Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Ei?ieue Ieaenaiae? Aeieo?iae/

OAeE 911.3:330.115

?aa?iiaeueiee iaiaaeaeiaio a oo?eci?

(nioe?aeuei? oa aeiiii?ei-aaia?ao?/i? aniaeoe)

11.00.02. — Aeiiii?/ia ? nioe?aeueia aaia?ao?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aeiiii?/ii? aaia?ao?? *a?i?aaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH. Oaaeueeiae/a I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

aeieoi? aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

E?a/eei Ieeiea Iaaeiae/,

*a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? TH??y Oaaeueeiae/a,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii? aaia?ao??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

I?oth?aiei THoei ?aaiiae/,

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e ?ici?uaiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo nee

eaiaeeaeao aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Aaeaeee Ieaenaiae? Ieaen?eiae/,

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e e?a?iiciaanoaa ? oo?ecio

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y:

Aieeinueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a aeiiii?/ii? ? nioe?aeueii? aaia?ao??, i.
Eooeuee

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “26 “ o?aaiy 1999 ?ieo i 14
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.07 i?e
Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252022, i.
Ee?a, aoe. Aaneeuee?anueea, 90, aoae. 212

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252017, i. Ee?a, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea,
58)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “25” ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
N. ?. ?uoe

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ca oiia ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee
a?aeaoaathoueny aeeaie? ye?ni? ci?ie o an?o noa?ao ae?yeueiino?
ethaeeie, i?aeaeuothoueny aeiiae aei oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?/iei iaoai?ciii
noni?euenoaa. Oea iia(ycaii c? neeaaei?noth ae?iaieoeoaa ? ?aae?caoe??
oiaa??a (iineoa). sseui o ae?iaieoeoa? oiaa??a (iineoa) i?eeiathoue
o/anoue oeny/? niaoe?ae?ciaaieo i?aei?e?inoa ? i?aai?caoe?e, oi aeieea?
iaiao?aei?noue ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ae??oaiiy aaeeei? e?eueeino?
iianyeaeaiieo ae?iaie/eo i?iaeai. Aeey ae??oaiiy oeeo i?iaeai i?ecia/aia
iniaeeaa, a?aeiinii a?aeiniaeaia noa?a oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? —
iaiaaeaeiaio ( a?ae aiae. manage — “oi?aaeyoe”, ui icia/a? “oi?oe
oi?aaeyoe”). Iaiaaeaeiaio — oea nenoaia oi?aae?iiy ae?iaie/ith
ae?yeuei?noth, ienoaoeoai i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeiai ??oaiiy.

Iaiaaeaeiaio — oea caeiiii??iee ?acoeueoao iiaeaeueoiai aaiethoe?eiiai
?icaeoeo oaeiai ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai noni?eueiiai i?ioeano, ye iiae?e
i?aoe?. Oea iniaeeaa ? a?aeiinii a?aeie?aieaia ae?yeuei?noue, yea
aecia/a?oueny, ye oe?eani?yiiaaiee aieea ia i?aoe?aiee?a, oi?aae?iiy ?
eii?aeeiaoe?y iia?aoe?e i?aei?e?inoa a oiiaao ?eieo aeey aeinyaiaiiy
eiia?oe?eii? iaoe — iaea?aeaiiy i?eaooeo.

Iei? iaiaaeaeiaio noa? aoaeoeaiith oai???th nioe?aeueii? i?aai?caoe??
ae?iaieoeoaa ia i?aei?e?inoa?, yea nie?a?oueny ia iaoa??aee
niaoe?aeueieo aeiiii?ei-nioe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaieiae?iiy oe??th
oai???th — iaaaeueia iaiao?aei?noue aeey Oe?a?ie, yea cae?enith?
ia?ao?ae aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

A Oe?a?i? iai?ee?ioe? OO no. iaiaaeaeiaio iaea?aeaa ceao ? noa? iaei??th
c iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaieo iiaeo aaeocae iaoee. A?i ia?aoai?eany o
i?ioan?th, aaeocue ciaiue — a naiino?eio iaoeiao oa o/aiao aeenoeeie?io,
a nioe?aeueiee i?ioa?ie oeo ethaeae, eio?? cae?eniththoue ?iaioo ii
oi?aae?iith — o aeineoue aieeaiao neeo.

Aeoiaey/e c iaoiaeieia?? iaiaaeaeiaioo a oe?eiio ?aa?iiaeueiee
iaiaaeaeiaio a oo?eci? ?icaeyaea?oueny, ye noeoii?noue ?aoe?iiaeueieo
iaoiae?a ? i?aai?caoe?eieo aaaeae?a oa?eoi??aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy
oo?eciii. ?aa?iiaeueiee iaiaaeaeiaio a oo?eci? – oea
aeiiii?ei-aaia?ao?/iee i?ioean, oeyoii yeiai ?aoe?iiaeueii
aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e?iaei? ?ano?ne, i?e oeueiio ?iaeoueny aeoeaio ia
aoaeoeaiee ?icaeoie oo?ecio.

Ia?ao?ae ia oi?aae?iiy oo?enoe/iei ainiiaea?noaii ?aa?ii?a ia?aaaaeii ca
oa?eoi??aeueiei i?eioeeiii — aae?iiy /ano, iac??ea iaiao?aei?noue. Oaea
oi?aae?iiy aeicaieeoue, c iaeiiai aieo, onoiooe i?ioe??//y i?ae
oa?eoi??aeueiith ?aei?noth ? ni?euei?noth oo?enoe/iiai ainiiaea?noaa
Oe?a?ie ? a?aeii/ith ?ic??ciai?noth eiai oi?aae?iiy, c ae?oaiai.
Ia?aaaaeii oa?eoi??aeueia oi?aae?iiy oo?eciii caaacia/eoue a?eueoo eiai
aoaeoeai?noue, i?ae aaeocaaa, oa ae??oeoue aaaeeea? i?iaeaie.

?aa?iiaeueiee iaiaaeaeiaio a oo?eci? — oea i?ioean i?inoi?iai?
i?aai?caoe??, i?iaiicoaaiiy, ieaioaaiiy, eiio?ieth, ye? cae?eniththoueny
c iaoith oi?aae?iiy oo?eciii a ?aa?ii?.

Na?eiciith i?iaeaiith oai??? ? i?aeoeee ?aa?iiaeueiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo a
oo?eci? ? i?ioe??//y i?ae aeaiaeith aeei?enoaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a
oa ?o aeniaaeaiiyi. Aenieei aeiiii?/iei iieacieeai ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? a oo?enoe/i?e aaeoc? aeaeaei ia caaaeaee a?aeiia?aeathoue
iane?aeee ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a. I?aeoeea
cana?ae/o?, ui ca?aaee aeaiaee noa(?eoe ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? a
a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ia ?aoothoueny c ?aoe?iiaeueiei aeei?enoaiiyi
?ae?aaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a ? caaaeathoue ?i ia??aeei iaiii?aaii? oeiaee.
I?ae oei naia caei?iaa aeey ethaenueeiai aeeooy aeiae?eey, a ia aeaiaee
noa(?eo?a ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? iiaeii? aenooiaoe i??i?eoaoiith
iaoith.

Ia(?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oo?eci, a i?aaeiaoii — ?aa?iiaeueiee
iaiaaeaeiaio a oo?eci?. Aeoiaey/e c iaoiaeieia?? iaiaaeaeiaioo,
?icaeyaeo?oueny noeoii?noue ?aoe?iiaeueieo iaoiae?a ? i?aai?caoe?eieo
aaaeae?a oa?eoi??aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy oo?eciii.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy – ?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo, iaoiaeieia?/ieo
? iaoiaee/ieo ieoaiue ?aa?iiaeueiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo a oo?eci?
(nioe?aeueieo oa aeiiii?ei-aaia?ao?/ieo aniaeo?a), aeyaeaiiy oeyo?a
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oa?eoi??aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy a oo?enoe/i?e
aaeoc? Ea?iaonueeiai ?aa?iio.

Aeoiaey/e ?c iaoe, a aeena?oaoe?? ?ica(ycothoueny oae? iniiai?
caaaeaiiy:

?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo ieoaiue ?aa?iiaeueiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo a oo?eci?;

aiae?c iaoiaeieia?/ieo aniaeo?a, i?eioeei?a ? iaoiae?a ?aa?iiaeueiiai
iaiaaeaeiaioo a oo?eci?;

— aea/aiiy oo?enonueeiai ?eieo oa ioe?iea ?ae?aaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a ye
/eiiee?a ?icaeoeo oo?ecio oa oi?aae?iiy iei;

— aeyaeaiiy iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo oo?ecio a Ea?iaonueeiio ?aa?ii?.

