14

I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

EE?ANUeEEE IAOe?IIAEUeIEE AEIIII?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Ea?aaaaeaeae Einoyioei Naiaiiae/

OAeE 330.111.62

?AOI?IOAAIIss A?AeIINEI AEANIINO? A AA?A?IIIO

NAEOI?? OE?A?IE A OIIAAO NOAIIAEAIIss CI?OAII?

AEIIII?EE

08.01.01. — aeiiii?/ia oai??y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii ia eaoaae?? iie?oe/ii? aeiiii?? iae?eiaeo oaeoeueoao?a
Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee -aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caneoaeaiee
ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie

Naa/oe Aieiaeeie? Nao?iiiae/,

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iie?oe/ii? aeiiii?? iae?eiaeo oaeoeueoao?a

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, aeaaeai?e IAI
Oe?a?ie

Iieuaiei Ieaen?e Ion?eiae/,

ea??aiee a?aeae?eaiiy aa?a?ieo i?iaeai ?inoeoooo aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie.

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Aocee Ieeiea Ieoaeeiae/,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, aeioeaio eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii?
oai???

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa -Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea, eaoaae?a aeiiii?/ii? oai???

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “17” aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 16 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.006.03 Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 252057, i. Ee?a, i?iniaeo
Ia?aiiae, 54/1, aoae. 317.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 252057, i. Ee?a,
i?iniaeo Ia?aiiae, 54/1, aoae. 201.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “16” na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
A.A.Ooen

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. O?ainoi?iaoe?y oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee a iai?yieo
ci?oaii? iiaeae?, ui ? ia’?eoeaiith iaiao?aei?noth, icia/a? aeeaie?
ye?ni? ia?aoai?aiiy a noni?eueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?, nenoai? aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei, an?e no?oeoo?? a?aeoai?aiiy — o ae?iaieoeoa?, ?iciiae?e?,
iai?i? oa niiaeeaaii?. A iniia? oeeo ia?aoai?aiue eaaeaoue a?aeiineie
aeaniino?, ui ao?eththoue neeaaeio no?oeoo?o e aca?iiae?th ??
iniiaiiieiaeieo noi??i — i?eaeaniaiiy, aieiae?iiy, ?icii?yaeaeaiiy e
aeei?enoaiiy oaeoi??a ae?iaieoeoaa.

??ciiiai?oi?noue oi?i aeaniino? ? oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia nae? —
ia’?eoeaia aeiiii?/ia yaeua, ui aeieeaa? c ?aaeueii? neeaaeiino? e
aaaaoiieaiiaino? aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy noni?euenoaa. O i?ioean?
aaiethoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo aaaaoia?aiieo oi?i aeaniino?, no?oeoo?ieo
c?ooaiue a aa?a?ieo a?aeiineiao a?aeaoaa?oueny iiooe iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaieo i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo oi?i i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa ? ia oe?e
iniia? — oeyo?a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai i?ia?ano.

