeaaith ye a e?a?iao c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith (a oiio /ene? a
Oe?a?i?), oae ? a i?ia?aeieo aeiiii?/ii ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? no/ani?
aeinyaiaiiy a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo a aeiiii?/i?e iaooe? c
i?iaeai a?ioiai-e?aaeeoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ? iaaeyaeo ca aaie?anueeith
ae?yeuei?noth. Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy aaco?oueny ia aeei?enoaii?
caeii?a, i?eeiyoeo Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith Oe?a?ie, iinoaiia oa aeae?ao?a
Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a, oeac?a I?aceaeaioa, ye? ?aaeaiaioothoue
ae?yeuei?noue eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a, ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie, iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a i?aeia?iaeieo
i?aai?caoe?e. Aaoi?ii canoiniaothoueny iaoiaee nenoaiiiai aiae?co,
noaoenoe/iiai, a?ao?/iiai a?oioaaiiy, oei?caoe??, ii??aiyiiy oa a?ao?/ia
i?aaenoaaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeey aiae?co eiie?aoieo
?aaoeyoeaieo i?ioean?a ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a Oe?a?ie
aeei?enoai? iaoa??aee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie a oe?e noa??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?e oia?oa
i?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy nenoaie ?aaoethaaiiy ae?yeueiino?
eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a Oe?a?ie a iiaeo aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao. Eiie?aoii
iiaecia aeyaey?oueny o ianooiiiio:

— ooi/iaii oeoia/aiiy eaoaai??e «?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino?»
oa «iaaeyae ca ae?yeuei?noth eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a»;

— aia?oa iaoai?ci ?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino? ?icaeyiooi c
iiceoe?e ?inoeoooe?eieo oa ooieoe?iiaeueieo aniaeo?a;

— ia i?aenoaa? oe?a?inueeiai aeina?aeo iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeyaeo ca ae?yeuei?noth aaie?anueeeo onoaiia, a ia iniia?
aeina?aeo aeiiii?/ii ?icaeiaieo e?a?i ?ic?iaeaii eiie?aoi?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaeeo oi?i ?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei?
ae?yeueiino? ye ?aaoethaaiiy aeiioneo aaie?a ia ?eiee, no?aooaaiiy
aaie?anueeeo aeaiiceo?a, ?aaoethaaiiy aioo??oiuei? no?oeoo?e
eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a;

— aeaii ioe?ieo ?ie? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie ye aieiaiiai
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoeyoeaiiai i?aaio aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino?,
iaa?oioiaaia aeioe?euei?noue cae??ieaiiy ca iei iaaeyaeiaeo ooieoe?e ia
aeaiiio aoai? ?icaeoeo aaie?anueei? nenoaie;

— ?ic?iaeaia iiaa nenoaia iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei aiae?co
a?cian ieaio ? ?ioa?a’thaaiiy ea??aiee?a aaieo a i?ioean? eiai
?a?no?aoe?? oa e?oeaicoaaiiy;

— aeyaeaii neaae? oa neeuei? noi?iie ae?th/i? nenoaie iaaeyaeo ca
aaie?anueeith ae?yeuei?noth a Oe?a?i? oa iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino? ?
?aaeuei? oiiae iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy ?aaoethaaiiy e?aaeeoieo,
aeaiiceoieo ? aaethoieo iia?aoe?e eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?
aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey ?ic?iaee
i?aeoe/ieo caoiae?a c? aaeineiiaeaiiy ?aaoeyoeaiiai i?ioeano a noa??
ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a Oe?a?ie. Cai?iiiiiaai? a ?iaio?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei oi?ioaaiiy aaieaie ?aca?ao aeey a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
iiaeeeaeo ao?ao ca e?aaeeoieie iia?aoe?yie, c ieoaiue eiioeaio?aoe??
e?aaeeo?a, oi?ioaaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy oiiaeo no?aooaaiiy aeeaae?a
aeathoue iiaeeea?noue aaeineiiaeeoe ae?yeuei?noue eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a,
iie?aueoe ?o e?ea?aei?noue ? noaa?euei?noue. Ie?ai? oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee
? i?iiiceoe?? ?iaioe aeiaaaeai? aei ??aiy i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ?
aeei?enoai? a ae?yeueiino? aeaia?oaiaioo aaie?anueeiai iaaeyaeo
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoai? o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy
i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue c eo?n?a «Iia?aoe?? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a» ,
«Oeaio?aeueiee aaie ? a?ioiai-e?aaeeoia iie?oeea».

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
aeeeaaeai? a iioae?eiaaieo aaoi?ii iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
iaaiai?thaaeenue ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e aaie?anueei? ni?aae Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo o 1996-1999 ?ieao.
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aaoi?a c ieoaiue ?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino?
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiio nai?ia?? «Oi?aae?iiy
aaie?anueeeie ?eceeaie» (Ee?a, 1996), iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe??
«Oaeineiiaeaiiy ci?noo e iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy o?iainiai-aaie?anueeeo
aeenoeeie?i ca oiia ??aiaai? nenoaie ina?oe» (Ee?a, 1997).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii 4 ?iaioe
caaaeueiei ianyaii 5,1 ae. a.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e ?c 82
iaeiaioaaiue oa aeiaeaoe?a. Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 180
noi??iie, a oiio /ene? 14 oaaeeoeue, 11 ?enoie?a.

INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss OA ?ACOEUeOAOE AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, a?aeia?aaeaii iaoeiao iiaecio
oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe.

?icae?e 1 «Nooi?noue ? oe?e? ?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino?»
i?enay/aiee aecia/aiith iaiao?aeiino?, iaoe oa aeae?a ?aaoethaaiiy
aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino?.

Iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy aoaeoeaii? nenoaie ?aaoethaaiiy aecia/a?oueny
iniaeeaith ?ieeth aaie?a o aeiiii?/i?e nenoai? e?a?ie oa niaoeeo?eith ?o
ae?yeueiino? ye eiia?oe?eieo no?oeoo?.

Iniaeeao oaaao i?eae?eaii ?ice?eooth nooiino? oa iaae? aaeeaaiiy
oa?i?i?a «?aaoethaaiiy ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a» oa «iaaeyae ca
aaie?anueeith ae?yeuei?noth». I?ioean ?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei?
ae?yeueiino? a oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii? ioiieth? aeae?eueea a?aeiinii
naiino?eieo aniaeo?a: a?ioiai-e?aaeeoia ?aaoethaaiiy, iaaeyae ca
aaie?anueeith ae?yeuei?noth, aaethoia ?aaoethaaiiy, iiaeaoeiai-i?aaiaa
?aaoethaaiiy. Ia?aae eiaeiith neeaaeiaith /anoeiith oeueiai iiiyooy
noiyoue ie?ai?, oi/ ? aca?iiiia’ycai? caaaeaiiy. Ine?eueee naia iaaeyae
aaciina?aaeiuei ni?yiiaaiee ia ooieoe?iioaaiiy eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a ? a
e?ioeaaiio ?aooieo naia iaoai?ci iaaeyaeo caaacia/o? caaaeueiee
eiio?ieue ca ?o ae?yeuei?noth, oi aieiaia i?noea a ?iaio? a?aeaaaeaii
?icaeyaeo oa aeine?aeaeaiith naia oe??? neeaaeiai? /anoeie nenoaie
?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino?.

O oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii? aaie?anueeee iaaeyae iiaeeeai aecia/eoe ye
?aaoeyoeaio nenoaio aeiiii?/ieo ? i?aaiaeo caoiae?a, ye? cae?eniththoue
i?aaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee (aai ?o oiiaiiaaaeaiee i?aaenoaaiee, ye
i?aaeei, oeaio?aeueiee aaie) aeey caaacia/aiiy noaa?eueiino?, aaciaee oa
aoaeoeaiino? aaie?anueeiai naeoi?a oeyoii iaiaaeaiiy ?ecee?a
aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino?, a oaeiae noai?aiiy ?aca?a?a, aeinoaoi?o aeey
eiiiainaoe?? iiaeeeaeo ao?ao.

Aeiiii?/ia ?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino? aieeaa? ia aaiee
iiina?aaeeiaaii ? ia ia?aaeaa/a? anoaiiaeaiiy i?yieo caai?ii /e
iaiaaeaiue. ?niothoue o?e iniiai? a?oie iaoiae?a aeiiii?/iiai
?aaoethaaiiy: iiaeaoeia?; ii?iaoeai?, eiee ?ici??e iaiaaeaiue aai
i?euea, ye? aaiaeyoueny, i?ea’ycothoueny aei e?euee?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee
iia?aoe?e, ui ?aaoeththoueny; ei?eaoth/e, yeei i?eoaiaii? aio/e?noue ?
iia?aoeai?noue, iiaeeea?noue ae?yoe noeioethth/a a caeaaeiino? a?ae
neooaoe??. Aeei?enoaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo iaoiae?a ? i?a?iaaoeaith o?iainiaeo
i?aai?a, a oie /an ye ii?iaoeaieo ? ei?eaoth/eo — oeaio?aeueiiai aaieo.

Ii?iaoeai? iaoiaee canoiniaothoueny oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy oaeeo
?ino?oiaio?a aieeao, ye anoaiiaeaiiy a?ae?aooaaiue a iaai? oiiaee
e?aaeeoieo onoaiia, eiao?oe??io?a e?ea?aeiino? ? aeinoaoiino?
aaie?anueeiai eai?oaeo, a oaeiae ?ioeo iieaciee?a ? eiao?oe??io?a, ui
anoaiiaeththoueny o aeaeyae? ii?iaoea?a, iaia’yceiaeo aei aeeiiaiiy. Aei
ei?eaoth/eo iaoiae?a aieeao a?aeiinyoueny iia?aoe??, ye? aeeiio?
oeaio?aeueiee aaie ia a?aee?eoiio ?eieo /e e?aaeeoiiio ?eieo.

