1

EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

EA?ANUe IAENEI AIAOIE?EIAE*

OAeE 070.23:321.7 (73)

?AA?IIAEUeIA I?ANA A AeAIIE?AOE*IIIO NONI?EUeNOA?

(ia i?eeeaae? ia??iaeeee NOA)

10.01.08— aeo?iae?noeea

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? aeo?iae?noeee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe ?aaiia Aaea??e Oae?eniae/, canooiiee
aee?aeoi?a ?inoeoooo aeo?iae?noeee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ii/aioeia Aai?a?e Aai?a?eiae/,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e i?aeia?iaeieo eiioi?eaoe?e oa ca’yce?a c
a?iiaaenuee?noth ?inoeoooo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe Aeaieeaiei Na?a?e ?aaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/
naeoi?o i?an-neoaeae Aaei?i?no?aoe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

oaeoeueoao aeo?iae?noeee Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?.
O?aiea I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “8” aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.001.34. ?inoeoooo aeo?iae?noeee
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: Ee?a, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea 58.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “7” na?iiy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee _Ae 26.001.34_________ ?aaiia A. O

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Caaaeueiina?oiaith oaiaeaioe??th ?icaeoeo cania?a
ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? ? oa, ui ie?ai? aeaee CI? — i?ana, ?aae?i ?
oaeaaa/aiiy — aa?ooue o/anoue o ia?a?iciiae?e? noa? aieeao oa
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? uiaei ?ioi?iaoe?eieo iioie?a, i?ecia/aieo ye aeey
?iaeea?aeoaeueii?, oae ? eieaeoeaii? ethaenueei? na?aeiiino?. Aeina?ae
ia?aaeiaeo ?iaeono??aeueieo aea?aeaa caoiaeo na?ae/eoue, ui ieano
i?noeaai? oa ?aa?iiaeueii? ?ioi?iaoe?? canoiaaeea ca niaith i?ana,
a?aeaeaaoe oaeaaa/aiith naeoi? iiaei noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai oa?aeoa?o a
ianooaaao e?a?ie ? na?oo.

?icaeoie aoaeue-yei? aaeoc? oai?aoe/iiai ciaiiy caaaeaee aaco?oueny ia
aaea aeinyaiooiio ??ai? ?icaeoeo inoaiiueiai. Iaeiae ?aaiethoe?eia ci?ia
noni?eueiiai eaaeo a aea?aeaa? o 90-o ?ieao iinoaiiaeea ??oo/a
a?aeeeiooe oai?aoe/i? iaaeaaiiy ianiai? eiioi?eaoe?? aaoi?eoa?iiai
noni?euenoaa ? acyoe ia ica?i?iiy aeaiie?aoe/i? oe?iiino?. Aeina?ae
ia?oeo ?ie?a ?icaoaeiae a?aee?eoiai noni?euenoaa ia?aeiieeai cana?ae/o?
aeai?noo i?e?iaeo ia?aoai?aiue. C oe??? caeaaeiino? aeieeaa?, ui
aoaeue-yeee ianooiiee aoai o ?icaeoeo oai?aoe/iiai ciaiiy caaaeaee
a?oioo?oueny ia aaiethoe?ei?e /e ?aaiethoe?ei?e, aea iaieio/a,
ianooiiino? uiaei iiia?aaeiueiai.

Aiaeii/an iaiao?aeii canoa?aaoe, ui i?enei?aiiy i?ioeano ?ioaa?aoe??
oe?a?inueeeo CI? a nenoaio caaaeueiina?oiaiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
ii?yaeeo iiaeiii aooe iia’ycaiei ia c eii?thaaiiyi yeeoinue ac??oe?a
cao?aeieo ianiaieiioi?eaoe?eieo iiaeaeae, a c? noai?aiiyi aeanieo
aoaeoeaieo iai?aoeueiaie, ui a?aoiaoaaee a ?ene eieaeoeaii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? e aiaeii/an ?ooaeeny o ?one? na?oiaeo
i?aniaeo oaiaeaioe?e.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y
aeeiioaaeany o ?one? aeine?aeaeaiue eaoaae?e ia??iaee/ii? i?ane
?inoeoooo aeo?iae?noeee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, cie?aia oaeeie
iai?yiaie, ye “Caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue”,
“Oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ioae?eaoe?e”, “Caniae ianiai?
?ioi?iaoe?? ye a?cian ? nioe?aeueia ?ioi?iaoe?y”. ?iaioa iiaea aooe
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith i?aeaioiaee eaeoe?eieo eo?n?a “Ca?oa?aeia
aeo?iae?noeea”, “Ae?oeiaaia aeo?iae?noeea” ia oaeoeueoaoao ?
a?aeae?eaiiyo aeo?iae?noeee aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a.

Nooi?iue iaoeiaiai ii?aoethaaiiy i?iaeaie. O eiinoeooeiaaiiio
ci?noiaiio eeth/? oey i?iaeaia o niaoe?aeuei?e e?oa?aoo?? ia
ii?oooaaeany, ca aeiyoeii iao?eaaeiai ia??iaeo aeaiie?aoecaoe?? a N?N?.
Iaoa??aee ?aaeyinueei-iieuenueeiai nai?ia?o “Oeiieia?y i?noeaai? i?ane”
(1991 ?.) iae?aneeee anaa?/io ? caaaeii i?ia?aneaio ea?oeio
ooieoe?iioaaiiy oeueiai aeaeo i?ane a noni?euenoa?. Iniaeeai
a?aecia/a?ii aei?iaie iieuenueeeo o/aieo A. sso?iianueeiai, N.
Ieoaeue/eea, ?in?yieia A. Ei?i?eiaa. Oeiieiaey ianoiie i?annu. —
?inoia-ia-Aeiio, 1991. Uiaei i?ia?aeieo a?o/eciyieo i?aniciaaoe?a, oi
oey i?iaeaia ii?oooaaeany o i?aoeyo, cie?aia, A. Iineaeaiea “Anooi aei
aeo?iae?noeee” Iineaeaiei A.C. Anooi aei aeo?iae?noeee. — E., 1997., A.
Oeey?a “Iaoe?iiaeueia i?ana: a?ae ?iceaaeo aei aa?iii??” Oe?a?inueea
aeo?iaeenoeea-96. — E., 1997. A. ?aaiiaa (o ni?aaaoi?noa?) “Ianiaa
eiioi?eaoe?y” Ianiaa eiioi?eaoe?y.- E., 1998. ie?ai? noi?iie ie?aneaii?
oaie aeaoaeueii ?icaeyaeaee O. I?enooiaiei I?enooiaiei O.I. Naiaiaea
i?ane ? ?? ?aae?caoe?y o e?a?iao aeecueeiai oa aeaeaeiai ca?oa?aeaey.
// A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, aei.2, 1995. A. TH?ao TH?ao A.A.
Community journalism a nenoai? aia?eeainueei? i?ane // Ca.i?aoeue
eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? i?ane Euea?anueeiai oi-oo. — Euea?a, 1996., A.
Iioyoeiee Iioyoeiee A.A. Oioae?oa?ia aeo?iae?noeea. — Euea?a, 1992..
?noioia ?ieue o aeine?aeaeaii? i?iaeaie iaeaaeeoue cao?aeiei o/aiei,
cie?aia aia?eeaioeyi O. Eaii?no Cannis, Phillis. Making Local News. —
Chicago, 1992. oa Ae. Ia??ooo Merritt, David. Public Journalism and
Public Life. — N.Y., 1995..