?icoi?th/e anth neeaaei?noue iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue, aaoi? ia i?aoaiaeo?
ia ?icaeyae an?o ieoaiue ?aa?iiaeueiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo a oo?eci? c
iaeiaeiaith iiaiioith.

Iaoiaeieia?y ? iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aeei?enoai? iaoa??aee.
Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia ia iniia? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo, yeee
ni?eya aeine?aeaeaiith oaeiai neeaaeiiai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai yaeua,
ye oo?eci. I?e oeueiio aeei?enoiaoaaeanue iaoiaeieia?/ia eiioeaioe?y
noni?eueii? aaia?ao?? ia(?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy yei? ? oa?eoi??aeueia
i?aai?caoe?y noni?euenoaa. ?ic?iaea oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo ieoaiue
aeena?oaoe?? aaco?oueny ia oai??? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?aeiioaaiiy,
oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo oa?eoi??aeueii-ae?iaie/eo eiiieaen?a, ui
neeaaeathoue iniiaio /anoeio iaoeiaeo iniia noni?eueii? aaia?ao??.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaie nie?aeinue ia aeei?enoaiiy oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo
iniia iaiaaeaeiaioo oa ?ae?aaoe?eii? aaia?ao?? ?ic?iaeaieo a i?aoeyo I.
O. Ianeiia, I. A. Aeueaa?oa, O. Oaaeio??, A. ?. Aca?a, I. A. Aiaiue?aa,
A. N. I?aia?aaeainueeiai, I. ?. Aeie?oiueiai, I. I. E?a/eea, I. I.
Aaeaeeea, A. E. ?aaeieeiaiea, I. I. ?aiaoaiea, A. O. E?oyea, I. TH.
Iaaeaoe?anueei?, A. ?. Ioaeaeueiaia, ?. I. Oeiee oa ?i.

Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey aeeiiaiiy aeaii? ?iaioe iaee aeinyaiaiiy
oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo o ?ic?iaoe? iaoeiaeo iniia aeine?aeaeaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie – ?. I. Ai?eaiei, A. I.
Aie?eiaa, ss. ?. AEoiainueeiai, O. Ae. Canoaaiiai, N. ?. ?uoea, I. N.
Eiaaeaiea, I. I. Iaeaia?/oea, I. I. Iaeaia?/oea, I. Ae. I?nooia, TH. ?.
I?oth?aiea, A. I. ?oaeaiea, E. A. ?oaeaiea, A. A. Noaiaiaiea, Ae. I.
Noa/aiea, I. ?. Oauaanueeiai, I. O. Oii?e, I. ?. Oaae?y, I. A. Oeuaiea
oa ?i.

I?e aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? aoee aeei?enoai?
nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee aiae?c ? neioac, ??ci? iaoiaee
aeiiii?ei-aaia?ao?/iiai aea/aiiy, eeaneo?eaoe?y ? oeiieia?y yaeu,
noaoenoe/iee, iaoaiaoe/iee, ea?oia?ao?/iee, aaeainiaee oa ?io? iaoiaee.

Aeey aeeiiaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeei?enoai? iaoa??aee I?i?noa?noaa
noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie, iaeanieo oi?aae?iue noaoenoeee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

— c?iaeaii iaa?oiooaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo a oo?eci? ye
iiaiai iai?yieo oa iniiae iiaeaeueoiai oaeineiiaeaiiy oa?eoi??aeueiiai
oi?aae?iiy oo?eciii;

— cae?eniaia ?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo ieoaiue ?aa?iiaeueiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo a
oo?eci?;

— ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee, aia?oa cae?eniaia eiiieaenia ioe?iea
?ae?aaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao a ?ic??c? oo?enoe/ieo
?aeii?a;

— aeyaeai? iniiai? iai?yiee ?icaeoeo ?ae?aaoe?? oa oaeineiiaeaiiy
oa?eoi??aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy oo?eciii Ea?iaonueeiai ?aa?iio.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? cae?eniaii
?ic?iaeo iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo iniia ?aa?iiaeueiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo a
oo?eci? ye i?ioeano i?aai?caoe??, i?iaiicoaaiiy, ieaioaaiiy, eiio?ieth,
ye? cae?eniththoueny c iaoith oa?eoi??aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy oo?eciii.
Aecia/aia aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? a
oo?eci?. ?icaeyiooi iniiai? caeiie ? oai??? oo?enonueeiai iaiaaeaeiaioo.

Noi?ioeueiaaii aeiiii?ei-aaia?ao?/io nooi?noue oo?ecio, yea iieyaa? a
oiio, ui oo?enonuee? ?ano?ne oa iino?eia i?noea i?iaeeaaiiy oo?enoa:
ii-ia?oa, ? noaoe?iia?ieie uiaei oa?eoi???; ii ae?oaa, oa?eoi??aeueii ia
ni?aiaaeathoue, oiaoi ciaoiaeyoueny a ??cieo i?noeyo. Naia
oa?eoi??aeuei?noue oo?ecio iaoiiaeth? eiai aeiiii?ei-aaia?ao?/i?noue.

Aecia/ai? /eiieee ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo oo?enonueeeo i?aai?caoe?e:
/eiieee oi?aae?iiy oa i?eeiyooy ??oaiue a oo?eci?; oo?enoe/i? iio?aae;
oo?enonueeee iiieo; oo?enonueeee ?eiie; ?ae?aaoe?ei? ?ano?ne. Aeyaeaiiy
oa ioe?iea ?ae?aaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a ? iaeiei c aieiaieo caaaeaiue
?aa?iiaeueiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo a oo?eci?. Ioe?iea ?ae?aaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a
cae?enith?oueny ca oaeeie e?eoa??yie: i?eaaaethth/a oa i?iioneia
caeaoi?noue.

C?iaeaia ioe?iea ?aciai? ?ae?aaoe?eii? i?noeino? oa ao?aeoeaiino?
Ea?iaonueeiai ?aa?iio ii ?aeiiao. Aecia/aia no?aoaa?/ia iaoa oa iai?yiee
?icaeoeo oo?ecio a Ea?iaonueeiio ?aa?ii?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? ianaiia?aae a eiie?aoieo
i?iiiceoe?yo ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo ii oaeineiiaeaiith oi?aae?iiy oo?eciii.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy ii aeena?oaoe?? o i?aeoeeo
ainiiaea?thaaiiy ae?aceeinue o i?aeaioiaoe? aaoi?ii iniaenoi ? a
ni?aaaoi?noa? iaoa??ae?a oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e c aeooaeueieo i?iaeai
oi?aae?iiy oo?eciii Ea?iaonueeiai ?aa?iio. Cie?aia, aaoi? i?eeiaa
o/anoue o i?aeaioiaoe? iaoa??ae?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey
aia?eeaii-oe?a?inueeiai ?aa?iiaeueiiai nai?ia?o “?icaeoie aeieia?/ii
ci???ioiaaiiai oo?ecio ? a?ciano o Ea?iaonueeiio ?aa?ii?”.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeneeththoue iaoeiao iniiao, iaiao?aeio
aeey iiaeaeueoi? ?ic?iaee aea?aeaaii? ?aa?iiaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee
Oe?a?ie ? i?ia?aie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ?aa?iio.

Oai?aoe/i? ? iaoiaeieia?/i? ?ic?iaee aaoi?a ii ?aa?iiaeueiiio
iaiaaeaeiaioo a oo?eci? aeei?enoiaothoueny o i?aeoeoe?
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ? i?iaeoieo ?ia?o ii oa?eoi??aeuei?e i?aai?caoe??
oo?ecio.

?ic?iaeaiee iaa/aeueiee eo?n “?aa?iiaeueiee iaiaaeaeiaio a oo?eci?” aeey
aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, /eoa?oueny ia i’yoiio eo?n? aaia?ao?/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ia
niaoe?aeueiinoyo “aeiiii?/ia ? nioe?aeueia aaia?ao?y” oa “iaiaaeaeiaio
i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? ae?yeueiino?”.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao eaoaae?e
aeiiii?/ii? aaia?ao?? *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo,
aia?eeaii-oe?a?inueeiio ?aa?iiaeueiiio nai?ia??, iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo,
ui i?iaiaeeeenue ?inoeoooii oo?ecio (i. Ee?a), ui??/ieo iaoeiaeo ca?oieo
eiioa?aioe?yo *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1995 — 1998
??.), i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? (1 – 3 aeiaoiy
1998?., i. Oa?nii).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaai? a 6 ae?oeiaaieo
i?aoeyo caaaeueiei ia(?iii 2 ae?. a?e.