Ine?eueee ii?iaoeai? iaoiaee canoiniaothoueny oeyoii anoaiiaeaiiy ?
i?iaaaeaiiy ia??iaee/iiai eiio?ieth ca aeeiiaiiyi ii?iaoea?a o aeaeyae?
ni?anoaaeaiiy aeaio aaee/ei, oi oaeaee?noue ?o aieeao aeiaie? iecueea ?
aoaeo a?ae ii?iaoea?a, ui aaiaeyoueny, iiaea i?iyaeoeny /a?ac o?eaaeee
i?ii?aeie /ano. A oie aea /an ei?eaoth/ee aieea cae?enith?oueny oeyoii
i?iaaaeaiiy e?aaeeoieo iia?aoe?e oeaio?aeueiiai aaieo ? iia?aoe?e c
oe?iieie iaia?aie, ye? iiaeooue cae?enithaaoeny ia ?icnoae
oeaio?aeueiiai aaieo a iio??aieo ianyaao ? c iaaiith ia??iaee/i?noth. Ca
?aooiie aeaieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeinyaa?oueny aio/e?noue, iia?aoeai?noue ?
a?eueo oaeaeeiae?th/ee aoaeo.

Ca oa?aeoa?ii aieeao ia aaiee iiaeia aeae?eeoe oae? aeaa aeaee
?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino?: naii?aaoeyoe?y /a?ac ?eieiaee
iaoai?ci ? aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy. Ca?aeii c oai???th naii?aaoeyoe??
/a?ac ?eieiaee iaoai?ci («free banking»), ?icaeoie, eiio?ieue oa aaciaea
aaie?anueei? nenoaie iiaeeea? ? aac ?aaoethaaiiy c aieo aea?aeaae.
??ciiaeae ?eieiaiai naii?aaoethaaiiy ia? iaaiee ?yae ia?aaaa ?
iaaeie?e?a, ye? ?icaeyioo? a ?iaio?. Aea a no/anieo oiiaao a?eueo?noue
e?a?i ia iaoiaeeoueny aac aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei? nenoaie
?, ia iao iiaeyae, aoaeoeaii i?aai?ciaaiee aea?aeaaiee eiio?ieue iiaeiai
i?aai?/ii aeiiiaithaaoeny naii?aaoeyoe??th, aioo??oi?i eiio?ieai.

I?ioaeoe?ei? ? i?aaaioeai? caoiaee ? neeaaeiaeie /anoeiaie iiaeae?
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy (aeea. ?en.1). I?aaaioeai? ae?? iai?aaeai? ia
iaaeiiouaiiy iiaeeeaeo, oiaoi i?iaiicieo, iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a oiai /e
?ioiai i?ioeano (iai?eeeaae, iaieaoaae?a, e?ece). Aiie iiaeooue
aeeth/aoe:

— aeiiae aei ?ici??o ? no?oeoo?e aeaniiai eai?oaeo aaieo;

— aeiiae aei e?ea?aeiino? aaie?anueei? onoaiiae;

— aeiiae uiaei aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? aaie?anueeeo ?ecee?a (iaeneiaeueiee
?ici?? e?aaeeoo ia iaeiiai iice/aeueieea, aaeocaaa aeeaa?neo?eaoe?y
oiui);

— iaiaaeaiiy aeeiioaaieo iia?aoe?e.

?en.1. Iniiai? aeaee ?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino?

Oaeoe/ia ae?y i?aaaioeaieo caoiae?a ?aae?co?oueny oeyoii caoaa?aeaeaiiy
iaia’yceiaeo aei aeeiiaiiy ii?i. O naith /a?ao, ii?ie iiae?eythoueny ia
ooieoe?iiaeuei? oa ?inoeoooe?ei? ? i?ecia/ai? aeey ?aaoethaaiiy ?ecee?a
ca iia?aoe?yie eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a.

?inoeoooe?ei? ii?ie a?aeia?aaeathoueny a?aeiinieie aaee/eiaie, ye?
?aaoeththoue a iniiaiiio i?aai?caoe?ei? ieoaiiy, aecia/aiiy oe?eae
e?aaeeooaaiiy, iia?aoe?eio ae?yeuei?noue, ii?yaeie i?iaaaeaiiy ?aa?c?e
oiui.

Ooieoe?iiaeuei? ii?ie iathoue aecia/aia oeeo?iaa cia/aiiy ? iiaeooue
iaoe caaaeueiee aai naeaeoeaiee oa?aeoa?. Oae, ca aeiiiiiaith
naeaeoeaieo ii?i aecia/athoueny eiao?oe??ioe ?eceeo ca ie?aieie
iia?aoe?yie aaieo, a caaaeuei? ii?ie aieeaathoue ia e?aaeeoiee ?eiie
acaaae?.

I?ioaeoe?ei? caoiaee aaeeaathoueny aeey caoenoo a?ae oaea ?nioth/i?
(caa?iceeai? aeey aaieo) neooaoe??, yea iiaea ni?e/eieoe
iaieaoini?iiiaei?noue, caeoee, aaie?oonoai. Oiaoi ca aeiiiiiaith oeeo
caoiae?a cae?enith?oueny caoeno aaie?a oa ?oi?o ee??io?a a?ae iiaeeeaeo
iane?aee?a o?iainiaeo oneeaaeiaiue. Aei i?ioaeoe?eieo caoiae?a, cie?aia,
iaeaaeaoue:

— noai?aiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy oiiaeo aa?aiooaaiiy aeeaae?a o?ce/ieo
in?a;

— oi?ioaaiiy eiia?oe?eieie aaieaie ?aca?ao aeey a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
iiaeeeaeo ao?ao ca iice/eaie oa ?ioeie aeoeaaie;

— ?ao?iainoaaiiy eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a oeaio?aeueiei aaieii;

— oe?eueiaa aeiiiiiaa ?ioeo aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a oiui.

Niaoe?aeueieie i?ioaeoe?eieie caoiaeaie ia?aaeaa/a?oueny aeei?enoaiiy
??cieo aeae?a ?aca?aieo oiiae?a aai ?ioeo eioo?a oe?eueiaiai
i?ecia/aiiy. Caeaaeii a?ae ie?aiiai aaieo ? eiie?aoii? neooaoe??
iiaeooue canoiniaoaaoeny oae caai? aeiaia??i? ae??, cie?aia i?aeo?eiea
?aaoethth/eie i?aaiaie ie?aieo aaie?anueeeo onoaiia o aeaeyae?
?ao?iainoaaiiy, iaaeaiiy aa?aio?e, eoi?ae? aeoe?e oiui.

Aeaa cacia/ai? aeua niiniae ?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino?,
aacia?a/ii, o?nii iia’ycai? i?ae niaith: i?ioaeoe?ei? caoiaee
i?aeaeuothoue aeia??o aeeaaeiee?a aei aaie?anueei? nenoaie, aieeaathoue
ia noaa?euei?noue iae?iaeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino?; i?aaaioeai? — caaacia/othoue aoaeoeai?noue ia?oeo.

Ieoaiiy i?i ?ino?oiaioe oa i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino? ? /e ia iaeiaio aeine?aeaeaieie.
A?eueo?noue aaoi??a aai acaaae? iaoiaeyoue oea ieoaiiy, aai caiaeyoue
eiai aei iaoiae?a oa ?ino?oiaio?a ia?aa??ee oa aiae?co iaaieo iai?yie?a
ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a. I?ioa oaeee i?aeo?ae ? iaaeoi
caoaeaiei ? ia aea? iiaeeeaino? ?ice?eoe anth neeaaei?noue i?iaeaie
?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino?. Iniaeeai iai?eionoeiee oaeee
i?aeo?ae a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee, eiee aaiee iiaiai oeio o?eueee
oi?iothoueny ? aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy iiaeiii an?eyei ni?eyoe ?o
noaiiaeaiith, oi?ioaaiith an?o neeaaeiaeo ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaie?anueei?
nenoaie a oe?eiio, a o. /. ? iaoai?cio aaie?anueeiai ?aaoethaaiiy.

Ca ?icoe?aia o?aeooaaiiy ?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino?
na?ae/eoue ? aioo??oiy ?aei?noue eiai oe?eae oa oe?eae
a?ioiai-e?aaeeoii? iie?oeee aea?aeaae, cie?aia caaacia/aiiy
noaa?eueiino? iaoe?iiaeueieo a?ioae. Aeinyaiaiiy noaa?eueiino?
aaie?anueei? nenoaie ia ? naiioe?eeth aaie?anueeiai ?aaoethaaiiy, eiai
aeiaeaathoueny ia?aaeon?i ca?aaee caaacia/aiiy noaa?eueiino? a?ioae. Oea
coiiaeth? aioo??oi?e aca?iica’ycie ?ino?oiaio?a oa i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino? oa
a?ioiai-e?aaeeoii? iie?oeee. Oae, iai?eeeaae, anoaiiaeaiiy ii?i
iaia’yceiaiai ?aca?aoaaiiy ? ia o?eueee ?ino?oiaioii a?ioiai-e?aaeeoii?
iie?oeee, a e ae??aei ?ino?oiaioii caaacia/aiiy e?ea?aeiino? aaie?a a
nenoai? ?o aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy.

? iaaiaee, /ei a?eueoa /anoeia a?ioiaeo iioie?a i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac aaiee,
/ei aeuee ??aaiue ?o i?aai?caoe??, yeee caaacia/o?oueny caaaeyee
aoaeoeaiiio aaie?anueeiio ?aaoethaaiith, oei oe?o? iiaeeeaino?
oeaio?aeueiiai aaieo aeey aieeao ia noae?noue a?ioae, oei ae??a?oeie
aoaeooue eiai ?ino?oiaioe a?ioiai-e?aaeeoii? iie?oeee.