?aoi?ioaaiiy aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei ia?aaeaa/a? cae?eniaiiy eiiieaeno
i?aaiaeo, aeiiii?/ieo, oaoi?/ieo ? i?aai?caoe?eieo caoiae?a, ye? iathoue
caaacia/eoe ia?ao?ae aei iiaiai caiaeueiiai eaaeo, ui a?aeiia?aea?
oa?aeoa?o ci?oaii? iiaeae? aeiiii?ee e?a?ie. Oni?oia ?aae?caoe?y oeeo
caoiae?a caeaaeeoue a?ae ?o ?aoaeueiiai oai?aoe/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy,
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai ? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy, i?aaeeueiiai
aecia/aiiy iai?yi?a ? aoai?a ?aoi?ioaaiiy aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei, ?ic?iaee
aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ?o ?aaoethaaiiy. Neioac ?icaeoeo a?aeiinei
aeaniino? oa aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei, aeaio aaaeeeaeo iai?yie?a ye i?aaeiaoo
oai?aoeei-aeiiii?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaiee ua e oei, ui inoaii?ie
?ieaie iaoiaeieia?/iee aniaeo i?iaeaie caeeoa?oueny iica oaaaith:
iiaeaeue a?aeiinei aeaniino? a aa?a?i?e noa?? Oe?a?ie oi?io?oueny ca
?aoeaioaie, ui iaa’ycothoueny cciai?, aac o?aooaaiiy iaioaeueieo,
?inoeoooe?iiaeueieo, aii???iaeiiii?/ieo, oiaoi aaiaoe/ieo, iniaeeainoae
?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa. On? oe? ianoaaeie aecia/athoue
aeooaeuei?noue aeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia a?aeiia?aeii aei ieaio
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o eaoaae?e iie?oe/ii? aeiiii?? Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (oaia “Oai?aoe/i? i?iaeaie
noaiiaeaiiy iiai? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie a Oe?a?i?”, ? aea?aeaaii?
?a?no?aoe?? 0198V000784 a?ae 04.03.97 ?.) ? eii?aeeio?oueny c iaoeiaeie
?ic?iaeaie i?ae?icae?eo oi?aa?neoaoo — Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo (oaia “Oai?aoe/i? i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy a Oe?a?i?
iiai? iiaeae? ?icoe?aiiai a?aeoai?aiiy”, ? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe??
0197V005361 a?ae 17.04.97 ?.).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeoiaey/e c aeinyaiooiai ??aiy
oai?aoe/ii? ? i?aeoe/ii? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie, iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe ? aiae?c eaoaai??? aeaniino?, ?? oi?i c oi/ee ci?o ?noi?e/iiai,
aaiethoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo, o?ainoi?iaoe?? a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ci?oaii?
iiaeae? aeiiii?ee, iniaeeainoae ?o i?iyao a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? oa
noai?aiiy ia iniia? ?icaeoeo oi?i aeaniino? iiaeo ainiiaea?nueeeo
oi?ioaaiue.

A?aeiia?aeii aei cacia/aii? iaoe iinoaaeai? oa ?ica’ycai? ianooii?
caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— cae?eniaii oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iee aiae?c i?aeoiae?a uiaei
aecia/aiiy nooiino? aeaniino? ye neeaaeiiai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
yaeua, aeyaeaii ?? i?noea, ?ieue ? ooieoe?? a aeiiii?/i?e nenoai?;

— i?iaaaeaii aiae?c aaiethoe?? oi?i aeaniino? c iaoith c’ynoaaiiy oeo
ye?nieo ci?i, ui a?aeaoaathoueny o i?ioean? ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy, oa
i?ioeano ?aae?caoe?? ??ciiiai?oieo oi?i aeaniino? a nenoai? aa?a?ieo
a?aeiinei;

— aecia/ai? iniaeeaino? caiaeueieo a?aeiinei, aeine?aeaeaii aaiacen ?o
oi?ioaaiiy oa noai a Oe?a?i?; cae?eniaii aiae?c i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy
??ciiiai?oieo oi?i aeaniino? ia caieth ia nae?;

— iaa?oioiaai? aieiai? iai?yiee noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo i?aai?caoe?eii?
no?oeoo?e aa?a?ii? noa?e ? ?ic?iaeai? iniiai? ?ino?oiaioe ??
?aaoethaaiiy.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? noeoii?noue aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei aeaniino?
a ?? ?on? oa ?icaeoeo. Aeine?aeaeaiith i?aeeyaa? i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy
a?aeiinei aeaniino? a aa?a?iiio naeoi??, noai?aiiy iiaeo oa
?ai?aai?caoe?y ?nioth/eo ainiiaea?nueeeo oi?ioaaiue, iaoiaee
?aaoethaaiiy ?o ?icaeoeo. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooia? nenoaia
ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.

Oai?aoe/iith oa iaoiaeieia?/iith aacith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? i?aoe?
eeanee?a na?oiai? aeiiii?/ii? oai???, a oaeiae iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueeeo oa ?in?enueeeo a/aieo, o yeeo i?eae?eyeany oaaaa i?iaeaiai
aeaniino? e ainiiaea?thaaiiy, cie?aia I.Ooaai-Aa?aiianueeiai, A.*ayiiaa,
?.Aocaeaeiaa., A.Aoeaoiaa, A.Aaeue/einueeiai, I.Aaeaeooeueeiai,
N.Aeai’yiaiea, I.Aioa, I.??ueii?ia, I.Caii?iaeaia, I.Eieaniaa,
A.Ei?i??iea, ?.Eaci?, A.Eiaa?iaiea, ?.Eoe?iiaa, N.Iie?/aaa, N.Ii/a?iiai,
I.Ianaiaiea, I.Iieuaiea, A.?eaaee?ia, E.?iiaiiai?, I.Naaeoea,
I.Oaaei?iaa, E.Ooa??aa, A.*ooia, A.Oe??aeiaa, A.TH?/eoeia oa ?ioeo.
?ioi?iaoe?eiith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy neoaoaaee caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe e
iinoaiiae Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, Oeace I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, iinoaiiae
O?yaeo, iaoa??aee aea?aeaaieo noaoenoe/ieo i?aai?a Oe?a?ie, ii?iaoeai?
aeieoiaioe. O aeena?oaoe?? oe?iei aeei?enoiao?oueny aeina?ae ?eieiaiai
?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee a ?ioeo aea?aeaaao oa a Oe?a?i?.

A iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy iieeaaeaii iaoiae ae?aeaeoe/ii? ?aeiino?
?noi?e/iiai ? eia?/iiai. Iaoiaeieia?/iith aacith aiae?co a?aeiinei
aeaniino? ? eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae, yeee nie?a?oueny ia oai?aoe/i? ?
i?aeoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ?ia?o a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo ? aeicaiey?
aeiiii?/i? i?ioeane aea/aoe ?c caaaeueieo iiceoe?e o ?aieao ?icaeoeo ?
aca?iiae?? an?o aeaiaio?a. O ?iaio? aeei?enoai? iaoiaee nenoaiiiai
i?aeoiaeo, iaoeiai? aano?aeoe??, aiae?co oa neioaco, iaoaiaoe/ii?
noaoenoeee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iieyaa? a eiiieaeniiio aiae?c? i?ioeano o?ainoi?iaoe?? a?aeiinei
aeaniino?, i?ea?iaeueieo ocaaaeueiaiiyo oa aeniiaeao, ae?iaeaii?
i?iiiceoe?e ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei o?ainoi?iaoe?e o no/ani?e aeiiii?oe?
e?a?ie. Eiie?aoii oea ciaeoei nai? ao?eaiiy a ianooiiiio:

— aeine?aeaeaii aaiethoe?th iaoeiai? aeoiee uiaei nooiino? aeaniino? ye
aeiiii?/ii? eaoaai???, c’yniaaii ?? ?ieue o nenoai? aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei
oa aecia/aii iniaeeaino? a?aeiinei aeaniino? ca oiia noaiiaeaiiy
ci?oaii? aeiiii?ee;

— aeiaaaeaii iaiao?aei?noue aeaniino? aeey ethaeeie, oi?ioaaiiy ??
naiaiaee oa iacaeaaeiino?, c’yniaaii, ui ye aniaeo naiaiaee aeani?noue
aaaeeeaa naia ii nia?, iacaeaaeii a?ae ?? ?acoeueoao?a;

— ?icaeyiooi ?icaeoie oi?i aeaniino? a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee oa
c?iaeaii aeniiaee uiaei ?o iniaeeainoae ia ??cieo aoaiao ?icaeoeo
ethaenueei? oeea?e?caoe??, cai?iiiiiaaii noaio no?oeoo?e a?aeiinei
aeaniino? a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee;

— ae?noaei iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo iiiyooy aeiiii?/ii? ?aae?caoe?? i?aaa
aeaniino? oa no/ani? oi?ie ?? i?iyao a aeiiii?/i?e nenoai?;

— iiaeaii iaa?oioiaaio ioe?ieo iei?oiueiai noaio e iiaeeeainoae ?icaeoeo
a?aeiinei aeaniino? ia caieth oa iaeii a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? Oe?a?ie;

— aeiaaaeaii iaiao?aei?noue noaiiaeaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo oi?i aeaniino? ia
nae?, cie?aia aea?aeaaii?, cacia/aii ?o ia?aaaae oa iaaeie?ee oa aeacaii
iai?yie ?icaeoeo;

— cae?eniaii aiae?c noaiiaeaiiy oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia nae?,
iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue ?icaeoeo i?ioean?a eiiia?oaaiiy oa
?ioaa?aoe??, cai?iiiiiaaii noaio ooai?aiiy eiiia?aoeaiiai oiaa?enoaa;