No?oeoo?a oa ia(?i aeena?oaoe??. O a?aeiia?aeiino? c iinoaaeaiith iaoith
? caaaeaiiyie, ye? ae??ooaaeenue, iiaoaeiaaia no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe.

?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 4 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e.
Caaaeueiee ia(?i aeena?oaoe?? 170 noi??iie oaenoo, aeeth/ath/e 14
ea?oinoai, oaaeeoeue ? noai, nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e ( 148
iiceoe?e, a o./. 1 — ia ?iicaii?e iia?).

O anooi? ?ice?eaa?oueny nooue aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie oa ??
aeooaeuei?noue, aecia/ai? iaoa, ia(?eo ? i?aaeiao, iaoiaeieia?y ?
iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, iiaecia ?iaioe.

?icae?e ia?oee i?enay/o?oueny iaoiaeieia?/iei oa oai?aoe/iei iniiaai
?aa?iiaeueiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo a oo?eci?. A iueiio ?icaeyaeo?oueny
?aa?iiaeueiee iaiaaeaeiaio ye nenoaia oa?eoi??aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy.
Aecia/a?oueny aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? a
oo?eci?. ?icaeyioo? iniiai? caeiie ? oai??? oo?enonueeiai iaiaaeaeiaioo.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny /eiieee ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo
oo?enonueeeo i?aai?caoe?e: /eiieee oi?aae?iiy oa i?eeiyooy ??oaiue a
oo?eci?; oo?enoe/i? iio?aae; oo?enonueeee iiieo; oo?enonueeee ?eiie;
?ae?aaoe?ei? ?ano?ne.

A ?icae?e? o?aoueiio aiae?cothoueny oi?aae?inuee? ooieoe?? a oo?eci?:
i?aai?caoe?y oo?ecio; i?iaiicoaaiiy oo?ecio; ieaioaaiiy oo?ecio;
?aae?caoe?y ieaio; eiio?ieue oo?ecio.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aiae?co /eiiee?a ?icaeoeo oo?ecio a
Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iaoao; ?icaeyaeo oa?eoi??aeueieo iniaeeainoae
i?inoi?iai? i?aai?caoe?? oo?ecio a ?aa?ii?; aeyaeaiith iniiaieo
iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo ?ae?aaoe?? oa oaeineiiaeaiith oa?eoi??aeueiiai
oi?aae?iiy oo?eciii a Ea?iaoao.

O aeniiaeao i?aeaiaeyoueny i?aenoiee iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
aeathoueny ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ni?yiiaai? ia iie?ioaiiy oa?eoi??aeueiiai
oi?aae?iiy oo?eciii Oe?a?ie oa Ea?iaonueeiai oo?enonueeiai ?aa?iio.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe??

Iaa?oiooaaiiy aeae?eaiiy ia’?eoa oa?eoi??aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy a oo?eci?.

I?ioean ?aa?iiaeueiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo a oo?eci? ii/eia?oueny c aeae?eaiiy
ia’?eoa oi?aae?iiy.

Ia’?eoii oi?aae?iiy ? oa?eoi??aeueia ?ae?aaoe?eia nenoaia – eiiieaenia
aainenoaia, yea ia’?aeio? nioe?aeuei?, oaoiiaaii?, i?e?iaei? eiiiiiaioe
oa neeaaea?oueny c aca?iica’ycaieo i?aenenoai i?e?iaeieo oa eoeueoo?ieo
eiiieaen?a, ?iaeaia?ieo nii?oae, ianeoaiaoth/iai ia?niiaeo, i?aaio
oi?aae?iiy.

I?e iaa?oiooaaii? aeae?eaiiy Ea?iaonueeiai ?aa?iio ye ia’?eoa oi?aae?iiy
ne?ae aeoiaeeoe c aiae?co no/aniiai noaio eiai ?ae?aaoe?eiiai inai?iiy.

Ioe?ithaaoe no/aniee noai ?icaeoeo ?ae?aaoe?eii? noa?e a ?aa?ii? o?aaa a
oaeeo iniiaieo iai?yieao:

1. ?ae?aaoe?eii-?ano?niee iai?yiie. Aieiaiei /eiieeii ?icaeoeo oo?ecio ?
?ae?aaoe?ei? ?ano?ne. I?eaaaethaaoe oo?eno?a iiaea o?eueee ?aa?ii c
eiioi?oiei ee?iaoii, aaaaoee ia oi?eaeuei? i?e?iaei? oa
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/i? iai’yoee, i?ia?aeuei? aiaee ? e?eoaaeuei? a?yc?,
iaeueiaie/? i?noeaaino? oa e?a?aeaee. Iayai?noue i?e?iaeieo oa
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ieo oiia oa /eiiee?a, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey
icaei?iaeaiiy oa a?aeii/eieo, ia?aoai?ththoue ?aa?ii a iiooaeiee ?aeii
oo?ecio.

2. Aeiiii?ei-aaia?ao?/iee iai?yiie. A?i o?nii iia’ycaiee c aea?aeiei
aaia?ao?/iei iieiaeaiiyi ?aa?iio. ??ciiiai?oi? ca’ycee, ui i?ioiaeyoue
/a?ac aeaio oa?eoi??th, ?? o?ainii?oia aeinooii?noue ni?eyoeiooue
i?ioeano caeo/aiiy oo?enonueeiai eiioeiaaioo a ?aa?ii.

3. Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee iai?yiie. ??aaiue ?icaeoeo ?io?ano?oeoo?e
iaoiiaeth? oo?enonueeo inai?i?noue ?aa?iio. A aeaiiio eiioaeno?
?io?ano?oeoo?a ?icaeyaea?oueny a oe?ieiio niene?, iniiai? aeaiaioe yei?
iiaeii? iaoe ia o?eueee aeeeth/ii ?ae?aaoe?eio ooieoe?th, a e neoaeeoe
i?ia?aeiei oaeoi?ii i?aeianaiiy anueiai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy
e?ath. I?e oeueiio i?eioeeiiaei ? oa, uia ?io?ano?oeoo?i? ia’?eoe ?
nenoaie i?aai?/ii aienoaaeenue a i?e?iaeia na?aaeiaeua ?aa?iio, ia
ii?oooth/e eiai ooieoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e ? i?inoi?iai? oe?e?niino?.

4. Aeieia?/iee iai?yiie. ?ae?aaoe?eia ainiiaea?thaaiiy a ?aa?ii?
aei?noei ?aaeaiaioo?oueny aeieia?/ieie ii?iaoeaaie. Oaeoe/ia
?ae?aaoe?eia iaaaioaaeaiiy ia eaiaeoaooe iaiaaeo?oueny ii?iaie
i?e?iaeii? ?ae?aaoe?eii? i?noeino?. Iayai?noue a ?aa?ii? caiia?aeieo
ae?eyiie ??cii? eaoaai??? oaeiae aecia/a? iai?yiee oa aaia?ao?th
?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?. C iaeiiai aieo, a iaaeao caiia?aeieo
ae?eyiie aeeeth/a?oueny aoaeue-yea oe?aeeeaa aeey i?e?iaee ae?yeuei?noue
(a oiio /ene? ?ae?aaoe?eia), c ?ioiai aieo, caiia?aei? ciie /anoi
ooai?ththoueny ia aac? oi?eaeueieo iai’yoie i?e?iaee, aiane?aeie /iai ?
i?eaaaeeaeie aeey oo?eno?a.

Oa?eoi??aeueia i?aai?caoe?y ia’?eoa ?aa?iiaeueiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo a
oo?eci?.

?aa?iiaeueiee iaiaaeaeiaio a oo?eci? ?aae?co?oueny /a?ac oa?eoi??aeueio
i?aai?caoe?th ia’?eoa oi?aae?iiy, yea ? noeoii?noth iaaiei /eiii
?ici?uaieo i?inoi?iaeo aeaiaio?a oo?enoe/iiai ainiiaea?noaa, ui
ciaoiaeyoueny a neeaaei?e aca?iiae??.

Aeyaeaiiy oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? oo?ecio a ?aa?ii? aaco?oueny ia
oaeeo iniiaieo i?eioeeiao: a) aaiaoe/iiio (oaeniiii?/i? iaeeieoe?
aeae?eythoueny ia iniia? ?noi?e/iiai aiae?co oa?eoi??aeueii?
i?aai?caoe?? oo?enoe/iiai ainiiaea?noaa ? i?iaiico eiai ?icaeoeo); a)
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio (ia? ia iao? iaeneiaeueia caaeiaieaiiy
?ae?aaoe?eieo iio?aa noni?euenoaa, ?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy
?ae?aaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a, i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oo?enoe/iiai
ainiiaea?noaa ?aa?iio /a?ac cieaeaiiy aeo?ao ia ae?iaieoeoai
oo?enonueeeo iineoa oa ca?eueoaiiy aeioiae?a a?ae ?oiuei? ?aae?caoe??;
a) ?aeiino? oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? oo?ecio c aeiiii?/iei ?
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiei ono?i?i.