?ino?oiaioe ?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino? a oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii?
iiaeeeai iiae?eeoe ia aea? a?oie: ?ino?oiaioe iiiaoa?iiai ?aaoethaaiiy
oa ?ino?oiaioe aaie?anueeiai ?aaoethaaiiy. Ia caaaeath/e ia ?o o?niee
ca’ycie, eiaeio c oeeo a?oi ?ino?oiaio?a iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ie?aii.
Iai?aaeai?noue ?iaioe aeiaaa? ?icaeyaeo ?ino?oiaio?a ae?oai? a?oie. Aei
ieo, ianaiia?aae, a?aeiineoueny i?ioeaaeo?a aeiioneo aaie?a ia ?eiee,
anoaiiaeaiiy oa eiio?ieue ca aeio?eiaiiyi iaia’yceiaeo aeiiii?/ieo
ii?iaoea?a, anoaiiaeaiiy ii?i ?aca?aoaaiiy oa iia?aoe?? oeaio?aeueiiai
aaieo c ?ao?iainoaaiiy. C?icoi?ei, ui aeineoue aaaeei aecia/eoe /?oeo
iaaeo i?ae iiiaoa?ieie oa iaaeyaeiaeie ?ino?oiaioaie, ai aiie iia’ycai?
? iaaiei /eiii aieeaathoue iaeei ia iaeiiai.

Aaaeeeao ?ieue o caaacia/aii? aenieiaoaeoeaiiai aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino? ia? i?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a
?nioth/i? ?aaoeyoeaii? nenoaie.

Ia?aaeoiiaaie aoaeoeaii? i?aai?caoe?? ?aaoeyoeaii? nenoaie ?:

— iacaeaaei?noue eiio?ieueiiai i?aaio o aeeiiaii? iinoaaeaieo ia?aae iei
caaea/;

— iiaeeea?noue io?eiaiiy iei iaiao?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe??;

— aee?aeoeai?noue (ae??a?noue) cae?enithaaieo iei caoiae?a ii
a?aeiioaiith aei noa’?eoo, ui eiio?ieth?oueny;

— cai?iaaaeaeaiiy nenoaie aeiiii?/ieo naieoe?e ca ii?ooaiiy ii?i ?
i?aaee aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino?, anoaiiaeaieo /eiiei caeiiiaeaanoaii.

?icaeyaeath/e oe? aniaeoe noiniaii oiia, ye? neeaeeny a Oe?a?i?, ie
i?eeoee aei aeniiaeo uiaei aeioe?eueiino? cae??ieaiiy ieoaiue
?aaoethaaiiy oa iaaeyaeo ca aaie?anueeith ae?yeuei?noth naia ca
Iaoe?iiaeueiei aaieii. Aea ia aeeeth/aia iiaeeea?noue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?ioi? iiaeae? a caeaaeiino? a?ae iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo iie?oe/ieo oa
aeiiii?/ieo iiae?e a Oe?a?i?.

Aeey Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo, ye aieiaiiai ?aaoethth/iai i?aaio
aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino?, aaaeeeaei ieoaiiyi a no/anieo oiiaao ?
caaacia/aiiy eiai noaoono ye iacaeaaeii? onoaiiae, ni?iiiaeii?
aeeiioaaoe caaaeueiiaea?aeaai? caaaeaiiy caoenoo iaoe?iiaeueii? aaethoe
? caaacia/aiiy noaa?eueiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy e?aaeeoii? nenoaie. Ca?ac
IAO a nai?e ae?yeueiino? i?aeca?oiee o?eueee Aa?oiai?e ?aae? ? ia? i?aai
caeiiiaeaa/i? ?i?oe?aoeae, ae?th/? ii?iaoeai? aeoe i?aeoe/ii
caaacia/othoue aeineoue aenieee ??aaiue iacaeaaeiino? i?aaiaiai noaoono
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo. Cae??ieaiiy ca IAO ooieoe?e aaie?anueeiai
?aaoethaaiiy ? iaaeyaeo aea? iiaeeea?noue i?aeiyoe eiai i?aai?caoe?th ia
aeineoue aenieee ??aaiue ia’?eoeaiino?, yeee aecia/a?oueny aeinyaiooei
??aiai i?aaiai? oa aeiiii?/ii? iacaeaaeiino? naiiai IAO. sseae oey
ooieoe?y aoea ia?aaeaia ia iia’ycai?e c Iaoe?iiaeueiei aaieii no?oeoo??,
oi a?yae /e aaeaeiny a aeinyaiooe oaeiai ??aiy ia’?eoeaiino? a ??
aeeiiaii?, ine?eueee oey no?oeoo?a ia ciiaea a caaithaaoe oaeiai ??aiy
iacaeaaeiino?, ye IAO. Aaaeeeai eeoa, uia ?c i?eeiyooyi iiaiai caeiio
«I?i Iaoe?iiaeueiee aaie Oe?a?ie» ia ao?aoeoe aeinyaiooiai ??aiy eiai
iacaeaaeiino? a?ae aeeiiaa/i? ? caeiiiaeaa/i? aeaaee a ieoaiiyo a?ioiai?
iie?oeee oa ?aaoethaaiiy ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a. Iniiai?
noinoiee i?ae IAO ? a?aeiia?aeieie no?oeoo?aie aeaaee iiaeii?
?aae?coaaoeny o oi?i? ?aaoey?ieo eiinoeueoaoe?e ? ca?oiino?
oeaio?aeueiiai aaieo, a ia i?yieo aeac?aie inoaiiueiio.

Ioaea, e?ioeaaa iaoa ?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino? —
aeinyaiaiiy noaa?eueiino? aaie?anueei? nenoaie, cae?enith?oueny
ia?aaeon?i ca?aaee caaacia/aiiy noaa?eueiino? a?ioae, a ca?aeii c
Eiinoeoooe??th Oe?a?ie, naia Iaoe?iiaeueiee aaie a?aeiia?aea? ca
noae?noue a?ioae a aeiiii?oe? ? naia a?i iiaeiai a no/anieo oiiaao
cae?enithaaoe iaaeyae ca ae?yeuei?noth eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe — «?inoeoooe?ei? aniaeoe
?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i?» — ?icaeyioo? eeth/ia?
ieoaiiy, ye? iia’ycai? c ?aaoethaaiiyi aeiioneo aaie?a ia ?eiee,
?aaoethaaiiyi i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a oa
canoinoaaiiyi caoiae?a aieeao IAO ia ?o ae?yeuei?noue.

Aaaeeeaa i?noea a i?ioean? ?aaoethaaiiy aeiioneo aaie?a ia ?eiee ia?
anoaiiaeaiiy aeey ieo i?i?iaeueiiai noaiaea?oo eai?oaeo. Nai ii?iaoea
i?i?iaeueiiai ?ici??o noaoooiiai eai?oaeo ia? iiaea?eia aeiiii?/ia
i?ecia/aiiy. C iaeiiai aieo, oea ?ici?? oae caaiiai noa?oiaiai eai?oaeo,
yeee aea? ciiao aaieo ii??aiyii noaa?eueii cae?enithaaoe naith
ae?yeuei?noue o ?aieao aecia/aiiai eiai iie?oeeith naaiaioa ?eieo. C
ae?oaiai aieo — oea niin?a ?aaoethaaiiy aea?aeaaith i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy
? ?icaeoeo aaie?anueeiai naeoi?a aeiiii?ee, aai ?aaoethaaiiy e?eueeino?
aaie?a i?e caaacia/aii? ii?iaeueieo eiieo?aioieo oiia. Noa?oia? oiiae
aeey aaie?a c iaoe?iiaeueiei eai?oaeii noai?ththoueny iaeiaeia? —
?a?no?aoe?y i?e iayaiino? 1 iei. ?a?i, a a iiaeaeueoiio
aeei?enoiaothoueny ??ci? aeiiae uiaei eai?oaeo i?e e?oeaicoaaii? a
caeaaeiino? a?ae aeaeo iia?aoe?e, ui aoaeooue aeeiioaaoeny aaieii.

I?e?iaeii, ui a iaio aeiaaeeao a?aoiao?oueny eiiieaen oaeoi??a aeey
aecia/aiiy oeueiai i?i?iaeueiiai ?ici??o noaoooiiai eai?oaeo. Oea
ia?aaeon?i noai o?iainiai? ? e?aaeeoii? nenoai, ianya a?ioiaeo
eai?oae?a, ?icaeoie ? ae??a?noue nenoaie no?aooaaiiy aeaiiceo?a ?
e?aaeeoieo ?ecee?a, caeiiiaeaa/a aaca, eiie?aoia neooaoe?y noaio
aeiiii?ee ? i?iaiic ?? ?icaeoeo, iayai?noue i?aeaioiaeaieo eaae??a oiui.

?en.2. ?iciiae?e eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a Oe?a?ie ca ?ici??ii niea/aiiai
noaoooiiai eai?oaeo ia 01.01. 1999 ?ieo, iei. ?a?i.