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
c’ynoaaiiy, oai?aoe/ia inieneaiiy oiia ? oeyo?a ?icaeoeo i?noeaai? i?ane
? ae?iaeaiiy i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey iiaeieaiiy e?ece i?noeaaeo
CI? a oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa?. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aoei ae??oaii oae?
caaaeaiiy:

— c’yniaaii iniiaiiieiaei? ia?aaeoiiae ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueii?
i?ane ye “/aoaa?oi? aeaaee”;

— aecia/aii no?oeoo?o i?ane a no/aniiio ?iaeono??aeueiiio noni?euenoa?
ia i?eeeaae? Niieo/aieo Ooao?a Aia?eee;

— ie?aneaii iniiai? ?ene aacaoiiai a?ciano a ?oiueiio ia?aiin? ia
i?noeaao i?ano aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?eieiai-i???ioiaaiiai noni?euenoaa;

— c’yniaaii ia?niaeoeai? eiioeaiooaeuei? iai?yie ?icaeoeo ?aa?iiaeueii?
i?ane ia i?eeeaae? iiaeae? “a?iiaaenueei? aeo?iae?noeee” NOA;

— ?aeiino?oeiaaii eaoaai??th eieaeueiino? a aia?eeainuee?e iiaeae?
i?noeaai? i?ane uiaei ?? canoinoaaiiy a nenoai? oe?a?inueeeo CI?.

Aeey aeeiiaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue aoee ii?aoeueiaai? ?iaioe
oe?a?inueeeo oa ca?oa?aeieo o/aieo ? i?aeoee?a, ui ii?oooaaee i?iaeaie
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueii? i?ane. sse iaeio c ia?aaeiaeo iiaeaeae
aaoi? ?icaeyioa nenoaio i?noeaai? i?ane a NOA ? aeie?aiea aieiai?
caeiaooee, ui iiaeooue aooe canai?i? o oiae? ?icaeoeo ?aa?iiaeueieo CI?
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a aiae?c? i?iaeaie i?noey ?aa?iiaeueii?
i?ane a Oe?a?i? o ii??aiyii? c aia?eeainueeith i?anith c iiceoe?e
eiiieaeniiai ?icaeyaeo canaae ? eiioeaioe?? ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy. O
?acoeueoao? aaoi?ii aoei cao?eniaaii eiiieaen oaeoi??a, ui aecia/athoue
i?ia?aeia i?noea i?noeaai? i?ane o no?oeoo?? ae?oeiaaii? ia??iaeeee
acaaae? oa a?o/eciyii? cie?aia, ie?aneaii oeyoe i?aeeiio oe?a?inueei?
?aa?iiaeueii? i?ane.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? ia eeoa a iaoa??aeao
aeey i?aeaioiaee eaeoe?eieo eo?n?a iecee i?aniciaa/eo aeenoeeie?i o
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao. ?acoeueoaoe aeiiiiaaathoue c’ynoaaoe ci?ie a
no/ani?e, ianaiia?aae a?o/eciyi?e, nenoai? i?ane. ?icae?ee uiaei iiooe?a
oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeo?iae?nonueeeo ioae?eaoe?e,
iai?yi?a i?ioan?iiae?caoe?? ?iaioe i?noeaaiai aeo?iae?noa iiaeooue aooe
ei?eni? aeey oe?ieiai caaaeo ?aaeaeoi??a ?aa?iiaeueieo aeaeaiue.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. A iniiao ?iaioe iieeaaeai? aeai?,
iaea?aeai? aaoi?ii i?ioyaii 1993—1998 ?ie?a. Aaoi? ii?aoeueiaoaaa aaeeeo
e?euee?noue ?aa?iiaeueieo aacao Niieo/aieo Ooao?a Aia?eee ? Oe?a?ie.
Caeiiii??iino? aeyaeaii aaciina?aaeiuei aeena?oaioii. Iaaaaeaii
no?oeoo?o i?eeeaaeiaeo aia?eeainueeeo aacao, c?iaeai? eeaneo?eaoe?? ?
aaoi?nueeeie. Ia?aeeaae oe?a?inueeith iiaith aiaeiiiaieo aacaoieo
ioae?eaoe?e ? oeeoao c iaoeiaeo i?aoeue aeeiiaii aeena?oaioii. Aiae?c ?
ocaaaeueiaiiy iaiao?aeieo oiiaeiaeo ? e?oa?aoo?ieo iaoa??ae?a, ia?iaea
aeaieo ?ioeo aeine?aeiee?a iaeaaeeoue aaoi?ia?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeeny oa iaaiai?thaaeeny ia i’yoe eiioa?aioe?yo o Ee?a?, o
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? i?e aeeeaaeaii? a ?inoeooo? aeo?iae?noeee
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, a aeeieiiieo ?iaioao
nooaeaio?a iacaaiiai ?inoeoooo, ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e i?aeia?iaeii?
aeo?iae?noeee oa eaoaae?e ia??iaee/ii? i?ane Iinoeoooo aeo?iae?noeee
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Ioae?eaoe??. C oaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii i’youe ae?oeiaaieo
i?aoeue o aeaeyae? noaoae.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e. Caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe — 150
noi?. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae — 7 noi?., aeeth/a? 97 iaeiaioaaiue,
o oiio /ene? 62 i?aoe? oe?a?inueeeo ? ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a ? 35
caaaeoaaieo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue.

Aaoi? ue?i aaey/iee ca i?aeo?eieo i?e aeeiiaii? aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?io. ?aaiiao A. O., ie?ai? iiaeyee neeaaeath i?io.
Iineaeaieo A. 3., i?io. Oeey?o A. ?., i?io. Eoae?io A. I., eaiae. ?no.
iaoe Aaneeaieo I. E., eaiae. iie?o. iaoe TH?aoo A. A., i?io. Eaiiaoo
Noa?eo (Oi?aa?neoao Aeiae, NOA), i?io. Aeaea?aeaeo Nia?e?iao
(Oi?aa?neoao ?aaeaeaeie, Eaiaaea), iaa?no?o aeo?iae?noeee Eaoa?ei?
*o?n?i?e (Oi?aa?neoao ?iae?aie, NOA), aaoueeia? Ea?anth A. A. —
aeina?ae/aiiio aacaoy?aa?, ae?oaeei? Ea?anue A. I. ca aeiiiiiao,
eiinoeueoaoe?? ? oa?iey/?noue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Ia?oee ?icae?e aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui iineoue iacao “Caaaeueia
oa?aeoa?enoeea ?aa?iiaeueieo aacao NOA”, ? ni?iaith iiaeaoe ea?oeio
a?aeiia?aeiiai ieanoo aia?eeainueei? i?ane oe?e?nii. ?icae?e
neeaaeathoue o?e ioieoe, ia?oee c yeeo ? anooiii aei i?aaiaiai iiey
ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?ane o NOA. Nooue iiiyooy “/aoaa?oa aeaaea” iiaith
aia?eeainueeeo th?eno?a oeoia/eoueny ca aeiiiiiaith aeaio eiioeaioe?e:
“eiio?ieueii? ooieoe?? i?ane” oa “i?eioeeio ?ioi?ioaaiiy
a?iiaaenueeino?”. Ca?aeii c ia?oith, i?ana aenooia? ia?aiei
eiinoeoooe?eiei caniaii caiia?aaiiy ceiaaeeaaiue c aieo o?yaeo. Ae?oaa
noaa?aeaeo?, ui CI? ? ia no?eueee oaoi?/iei caniaii ia?aaea/?
?ioi?iaoe??, ne?eueee iie?oe/iei ?inoeoooii, iaiaaeaiiy ae?yeueiino?
yeiai ii?ooo? caaeainiaai?noue eiinoeoooe?eiiai iaoai?cio.