?aa?iiaeueiee iaiaaeaeiaio a oo?eci? ia? yne?aai ae?aaeaiee
oa?eoi??aeueiee oa?aeoa?. I?aeoeea iieacaea, ui ii?ooaiiy i?eioeeio
oa?eoi??aeueii? oe?e?niino? oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? i?ecaiaeeoue aei
cieaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oo?ecio aai iaa?oue iaiiaeeeaino? oi?aae?iiy.

Aecia/aiiy oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? oo?ecio — aieiaia caaaeaiiy
?aa?iiaeueiiai oi?aae?iiy. Aea, ia aeaeue, a Oe?a?i? aiii iaaeinoaoiuei
i?oeia ? aio/ea, ia iia?aoeaii iia?e?co? iiaeeea? eiooe ? ?ano?ne aeey
?icaeoeo oo?ecio.

Oo?enoe/ia ainiiaea?noai ye aaeocue ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa
?icaeyaea?oueny ye iaeia c neeaaeiaeo /anoei oa?eoi??aeueii-ae?iaie/iai
eiiieaeno (OAE). I?e/iio aaea iei? a ie?aieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie aiii noa?
aaeoccth niaoe?ae?caoe?? OAE (E?ei, Ea?iaoe). A c ?icoe?aiiyi
oa?eoi??aeueieo ?aiie i?aai?caoe?? oo?ecio ? c?inoaiiy eiai ianooaa?a
e?euee?noue oaeeo ?aa?ii?a ca?eueoeoueny. ? a oeeo ?aa?iiao oo?enoe/ia
ainiiaea?noai aoaea aenooiaoe aaaeeeaith eaieith ae?iaie/i?
niaoe?ae?caoe??, yea iiaeiia ?icoiii ii?aeioaaoeny a nai?io ?icaeoeo c
?ioeie eaieaie OAE.

Ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie noi?ioaaeeny oo?enoe/i? ?aa?iie, ciie, ?aeiie,
i?ae?aeiie, aocee, eiiieaene, oeaio?e, ioieoe. An? aiie ? oaeniiii?/ieie
iaeeieoeyie oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? oo?enoe/iiai ainiiaea?noaa.
Aa?oi i?aee?aneeoe, ui a oo?enoe/ieo ?aa?iiao oo?enoe/ia ainiiaea?noai
aenooia? ye i?io?ethth/a aaeocue (E?ei, Ea?iaoe), a a oo?enoe/ieo
aoceao, ye? ioiieththoue ie?ai? ianaeaii? ioieoe — ye aaaeeeaee
i?noiooai?thth/ee /eiiee (ss?ai/a).

Aieiaiith eaieith oa?eoi??aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy ? oo?enoe/iee ?aeii.
Oo?enoe/iee ?aeii ?icoi??oueny ye ae?iaie/i-oa?eoi??aeueia ii?aeiaiiy c?
niaoe?ae?caoe??th ia iaaeaii? ianaeaiith oo?enoe/ieo iineoa. A?i
ioiieth? oa?eoi??th a iaaeao yei? ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eieo ?
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a, nenoaie ?iaeaia?ieo nii?oae, o?ainii?oii? n?oee
oiui, ? ni?eyoeea? ia?aaeoiiae aeey ?icaeoeo oo?enoe/iiai ainiiaea?noaa.

A Ea?iaonueeiio ?aa?ii? iiaeia aeae?eeoe aeae?eueea oo?enoe/ieo ?aeii?a
c ??ciith niaoe?ae?caoe??th, nooiaiai inai?iiy, ia?niaeoeaaie ?icaeoeo,
cia/aiiyi ?o aeey ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno ye ?aa?iio, oae ?
Oe?a?ie a oe?eiio. Aeae?eai? oo?enoe/i? ?aeiie a?aeia?aaeathoue
noi?iiaaio ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue oa?eoi??aeueio i?aai?caoe?th
?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a Ea?iaonueeiio ?aa?ii? (?en. 1.).

?ae?aaoe?eii-?ano?niee iioaioe?ae ia’?eoa oi?aae?iiy.

Oa?eoi??aeueia i?aai?caoe?y oo?ecio aaaaea?oueny iniiaith ?aa?iiaeueiiai
iaiaaeaeiaioo oa?eoi??aeueii-?ae?aaoe?eieo nenoai, ye? ? neeaaeiaith
/anoeiith oa?eoi??? e?a?ie ? ?icaeoie ?o o?nii ca’ycaiee c ?icaeoeii
?ioeo aaeocae ainiiaea?noaa. Aeey oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe??
oo?ecio aaeeea cia/aiiy ia? ioe?iea ?ae?aaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a. I?e
?ic?iaoe? iniiaieo iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo oo?ecio oey ioe?iea i?eeia?oueny
aei oaaae a ia?oo /a?ao. ?aa?iiaeueiee iaiaaeaeiaio a oo?eci? aeiaaa?
cae?eniaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue ye? aeeth/aee a iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaiee
aiae?c ?ae?aaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a ? aea/aiiy oo?enoe/iiai ?eieo. O?eueee
i?ney cae?eniaiiy oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeia anoaiiaeoe ?ae?aaoe?eiee
iioaioe?ae oa?eoi???, ia iniia? /iai i?iaiaeeoueny ?ic?iaea ieai?a
iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo oo?ecio a ?aa?ii?.

?ae?aaoe?ei? ?ano?ne. Aeyaeaiiy oa ioe?iea ?ae?aaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a ?
iaeiei c aieiaieo caaaeaiue ?aa?iiaeueiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo a oo?eci?.
Ioe?iea ?ae?aaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a cae?enith?oueny ca oaeeie iieacieeaie:
i?eaaaethth/a oa i?iioneia caeaoi?noue.

Ao?aeoeai?noue – oea ? ?ioaa?aeueiee iieaciee, yeee eiiieaenii a?aoiao?
an? noi?iie i?eaaaethth/i? caeaoiino?. Iaei? ?ae?aaoe?ei? ?ano?ne
oo?eno?a i?eaaaeththoue a?eueoa, ?io? — iaioa. Oaea aeanoea?noue
?ae?aaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a iaceaa?oueny i?eaaaethth/ith caeaoi?noth.
Ao?aeoeai?noue (a?ae o?aioeocueeiai neiaa “ao?aeoe?ii”, yea icia/a? oa,
ui i?eaaaeth?, i?eai?oa? oaaao) — oea ? iieaciee caeaoiino?
?ae?aaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a i?eaaaethaaoe oo?eno?a. Ioe?iea oeueiai iieacieea
cae?enith?oueny ca oaeeie e?eoa??yie: aecioe/i?noue, oi?eaeuei?noue,
anoaoe/i?noue, i?o?/i?noue, eiioi?oi?noue. ?nioth/a iaoiaeeea ioe?iee
ao?aeoeaiino? aeei?enoiao? oiiai? iieacieee (aaee). I?e aeine?aeaeaii?
iioaioe?aeo ?ae?aaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
iaoo?aeuei? iieacieee. Oiaoi, a iaoiio aeiaaeeo, ioe?ithth/e
ao?aeoeai?noue, iaiao?aeii ia?aeoe a?ae “aae?a” aei “/ieia?e”.
Ia?aoai?aiiy oiiaieo iaeeieoeue a iaoo?aeuei? ?iaeoueny /a?ac e?euee?ni?
ia?aiao?e iaaieo iieaciee?a oo?enonueeiai ?eieo, iiieo yeiai
caaeiaieueiy?oueny ?ae?aaoe?eieie ?ano?naie, ui aea/athoueny.

Aecia/aiiy i?iioneii? caeaoiino? ?ae?aaoe?eiiai ?ano?no ia? aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy aeey eiiieaeniiai aea/aiiy inoaiiueiai. I?iioneia caeaoi?noue
?ae?aaoe?eiiai ?ano?no aecia/a?oueny ?ae?aaoe?eiith ?ii?noth oa?eoi???.
?ae?aaoe?eia ?ii?noue — e?euee?noue a?aeii/eaath/eo, ye? aac nooo?ai?
oeiaee aeey i?e?iaeiiai eiiieaeno iiaeooue ciaoiaeeoenue ia iaai?e
oa?eoi??? (aeaaoi???) a iaaiee i?ii?aeie /ano. Ioe?iea ?ae?aaoe?eii?
?iiino? ?iaeoueny ia iniia? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo ii?i ?ae?aaoe?eiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia i?e?iaei? eiiieaene.