Ia 01.01.99?. aeecueei a?eueoa 84% aaie?a (?en.2) aeeiiothoue aeiiae IAO
oa iathoue iaaeii?iaoeaiee niea/aiee noaoooiee oiiae. O?aaa caaaeeoe ia
oa, ui noaiii ia 31.03.98?. an? eiia?oe?ei? aaiee aeeiiaee aeiiae uiaei
i?i?iaeueiiai ?ici??o noaoooiiai eai?oaeo. *a?ac ianoaa?euei?noue ia
na?oiaeo o?iainiaeo ?eieao o na?ii?-aeiaoi? 1998 ?ieo a?aeaoeeny cia/i?
eieeaaiiy eo?no a?eai?, ui i?ecaaei aei ao?aoe an?ia eiia?oe?eieie
aaieaie /anoeie naiai eai?oaeo, o oiio /ene? noaoooiiai oiiaeo.
Iacaaaeath/e ia ?acoeueoaoe e?eciaeo yaeu, a?eueo?noue eiia?oe?eieo
aaie?a aeeiiothoue aeai? aeiiae IAO. A no/anieo oiiaao aeiiae c aeiioneo
aaie?anueeeo onoaiia ia o?iainiaee ?eiie Oe?a?ie c iaeyaeo ia ianyae
i?i?iaeueiiai eai?oaeo iiaeia aaaaeaoe iioeiaeueieie. C?icoi?ei, ui a
i?ioean? noaa?e?caoe?? aeiiii?ee Iaoe?iiaeueiee aaie aoaea oeth «ieaieo»
iinooiiai i?aei?iaoe, ? oea oe?eeii ni?aaaaeeeai uiaei oi?aa?naeueieo
aaie?a. Aea oe? aeiiae ia cian?i ni?aaaaeeea? noiniaii iaaaeeeeo
aaie?anueeeo onoaiia, niaoe?ae?ciaaieo ca nai?ie ooieoe?yie, ye? c
oni?oii iiaee a ianeoaiaoaaoe ie?ai? a?oie ainiiaea?noa, ui
ooieoe?iiothoue o a?aeaeaeaieo ?aa?iiao.

Oiio i?aaii??iith, ia iao iiaeyae, ? a?aaeaoe?y aeiia aei i?i?iaeueiiai
noaoooiiai oiiaeo aaie?a caeaaeii a?ae ?oiuei? niaoe?ae?caoe?? ? i?noey
ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Oae, iai?eeeaae, o ?in?? aeiiae uiaei ca?eueoaiiy
eai?oaeueii? aace ia iioe?ththoueny ia aaiee, ui ae?thoue ia i?eioeeiao
e?aaeeoii? eiiia?aoe?? (oa?ia?nuee?, naeyinuee? oiui), aeoioethth/e
a?euei? eiooe nai?o iaeiaee?a (aeoe?iia??a). Aaiee, ye? ia ciiaeooue
noi?ioaaoe noaoooiiai oiiaeo a iaiao?aeieo ianyaao, iiaeii? iaoe
iiaeeea?noue ia?aoai?eoeny ia aaiee c iaiaaeaiei eieii iia?aoe?e, ui
aeeiiothoueny ieie (aai ia oae caai? «eaac?aaie?anuee?» onoaiiae).

?aaoethaaiiy aeiioneo eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a ia ?eiee cae?enith?oueny
oaeiae ca aeiiiiiaith i?ioeano e?oeaicoaaiiy. A Oe?a?i? ia?oee aoai
e?oeaicoaaiiy eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a ?icii/aany c aaaaeaiiy a ae?th
Iieiaeaiiy «I?i ii?yaeie e?oeaicoaaiiy aaie?a a Oe?a?i?»,
caoaa?aeaeaiiai iinoaiiaith I?aae?iiy IAO ? 77 a?ae 27.03.96?. Oeei
aeieoiaioii aecia/aii ii?yaeie oa oiiae iaaeaiiy eiia?oe?eiei aaieai
e?oeaic?e ia cae?eniaiiy aaie?anueeeo iia?aoe?e. I?ioyaii 1996 ?ieo
Iaoe?iiaeueiei aaieii aoee iaaeai? e?oeaic?? on?i ae?th/ei eiia?oe?eiei
aaieai. Oiaoi, ia oie ia??iae, ia ?eiie /a?ac i?ioean e?oeaicoaaiiy aoee
aeiiouai? on? aaiee, ye? aaea ooieoe?iioaaee, a aeeiiaiiy e?oeaic?eieo
oiia aeiaaaeinue o?eueee aeey iiainoai?aieo aaie?a. Ia iao iiaeyae, yeae
a 1996 ?ioe? ? ae?th/? aaiee aoee ia?aa??ai? ? i?aeoaa?aeeee aeeiiaiiy
eiaeiiai ioieoo e?oeaicoaaiiy, oi iiaeeeai aoei a a iaeaooiueiio
oieeiooe oe?ei? iecee i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c eai?oae?caoe??th,
e?ea?aei?noth aaie?a, ye?noth aeoea?a.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaiiae I?aae?iiy IAO ?180 a?ae 09.06.97?. ooieoe??
e?oeaicoaaiiy iia?aoe?e eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a c aaethoieie oe?iiinoyie
aoee cae??ieai? ca aeaia?oaiaioii ?a?no?aoe?? oa e?oeaicoaaiiy aaie?a
IAO. O ca’yceo c oeei aeieeea iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee ?aeeiiai
ii?iaoeaiiai aeoa, ui ?aaeaiaiooaaa ae iaaeaiiy oa ?icoe?aiiy e?oeaic??
ia cae?eniaiiy aaie?anueeeo iia?aoe?e o iaoe?iiaeuei?e oa ?iicaiieo
aaethoao. A?aoiaoth/e oea, aoei ?ic?iaeaii iiaa Iieiaeaiiy «I?i ii?yaeie
aeaea/? aaieai e?oeaic?? ia cae?eniaiiy aaie?anueeeo iia?aoe?e»,
caoaa?aeaeaia iinoaiiaith I?aae?iiy IAO ?181 a?ae 06.05.1998 ?ieo.

Na?aae oe?ei? iecee i?iaeai, c yeeie noeeathoueny oe?a?inuee?
eiia?oe?ei? aaiee, i?iaeaia aioo??oiuei? i?aai?caoe?? aaieo
caeeoa?oueny, ia iao iiaeyae, iaeiaio aea/aiith. Aea anoaiiaeaiiy
i?aaeeueieo aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae aeoe?iia?aie (o/anieeaie) aaieo,
?aaeith aaieo, yea ?o i?aaenoaaey?, c iaeiiai aieo oa aeeiiaa/ei
aia?aoii aaieo (I?aae?iiyi) — c ae?oaiai, — ? aaaeeeaith /anoeiith
aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy aaieii ? a?aeiia?aeii aieeaa? ia
?acoeueoaoeai?noue eiai ae?yeueiino?. Ia i?aeoeoe? aeoaea /anoi aeieea?
aioaaii?ci o aca?iia?aeiineiao i?ae I?aae?iiyi ? ?aaeith aaieo, ui ?
aeineoue oeiiaei aeey e?a?i a ia??iae ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

Aiae?c i?aeoeee iieaco?, ui a e?ioeaaiio ?aooieo oaea neooaoe?y ?
iane?aeeii iiieeeiai? oyae ea??aiee?a i?aei?e?inoa-caniiaiee?a i?i oa,
ui aeeaaeai? a aaie eiooe ia aeoe?iia?ieo /e iaeiaeo canaaeao oi?iaeueii
caeeoathoueny a ?o ?icii?yaeaeaii? ? oiio iaaeathoue ?i i?aai aeeeooaaoe
I?aae?iith aaieo eoaee ? ye oe? (oa ?io? caeo/ai?) eiooe
aeei?enoiaoaaoe. I?e oeueiio oene ia I?aae?iiy iiaea iaoe ??ciee
oa?aeoa? ? aeaeaei ia eiaeia i?ioan?eia oa ii?yaeia ethaeeia ciiaea
/eieoe ii??. Ieoaiiy oea aeineoue neeaaeia ? iio?aao? oaaae, aea ia
ia?oiio aoai? noai?aiiy aaieo eiai ae??oaiiy iiaeeeai ciaeoe naia a
ni?aaan?ae? c eaiaeeaeaoii ia ea??ai? iinaaee aaieo, i?ae /an yei?
aeyaeyoueny ia eeoa yeino? eiai oa?aeoa?o, i?ioi?eaeaoi?noue oa iiaeeea?
noinoiee c caniiaieeaie, a ui iaeaieiai?oa, aeieeia aoiinoa?a
aca?iiaeia??e oa ia?oia?noaa, ui o iiaeaeueoiio iaoiiaeoue i?ici??noue
ae?e aaieo ? iiaeeea?noue io?eiaiiy aeiiiiiae a?ae ?aaoethth/eo i?aai?a.

O?ao?e ?icae?e ?iaioe «Ooieoe?iiaeuei? aniaeoe ?aaoethaaiiy ae?yeueiino?
aaie?a a Oe?a?i?» i?enay/aiee ieoaiiyi ?aaoethaaiiy e?aaeeoii?
ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a, ?o aeaiiceoieo ? aaethoieo iia?aoe?e.

E?aaeeoi? iia?aoe?? ? iaea?eueo iioe?aieie ? ?eceeiaaieie iia?aoe?yie o
no?oeoo?? aeoea?a eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a ? oiio ? iaeiei c aieiaieo
ia’?eo?a ?aaoethaaiiy c aieo eiio?iethth/eo i?aai?a.

?aaoethaaiiy e?aaeeoii? ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a cae?enith?oueny
aeaiia aeaeaie iaoiae?a — iiina?aaeeiaaiei aieeaii /a?ac ?aaoethaaiiy
e?aaeeoieo ?ano?n?a aaie?a ?ino?oiaioaie a?ioiai-e?aaeeoii? iie?oeee ?
i?yiei ?aaoethaaiiyi e?aaeeoieo iia?aoe?e /a?ac anoaiiaeaiiy iaaieo
ii?iaoea?a oa eiio?ieth ca ?o aeio?eiaiiyi, aecia/aiiyi i?eioeei?a
e?aaeeooaaiiy, oiia oa ii?yaeeo cae?eniaiiy ie?aieo e?aaeeoieo iia?aoe?e
oiui.