— aeiaaaeaii iaiao?aei?noue oa cai?iiiiiaaii ieceo eiie?aoieo iai?yi?a
aea?aeaaiiai aeiiii?/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei, iaaieioaii ia
iaiao?aeiino? caaacia/aiiy aea?aeaaith aaiethoe?eieo ci?i o i?ioean?
?icaeoeo ??ciiiai?oieo oi?i aeaniino? a aa?a?iiio naeoi??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui io?eiai?
?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
noo? oa o?ainoi?iaoe?? a?aeiinei aeaniino?, i?e oi?ioaaii? oa
ai?iaaaeaeaii? a ae?th aeanii? aea?aeaaii? aa?a?ii? iie?oeee,
aeeeaaeaii? eaeoe?eieo eo?n?a c aeiiii?/ii? oai???, iie?oe/ii? aeiiii??,
aeiiii?/ii? ?noi???, aa?a?iiai iaiaaeaeiaioo oa ?yaeo niaoeeo?n?a.
Ia?aaeaa/a?oueny oaeiae canoinoaaiiy aeniiae?a oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei
?icaeoeo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy aaciina?aaeiuei a aa?ii?iieneiaiio
ae?iaieoeoa?.

O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

n i?iaaaeaii aiae?c ?icaeoeo aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?, cacia/aii ?o
iaaeie?ee ? cai?iiiiiaaii niiniae ?o onoiaiiy;

n aecia/aii iai?yiee ?inoeoooe?iiaeueieo ia?aoai?aiue c aeoeaioii ia
i?eaaoia caieaaieiae?iiy;

n iaaaaeaii noaio ooai?aiiy eiiia?aoeaiiai oiaa?enoaa ye ia?niaeoeaii?
oi?ie ainiiaea?thaaiiy;

n anoaiiaeaii e iaa?oioiaaii iniiai? iai?yiee aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei.

Cai?iiiiiaaia a aeena?oaoe?? noaia ooai?aiiy eiiia?aoeaiiai oiaa?enoaa
ai?iaaaeaeaia a i?aeoeeo ae?yeueiino? Oeiiini?eee (aeia?aeea ? 13/235-a
a?ae 19.05.99 ?.)

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ia i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo a i?noao
Oiaeueieoeueeiio (oaia eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo e?a?ie ia no/aniiio aoai?”), Eooeueeo (“?ieue
o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? nenoaie o noeioethaaii? aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy a
Oe?a?i?”) oa Aei?i?iiao?ianueeo (“Iaoea ? ina?oa — 99”), iaaiai?thaaeeny
ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e iie?oe/ii? aeiiii?? iae?eiaeo oaeoeueoao?a
Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iaeaaaeeea?o? ?acoeueoaoe oa aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeeaaeaii a 5 ioae?eaoe?yo (c ieo 3 – a iaoeiaeo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo)
caaaeueiei ianyaii 1,2 ae?oeiaaieo a?eooa.

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, aeaio
?icae?e?a (oanoe ia?aa?ao?a), aeniiae?a oa i?iiiceoe?e, a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai
nieneo, ui i?noeoue 159 iaeiaioaaiue; ia?aoiao? 167 noi??iie
ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo oa 21 aeiaeaoie ia 16 noi??ieao. ?iaioa i?noeoue 7
oaaeeoeue oa 5 ?enoie?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??, noi?ioeueiaaii
iaoo oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, iieacaii iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Aeani?noue a nenoai? aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei”
aeine?aeaeaii nooi?noue aeaniino? ye aeiiii?/ii? eaoaai???, iaa?oioiaaii
?icaeoie ?? oi?i c oi/ee ci?o aaiethoe?? i?ioeano i?eaeaniaiiy ye oi?ie
?aae?caoe?? i?aaa aeaniino?, aeyaeaii iniaeeaino? i?iyao ??ciiiai?oieo
oi?i aeaniino? a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee.

Aeani?noue yaey? niaith ?noi?e/io eaoaai??th, aiia i?eoaiaiia iaeaea
an?i aiioai ?icaeoeo ethaenoaa ? ? iaei??th ?c iaeaaaeeea?oeo neeaaeiaeo
ia`?eoeaieo aeiiii?/ieo caeii?a ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa. Ae??oaeueia
cia/aiiy a oa?aeoa?enoeoe? aeaniino? ia? ?? aeiiii?/iee ci?no, ia?o ca
ana oa, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei cae?enith?oueny i?ioean
i?eaeaniaiiy. Noaaeaiiy ethaeae aei ?a/ae ? ?acoeueoaoii ?o a?aeiioaiiy
iaeei aei iaeiiai a i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa, ?iciiae?eo, iai?io oa
niiaeeaaiiy iaoa??aeueieo aeaa.