Iniiaiiieiaeiei caeiiiaeaa/ei aeoii aeey aia?eeainueeeo aeo?iae?no?a ?
Ia?oa iii?aaea aei eiinoeoooe?? NOA, a ye?e i?noeoueny caai?iia
ooaaethaaoe caeiie, ui iaiaaeoaaee a naiaiaeo neiaa. Oaei? oi?eaeueii?
ii?ie iaia? a eiinoeoooe?yo a?eueoino? e?a?i, o oiio /ene? e
Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie. Aia?eeainuee? noaee ?icaeyaeathoue
eiinoeoooe?eio naiaiaeo neiaa ye ia?oi?yaeio oe?ii?noue ? iaeiiai?oa
caoeuathoue aeo?iae?no?a a?ae ia?ane?aeoaaiue c aieo iie?oe/ieo o?ao? ?
neoaeaiaeo in?a (ca aeiyoeii aeiaaee?a, eiee aoaea aeiaaaeaii coienia
iaeeaiieoeoai aai ciaoooaaiiy ia?aa??eith, iane?eueee i?aaaeeaa
iaaaoeaia ?ioi?iaoe?y). Aee?eaaeueieoeuee? iaoa??aee i?i oae caaieo
“public persons” (iaiie?oe/ieo ciaiaieoinoae) iiaeooue aooe iiea?ai? a
noaeiaiio ii?yaeeo. Ooo iaae?a? /eiiino? ?ioa iniiaiiieiaeia ii?ia i?aa
ethaeeie — i?aai ia i?eaaoia aeeooy. Inoaii?i o ?yaeo oa?aeoa?ieo ?en
noi?oue oa, ui i?aeoe/ii eiaeai o NOA iiaea, io?eiaaoe aeinooi aei
ae?oea?nueeiai iaeaaeiaiiy ? a?aeiia?aeii? e?eueeino? iaia?o, aeionoeoe
aeanio aacaoo. Aeaeo?iii? CI? ye iin?? cia/ii a?eueoiai aieeao ia
niiaeeaa/a ?ioi?iaoe?? caeaaei? a?ae ??oaiiy iaaeyaeiai? Oaaea?aeueii?
eii?n?? c eiioi?eaoe?e, yea iiaea i?eieieoe aeeooy i?aaio CI?,
iicaaaeaoe eiai ao??o.

Iniiaith aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? i?noeaai? aacaoe o NOA ? oni?oiee i?iaeaae
?aeeaiieo iineoa. Naia a?i, a ia a?io? ia?aaeieaoiee?a, aai, neaae?ii,
aeioaoe?? i?noeaai? aeaaee, iie?eaathoue 4/5 aeo?ao ia aeione aeaeaiiy.
Oai?/ee i?ioean ? iaeneiaeueii i?ea’ycaiei aei a?cianiai? ae?yeueiino? a
?aa?ii?, ui ia noia?a/eoue niiae?aaiiyi /eoa/?a — i?aaenoaaiee?a
/eneaiiiai “na?aaeiueiai eeano”, yeee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
aenieith ae?eiaith aeoeai?noth. Ae?oaee ioieo aeaiiai ?icae?eo
“Aeiiii?/iee aacen ooieoe?iioaaiiy” iieno? caaaeuei? canaaee
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aacaoe ye aeiiii?/iiai i?aai?cio ? i?noeoue ieceo
aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a i?ane ye aeaeo CI? o NOA. Cie?aia, /?oeith ?
oaiaeaioe?y aei iaooeeueiiai c?inoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? aeaeaaie/i? ni?aae
a ?oeao aacaoieo eiioea?i?a — “Iaeo-??aeaea?”, “Eien”, “Aaiiao” oa
?ioeo, 65 a?aenioe?a aia?eeainueeeo aeo?iae?no?a iei? i?aoeththoue o
CI?, aeanieeaie yeeo ? a?oie e ia?aae?. Ia’?aeiaiei aacaoai eaaoa
ae?iaeyoe ni?eueio no?aoaa?th ye ?ioi?iaoe?eii? ?iaioe, oae ?
i?aeaeuaiiy ?aioaaaeueiino? e i?eaooeiaino? ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue. O
na?aaeei? 90-o ?ie?a noeoii? i?eaooee aacao NOA neeaee 29,4 ie?ae.
aeiea??a (oaeaaa/aiiy — 13,8 ie?ae., ?aae?i — 5,1 ie?ae.). Aenieeie
caeeoaeeny i?eaooee aeo?iae?no?a NOA, iaeaeua iiea/oaai?oeie na?aae yeeo
? aaoi?e aeo?iae?a (66 oeny/ aeiea??a ia ??e), ei?aniiiaeaioe
?ioi?iaoe?eieo aaaionoa (43,6 oen. aeiea??a ia ??e), aeo?iae?noe
uiaeaiieo aacao (35 oen. aeiea??a ia ??e), i?aoe?aieee oaeaaa/aiiy (25
oen. aeiea??a ia ??e), caieeathoue ?aeoeia i?aoe?aieee ?aae?i ?
oeaeiaaeo aacao.

Oa?aeoa?enoeoe? aacao ca oeiieia?/ieie iciaeaie i?enay/aii o?ao?e ioieo
aeaiiai ?icae?eo. ?iaey/e aeniiaie i?i iaeaea nooe?eueiee ?aa?iiaeueiee
oa?aeoa? ia??iaeeee NOA, aia?eeainuee? aeine?aeieee iiae?eythoue oaanue
ianea i?ane ia aea? iniiai? a?oie “metro journalism” ? “community
journalism”. Oa?i?i “metro” iioiaeeoue a?ae ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?cio
“iao?iiie?y” ? a?aeiia?aeii oa?i?i “metro journalism” — noeoii?noue
aeaeaiue, ui aeoiaeyoue o aaeeeeo i?noao, aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ? ae?eiaeo
oeaio?ao, ?iciianthaeaeothoueny aeaeaei ca iaaeaie i?noa-ae?iaieea
?ioi?iaoe?eii? i?iaeoeoe??. “Community journalism” iaea?eueoa
a?aeiia?aea? oiio ianeao oe?a?inueei? aeo?iae?noeee, yeee ie cae/ii
iaceaa?ii i?noeaaith i?anith. ?aa?iiaeuei? aacaoe NOA, o naith /a?ao,
iiae?eythoueny ia aea? ae?aci? a?oie ca oaeith oeiieia?/iith iciaeith,
ye ia??iaee/i?noue. Eaeaoueny i?i uiaeaii? oa uioeaeiaa? aacaoe.