Oo?enonueeee ?eiie. Oo?enonueeee ?eiie — oea noeoii?noue oi?i ? niinia?a
i?aai?caoe?? ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa iieoioe?a (i?aae(yaiee?a iiieoo) ?
i?iaeaaoe?a (iinoa/aeueiee?a) oo?enonueeeo aeaa oa iineoa.

Oo?enoe/ia ae?yeuei?noue iia(ycaia c iaaieie oa?eoi??aeueieie ?eieaie.
?aa?iiaeueiee iaiaaeaeiaio a oo?eci? aeiaaa? ioe?iee oa?eoi??aeueiiai
?eieo, yea cae?enith?oueny ca oaeeie iieacieeaie: ?aaeuei? aeioiaee
ianaeaiiy, aa?o?noue ieaoieo ? oo?enonueeeo iineoa ianaeaiith.
E?euee?ni? ia?aiao?e oeeo iieaciee?a iathoue aaciina?aaei?e aieea ia
i?eaaaethth/o caeaoi?noue ?ae?aaoe?eiiai ?ano?no. Ioe?iea ao?aeoeaiino?
a iaoo?aeueieo iaeeieoeyo ca nai?th noooth ? o?ainoi?iaoe?y aae?a /a?ac
?aaeuei? aeioiaee ianaeaiiy, aa?o?noue ieaoieo ? oo?enonueeeo iineoa
ianaeaiith. Naia e?euee?ni? ia?aiao?e oeeo iieaciee?a oo?enonueeiai
?eieo aecia/athoue aaee/eio i?eaaaethth/i? caeaoiino? a iaoo?aeueieo
iaeeieoeyo.

I?eaaaethth/a oa i?iioneia caeaoi?noue ?acii neeaaeathoue iioaioe?ae
?ae?aaoe?eiiai ?ano?no. Aeey c?noaaeaiiy oeeo neeaaeiaeo iaiao?aeia
noi??i?noue ?oi?o iieaciee?a. Oe??? noi??iino? iiaeia aeinyaiooe,
aeei?enoiaoth/e ?aeeiee iaoo?aeueiee iieaciee (/ieia?e). Iioaioe?ae
?ae?aaoe?eiiai ?ano?no ia ? i?inoith noiith iieaciee?a eiai neeaaeiaeo.
Uia oea iiynieoe, ?icaeyiaii oae? aa??aioe: 1) Iieaciee ao?aeoeaiino?
(?c a?aooaaiiyi eiao?oe??ioa naciiiino?) aei??aith? i?iionei?e
caeaoiino?; oea ? iaee?auee aa??aio, yeee aea? ciiao iiai?noth
?aae?coaaoe iioaioe?ae ?ae?aaoe?eiiai ?ano?no. 2) Iieaciee ao?aeoeaiino?
(?c a?aooaaiiyi eiao?oe??ioa naciiiino?) iaioa i?iioneii? caeaoiino?; c
oi/ee ci?o noa(?eoa ?ano?niei?enooaaiiy oea aeyaey?oueny a ia?aaeuaii?
i?iiiceoe?? iaae iiieoii, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy oe?i ia
oo?enoe/i? iineoae a iaaeao oeueiai ?ae?aaoe?eiiai ?ano?no; ooo iiaeooue
?icaeaaoeny o?eueee iaea?eueo iania? aeaee oo?ecio, a oaeiae
naiiae?yeueiee oo?eci. 3) Iieaciee ao?aeoeaiino? (?c a?aooaaiiyi
eiao?oe??ioa naciiiino?) a?eueoa i?iioneii? caeaoiino?; oea a?aeiia?aeii
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy oe?i ia oo?enoe/i? iineoae a iaaeao oeueiai
?ae?aaoe?eiiai ?ano?no aiane?aeie ia?aaeuaiiy iiieoo iaae i?iiiceoe??th,
ooo iiaea ?icaeaaoeny ae?oiee oa ?iicaiiee oo?eci. Ioaea, iioaioe?ae
?ae?aaoe?eiiai ?ano?no aeioe?eueii ?icaeyaeaoe oa aiae?coaaoe ia iniia?
iieaciee?a eiai neeaaeiaeo, oiae?, ye ?oiy ?ioaa?aoe?y i?ecaiaeeoue aei
niioai?aiiy.

sse na?ae/aoue io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ioe?iee, iioaioe?ae ?ae?aaoe?eieo
?ano?n?a Ea?iaonueeiai ?aa?iio noaiiaeoue: ao?aeoeai?noue – 28342
/ieia?e, ?aciaa ?ae?aaoe?eia i?noe?noue – 5332 oen. /ieia?e (oaae. 1.).

Aiae?c oa?eoi??aeueii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? iioaioe?aeo ?ae?aaoe?eieo
?ano?n?a ? nooi?noiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith aeiiii?ei-aaia?ao?/iiai
i?aeoiaeo aei ?aa?iiaeueiiai oi?aae?iiy a oo?eci?. Ioe?iea ao?aeoeaiino?
oa ?ae?aaoe?eii? i?noeino? Ea?iaonueeiai ?aa?iio a ?ic??c? oo?enoe/ieo
?aeii?a aea? ciiao ?aoe?iiaeueii i?aai?coaaoe oi?aae?inueeee i?ioean.

?aciaa ?ae?aaoe?eia i?noe?noue Ea?iaonueeiai ?aa?iio a ?ic??c?
oo?enoe/ieo ?aeii?a, oi/a ? ia? cia/io oa?eoi??aeueio aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th
(a?ae 640 oen. /ieia?e a Aei?no?ianueeiio aei 90 oen. /ieia?e o
Aa?aa?anueeiio), ia ? iaiaaeoth/ei /eiieeii ?icaeoeo oo?ecio a aeiaeiiio
?aeii?. I?i?iaeueiee iieaciee ?ae?aaoe?eii? ?iiino? Aa?aa?anueeiai
?aeiio (90 oen. /ieia?e) iaeaea ao?e/? ia?aaeuo? noeoiio ao?aeoeai?noue
anueiai Ea?iaonueeiai ?aa?iio (28342 /ieia?e) (oaae. 1.).

Na?aae oo?enoe/ieo ?aeii?a Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao ae??ciythoueny ca
aaee/eiith ao?aeoeaiino? I?eea?iaonueeee – 4140,
Naaeyanueei-Ioea/?anueeee – 3329, Aei?no?ianueeee – 3030 /ieia?e.
Iaeiaioo i?eaaaethth/o caeaoi?noue iathoue Aeaeieoeueei-Iooeeuenueeee –
469, I?coinueeee – 469, Neaanueei-Neie?anueeee – 426 /ieia?e. Oiaoi, ca
oeei iieacieeii ?aeiie ??ciyoueny iaeaea a 10 ?ac?a (oaae. 1.).

Iecueeei iieacieeai ao?aeoeaiino? a iaoo?aeueieo iaeeieoeyo iiaeia
i?ioenoaaeoe ioe?ieo a aaeao. Oae, i?eaaaethth/a caeaoi?noue
I?eea?iaonueeiai ?aeiio a oiiaieo iaeeieoeyo noaiiaeoue 97 aae?a
(iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaa ioe?iea ca oe??th iaoiaeeeith noaiiaeoue 100
aae?a). Aaeueia ioe?iea ia’?eoeaii iieaco? aenieo ao?aeoeai?noue
?ae?aaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a.

Ciaiiy i?inoi?iaeo a?aei?iiinoae a ?ae?aaoe?eiiio iioaioe?ae? ?
ia?aaeoiiaith ?aoe?iiaeueiiai oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?iciiae?eo iaiaaeaieo
o?iainiaeo, o?oaeiaeo oa iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a oo?enoe/iiai
ainiiaea?noaa ?aa?iio. Ia?niaeoeai? oo?enoe/i? ?aeiie ?c cia/iei
?ae?aaoe?eiei iioaioe?aeii aeiaaathoue ?icoe?aiiai o?iainoaaiiy ca
?aooiie aea?eueiaiiy eioo?a aiane?aeie cai?oaiiy ae?yeueiino? a
aeai?aneaieo ?aeiiao.

Ioe?iea iioaioe?aeo ?ae?aaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a iieaco?, ui eiai e?euee?ni?
ia?aiao?e a ii?aeiaii? c aaia?ao?/ieie oaeoi?aie ? aaaeeeaeie
ia’?eoeaieie /eiieeaie ?icaeoeo oo?ecio a Ea?iaonueeiio ?aa?ii?.