Iiina?aaeeiaaia ?aaoethaaiiy /a?ac a?ioiai-e?aaeeoio iie?oeeo IAO
cae?enith?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith oaeeo ?ino?oiaio?a ye iaia’yceiaa
?aca?aoaaiiy, iie?oeea ?ao?iainoaaiiy, iie?oeea iae?eiai? noaaee oa
?io?. Aoaeoeai?noue oeeo ?ino?oiaio?a ?aaoeyoeaiiai aieeao ia e?aaeeoio
ae?yeuei?noue aaie?a iaaecae/aeii aeniea ? ia??aeei ? ae??oaeueiith,
iniaeeai ca oiia iaaecae/aeieo o?iainiaeo ianoaaei, eiee aeieea? aino?a
iio?aaa iaaaeiiai cai?oaiiy e?aaeeoieo aeeaaeaiue aaie?a. Oaea iio?aaa
aeieeea, cie?aia, o aa?ani?-aeiaoi? 1998 ?ieo.

Iaoiae i?yiiai ?aaoethaaiiy canoiniao?oueny aaciina?aaeiuei a iaaeao
aaie?anueeiai iaaeyaeo, caaaeaiiyi yeiai a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo ?
i?i?i?caoe?y e?aaeeoieo ?ecee?a, a ioaea — i?aeo?eiaiiy e?ea?aeiino? ?
noaa?eueiino? aaie?anueei? nenoaie. I?yia ?aaoethaaiiy e?aaeeoii?
ae?yeueiino? aeeth/a? ia?aeiiee eiio?ieue o i?ioean? noai?aiiy oa
e?oeaicoaaiiy aaie?a, eiio?ieue ca aeeiiaiiyi aaieaie anoaiiaeaieo
oeaio?ae?ciaaii ii?i oa i?aaee, aeiia nai?o aioo??oi?o e?aaeeoieo
iieiaeaiue, eiio?ieue ca oi?ioaaiiyi a iiaiiio ianyao ?aca?aieo oiiae?a
i?ae e?aaeeoi? iia?aoe?? oa ?i.

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? cia/io oaaao i?eae?eaii ieoaiiyi eiio?ieth ca
eiioeaio?aoe??th e?aaeeo?a, ye? iai?aaeai? ia iaiaaeaiiy i?aeoeee
caeo/aiiy a cia/ieo ianyaao aaie?anueeeo e?aaeeoieo ?ano?n?a ie?aiith
iniaith aai a?aeiinii iaei/enaeueiith a?oiith, a oaeiae ia caoeno
?ioa?an?a aeeaaeiee?a ca aeiiiiiaith ?iciiae?eo e?aaeeo?a na?aae
oe?ieiai eiea noa’?eo?a (oa?eoi??aeueia, aaeocaaa, ca oi?iaie aeaniino?
aeeaa?neo?eaoe?y oa ?i.). Ieoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? e?aaeeo?a iiaeii?
eiio?iethaaoeny ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia e?aaeeoii? iie?oeee, ioaea i?ae /an
?aaoey?ieo ia?aa??ie oeei a?aeiioaiiyi iaiao?aeii i?eae?eyoe a?eueoa
oaaae, i?ae ?ioei eiiiiiaioai e?aaeeoiiai ii?ooaeth. I?iaeaia
eiioeaio?aoe?? e?aaeeo?a ?iciianthaeaeo?oueny ia iaeiiai iice/aeueieea,
a?oio iia’ycaieo i?ae niaith iice/aeueiee?a, aai iice/aeueiee?a, ye?
ooieoe?iiothoue ? aieeaathoue iaeei ia iaeiiai a ie?ai?e aaeoc?.
?icaeyae ? aiae?c ??cieo aeae?a eiioeaio?aoe?? e?aaeeo?a ? /anoeiith
aioo??oiuei? ?iaioe aaieo c oi?aae?iiy aeoeaieie ? ianeaieie
iia?aoe?yie. ? caaaeaiiyi ?aaoethth/iai i?aaio ? ia?aa??ea aoaeoeaiino?
i?iaaaeaiiy oeueiai aiae?co, aecia/aiiy eiai aeinoia??iino? ?
ae/a?iiino?.

Aaaeeeaa i?noea a ?iaio? caeiathoue ieoaiiy oi?ioaaiiy eiia?oe?eieie
aaieaie ?aca?a?a ca e?aaeeoieie iia?aoe?yie. I?e ?aaoey?iiio ? iiaiiio
oi?ioaaii? ?aca?ao aeeiio?oueny iaeia ?c caaea/ ?aaoethth/iai i?aaio —
i?aeaeuo?oueny e?ea?aei?noue ? noaa?euei?noue aaie?a. E??i oiai,
iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy ?aca?ao niiioea? aaiee i?iaiaeeoe a?eueo
caaaeaio e?aaeeoio iie?oeeo, oiio ui aeaea/a iice/aeueieeo c
iacaaeia?eueiei o?iainiaei noaiii iacaaacia/aiiai e?aaeeoo i?ecaiaeeoue
aei ao?aoe ?ano?n?a (a ?ici??? 50% aai 100% a?ae noie e?aaeeoo), ui
?iaeoue iiae?aia e?aaeeooaaiiy iaeii?eaaaeeaei. Ia iao iiaeyae, aeieea?
ieoaiiy uiaei aeioe?eueiino? i?e ?ic?aooieo ?ici??o ?aca?ao ciaiooaaoe
eiai ia iaaiee a?aenioie aa?oino? canoaae aai noie aa?aio?e ii aeaiiio
e?aaeeoo. Iayai?noue ye?niiai caaacia/aiiy aai iaae?eiiai aa?aiooaaiiy
aaaeaii aoei a a?aoiaoaaoe i?e aecia/aii? eeano iice/aeueieea ?
a?aeiia?aeii a?aeianoe iaaeaiee eiio e?aaeeo aei aeui? a?oie. A
ciaioaiiy aaniethoii? noie ?aca?ao ia aa?o?noue canoaae iaaaoeaii
aieeaa? ia ae??a?noue ?aca?ao ye ?ino?oiaioo caaacia/aiiy iaae?eiino?
aaie?a, oiio ui ia’?eoe canoaae, ye i?aaeei, caciathoue cia/ieo ?ecee?a,
iia’ycaieo c ioe?ieith, ci?iith eii’thieoo?e ia ?eieao oiui.

A ?iaio? oaeiae iaa?oioiaai? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei ci?ie ia??iaee/iino?
ia/eneaiiy ?ici??o ?aca?ao (?ac ia i?nyoeue); ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei ie?aieo eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a a ieoaiiyo anoaiiaeaiiy
no?ie?a oa ianya?a oi?ioaaiiy ?aca?a?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae an?o aniaeo?a
?o ae?yeueiino?.

?ino?oiaioii iiina?aaeeiaaiiai aieeao ia ianya e?aaeeoieo iia?aoe?e
aaie?a, yeee oe?iei canoiniao?oueny a i?aeoeoe? IAO, ? iaia’yceiaa
?aca?aoaaiiy caeo/aieo eioo?a eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a. I?aeaeuaiiy ae??aino?
oeueiai ?ino?oiaioo ?aaoethaaiiy iiaeeeai aeinyaoe, ia iao iiaeyae,
/a?ac nei?i/aiiy oa?i?io ?ic?aooieo ?aca?ao (aei 7, 10 aei?a);
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th ii?i ?aca?aoaaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeaeo aaieo,
aaethoe, oa?aeoa?o ? no?ieo aeeaaeo, oeio aeeaaeieea oa ?i.

Oe?e? aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeaiiceoii? ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eieo
aaie?a a?eueo yaii ? aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycai? c caoenoii ?ioa?an?a
ee??io?a aaie?a, i?ae i?e ?aaoethaaii? e?aaeeoii? ae?yeueiino?. A
i?ioean? ?aaoethaaiiy aeaiiceoii? ae?yeueiino? aaieo iniaeeaa i?noea
caeiathoue i?aaaioeai? caoiaee caoenoo eioo?a aeeaaeiee?a oeyoii
cieaeaiiy ?eceeiaaiino? aaie?anueeeo iia?aoe?e. Oae, iaiao?aeii ?noioii
i?aeaeueoe ?ieue nenoaie no?aooaaiiy aeaiiceo?a, ui aeanoue iiaeeea?noue
ciaioeoe aaie?anuee? ?eceee c iaeii/aniei ciaioaiiyi aaei?i?no?aoeaieo
iaiaaeaiue uiaei ae?yeueiino? aaie?a ia a?ioiaiio ?eieo.

O ?iaio? iaaaaeai? eiie?aoi? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei noai?aiiy ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie no?aooaaiiy aeaiiceo?a a Oe?a?i?. Ocaaaeueieoe
?o iiaeia ianooiiei /eiii:

— nenoaia caoenoo aeaiiceo?a iiaeiia anoaiiaethaaoeny caeiiii ? aooe
iaia’yceiaith aeey an?o aaie?a;

— oey nenoaia iiaeiia ioiiethaaoe an? aeaiiceoe ae??aieo aeeaaeiee?a ?
iaaeaaaoe iaiaaeaia iie?eooy aaeeeei aeeaaeieeai;

— ia ia?oiio aoai? ?icaeoeo nenoaia no?aooaaiiy caaacia/o? iie?eooy
aeaiiceo?a o?ce/ieo in?a, aea a i?ioean? ?icaeoeo iiaeii? aooe ioiieai?
? ?io? aeeaaee;

— oiiae no?aooaaiiy aeaiiceo?a ia? ae?yoe ye iacaeaaeia i?aai?caoe?y,
aei neeaaeo ea??aieoeoaa yei? iiaeii? aoiaeeoe i?aaenoaaieee o?yaeo,
oeaio?aeueiiai aaieo oa ?ioeo aaie?anueeeo onoaiia;

— oiiae iiaeiai a?aeiia?aeiei /eiii o?iainoaaoeny eiia?oe?eieie aaieaie
oa io?eioaaoe i?aeo?eieo aea?aeaae o aeiaaeeao iaia?aaeaa/aieo
o?iainiaeo neooaoe?e;

— i?aaeea ooieoe?iioaaiiy oiiaeo iiaeii? aooe /?oeeie ? aeicaieyoe
oiiaeo no?aooaaiiy aeaiiceo?a iia?aoeaii ?aaaoaaoe ia iiaeeea? o?iainia?
e?ecia? yaeua.