A?aeiia?aeiee ianea aia?eeainueei? i?ane, c oi/ee ci?o eiai
?aa?iiaeueiino?, aaoi? ?icaeyaea? ia i?eeeaae? aacao ooaoo Aeiaa. A?i ?
iieaciaei o e?eueeio a?aeiioaiiyo, ia?aaeon?i nai?th oi?eaeueiith
aeo?iae?nonueeith nenoaiith, yea ca e?euee?noth aacao ia iaeiiai
iaoeaioey iin?aea? ia?oa i?noea o Niieo/aieo Ooaoao.

Eiie?aoiiio ?icaeyaeo aeo?iae?nonueei? iaoiaeieia?? i?enay/aii ae?oaee
?icae?e aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy — “Aena?oeaiiy a?iiaaenueeiai
aeeooy ia noi??ieao i?noeaaeo aacao NOA”. Aeie?aiethth/e oa?aeoa?i?
oaiaoe/i? ?oa?eee, ?icae?ee ? noi??iee, ni?euei? aeey an?o aacao (?iaioa
i?noeaaiai caeiiiaeaa/iai i?aaio, e?ei?iaeueia o?ii?ea, i?noeaaee nii?o,
a oaeiae oae? aeania aia?eeainuee? ?icae?ee, ye “Non?aenueea
?ioi?iaoe?y”, “A?iiaaenuee? iia?aeiieaiiy” (Public notices), “Iiceoe?y”
(Opinion) oa ?io?, aaoi? coieiy?oueny ia iinoaoaeiiio ?icaeyae? aeaio
ocyoeo aeey i?eeeaaeo /enae i?noeaaeo aacao ??ciiai oeio: “Aeaee?
Aeiaai” oa “I?an-n?o?cai”. Ia i?eeeaae? “Aeaee? Aeiaai” i?inoaaeo?oueny
no/ania oaiaeaioe?y, ia yeo aeacothoue aia?eeainuee?
aeine?aeieee: aca?iii?iieeiaiiy iaoiae?a cai?o ? iiaea/? iiaei i?ae
“metro” ? “community”, oiaoi oeaio?aeueieie ? i?noeaaeie CI?. C 25
ioae?eaoe?e acyoiai aeey i?eeeaaeo iiia?a aacaoe eeoa ?C i?aeaioiaeaii
ooaoieie aeo?iae?noaie ? noino?oueny i?noeaai? oaiaoeee, ?aooa iaae?eoea
eaiaeaie na?oiaiai ?ioi?iaaaionoaa “Anioeaeoaae i?an”. Aaeeea /anoea
iaoa??ae?a iicai?noeaaiai oa?aeoa?o iiynith?oueny niaoeeo?eith
/eoaoeueei? aoaeeoi???, yeo ia?aaaaeii noaiiaeyoue nooaeaioe,
aeeeaaea/?, neoaeaiaoe? ? ?oi? n?i’?. I?ioa ?aae?e i?noeaai? aacaoe ia
iiaeieaoe — iaa?oue noi??iea “Aea?aeaaa ? na?o” c ?? ye?nieie
iaoa??aeaie o??caia iaiieiaeio ia ei?enoue i?noeaai? aeia?aeeiai?
?ioi?iaoe??, a ye?e ciaeaea uinue oe?eaaa eiaeiee iaoeaiaoeue i?noa.
“I?an-n?o?cai” — eeane/iee ac??aoeue ?aniaeoaaaeueii? i?noeaai? aacaoe,
ui oai?eoueny ca ?aoeaioaie iaeiiai c iaea?eueoeo aacaoieo eiioea?i?a
NOA — “Aaiiaoo”.

Ia?aaeon?i a?aei?iiino? noinothoueny oi?iaeueieo iciae. Uiaeaiia
28-noi??ieiaa aacaoa neeaaeaia c ie?aieo iane??ieaieo naeoe?e —
?ioi?ioaaeueii?, ?icaaaeaeueii-ioae?oeenoe/ii?, nii?oeaii? ? ?aeeaiii?.
O ia?aaeieaoieea neeaaea?oueny a?aaeaiiy, ui cai?noue iaei??? a?i
io?eio? uiaeiy 3—4 aacaoe. Aeiaeaoeiaa oaeineiiaeaia ?oa?eeaoe?y
iaoa??ae?a noino?oueny ye oi?ie, oae ? ci?noo. Oa?aeoa?i? aeecaei ?
aa?noea iieaaoo? /eoa/aa? ni?eeiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??, ui canaith?oueny
noaae?yie: caaieiaie — ?oa?eea — aeiaeaoeiaa ?oa?eea — aeiin — oaeno. O
aacao? i?eaa?oa? oaaao ii?yaeie ?ici?uaiiy oaiaoe/ii ni?yiiaaieo iiein.
Ia?oa ? ae?oaa iieine oe?eeii caiiaiai? ?aii?oaaeaie i?i iiae??
a?iiaaenueeiai aeeooy i?noa. O?aoy noi??iea — iniiai? iiae?? aea?aeaae ?
na?oo, /aoaa?oa — iaio cia/i? iiae?? o aea?aeaa?, i’yoa — nooi i?noeaaa
nioe?aeueii-iiaooiaa ?ioi?iaoe?y, oinoa — i?noeaaa aeia?aeeiaa neoaeaa,
nueiia — iiae?? ooaoo c “i?ea’yceith” aei i?no, aeaa’yoa — eenoe /eoa/?a
? “i??eoaaiiy c i?eaiaeo”, aeanyoa — iaio cia/i? iiae?? o na?o?. *ioe?e
ianooii? noi??iee a?aeaeai? aeica?eeth o i?no? ? ?icaaaeaeueiiio
“/oeao”, ua o?e — nii?oo, inoaiiy — a?cian-iiaeiai. Ia ia?aeiiaiiy
aeaeaaoe?a aacaoe, ui oni?oii ooieoe?iio? , ?ioa?ane /eoa/?a iathoue
iaai? ??ai? — ?ioaeaeooaeuei?, i?ioan?ei?, i?inoi?iai-/ania? oiui.
Aacaoa iiaeiia aooe noi?iiaaia oae, uia eiaeiee c /eoa/?a iaa aeinooi
aei ?ioi?iaoe?? o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ?iaeea?aeoaeueieie caieoaie.