Ieaioaaiiy oo?ecio.

Aea/aiiy ?ae?aaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo i?aeaiaeeoue ai?eooe aei ieaioaaiiy
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? a oo?enoe/i?e aaeoc? Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao.

Ieaioaaiiy oo?ecio ? iniiaith eiai oi?aae?iiy. Aeeiai?/iee i?ioean
ieaioaaiiy ia(?aeio? an? oi?aae?inuee? ooieoe?? oo?ecio

Ieaioaaiiy oo?ecio — oea nenoaia ae?e oa ??oaiue, ye? aaaeooue aei
?ic?iaee niaoeeo?/ieo no?aoaa?e ni?yiiaaieo ia aeinyaiaiiy oo?enonueeeie
i?aai?caoe?yie nai?? iaoe.

I?ioean ieaioaaiiy ? ?ino?oiaioii, yeee aeiiiiaaa? a i?eeiyoo?
oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue. Aeae?eythoueny /ioe?e iniiaieo aeaee
oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? a ?aieao ieaioaaiiy: 1) ?iciiae?e ?ano?n?a;
2) aaeaioaoe?y aei ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua; 3) aioo??oiy eii?aeeiaoe?y;
4) i?aai?caoe?eia no?aoaa?/ia ia?aaeaa/aiiy.

Iaeaaaeeea?oei iai?yieii oaeineiiaeaiiy ieaioaaiiy oo?ecio ? ia?ao?ae
a?ae aaeocaaiai aei oa?eoi??aeueiiai ieaioaaiiy. Ia?aaaaeaiiy o
ieaioaaii? oa oi?aae?ii? oo?eciii oa?eoi??aeueiiai i?eioeeio iaea?eueoa
a?aeiia?aea? iioei?caoe?? aenieoaoaoe?? ?ae?aaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a.
Niaoeeo?ea oo?ecio, yeee ?icaeyaea?oueny ye ia(?eo ieaioaaiiy, aeiaaa?
cia/iiai iineeaiiy oa?eoi??aeueiiai i?aeoiaeo. A iniiao ieaioaaiiy oa
oi?aae?iiy oo?eciii iiaeiia aooe iieeaaeaia oa?eoi??y, ianaiia?aae
i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/iee ?aa?ii, i?ae yeei ia?oueny ia oaac? iaaia
oa?eoi??y e?a?ie c iaeii??aeieie oiiaaie aeei?enoaiiy oa a?aeoai?aiiy
?ae?aaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a ? ?icaeoeo i?iaeoeoeaieo nee. Oa?eoi??aeuei?
ieaie ?icaeoeo oo?ecio iiaeii? iaoe aecia/aeueiee oa?aeoa? ? i???iooaaoe
i?aei?e?inoaa a ieaioaaii? ae?iaieoeoaa oa ?aae?caoe?? oo?enonueeeo
iineoa.

A oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee iaiao?aei?noue oa?eoi??aeueiiai ieaioaaiiy
oo?ecio iniaeeai aeooaeueia. Aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeuei? iaeeieoe?
iathoue ??ci? oa?aeoa?enoeee, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny nai?th aeiiii?/iith,
eoeueoo?iith, anoaoe/iith oa ?i. oe?iiinoyie. Ioaea ? i?aeo?ae aei
ieaioaaiiy oo?enonueeiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy ii ie?aiei oa?eoi??yi iiaeiai
aooe aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee, aeoiaey/e c ?o oa?aeoa?ieo iniaeeainoae. A
iniiao oaei? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? aa?ooueny a?aei?iiino?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? oo?enonueeeo caoiae?a, ye?
cae?eniththoueny a eiie?aoieo i?e?iaeieo, aeiiii?/ieo oa
aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ?aeiiao. Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue ooo
aenooia? ye aaee/eia i?eaooe?a o c?noaaeaii? c a?aeiia?aeieie cao?aoaie.

No?aoaa?/iith iaoith a ieaioaaii? ?icaeoeo oo?ecio a ?aa?ii? ia? aooe
noai?aiiy Ea?iaonueeiai oa?eoi??aeueii-?ae?aaoe?eiiai eiiieaeno (O?E),
ye iaeiiai c iiaeeeaeo oeyo?a iaea?eueo iioeiaeueiiai ae??oaiiy
i?iaeai aeei?enoaiiy aaaaoeo ?ae?aaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a Ea?iao.
Aeioe?euei?noue noai?aiiy O?E i?iaeeeoiaaia iaaaeueiith iaiao?aei?noth
ia’?aeiaiiy ?ic??ciaieo i?aei?e?inoa noa?e ianeoaiaoaaiiy ? noai?aiiy
iaoa??aeueii oaoi?/ii? aace aeey iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo oo?enoe/iiai
ainiiaea?noaa.

Aeoiaey/e c iniiaieo no?aoaa?/ieo caaaeaiue ? i/eeoaaieo ?acoeueoao?a,
ieaioaaiiy ?icaeoeo oo?ecio a Ea?iaonueeiio ?aa?ii? ne?ae cae?enithaaoe
ii e?eueeio aaia?aeueieo e?i?yo.

?. Noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaiai i?aai?caoe?eiiai, aeiiii?/iiai oa i?aaiaiai
na?aaeiaeua, ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eii? noa?e

II. ?aeiino?oeoe?y oa iiaea?i?caoe?y iayaii? iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii?
aace ?ae?aaoe?eii? ?iaeono??? (caoiaee ii ?aeiino?oeoe?? ?ae?aaoe?eieo
ia’?eo?a, aaoiiia?eueieo oa cae?cie/ieo aei??a, ?icaeoeo na?a?niiai
ianeoaiaoaaiiy, iie?ioaiith ca’yceo)

III. Iiaa aoae?aieoeoai ? ?aae?caoe?y i?anoeaeieo i?iaeo?a. ?aae?coaaoe
cia/iee ianya iiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa iiai?noth /a?ac aeao?oeeo o?iainiaeo
?ano?n?a ia aaeanoueny. Iio??aia naeaeoe?y. Iiaeia ?ic?aoiaoaaoe a
iaai?e i??? ia aea?aeaaio i?aeo?eieo aoae?aieoeoaa iiaeo ia’?eo?a a
a??nuee?e /anoei? ?aa?iio (Caeii “I?i noaoon a??nueeeo ianaeaieo ioieo?a
Oe?a?ie”), ia’?eo?a aeey icaei?iaeaiiy iioa?i?eeo a?ae *i?iiaeeuenueei?
aaa???. A ia?ae?e ia’?eo?a ia?oi/a?aiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa iiaeia a?aeianoe
? o?, o o?iainoaaii? yeeo ia?aaaaea? /anoea eioo?a i?aei?e?inoa, oiiae?a
oiui.

Aeniiaee ? i?iiiceoe??

1. Aea/aiiy nioe?aeueieo oa aeiiii?ei-aaia?ao?/ieo aniaeo?a
?aa?iiaeueiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo a oo?eci? ia? aeoaea aaaeeeaa iaoeiaa ?
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy. Aiii aaaea aei a?eueo aeeaieiai i?ciaiiy caaaeueieo
caeiiii??iinoae oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? oo?ecio, aac ciaiiy yeeo
iaiiaeeeaa aoaeoeaia oi?aae?iiy.

2. Aaaeeeaith i?iaeaiith i?inoi?iai? i?aai?caoe?? oo?ecio ? aa?iii?eia
ii?aeiaiiy eiai aaeocaaiai ? oa?eoi??aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy. Iaoeiaa
?ic?iaea ? aii?yaeeoaaiiy oaeiai ii?aeiaiiy aeanoue aaeeeee
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee aoaeo, ??cei i?aeaeueoue ?aioaaaeuei?noue
oo?ecio. Iaeiei c aoaeoeaieo cania?a ae??oaiiy ieoaiue oa?eoi??aeueii?
i?aai?caoe?? oo?ecio ? oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?i ? iaoiae?a eiai
oa?eoi??aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy. Iaiao?aeia ia?ai???ioaoe?y aeayeeo aaeeeeo
noa? aeiiii?ee ie?aieo ?aa?ii?a e?a?ie c aaeocaaiai ia ia?aaaaeii
oa?eoi??aeueiee i?eioeei oi?aae?iiy. Oea ianaiia?aae a?aeiineoueny aei
oo?enoe/ii? oa ianeoaiaoth/eo ?? aaeocae oaeiai aaaeeeaiai ?aeiio
?ae?aaoe?eii? niaoe?ae?caoe?? caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiai cia/aiiy ye Ea?iaoe.