Inoaii?i aeaeii aaie?anueeeo iia?aoe?e, ?aaoethaaiiy yeeo
aeine?aeaeo?oueny a ?iaio?, ? aaethoi? iia?aoe??. Aaaeeeaith
iniaeea?noth aaethoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ? canoinoaaiiy ia?aaaaeii
aaei?i?no?aoeaieo iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy. Ca no/anieo aeiiii?/ieo oiia
niinoa??aa?oueny ia’?eoeaia oaiaeaioe?y aei i?aeia?iaeii? eiiia?aoe??
ae?iaieoeoaa oa ?icoe?aiiy i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae?, ui iaoiiaeaii
aeoiaeii i?ioeano eiioeaio?aoe?? ? oeaio?ae?caoe?? eai?oaeo ca iaae?
iaoe?iiaeueieo ei?aeii?a. Oaeei /eiii noai?ththoueny ni?eyoeea? oiiae
aeey ia?ao oeo iaoe?iiaeueieo aaetho, ye? iathoue iaea?eueoo eoi?aaeueio
ni?iiiaei?noue, noaa?euei?noue, oiaoi aenieee ??aaiue eiiaa?oiaaiino? ca
iaaeaie e?a?i-ai?oaio?a. O ca’yceo c oeei c?inoa? ?ieue iaoe?iiaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa o aecia/aii? noaoono ?iicaiii? aaethoe, ii?yaeeo ?? ia?ao
c o?aooaaiiyi iaiao?aeiino? caaacia/aiiy i??i?eoaoo ia?ao iaoe?iiaeueii?
aaethoe ? caoenoo ?? eoi?aaeueii? ni?iiiaeiino? oa a?aaoethaaiiy ?ioeo
oaeoi??a, ye? aieeaathoue ia noaa?euei?noue iaoe?iiaeueii? aaethoe. A
aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiae?ciaaii i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy
aaethoieo iia?aoe?e aaie?a a Oe?a?i?, ?ice?eoi eiai noia?a/eeaee
oa?aeoa?, ui i?iyaeany a /anoeo ci?iao e?aa?ae?caoe?? oa aei?noeeo
aaei?i?no?aoeaieo iaiaaeaiue c iaoith caiia?aaiiy /e iineaaeaiiy
aaethoieo iane?aee?a o?iainiai? e?ece.

Aeniea ?acoeueoaoeai?noue oaei? iie?oeee aaethoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy noaea
i/aaeaeiith a ia??iae na?iiaai? e?ece 1998 ?ieo. Caaino?aiiy neooaoe??
ia aaethoiiio ?eieo a oeae ia??iae i?ecaaei aei aae?ioaaeiiai iiieoo ia
i?aeaaie?anueeiio oa a??aeiaiio ?eieao. Uia noaa?e?coaaoe noaiiaeua,
caiia?aoe a?aeieeao ?iicaiii? aaethoe oa ia aeiionoeoe iiaeaeueoi?
aeaaaeueaaoe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ioiai? iaeeieoe?, Iaoe?iiaeueiee aaie
Oe?a?ie aaeea ??oo/eo aaei?i?no?aoeaieo caoiae?a uiaei iaiaaeaiiy
aaethoieo iia?aoe?e. Iniiai? c ieo:

— i?eieiaiiy iia?aoe?e c a?eueii eiiaa?oiaaiith aaethoith ia
i?aeaaie?anueeiio ?eieo ? i?iaaaeaiiy ?o aeeeth/ii ia OIAA;

— iiiiaeaiiy iaia’yceiaiai i?iaeaaeo aaethoe a?ae aenii?oieo
iaaeoiaeaeaiue o ?ici??? 50%;

— iaiaaeaiiy a?aeoeeaiue iai?iieo eo?n?a i?e iia?aoe?yo eiia?oe?eieo
aaie?a ia aacaio?aeiaiio oa aio?aeiaiio aaethoieo ?eieao;

— ciaioaiiy eiia?oe?eiei aaieai e?i?oo a?aee?eoi? aaethoii? iiceoe??;

— cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaiai ii?yaeeo aeiioneo ee??io?a ia a??aeo aeey
eoi?ae? aaethoe c aeieoiaioaeueiei i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oaeoe/iiai
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy oiaa??a oa io?eiaiiyi iineoa ii ?iii?oo;

— caai?iia aeei?enoaiiy i?aaeiieaoii? oi?ie aacaio?aeiaeo ?ic?aooie?a c
ia?aceaeaioaie ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iioe?aiiy ae?aaeeoeaii?, ?ieaniai? oi?i
?ic?aooie?a oa aa?aio?eieo ?ino?oiaio?a oiiaiiaaaeaieo aaie?a.

?icoi?th/e, ui aaaaeai? iaiaaeaiiy iiaee i?ecaanoe aei iaaaoeaieo
iane?aee?a o?ainoi?iaoe?? anueiai aaethoiiai ?eieo, IAO /?oei aecia/ea
oei/aniaee oa?aeoa? oa?i?io ae?? iaiaaeaiue, iino?eii ?o aiae?coaaa oa
ei?eaoaaa ae?th/? iaoai?cie a?aeiia?aeii aei ci?ie oiia caaeainiaaiino?
iiieoo ? i?iiiceoe?? ia aaethoiiio ?eieo aae aei iiaiiai neanoaaiiy
aaaaeaieo iaiaaeaiue.

AENIIAEE

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iniiaieo canaae aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei?
ae?yeueiino? aeaei iiaeeea?noue aeyaeoe o?e a?oie i?e/ei iaiao?aeiino?
eiai ?nioaaiiy a aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiineiao: niaoeeo?ea ae?yeueiino?
aaie?a, iaaeinoaoi?noue naii?aaoeyoe?? aaie?a /a?ac ?eieiaee iaoai?ci,
iaiao?aei?noue aeeiiaiiy iaaieo noni?eueieo caaea/ aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeyaeo.

Aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy ioiieth? an? noi?iie ae?yeueiino? aaie?a ?
?iciianthaeaeo?oueny ye ia ?inoeoooe?ei?, oae ? ia ooieoe?iiaeuei? ??
aniaeoe. Oe?ieee niaeo? ?aaoeyoeaieo caoiae?a aea? iiaeeea?noue
eeaneo?eoaaoe aeaee aaie?anueeiai ?aaoethaaiiy ia: i?ioaeoe?ei? ?
i?aaaioeai? caoiaee. I?ioaeoe?ei? ?aaoeyoeai? caoiaee
i?ae?icae?eythoueny ia niaoe?aeuei? ? aeiaia??i?, a i?aaaioeai? — ia
ooieoe?iiaeuei? ? ?inoeoooe?ei?.

?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino? cae?enith?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith
iaaieo ?ino?oiaio?a, aea?? yeeo caeaaeeoue a?ae ia’?eoa ? oe?e?
?aaoethaaiiy, a?ae nooiaith ?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. Aei
?ino?oiaio?a aaie?anueeiai ?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiinyoueny: i?ioeaaeo?a
aeiioneo aaie?a ia ?eiee, anoaiiaeaiiy oa eiio?ieue ca aeio?eiaiiyi
iaia’yceiaeo aeiiii?/ieo ii?iaoea?a, anoaiiaeaiiy ii?i iaia’yceiaiai
?aca?aoaaiiy oa iia?aoe?? oeaio?aeueiiai aaieo ii ?ao?iainoaaiith.

E?ioeaaith iaoith ?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino? ? caaacia/aiiy
noaa?eueiino? aaie?anueei? nenoaie, yea cae?enith?oueny ia?aaeon?i
ca?aaee noaa?eueiino? a?ioae. Ca?aeii c Eiinoeoooe??th Oe?a?ie
Iaoe?iiaeueiee aaie a?aeiia?aea? ca noae?noue a?ioae a e?a?i? ? oiio a
no/anieo oiiaao naia a?i iiaeiai cae?enithaaoe iaaeyae ca ae?yeuei?noth
eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a. A ?iaio? iaa?oioiaaii ? aeiaaaeaii aeioe?euei?noue
caa?aaeaiiy ?nioth/i? a Oe?a?i? i?aeoeee i?aai?caoe?? aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeyaeo ca aaie?anueeith ae?yeuei?noth /a?ac oeaio?aeueiee aaie.