Ae?oaee ioieo ae?oaiai ?icae?eo i?enay/aii aeeneon?? na?aae
aia?eeainueeeo aacaoy??a uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aacaoieo
ioae?eaoe?e. Ia aeoieo aeine?aeiee?a Aeaa?aea Ia???ooa oa Aeaeay ?icaia,
aia?eeainueea i?ana, ia?aaeon?i i?noeaaa, ia?aaoaa? o aeeaie?e e?ec?
/a?ac iaaei??io eiioeaio?aoe?th ia “?eieiaino?” naiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
(aacaoiiai) i?iaeoeoo. Aenoiooa ieie eiioeaioe?y “a?iiaaenueei?
aeo?iae?noeee” iieyaaea o caia?a/aii? i?ioan?eii?
aaci?eno?aniino? aeo?iae?noa, a?aeeeaeaii? i?eioeeio: “iaao?o/aiiy o
eiioe?eo, a eeoa eiai ia’?eoeaia aena?oeaiiy”. Ia?aaeiao iaoiaeeeo
“iaeneiaeueii? aeoeaiino? a?iiaaeyinueei? iiceoe?? aeo?iae?noa”
caiice/eee nioi? aia?eeainueeeo aacao, aiia ni?aaeea iaaiee ?iioeuen
oaeiae ? ia ?io? aeaee CI? — ?aae?i ? oaeaaa/aiiy. I?eeiaoii, ui
i?aeoiaee “a?iiaaenueei? aeo?iae?noeee” canoiniaothoueny ia eeoa
aeey iiae?e o iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? e?ath, ui ia? ia iao? ci?oeiaiiy
aeaiie?aoe/iiai ono?ith. Aacaoi? eiiiai?? o aeon? “a?iiaaenueei?
aeo?iae?noeee” ? aoaeoeaieie o ae??oaii? aino?eo nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai,
ia?aaeon?i o i?io?eaeoeoe? cei/eiiino?.

Oaaaa o?aoueiai ioieoo oeaio?aeueiiai ?icae?eo eiioeaio?o?oueny ia ?enao
iiaeaeueoi? i?ioan?iiae?caoe?? ?iaioe i?noeaaiai aeo?iae?noa. Ine?eueee
iniiaiith a?aei?ii?noth i?noeaaiai aeo?iae?noa a?ae oeaio?aeueiiai ?
aaciina?aaeiy iaaeeaeai?noue aei iienoaaieo iiae?e ? ?o aa?i?a,
iniaeeai? aaae iaaoaa? aeio?eiaiiy ii?aeueii-aoe/ieo ii?i
aeo?iae?nonueei? oai?/ino?.

A?eueo?noue aeo?iae?no?a NOA cana?ae/othoue a??i?noue aeaii i?ioan?eiei
e?eoa??yi:

a) yeiaeoaeaeoiai aeiianaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? aei a?aeiia a?iiaaenueeino?;

a) e?eoe/iiai iaaiai?aiiy ??oaiue i?aai?a aeaaee.

O ia?aiin? ia i?aeoeeo i?noeaai? aeo?iae?noeee ia ao?a/a? aino?ioe
aaeaaaiiy aei oaeeo noia?a/eeaeo aeae?a cai?o ? iiooeo aeo?iae?nonueei?
?ioi?iaoe??, ye: 1) iioae?eoaaiiy aac aeicaieo aeieoiaio?a i?aai?a
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee /e eiia?oe?eieo no?oeoo?; 2) ae?aooaaiiy iniae —
aeaea?aea ?ioi?iaoe?? i?iaieaoe?eieie caieoaiiyie /e ?ioeie ae?yie; 3)
/eoaiiy iniaenoeo aeieoiaio?a (iai?., eeno?a) aac aeicaieo; 4) iaaeaiiy
a?ioiai? aeiaai?iaee ?ioi?iaioia? ca eiio?aeaioe?eio ?ioi?iaoe?th; 5)
ii?eethaeiaiiy i??caeu aea?oa c?aaeooaaiue. Ia i?eae?eyth/e iaeaaeii?
oaaae i?noeaa?e o?aaeeoe?? aai iiieeeiai o?aeooth/e iiae??, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny, aeo?iae?no ao?a/a? aeia??o i?noeaai? a?iiaaee. O
aeiaeiiio ?ioiio aeae? aeo?iae?noeee aaoi?nueea ai?iiy, i?eeoaaiiy i?i
oi?io oa aeineiiae?noue iaoa??aeo ia aeyaeythoueny oae i?inoi, aae aei
iniaenoi? ?aeaioeo?eaoe??, ye o i?noeaa?e aacao?. Ooo oaaaa /eoa/a
iieyaa? a ioiieaii? an?o aeaiaio?a noia?iiai i?aniaiai ia’?eoa, o eiai
ci?no? ?acii c iiaeeeaei a?aeo?ieii oaiaeaioe?eiino?, o i?inoi?iaiio ?
ia?niiaeueiiio ?icoaooaaii? ie?aieo iaoa??ae?a, a iaa?oioiaaiino?
a?aoiaioaoe??, iiaeeeaeo iaoi/iinoyo o oaeoaae?, i?iii?oe?eiino? /anoei
ci?noo ? eiiiiceoe?? anueiai iiia?a, aeeth/ath/e ?ici?uaiiy oaenoo ia
iiein?. I?noeaaa aacaoa — iaea?eueo ononi?eueiaia aeaeaiiy ? oiio
iaea?eueo caeaaeia a?ae niae?a ? i/?eoaaiue /eoa/?a. C ?ioiai aieo,
?iaioo i?noeaaiai aeo?iae?noa oa?aeoa?eco? iaeneiaeueia /ooeea?noue aei
iiieoo non?ae?a-/eoa/?a, aeaoaeueia ciaiiy /eoaoeueeiai caaaeo ? eiai
eiioeiaaio?a. I???ioiai? oaie ioae?eaoe?e o ni?aa?aeiioaii? aei
e?eueeino? ianaeaiiy o i?ioeaioiiio a?aeiioaii?, ui i/?eothoue
aena?oeaiiy aeaieo oai, iaaiaeyoueny ca iaoa??aeaie nioe?ieia?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy “Aia?eeainuee? aeo?iae?noe o 90-o ?ieao”. Aeiiiaiththoue
?? ?ic?iaee iieuenueeeo i?aniciaaoe?a, ye? (?ic?iaee) i?noyoue
oe?ii?noue aeey oe?a?inueei? i?ane a neeo aeecueeino?
iie?oe/ii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo a ae?oa?e iieiaei? XX noie?ooy.

O?ao?e ?icae?e aeine?aeaeaiiy — “A?o/eciyia i?noeaaa i?ana — a?ae
?iceaaeo aei aa?iii??”. Eiai oe?eeii i?enay/aii noaio i?noeaai? ?
?aa?iiaeueii? oe?a?inueei? i?ane oa oeyoai iiaeieaiiy ?oiueiai
caiaiaaeo. ?aaiethoe?eia ci?ia noni?eueiiai eaaeo a e?a?i? ia ii/aoeo
90-o ?ie?a yeiaea??oa a?aeaeeany ia oe?a?inueeiio ae?oeiaaiiio neia? ?
ia ia??iaeeoe? cie?aia. Noeoiiee iaeeaae aeaeaiue ciaioeany oi?iaeiaae
1989—1997 ??. c 90 aei 9 i?eueeii?a, oiaoi o 10 ?ac?a. Iaeeaae ie?aieo
?aeiiieo aacao noaiiaea 65—100 i?ei??iee?a.