Ia?ao?ae ia oi?aae?iiy oo?enoe/iei ainiiaea?noaii ?aa?ii?a oa ?aeii?a
ia?aaaaeii ca oa?eoi??aeueiei i?eioeeiii — aae?iiy /ano, iac??ea
iaiao?aei?noue. Oaea oi?aae?iiy aeicaieeoue, c iaeiiai aieo, onoiooe
i?ioe??//y i?ae oa?eoi??aeueiith ?aei?noth ? ni?euei?noth oo?enoe/iiai
ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie ? a?aeii/ith ?ic??ciai?noth eiai oi?aae?iiy c
ae?oaiai. Ia?aaaaeii oa?eoi??aeueia oi?aae?iiy oo?eciii caaacia/eoue
a?eueoo eiai aoaeoeai?noue, i?ae aaeocaaa oa ae??oeoue aaaeeea?
i?iaeaie. Aei ieo a ia?oo /a?ao a?aeiinyoueny: 1) noai?aiiy iaae?eii?
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace aoae?aieoeoaa ? ?icai?oaiiy
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo ?ia?o; 2) aeio?eiaiiy i?e caaoaeia? oa
aii?yaeeoaaii? oo?enoe/ieo eiiieaen?a ?aeeieo aeiia ?aeiiii? ieai??iaee;
3) aeinyaiaiiy iaiao?aeii? i?iii?oe?eiino? a i?ioean? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
an?o ianeoaiaoth/eo iniiaieo oa aeiiii?aeieo ia(?eo?a; 4) i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? eiio?ieth ca aeio?eiaiiyi aeiia ioi?iie aeiae?eey oa
cae?eniaiiy iaiao?aeieo caoiae?a ii a?aeoai?aiith a?aeiiaieo
?ae?aaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a; 5) eiiieaenia inai?iiy ia?niaeoeaieo aeey
?icaeoeo oo?ecio i?noeaainoae; 6) iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?niaeoeaieo
noai ?icaeoeo cii a?aeii/eieo ? oo?ecio oa ?oiy ?aeiiia ieai??iaea.

3. Oe?a?inuee? Ea?iaoe a?aeiinyoueny aei oeo ?aa?ii?a, aeey yeeo
oo?eci noaia iaeiei c aieiaieo aeaea?ae aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo.
Iniaeeaino? aeiiii?ei-aaia?ao?/iiai iieiaeaiiy ?ae?aaoe?ei? ?ano?ne
ni?eythoue ia?aoai?aiith ?o a iaeei c iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaieo
oo?enoe/ieo ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie. A ia?niaeoea? ?ioaineaiee ?icaeoie
oo?ecio iiaea noaoe aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aeioiae?a aeey ea?iaonueeeo
iaeanoae.

Ioae?eaoe?? ii oai? aeena?oaoe??

1. Ei?ieue I. Ae., E?a/eei I. I. No/aniee oo?eci oa eiai i?noea o
noni?eueiiio ae?iaieoeoa? // ?icaeoie oo?ecio a Oe?a?i?. I?iaeaie ?
ia?niaeoeae: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo noaoae. — E.: ?AOe “Neia’yinueeee
ae?aeia”, 1995. — N.57—63.

2. Ei?ieue I. Ae. Oo?enonuee? ?ano?ne oa ?o aeei?enoaiiy // Iaoeiaee
a?niee *a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Aei. 3. Aaia?ao?y: Ca??iee iaoe.
i?aoeue. — *a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1996. — N.64—69.

3. Ei?ieue I. Ae., E?a/eei I. I., Ca??aia I. N. Etha?inueea ?. A.
I?e?iaeii-?ae?aaoe?ei? ?ano?ne *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano?, ?o aeei?enoaiiy
oa ioi?iia // Iaoeiaee a?niee *a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Aei. 3.
Aaia?ao?y: Ca??iee iaoe. i?aoeue. — *a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1996. — N.70—75.

4. Ei?ieue I. Ae. Oo?enoe/i? iio?aae // Iaoeiaee a?niee *a?i?aaoeueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. Aei. 31. Aaia?ao?y: Ca??iee iaoe. i?aoeue. — *a?i?aoe?:
*AeO, 1998. — N.121—127.

5. Ei?ieue I. Ae., E?a/eei I. I. Iaoiaeieia?/i? oa oai?aoe/i? iniiae
oo?enoe/iiai iaiaaeaeiaioo // Oo?enoe/ii-e?a?ciaa/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Aeione 1: Iaoa??aee III Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??
“Oo?eci a Oe?a?i?: aeiiii?ea oa eoeueoo?a” (Na?oycue, 9 – 10 aa?aniy
1998 ?.). – O aeaio /anoeiao. – E.: “EI – O?aeaeeia”, 1998. – *anoeia
ia?oa – C.53 ( 62.

6. Ei?ieue I. Ae. Oo?enonueei-e?a?ciaa/a ?iaioa a oeie? // E?a?ciaanoai
? oo?eci: ina?oa, aeoiaaiiy, noeeue aeeooy: Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? (1 – 3 aeiaoiy 1998?., i. Oa?nii). — E.:
Aeae-ai “?aoi?ia”, 1998. — N.34—35.

Ei?ieue I. Ae. ?aa?iiaeueiee iaiaaeaeiaio a oo?eci? (nioe?aeuei? oa
aeiiii?ei-aaia?ao?/i? aniaeoe). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?ao?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 11.00.02. – aeiiii?/ia ? nioe?aeueia aaia?ao?y.
– Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? cae?eniaii ?ic?iaeo iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo iniia
?aa?iiaeueiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo a oo?eci? ye i?ioeano i?aai?caoe??,
i?iaiicoaaiiy, ieaioaaiiy, eiio?ieth, ye? cae?eniththoueny c iaoith
oi?aae?iiy oa eii?aeeiaoe?? ?icaeoeo oo?ecio. Aea/aii /eiieee
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo oo?enonueeeo i?aai?caoe?e: /eiieee oi?aae?iiy
oa i?eeiyooy ??oaiue a oo?eci?; oo?enoe/i? iio?aae; oo?enonueeee iiieo;
oo?enonueeee ?eiie; ?ae?aaoe?ei? ?ano?ne. Aeine?aeaeaii oi?aae?inuee?
ooieoe?? oo?ecio. ?icaeyiooi i?e?iaei?, eoeueoo?i? oa nioe?aeuei?
/eiieee ?icaeoeo oo?ecio a Ea?iaonueeiio ?aa?ii?. C?iaeaia ioe?iea
?aciai? ?ae?aaoe?eii? i?noeino? oa ao?aeoeaiino? Ea?iaonueeiai ?aa?iio
ii ?aeiiao. Aecia/ai? iai?yiee ?icaeoeo oo?ecio a Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iaoao.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?aa?iiaeueiee iaiaaeaeiaio a oo?eci?; i?aai?caoe?y
oo?ecio; i?iaiicoaaiiy oo?ecio; ieaioaaiiy oo?ecio; ?aae?caoe?y ieaio;
eiio?ieue oo?ecio; oi/ea aaccaeoeiaino? oo?enoe/iiai i?aei?e?inoaa;
?ae?aaoe?ei? ?ano?ne; ?ae?aaoe?eia iaaaioaaeaiiy ia i?e?iaei? eiiieaene;
ii?ie ?ae?aaoe?eiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy; ao?aeoeai?noue ?ae?aaoe?eieo
?ano?n?a; oo?enoe/i? iio?aae; oo?enonueeee iiieo; oo?enonueeee ?eiie;
/anoea aeioiae?a, yea aeei?enoiao?oueny ia iieaoo oo?enoe/ieo iineoa;
e?euee?noue iieoioe?a oo?enonueeeo aeaa oa iineoa.