A noa?? eiie?aoieo caaaeaiue c aaeineiiaeaiiy ?aaoethaaiiy ae?yeueiino?
eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a c aieo IAO a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? iniiaia oaaaa
i?eae?eaia ianooiiei ieoaiiyi:

1. Ieoaiiy aeiioneo aaie?a ia ?eiee. ?nioth/? aeiiae uiaei i?i?iaeueiiai
?ici??o noaoooiiai eai?oaeo iiainoai?aieo eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a (1 iei.
?a?i) a no/anieo oiiaao iiaeeeai aaaaeaoe iioeiaeueieie. A i?ioean?
noaa?e?caoe?? aeiiii?ee Iaoe?iiaeueiei aaieii aoaeooue iinooiiai
i?aeaeuoaaoeny aeiiae, ? oea oe?eeii ni?aaaaeeeai uiaei oi?aa?naeueieo
aaie?a. ?acii ?c oei a ?iaio? iaa?oioiaaia aeioe?euei?noue a?aaeaoe??
aeiia aei i?i?iaeueiiai noaoooiiai oiiaeo aaie?a caeaaeii a?ae ?oiuei?
niaoe?ae?caoe?? ? i?noey ooieoe?iioaaiiy, iai?eeeaae, aei aaie?a, ye?
ae?thoue ia i?eioeeiao e?aaeeoii? eiiia?aoe??.

2. O i?ioean? ?a?no?aoe?? ? e?oeaicoaaiiy eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a
?aaoethth/ei i?aaiai ne?ae iineeeoe aeiiae c ieoaiue i?aai?caoe?eii?
no?oeoo?e iiainoai?aiiai aaieo, iniaeeai ae??aino? ? eaae?iaiai
caaacia/aiiy i?ae?icae?e?a aioo??oiueiai aoaeeoo.

3. ?aca?a aeey a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy iiaeeeaeo ao?ao ca e?aaeeoieie
iia?aoe?yie oi?io?oueny eiia?oe?eieie aaieaie c yaiei a?aenoaaaiiyi a?ae
?aaeueieo iio?aa. Ne?ae anoaiiaeoe a?eueo aei?noeee eiio?ieue ca
oi?ioaaiiyi eiia?oe?eieie aaieaie ?aca?a?a i?ae e?aaeeoi? ?eceee ?
canoiniaoaaoe, a ?ac? iaiao?aeiino?, iaai? caoiaee aieeao.

Aeieeathoue noii?ae uiaei aeioe?eueiino? i?e ?ic?aooieo ?ici??o ?aca?ao
ca e?aaeeoieie iia?aoe?yie ciaiooaaoe eiai ia iaaiee a?aenioie aa?oino?
canoaae aai noie aa?aio?e ii aeaiiio e?aaeeoo. Iayai?noue ye?niiai
caaacia/aiiy aai iaae?eiiai aa?aiooaaiiy aaaeaii aoei a a?aoiaoaaoe i?e
aecia/aii? eeano iice/aeueieea ? a?aeiia?aeii a?aeianoe iaaeaiee eiio
e?aaeeo aei aeui? a?oie.

Aeioe?eueii aoei a i?aaiai iaaeyaeo a?aoiaoaaoe an? aniaeoe ae?yeueiino?
eiie?aoiiai eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo ? ?ic?iaeoe ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee i?aeo?ae
uiaei aeiia aei no?ie?a ? ianya?a oi?ioaaiiy ?aca?a?a.

4. I?iaeaie, iia’ycai? c e?aaeeoiith ae?yeuei?noth aaie?a. C aieo
?aaoethth/eo i?aai?a ia’?eoii aea/aiiy ? eiio?ieth ? noai e?aaeeoiiai
ii?ooaeth eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a. Aaaeeeao ?ieue a i?ioean? cieaeaiiy
e?aaeeoieo ?ecee?a a?ae?a?athoue ieoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? e?aaeeo?a. O
?iaio? iaaeai? eiie?aoi? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeyaeaiiy oa aiae?co iiaeo
oi?i e?aaeeoieo eiioeaio?aoe?e.

Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy iathoue ieoaiiy oi/iiai aecia/aiiy ye naiei aaieii,
oae ? ?aaoethth/ei i?aaiii iaeaaeiino? iice/aeueieea aei eaoaai???
?inaeaea?a. A ie?aieo aeiaaeeao aeioe?eueii iaaeaoe aaieo i?aai
a?aoiaioiaaiiai aecia/aiiy iaeaaeiino? oiai /e ?ioiai ee??ioa aei a?oie
?inaeaea??a i?e e?aaeeooaaii?. Oaeiae aeeeeea? noii?a i?aaii??i?noue
i?aeoeee aeiaaeueiiai iaiaaeaiiy e?aaeeooaaiiy ?inaeaea??a i?e aeeiiaii?
aaieii aei oaeiai iice/aeueieea an?o i?oaeaioe?eieo ii?i (ye aioo??oi?o
aeiia, oae ? aeiia IAO).

Iaiao?aeii cae?enithaaoe eiio?ieue c aieo ?aaoethth/eo i?aai?a ca
?ic?iaeith oa aaeineiiaeaiiyi aioo??oi?o aeieoiaio?a eiia?oe?eieo
aaie?a, ye? ?aaoeththoue ?o e?aaeeoio ae?yeuei?noue.

5. A?aeiiaeaiiy aeia??e aei aaie?a c aieo aeeaaeiee?a — o?ce/ieo in?a. O
ia??iae o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ii? e?ece ainaie 1998 ?ieo a?aeo?e aeeaae?a
ianaeaiiy o iaoe?iiaeuei?e aaetho? c aaie?a noaiiaea 15% a?ae caaaeueii?
noie aeeaae?a. Aeioe?eueiei ? ae??oaiiy an?o ieoaiue c i?iaeai noai?aiiy
? ooieoe?iioaaiiy Oiiaeo aa?aiooaaiiy aeeaae?a ianaeaiiy, a oaeiae
a/aniiai ia?a?aooaaiiy aianeo eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a aei Oiiaeo,
?ic?aooieiaa noia yeiai noaiiaeoue 19132 oen. a?i.

Nenoaia caoenoo aeaiiceo?a iiaeiia anoaiiaethaaoeny caeiiii ? aooe
iaia’yceiaith aeey an?o aaie?a. Ia ia?oiio aoai? ?icaeoeo nenoaia
no?aooaaiiy caaacia/o? iie?eooy aeaiiceo?a o?ce/ieo in?a, aea a i?ioean?
?icaeoeo iiaeii? aooe ioiieai? ? ?io? aeaee aeeaae?a. Oiiae no?aooaaiiy
aeaiiceo?a ia? ae?yoe ye iacaeaaeia i?aai?caoe?y, aei neeaaeo
ea??aieoeoaa yei? iiaeii? aoiaeeoe i?aaenoaaieee o?yaeo, oeaio?aeueiiai
aaieo ? ?ioeo aaie?anueeeo onoaiia. I?aaeea ooieoe?iioaaiiy oiiaeo
no?aooaaiiy aeaiiceo?a iiaeii? aooe /?oeeie ? aeicaieyoe eiio iia?aoeaii
?aaaoaaoe ia iiaeeea? o?iainia? e?ecia? yaeua.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a ianooiieo ?iaioao:

1. Eiiiiaonueea E.A. Aaie?anueeee iaaeyae: oai??y ? i?aeoeea noaiiaeaiiy
a Oe?a?i?// I?iaeaie o?iainiai-e?aaeeoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy a ia?ao?aei?e
aeiiii?oe?: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. — E., IAIO, ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee,
1996, n.81-86. — 0,3 ae. a.

2. Eiiiiaonueea E.A. Aeiiii?/i? ii?iaoeae aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino?//
O?iaine Oe?a?ie. — 1997. — ?9, n. 39-43. — 0,3 ae. a.

3. Eiiiiaonueea E.A. Ai?y/ae ?.TH. ?aaoethaaiiy ae?yeueiino?
eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a// A?niee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie. — 1998. —
?7, n. 13-15. — 0,4 ae. a.

4. Ca??iee ae?iaie/eo neooaoe?e c iaa/aeueii? aeenoeeie?ie «Aaie?anuee?
iia?aoe??» Ii?ic A.I., Ieaen??iei I.Ae., Iooiae?ia I.O., Eiiiiaonueea
E.A. oa ?i. — E.: EIAO, 1998. — 379n. /Caeiaoaa/ai i?aeaioiaeaii 4,1 ae.
a./. Iniaenoee aianie: ?ic?iaea aa??aio?a cieaeaiiy ?ecee?a e?aaeeoieo
iia?aoe?e, oi?ioaaiiy no?aoiaeo oiiae?a ca e?aaeeoieie iia?aoe?yie
eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a.

AIIOAOe?ss

Eiiiiaonueea E.A. ?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i?. —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.04.01 — o?iaine, a?ioiaee ia?a ? e?aaeeo. —
Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeothoueny iaoiaeieia?/i? oa i?aai?caoe?ei?
iniiae nenoaie ?aaoethaaiiy ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a a Oe?a?i?.
Iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei?
ae?yeueiino?. Aecia/ai? ? ooi/iai? oeoia/aiiy eaoaai??e «?aaoethaaiiy
aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino?» oa «iaaeyae ca ae?yeuei?noth aaie?a».
?ic?iaeaia iiaa eeaneo?eaoe?y iniiaieo aeae?a ?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei?
ae?yeueiino?, aecia/ai? eiai oe?e? oa cia/aiiy. Aeyaeai? iiaeeeaino?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o a?o/eciyio nenoaio aaie?anueeiai iaaeyaeo ie?aieo
?ino?oiaio?a aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy, ye? canoiniaothoueny o na?oia?e
i?aeoeoe?. Iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue caa?aaeaiiy ?nioth/i?
i?aai?caoe?eii? oi?ie aea?aeaaiiai iaaeyaeo ca ae?yeuei?noth aaie?a a
Oe?a?i? ye no?oeoo?iiai i?ae?icae?eo Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie.
I?ioean ?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i? aeine?aeaeaiee
a aeaio aniaeoao: ?inoeoooe?eiiio oa ooieoe?iiaeueiiio. Ioe?iai?
?nioth/a nenoaia aeiioneo eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a ia ?eiee, iniaeeaino?
?aaoethaaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e aaie?a oa iniiai? caoiaee aieeao
IAO ia ae?yeuei?noue eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a. Iaaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
aaeineiiaeaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo aniaeo?a ?aaoethaaiiy aaie?anueei?
ae?yeueiino? ia i?eeeaae? e?aaeeoieo, aeaiiceoieo ? aaethoieo iia?aoe?e
eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a Oe?a?ie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy, aaie?anueeee iaaeyae,
oeaio?aeueiee aaie, aaie?anueea ae?yeuei?noue, eiia?oe?ei? aaiee,
aaie?anueea nenoaia, aeiiii?/i? ii?iaoeae, aaie?anuee? iia?aoe??,
Iaoe?iiaeueiee aaie Oe?a?ie.