Aiaeii/an ye oe?a?inuee?, oae ? ca?oa?aei? iie?oieiae, aeiiii?noe,
aeine?aeieee cacia/aee oe?ie? ia?niaeoeae i?noeaaeo aacao o
aeaiie?aoe/ii-i???ioiaaiiio noni?euenoa?. Oeueiio ni?ey? eiiieaen
oaeoi??a, na?aae yeeo ia inoaiith ?ieue a?ae?a?a? e?aua noaiiaeua
i?noeaai? aacaoe ia ?eieo ?aeeaiieo iineoa. sse cacia/a? aeiiii?no A.
Ei?i?eia, ?aeeaia i?aaeiao?a ianiaiai iiieoo c ianyaaie i?iaeaaeo
i?eueeii?a oooe (oi/i?oa, oi?a?aaeueieo ia?ie oiaa??a) iio?aiey? ia
oaeaaa/aiiy ?c caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueiith aoaeeoi???th, aea aiia
aoaeoeai?oa. A io i?iaeaae oiaa??a ? iineoa iineoue i?noeaaee oa?aeoa?,
ui iai?yio iia’ycaii c ?aeeaiith o ?aa?iiaeuei?e i?an?. Aeiiiiiao a
no?oeoo?i?e ia?aaoaeia? ?aaeaeoe?eii-aeaeaaie/i? iie?oeee oe?a?inueea
i?noeaaa aeo?iae?noeea iiaea i/?eoaaoe ia eeoa a?ae i?eaaoiiai eai?oaeo,
a e iaaea?aeaaieo oiiae?a e?a?i Caoiaeo. I?ei??ii, aia?eeainueeee IREX
ProMedia iiaea iaaeaoe iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/io aeiiiiiao ?aa?iiaeuei?e
aacao? ca oiiae, ui aiia ? naiino?eiith a?ae aeaaee i?eaaoiith
th?eaee/iith iniaith ? i???ioo?oueny ia ianiao (ianiaoe?ae?ciaaio)
aoaeeoi??th. Ia?oee ioieo aeaiiai ?icae?eo i?noeoue oaeiae ?acoeueoaoe
niaoe?ae?ciaaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aa?iiaeueiii? i?ane Oe?a?ie,
i?iaaaeaiiai 1996 ?ieo. Aieiaieie aeniiaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee: 1)
iaaeinoaoiy ?icaea?aeaaeai?noue ?aa?iiaeueii? i?ane, — 46,5 a?aenioea
aeaeaiue caniiaai? i?aaiaie i?noeaai? aeaaee; 2) o?aoeia ianaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie acaaae? ia /eoa? i?noeaao ? ?aa?iiaeueio i?ano, oiio naiiioe?iea
aeo?iae?no?a uiaei ?aaeueiiai aieeao ia a?iiaaenueeo aeoieo ? aeaui
caaeuaiith; 3) 25 a?aenioe?a aeo?iae?no?a iaaea?aeaaieo aeaeaiue, 92
a?aenioee aeo?iae?no?a aea?aeaaieo aeaeaiue i?aeo?eiothoue iie?oeeo
/eiii? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, 35 a?aenioe?a iieoaieo /eoa/?a caia?a/othoue
aoaeue-yeo iie?oe/io ni?yiiaai?noue “?oiueiai” ?aa?iiaeueiiai aeaeaiiy.
Eiyeuei?noue aei aeaaee noaaeoue i?ae noii?a ?aaeueiee aieea i?noeaaeo
aacao ia ?aa?iiaeueio iie?oeeo.

Ae?oaee ioieo caaa?oaeueiiai ?icae?eo iineoue iacao “?aeaieia?/ia
niaaeueia oioae?oa?ii? aeo?iae?noeee” ? ia? ia iao? c’ynoaaoe i?e/eie
eiioi?iiino? oe?a?inueeeo CI?, cie?aia ?aa?iiaeueii? i?ane. I?aeoeea
iiaoaeiae nioe?ae?cio e eiioi?cio a N?N? aeiaaea aoeueaa?i?noue
eai?inueeiai i?eioeeio “ia?o?eii? i?aai?caoe?? ? ia?o?eii? e?oa?aoo?e”,
ui iaea?eueo caaino?aii aeyaeeiny a i?aai?caoe?? oa ae?yeueiino? cania?a
ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??. Oeoia/aiiy noo? naiaiaee aeo?iae?noa “o neoae?ii?
ni?aa? ?ia?oie/iai eeano, yeee, ai?th/enue ca eiioi?ci, ao?eth? a nia?
iaeaeuee ?aeaae naiaiaee”, i?ecaaei aei oiai, ui eiaeiee ae?oeiaaiee
i?aai iaa aooe i?aaiii ia?o?eiiai eii?oaoo, aei ea??aiiai i?aaio
inoaiiueiai iaia’yceiai aoiaeea ?aaeaeoi? aacaoe. C ?icai?oaiiyi
nioe?ae?noe/iiai aoae?aieoeoaa aacao? caai?iieee e?eoeeoaaoe i?aai
aeaaee, yeee ?? aeaea?. Anoaiiaeeany no?oiee oioae?oa?ia ???a?o?y:
?aeiiia aacaoa aaea ia iaea i?aaa ia e?eoeeo ?aeiiii? aeaaee,
a?aeiia?aeii iaeania aacaoa — iaeiio ? iae?aaee, anaoe?a?inueea — OeE
Eiiia?o??. Ianiaa ?aaeyinueea i?ana ia ciaea ooene?a oeaico?e. Oeaici?,
o. ca. “?aaeaeoi? aieiae?oaeaeaao”, aoa i?enoaaeaiee eeoa aei
iaea?eueoeo aacao ia c ?aeaieia?/iith iaoith — a?i iaa ia aeiionoeoe
aeoieo nae?aoii? ?ioi?iaoe?? (a?enueeiai?, noaoenoe/ii?, iaoiaee/ii?
oiui). Oaiiiaiaeueiei yaeuai a ?noi??? na?oiai? aeo?iae?noeee noaea
naiioeaico?a ?aaeyinueeeo aeo?iae?no?a. Ei??iiy oaia??oiuei?
oaiaeianueei? iiceoe?? aeo?iae?noa uiaei aeaaee e?e?oueny o noo?ieao
oioae?oa?ecio.