Ei?ieue A. Ae. ?aaeiiaeueiue iaiaaeaeiaio a oo?ecia (nioeeaeueiua e
yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneea aniaeou). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?aoe/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 11.00.02 – yeiiiie/aneay e nioeeaeueiay
aaia?aoey. Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa inouanoaeaia ?ac?aaioea iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneeo
iniia ?aaeiiaeueiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa a oo?ecia, eae nenoaiu
oa??eoi?eaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey oo?enoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth ia iniiaa
eiiieaeniiai eniieueciaaiey ?ae?aaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia ?aaeiia.
Ii?aaeaeyaony yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
a oo?ecia eae e?eoa?ey ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa. Aiaeece?othony
oaeoi?u ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey oo?enoe/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee.
Nouanoaotho oaeea oaeoi?u oi?aaeaiey a oo?ecia: oo?enoe/aneea
iio?aaiinoe, oo?enoe/aneee ni?in, oo?enoe/aneee ?uiie, ?ae?aaoeeiiiua
?ano?nu. Ia?auaaony aieiaiea ia neaaeothuea oo?enoe/aneea iio?aaiinoe:
iio?aaiinoe a niyoee oece/aneiai ooiieaiey, oe?aieaiee caei?iauey, a
?acaea/aieyo, oece/aneii e aeooiaiii ?acaeoee, oaeiaeaoai?aiee
ynoaoe/aneeo iio?aaiinoae, iiciaiee ie?oaeathuaai ie?a. ?anniao?eaaaony
oo?enoe/an/eee ni?in eae iiaaaeaiea ethaeae, iai?aaeaiiia ia
i?eia?aoaiea ii?aaeae?iiuo aeaa e oneoa n oeaeue oaeiaeaoai?aiey
oo?enoe/aneeo iio?aaiinoae. Iniaaiiia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony oo?enoe/aneiio
?uieo eae niaieoiiinoe oi?i e niiniaia i?aaiecaoeee nio?oaeie/anoaa
iieoiaoaeae (i?aaeueyaeoaeae ni?ina) e i?iaeaaoeia (iinoaaueeia)
oo?enoe/aneeo aeaa e oeoa. ?anniao?eaathony ?ae?aaoeeiiiua ?ano?nu eae
iauaeou e yaeaiey i?e?iaeiiai e aio?iiiaaiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey,
i?eaiaeiua aeey aeoeaiiai ioaeuoa, niinianoaothuea ainnoaiiaeaieth e
?acaeoeth oece/aneeo e aeooiaiuo nee /aeiaaea, aai o?oaeiniiniaiinoe.
?ae?aaoeeiiiua ?ano?nu eniieuecothony aeey oo?ecia. Iie aeaeyony ia
i?e?iaeiua e eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneea. I?e eco/aiee iioaioeeaea
?ae?aaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia i?iaiaeeony ioeaiea ao?aeoeaiinoe e i?iioneiie
niiniaiinoe a iaoo?aeueiuo iieacaoaeyo. ?anniao?eaathony oi?aaeai/aneea
ooieoeee a oo?ecia: i?aaiecaoeey oo?ecia, i?iaiice?iaaiea oo?ecia,
ieaie?iaaiea oo?ecia, eiio?ieue oo?ecia, inouanoaeyaiua n oeaeueth
oi?aaeaiey e eii?aeeiaoeee ?acaeoey oo?ecia. Aeeiaie/iue i?ioeann
ieaie?iaaiea iauaaeaiyao ana auoa ia?a/eneaiiua oi?aaeai/aneea ooieoeee
a oo?ecia. Ii?aaeaeyaony iauaeo ?aaeiiaeueiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa a oo?ecia.
Ei yaeyaony oa??eoi?eaeueii-?ae?aaoeeiiiay nenoaia, eioi?ay
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?ino?ainoaaiioth i?aaiecaoeeth oo?ecia. I?ioeann
?aaeiiaeueiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa ?aaeecoaony /a?ac oa??eoi?eaeueioth
i?aaiecaoeeth iauaeoa oi?aaeaiey. Iniiaiui iaoiaeii ?aaeiiaeueiiai
oi?aaeaiey a oo?ecia yaeyaony ?aeiie?iaaiea. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue a
oo?enoe/aneii ?aeiie?iaaiee enoiaeeo ec oa??eoi?eaeueiie
aeeooa?aioeeaoeee ?ae?aaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia. Ioeaiea ao?aeoeaiinoe e
?ae?aaoeeiiiie ?ieinoe ii oo?enoe/aneei ?aeiiai aea?o aiciiaeiinoue
?aoeeiiaeueii i?aaieciaaoue ?aaeiiaeueiue iaiaaeaeiaio. Ciaiea
oa??eoi?eaeueiuo ?acee/ee a ?ae?aaoeeiiiii iioaioeeaea yaeyaony oneiaeai
i?aaeeueiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey “io ianoa e ianoo” ia?aie/aiuo oeiainiauo,
iaoa?eaeueiuo e o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia oo?enoe/aneiai oicyenoaa ?aaeiia.
Ia?niaeoeaiua oo?enoe/aneea ?aeiiu ni cia/eoaeueiui ?ae?aaoeeiiiui
iioaioeeaeii o?aaotho ?anoe?aiiiai oeiaine?iaaiey ca n/ao inaiaiaeaeaiey
n?aaenoa aneaaenoaea nai?a/eaaiey aeayoaeueiinoe a aeai?anneaiuo
?aeiiao. I?iaaaeaia ioeaiea ?aciaie ?ae?aaoeeiiiie ?ieinoe e
ao?aeoeaiinoe Ea?iaoneiai oo?enoe/aeiai ?aaeiia ii ?aeiiai. Ii?aaeaeaia
no?aoaae/aneay oeaeue ?acaeoey oo?ecia a Oe?aeineeo Ea?iaoao, ia iniiaa
eioi?ie ?ac?aaioai ieai aeayoaeueiinoe oo?enoe/aneiai oicyenoaa a
?aaeiia ia ia?niaeoeao. Ea?iaoneee oo?enoe/aneee ?aaeii iaeaaeaao
cia/eoaeueiui ?ae?aaoeeiiiui iioaioeeaeii. Ia aai iniiaa iaiaoiaeeii
noi?ie?iaaoue Ea?iaoneee oo?enoe/aneee eiiieaen, i?aaenoaaeythuee niaie
niaieoiiinoue oo?enoe/aneeo o/?aaeaeaiee e i?aaei?eyoee, iauaaeei?iiuo
oaniuie yeiiiie/aneeie naycyie, a oaeaea niaianoiui eniieueciaaieai
oa??eoi?ee n aeaaii?eyoiuie ?ae?aaoeeiiiuie ?ano?naie. Oe?aeineea
Ea?iaou ioiinyoueny e oai ?aaeiiai, aeey eioi?uo oo?eci noaiao iaeiei ec
aeaaiuo enoi/ieeia yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey. Iniaaiiinoe
yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneiai iieiaeaiey, ?ae?aaoeeiiiua ?ano?nu
niinianoaotho i?aoai?aieth Ea?iao a iaeei ec iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiuo
oo?enoe/aneeo ?aaeiiia Oe?aeiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?aaeiiaeueiue iaiaaeaeiaio a oo?ecia; i?aaiecaoeey
oo?ecia; i?iaiice?iaaiea oo?ecia; ieaie?iaaiea oo?ecia; ?aaeecaoeey
ieaia; eiio?ieue oo?ecia; oi/ea aacoauoi/iinoe oo?enoe/aneiai
i?aaei?eyoey; ?ae?aaoeeiiiua ?ano?nu; ?ae?aaoeeiiiua iaa?ocee ia
i?e?iaeiua eiiieaenu; ii?iu ?ae?aaoeeiiiuo iaa?ocie; ao?aeoeaiinoue
?ae?aaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia; oo?enoe/aneea iio?aaiinoe; oo?enoe/aneee ni?in;
oo?enoe/aneee ?uiie; aeiey aeioiaeia, eioi?ay eniieuecoaony ia iieaoo
oo?enoe/aneeo oneoa; eiee/anoai iieoiaoaeae oo?enoe/aneeo aeaa e oneoa.

Korol O. D. Regional management in tourism (social and
economic-geographical aspects).- Manuscript.

Dissertation for searching of the scientific degree of candidate of the
geographic sciences on the speciality 11.00.02 – economic and social
geography. Kyiv University by Taras Shevchenko, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation thesis deals with elaboration of scientific and
methodical bases for regional management in tourism in the aspects of
tourism organization, prognosis, planning and control, which are to be
conducted for managing and coordination of tourism development. The
following factors, upon which the functioning and the development of
tourism organizations are dependent, have been studied: the factors of
management and decision making; tourist needs; demand for tourism;
tourism market; recreational resources. Studied were the managerial
functions of tourism. The natural, cultural and social factors of
tourism development in Carpathian region were observed. Estimated were
the single recreational capacity and the attractiveness of Carpathian
region in the aspect of its districts. The ways and directions for
tourism development in Ukrainian Carpathians were defined.

Key words: regional management in tourism; organization of tourism;
tourism prognosis; tourism planning; plan realization; tourism control;
the point of losslessness of touristic organization; recreational
resources; recreational load upon natural complexes; norms of
recreational loads; attractiveness of recreational resources; tourist
needs; demand for tourism; tourism market; the share of income which is
transferred to payment for tourist services; the quantity of buyers of
tourist services.

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