AIIIOAOeEss

Eiiiiaoneay E.A. ?aaoee?iaaiea aaieianeie aeayoaeueiinoe a Oe?aeia. —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.04.01 — oeiainu, aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea e e?aaeeo. —
Eeaaneee iaoeeiiaeueiue yeiiiie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1999.

Niaoeeoeea aaieianeiai naeoi?a yeiiiieee o?aaoao oneeaiiiai eiio?iey e
iaaeci?a ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia ?aaoee?iaaiey. Iniiaiuie
oeaeyie ?aaoee?iaaiey aaieianeie aeayoaeueiinoe yaeythony iiaeaea?aeaiea
noaaeeueiinoe aaieianeie nenoaiu, eiieo?aioeee iaaeaeo aaieaie e caueoa
eioa?ania aeeaae/eeia e e?aaeeoi?ia. ?aoaiea eiaiii yoeo caaea/
iicaieeo, n iaeiie noi?iiu, yooaeoeaii auiieiyoue aaieai naie iniiaiua
ooieoeee, a n ae?oaie — iaania/eo noieeia e aeeiaie/iia ?acaeoea
iaoeeiiaeueiuo nenoai. Eae naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i?aeoeea, eiaiii a ia?eiae
noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey ea/anoaaiii iiaiai (?uii/iiai) yoaia
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu, aaieianeia ?aaoee?iaaiea
ioee/aaony iniaaiiie neiaeiinoueth e o?aaoao ?aoaiey oeaeiai ?yaea
i?iaeai.

Aeoeaioe?oy aieiaiea ia aii?inao ii?aaeaeaiey e i?aeoe/aneiai i?eiaiaiey
iaoaieciia e eino?oiaioia ?aaoee?iaaiey aaieianeie aeayoaeueiinoe, a
?aaioa ?ane?uou iniaaiiinoe eo ?aaeecaoeee ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia
yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey.

A aeenna?oaoeee ii?aaeaeaii ianoi aaieianeiai iaaeci?a a nenoaia
ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?aaoeyoeaiuo ia?ii?eyoee e aai niaa?oainoaiaaiea ia
iniiaa ?acoeueoaoia aiaeeca aeaenoaothuae i?aeoeee a Oe?aeia e iiuoa
?acaeouo no?ai ie?a.

A ?aaioa oai?aoe/anee ?ac?aaioaii ii?aaeaeaiea iiiyoey «?aaoee?iaaiea
aaieianeie aeayoaeueiinoe», a oaeaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue, nooue e aeaeu
i?ioeanna ?aaoee?iaaiey. ?anniio?ai iaoaieci i?eiaiaiey iniiaiuo
eino?oiaioia aaieianeiai ?aaoee?iaaiey e aai i?aaiecaoeeiiiua oi?iu.

I?ioeann ?aaoee?iaaiey aaieianeie aeayoaeueiinoe a ?aaioa ?ane?uo n
iiceoeee einoeoooeeiiaeueiuo e ooieoeeiiaeueiuo aniaeoia.

Ia iniiaa iiuoa yeiiiie/anee ?acaeouo no?ai ?ac?aaioaiu eiie?aoiua
?aeiiaiaeaoeee eniieueciaaiey oaeeo oi?i ?aaoee?iaaiey aaieianeie
aeayoaeueiinoe eae ?aaoee?iaaiea aeiionea aaieia ia ?uiee, no?aoiaaiea
aaieianeeo aeaiiceoia, ?aaoee?iaaiea aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?u eiiia?/aneeo
aaieia.

A aeenna?oaoeee aeaia ioeaiea ?iee Iaoeeiiaeueiiai aaiea Oe?aeiu eae
aeaaiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoeyoeaiiai i?aaia aaieianeie
aeayoaeueiinoe, aeieacaia oeaeaniia?aciinoue cae?aieaiey ca iei
iaaeci?iuo ooieoeee ia aeaiiii yoaia ?acaeoey aaieianeie nenoaiu.

I?iaiaeece?iaaiu iniiaiua ia?u aicaeaenoaey Iaoeeiiaeueiiai aaiea ia
eiiia?/aneea aaiee, eo ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue e oeaeaniia?aciinoue
eniieueciaaiey.

A ?aaioa enneaaeiaaii ooieoeeiiaeueiia ?aaoee?iaaiea e?aaeeoiuo,
aeaiiceoiuo e aaethoiuo iia?aoeee eiiia?/aneeo aaieia. Iniaia aieiaiea
oaeaeaii aii?inai oi?ie?iaaiey eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie ?aca?aia ii
aeoeaiui iia?aoeeyi, nicaeaieth e ooieoeeiie?iaaieth oiiaea no?aoiaaiey
aeeaaeia oece/aneeo eeoe.

?aaoee?iaaiea e?aaeeoiie aeayoaeueiinoe eiiia?/aneeo aaieia
inouanoaeyaony aeaoiy iaoiaeaie – einaaiiui aicaeaenoaeai /a?ac
?aaoee?iaaiea e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia aaieia eino?oiaioaie
aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee e i?yiui ?aaoee?iaaieai e?aaeeoiuo
iia?aoeee iooai onoaiiaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo ii?iaoeaia e eiio?ieai ca eo
niaethaeaieai, ii?aaeaeaieai i?eioeeiia e?aaeeoiaaiey, oneiaee e
ii?yaeea inouanoaeaiey ioaeaeueiuo e?aaeeoiuo iia?aoeee e i?i/.

Iaoiae i?yiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey i?eiaiyaony iaiin?aaenoaaiii a i?aaeaeao
aaieianeiai iaaeci?a, caaea/ae eioi?iai a aeaiiii neo/aa yaeyaony
ieieiecaoeey e?aaeeoiuo ?eneia, a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiaeaea?aeaiea
eeeaeaeiinoe e noaaeeueiinoe aaieianeie nenoaiu.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeaii aii?inai eiio?iey ca
eiioeaio?aoeeae e?aaeeoia, eioi?ue iai?aaeai ia ia?aie/aiea i?aeoeee
i?eaea/aiey a cia/eoaeueiuo ?acia?ao aaieianeeo e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia
ioaeaeueiui eeoeii eee ioiineoaeueii iaei/eneaiiie a?oiiie eeoe.

A ?aaioa i?iaiaeece?iaai i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey iaoaiecia ?aaoee?iaaiey
aaethoiuo iia?aoeee eiiia?/aneeo aaieia Oe?aeiu, ?ane?uo aai
i?ioeai?a/eaue oa?aeoa?, eioi?ue i?iyaeeny a /anouo eciaiaieyo
eeaa?aeecaoeee e aeanoeeo aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ia?aie/aiee n oeaeueth
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey eee ineaaeaiey aaethoiuo iineaaenoaee oeiainiaiai
e?ecena.

?ac?aaioaia nenoaia iaoiaee/aneeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee aiaeeca aecian-ieaia e
eioa?auethe?iaaiey ?oeiaiaeeoaeae aaiea a i?ioeanna aai ?aaeno?aoeee e
eeoeaice?iaaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea, aaieianeee iaaeci?,
oeaio?aeueiue aaie, aaieianeay aeayoaeueiinoue, eiiia?/aneea aaiee,
aaieianeay nenoaia, yeiiiie/aneea ii?iaoeau, aaieianeea iia?aoeee,
Iaoeeiiaeueiue aaie Oe?aeiu.

ANNOTATION

Konopatska L.V. Regulation of the banking activity in Ukraine. —
Manuscript.

This thesis for a Candidate of Economic Sciences Degree in specialty
08.04.01 — Finances circulation of money and credit. — Kyiv National
Economic University, Kyiv 1999.

This thesis comprises studies of the methodological and organizational
bases of the system of regulating commercial banks’ activities in
Ukraine. The necessity of the state regulation of the banking activity
is well-grounded. Definitions of such categories as “regulation of the
banking activity” and “supervision over banks’activities” are determined
with greater accuracy. A new classification of the main types of
regulating the banking activity has been elaborated and its objectives
and significance have been defined. The possibilities of implementation
of certain instruments of the state regulation, that are used in the
world practice, into the domestic system of banking supervision have
been discovered. The Thesis gives a well-grounded explanation of the
necessity of keeping the existing organizational form of the state
supervision over the banks’ activities in Ukraine, namely, the form of a
structural division within the National Bank of Ukraine. Two aspects of
the process of regulating the banking activity in Ukraine have been
researched: institutional and functional. The existing system of
admission of commercial banks to markets special features of regulating
banks’ organizational structure and main enforcement measures of the NBU
applied to commercial banks, have been assessed. Using the examples of
credit, deposit and foreign exchange operations of Ukrainian commercial
banks, recommendations on improving functional aspects of the banking
activity regulation have been given.

Key words: state regulation, bank supervision, central bank, banking
activity, commercial banks, banking system, prudential ratios, bank
operations, the National Bank of Ukraine.

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