O?ao?e ioieo “Oe?ii?ni? i???ioaoe?? i?noeaai? aeo?iae?noeee o aeiao
aeaiie?ao??” ?icaeyaea? iiaoaeiao iie?oeea — i?ana — aeaaea o eiioaeno?
iieaciaeo i?eeeaae?a c i?aeoeee i?noeaaeo aacao Oe?a?ie. Eiioe?eo aacaoe
“Ae?aaeyinueeee e?ae” (i. Ei?inoaiue AEeoiie?nueei? iae.) c i?noeaaith
aeaaeith aeeeany o eiioe?eo i?ae iiai?ieeaie aea?aeaaieoeueei? ?aea?
(aeo?iae?noaie ia /ie? c ?aaeaeoi?ii) oa aiieiaaoaie oe?iiinoae
eaca?iaiiai nioe?ae?cio. Ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy o caie?aii? ia? yeui ia
iiooe eiii?ii?no, oi ??oaiiy noaeiaeo ?inoaioe?e. Noaiii ia 1999 ??e
Eiinoeoooe?eiee noae Oe?a?ie ia ?icaeyaeaa aeiaeii? ni?aae i?i naiaiaeo
neiaa. Iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe, ui, ca?aeii c nioe?ieia?/ieie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie, aeo?iae?noai ia caaae aeanoeaa
e?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ia ieneaiiy cia/ii a?eueoith i??ith, i?ae
i?aaenoaaieeai oaei? noni?eueii? a?oie, ye i?noeaaee
iie?oe/ii-ainiiaea?nueeee “aeoea”.

Aacaoa “Ae?oaeeianeee ?aai/ee” (i. Ae?oaee?aea Aeiiaoeueei? iae.) ?
i?eeeaaeii aaeaei? ia?ai???ioaoe?? i?noeaaiai aeaeaiiy o iiaeo
noni?eueieo oiiaao. Ocyaoe eo?n ia iania?noue, aeo?iae?noe iaeaaiaeeaoe
aeione nioe?aeueii-i???ioiaaii? aacaoe, ui noaea aeaea?aeii anaa?/ii?
?ioi?iaoe?? i?i aeeooy ?aa?iio ? iiaiith i??ith caaeiaieueiy?
?ioi?iaoe?ei? iio?aae a?iiaaee.

Aeniiaee

O no/ani?e i?aeoeoe? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ae?oeiaaieo cania?a ianiai?
?ioi?iaoe?? Oe?a?ie ie?aneeeany oaiaeaioe?y i?aaeyoe?? iniiaii? eaiee
nenoaie i?ane ?icaeiooeo aeaiie?aoe/ieo e?a?i — ?aa?iiaeueieo ?
i?noeaaeo aacao. O aea?aeaaioai?/iio i?ioean? aeieo?oueny “aeainoi?iii?e
?oo” ii aa?oeeae? “/aoaa?oi? aeaaee”, inoaiiy ia?aoai?th?oueny ia
i?eaeaoie aei iniiaieo aeaaeieo a?eie.

E?eca o noa?? noni?eueii? iiaoaeiae ae?aaea?oueny o neiniai/aiiio
?icoi?ii? ooieoe?? CI? c aieo aeaaeoe?a. Aacaoa aaea ia “eieaeoeaiee
i?aai?caoi?, i?iiaaaiaeeno ? aa?oaoi?”, ye aiia oeoia/eeany o aeieo?ei?
oioae?oa?iiai noni?euenoaa, a can?a “ciiaoaaiiy”, ?ino?oiaio iie?oe/ii?
?ici?aae (o. ca. “aacaoia e?ea?noai”), ia inoaiiy ca?iy o a?eiao
iie?oe/ieo ae?o. Iaaaoeai? i?iyae ciaeoee ?icaeoie caeaa?eueoiai naia ia
??ai? i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy.

Ei?ioeee ?icaeyae iniiaieo ?en ooieoe?iioaaiiy aecia/aeueii? eaiee a
nenoai? ia??iaeeee NOA — i?noeaai? i?ane aeicaiey? oaa?aeeoe, ui aenieee
??aaiue ?? a?aeiia?aeiino? i’yoe nioe?ieia?/iei ooieoe?yi CI?
(?ioi?iaoe?eii-i?ciaaaeuei?e, oe?ii?nii-i???ioaoe?ei?e,
eiioi?eaoeaii-anoaoe/i?e, nioe?aeueii-i?aai?caoi?nuee?e,
ineoieia?/ii? ?aaoeyoe??) noaa iiaeeeaei oiane?aeie e?eueeio ia?aaeoiia.
Ii-ia?oa, ae?yeuei?noue i?ane, o niin?a eiinoeoooe?eii? ii?ie, aoei
iinoaaeaii a NOA a iniaeeai i?ea?eaeiaaia noaiiaeua. Ii-ae?oaa,
aeiiii?/ia iacaeaaei?noue i?aai?a CI? caaacia/o?oueny aenieeie
i?eaooeaie a?ae i?iaeaaeo ?aeeaiieo ieiu, ine?eueee aac o/ano?
eieaeueiiai aeaeaiiy iaiiaeeeai oyaeoe aaeineiiaeaiiy i?noeaai?
a?cianiai-ae?iaie/i? ?io?ano?oeoo?e. Ii-o?ao?, aoaeeoi??y a?ae 1 aei 300
oeny/ /ieia?e, ia aeoieo nioe?ieia?a, oi?io? iia’ycaio ieceith
i?e/eiiai-iane?aeeiaeo ca’yce?a ni?eueiioo a?iiaaeyi, ? caaaeyee
a?aaeaoe?yi ca ?ioaeaeooaeueiei ??aiai ie?aieo ei?aniiiaeaioe?e iiia?a
i?noeaai? aacaoe caaeiaieueiy?oueny iaeoe?oee niaeo? /eoaoeueeeo niae?a,
aeinyaa?oueny iaeneiaeueia /eoaoeueea aoaeeoi??y.

*eoaiiy i?noeaai? aacaoe ? aeey no/anii? ethaeeie, ui aeeaa a
aoii?ciaaiiio ianiaiio noni?euenoa?, iaei??th c iniiaieo aeeoo?aeo
iio?aa. Oea iieeaaea? aeiaeaoeiao a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ia i?ioan?ei?
iaia’ycee aeo?iae?noa, ui i?aoeth? a i?noeaa?e ?aaeaeoe??, ine?eueee
nooo?ao ?ieue o i?aeaioiaoe? iaoa??aeo a?ae?a?athoue ia?aaeaeoe?ei?
iaoiiaeaiino?.

O oe?eiio ae, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui naia i?iaeaia aecia/aiiy
i?noey ? ?ie? i?noeaaeo CI? ye ii?aeiaiiy ?ino?oiaio?a a?iiaaenueeiai
eiio?ieth oa nooe?eueiiai ?ioi?ioaaiiy ? iaeaeooaeuei?oith ?
iaeia?niaeoeai?oith i?iaeaiith oe?a?inueei? aeo?iae?noeee. ?ica’ycaiiy
?? aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaia c ye?nii anoaiiaeaiiyi i?iaeaiii-iiooeiaiai
niiniao a?aeia?aaeaiiy ae?eniino?, i?eoaiaiiiai aeo?iae?noeoe?
aeaiie?aoe/iiai noni?euenoaa.

Nienie ae?oeiaaieo i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1. Ea?anue I. A. ?aa?iiaeueia aacaoa a aeaiie?aoe/iiio noni?euenoa. //
Oe?a?inueea aeo?iae?noeea a eiioaeno? na?oiai?; ca ?aae. A. ?. Oeey?a. —
Aei. 1. — E., 1997. — N. 15-19 (0,4 ae?. a?.).

2. Ea?anue I. A. ?aeeaia /e ?o?ia — o?aoueiai ia aeaii. // Oe?a?inueea
aeo?iae?noeea — 96. — E., 1996. — N. 60—62 (0,2 ae?. a?.).

3. Ea?anue I. A. Iaeaooi? aacaoe a aeaeo?iiio aeiao // ?ieue cania?a
ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? a a?iiaaenueei-eoeueoo?iiio i?ioean? a Oe?a?i?. —E.,
1995.—N. 76—77 (0,2 ae?. a?.).

4. Ea?anue I. A. Eiio?aaa?n?ei? aeo?iae?nonuee? i?eeiie a ioe?ioe?
i?aoe?aiee?a CI? NOA // Co/ania ?ioi?iaoe?eia iie?oeea. — E, 1999.—N.
153-157 (0,3 ae?. a?.).

5. Ea?anue I. A. “A?iiaaenueea aeo?iae?noeea” o NOA ye iiaa aa/aiiy
ooieoe?e ?aa?iiaeueii? aacaoe // Iia? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo CI? a
iinooie?oa?iee ia??iae . — E, 1999. —N. 188-194. (0,5 ae?. a?.).

Aiioaoe?y

Ea?anue I. A. ?aa?iiaeueia i?ana a aeaiie?aoe/iiio noni?euenoa? (ia
i?eeeaae? ia??iaeeee NOA). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.01.08 : aeo?iae?noeea. — Ee?anueeee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. O. Oaa/aiea. Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii iieno ?aa?iiaeueiiai naaiaioo ye i?ia?aeiiai o
no?oeoo?? nenoaie i?ane ?icaeiooeo e?a?i, eiai ia?niaeoeaai o
iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio i?inoi??. ssne?aaei i?eeeaaeii oeueiai
aeaeo CI? ? ia??iaeeea NOA, ui iineoue nooe?eueio i?e?iaeo. Caaaeyee
ia?aaaaai eieaeueiino? aacaoa aoaeoeaii ae??oo? i?iaeaio
a?iiaaenueeiai eiio?ieth iaae aeaiie?aoe/iei naiia?yaeoaaiiyi.

Oeyo a?ae ?iceaaeo aei aa?iii?? aeey a?o/eciyii? i?noeaai? i?ane
i?ieyaa? /a?ac canai?iiy i?iaeaiii-iiooeiaiai iaoiaeo aeo?iae?nonueeiai
a?aeia?aaeaiiy ae?eniino?, caiice/aiiyi aeina?aeo aeioneo ae?oeiaaieo
i?aai?a ?iaeono??aeueieo aea?aeaa Caoiaeo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?aa?iiaeueia i?ana, i?noeaa? aacaoe, a?iiaaenueea
aeeooy, no?oeoo?a CI?, aoaeoeai?noue ioae?eaoe?e, oioae?oa?ia
aeo?iae?noeea.

Aiiioaoeey

Ea?anue I. A. ?aaeiiaeueiay i?anna a aeaiie?aoe/aneii iauanoaa (ia
i?eia?a ia?eiaeeee NOA). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.01.08 : aeo?iaeenoeea. — Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao
ei. O. Oaa/aiei. Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia iienaieth ?aaeiiaeueiiai naaiaoa eae iniiaiiai a
nenoaia i?annu ?acaeouo no?ai, aai ia?niaeoeaai a iaoeeiiaeueiii
eioi?iaoeeiiiii i?ino?ainoaa. ss?eei i?eia?ii coiai aeaea NIE yaeyaony
ia?eiaeeea NOA, iinyuay nieioioth ?aaeiiaeueioth i?e?iaeo. Aeaaiaea?y
i?aeiouanoaai eieaeueiinoe, aacaoa yooaeoeaii ?aoaao i?iaeaio
iauanoaaiiiai eiio?iey a oneiaeyo aeaiie?aoee ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey.

Eioa?an aeey aeenna?oaioa i?aaenoaaeytho aii?inu oaiaoe/aneie e
aeai?iaie iaiieiaiiinoe acyouo aeey i?eia?a ianoiuo aacao ooaoa Aeiaa,
yaeythuaainy iieacaoaeueiui ii ?yaeo ioiioaiee. Aacaoa “Aeyeee Aeiaa” —
yoi i?eia? ia?aoiaeiiai oeia iaaeaeo “community” (ianoiui) e “metro”
(oeaio?aeueiui) ecaeaieai. Aa eiieo?aio ia ?uiea aacaoa “I?ann-neoecai”
yaeyaony nianoaaiiinoueth e?oiiaeoaai aacaoiiai eiioea?ia Aia?eee
“Aaiiaoo”. A aai ecaeaiee, neaaeiaaoaeueii, eniieuecoaony aanue a?naiae
iiaaeoeo ?ac?aaioie aacaoiiai aeaea, io iiaea/e iaoa?eaea aei
aeecaeia?neeo ?aoaiee i?e aa?noea iieinu.

A enneaaeiaaiee cao?aaeaathony aii?inu i?ioanneiiaeecaoeee ?aaiou
ianoiiai aeo?iaeenoa, ?anniao?eaathony ii?aeueii-yoe/aneea ii?iu
aeo?iaeenoeee NOA a eo yaiethoeee ca iineaaeiea aeaa aeanyoeeaoey.
I?iaeaiu iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe aeo?iaeenoneeo ioaeeeaoeee
?anniao?eaathony a naaoa aeeneonnee ia “iauanoaaiiie aeo?iaeenoeea”,
i?ioaeaaoae a NOA a iao/iuo e ?aaeaeoeeiiiuo e?oaao a na?aaeeia
aeaayiinouo aiaeia.

Ioaeaeueiia ianoi a ?aaioa caieiaao ?anniio?aiea ninoiyiey e ia?niaeoea
ianoiie e ?aaeiiaeueiie i?annu a Oe?aeia. Aeaiiua nioeeieiae/aneeo
enneaaeiaaiee oaaaeaeatho a iaiaoiaeeiinoe eciaiaiee iiaeoiaeia e
aeo?iaeenoneie aeayoaeueiinoe, ooaa?aeaeaiee i?iaeaiii-iieneiaiai
iaoiaea a aeo?iaeenoneii io?aaeaiee aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?aaeiiaeueiay i?anna, ianoiua aacaoe, iauanoaaiiay
aeeciue, no?oeoo?a NIE cooaeoeaiinoue ioaeeeaoeee, oioaeeoa?iay
aeo?iaeenoeea.

Summary

Karas I. A. Regional Press in Democratic Society (on the example of
American newspapers). — Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate’s degree by speciaty 10.01.68 —journalism. — The
Kiev Taras Shevchenko University. Kiev, 1999.

The dissertation describes regional segment as a principle one in the
structure of the industrial countries press, and contains suggestions of
its development for Ukrainian mass media. Regional nature of the press
in the USA is a vivid example of this. Due to advantages of locality a
newspaper solves effectively the problem of control over the democracy
in regional policy-making.

Key words: regional press, local newspapers, community life, mass media
structure, effectiveness of news publications, totalitarian journalism.

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