Aa?a?i? a?aeiineie ye aaaeeeaa niaoeeo?/ia /anoeia caaaeueii? nenoaie
aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei i?noyoue aca?iiae?th i?ae ethaeueie a i?ioean?
an?o oac noni?eueiiai a?aeoai?aiiy, yea aecia/a?oueny oa?aeoa?ii
caiaeueii? aeaniino?. I?ioa caiaeeoe nooi?noue i?iaeaie eeoa aei
ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei, aeeeth/ath/e c ?o ci?noo nioe?aeuei?,
ii?aeueii-ineoieia?/i?, ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?i? aniaeoe aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?
naieo noa’?eo?a aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei aoei a ia cian?i aei?aaaeaii. Aa?a?i?
a?aeiineie ae?aaeathoue onth noeoii?noue ae?iaie/eo, nioe?aeueieo,
eoeueoo?ii-ii?aeueieo a?aeiinei i?ae ethaeueie, aacothoueny ia nenoai?
?o i?e?iaei?o ?ioa?an?a oa ni?yioaaiue, ia caaaeueiiethaenueeeo
oe?iiinoyo oa i?aaao i?aoe?aieea-caiea?iaa. Oeaio?aeueiith eaieith,
na?oeaaeiith aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei aenooia? aeani?noue ia caieth ye
iniiaiee can?a ae?iaieoeoaa o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?.

C`ynoaaiiy aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo aeaniino? ia?aaeaa/a? aecia/aiiy
aeaea?aea, a ioaea, ? ia?aaeoiia ?? aeieeiaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Ia
iao iiaeyae, ae?iaieoeoai, cie?aia aa?a?ia, ? ia?aaeoiiaith aeaniino?, a
?? aeaea?aeii — naia i?aoey. Aeiiii?/ia nooue aeaniino? o?nii iia’ycaia
c iaiaaeaeiaioii, i?aai?caoe??th aeei?enoaiiy oeo oaeoi??a, ui ?iaeyoue
iiaeeeaei naia aa?a?ia ae?iaieoeoai. ?o ii?aeiaiiy caaacia/o?oueny
oi?aae?iiyi (?icii?yaeaeaiiyi, i?aai?caoe??th aeei?enoaiiy), ? oaea
oi?aae?iiy ? caniaii ?aae?caoe?? aeaniino? a ?? aeiiii?/iiio ci?no?.

Aeiiii?/ia aeani?noue iaea?eueo o?nii iia`ycaia c ?? th?eaee/iith
noi?iiith. Inoaiiy ? oi?iith i?iyao ?aaeueieo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei
aeaniino? a aa?a?iiio naeoi??, aoiaeeoue aei iaaeaoaeiaieo a?aeiinei,
caeaaeeoue a?ae aie? e na?aeiiino? ethaeae. Ca aeiiiiiaith i?aaa
ocaeiith?oueny aeiiii?/ia oi?ia ?aae?caoe?? aeaniino?. TH?eaee/ia
aeani?noue ? caaaeueiith oiiaith ? ia?aaeoiiaith
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, aeyaeaiiyi aie? iaaiiai eeano
oa ?? i?aaiaei ioi?ieaiiyi o th?eaee/ieo aeoao ? ii?iao, o i?aa?
aeaniino?. E??i aeiiii?/iiai ? th?eaee/iiai, o neeaaei?e ?
aaaaoiieaiia?e eaoaai??? aeaniino? ne?ae aeae?eyoe ?? nioe?aeueiee,
ineoieia?/iee, ii?aeueiee, iaoe?iiaeueiee, ?aeaieia?/iee aniaeoe.
Noa’?eoii a?aeiinei aeaniino? iiaea aenooiaoe ae?th/ee ?iaeea?ae aai
nioe?aeueia a?oia (noni?euenoai). C aeiiii?/iiai iiaeyaeo ?ieue
aeaniino? aeey ethaeeie iieyaa? a oiio, ui aeani?noue ? iaoa??aeueiei
caaacia/aiiyi, iniiaith ?? aeiiii?/ii? naiaiaee ? iacaeaaeiino?. I?e
oeueiio a caeaaeiino? a?ae oa?aeoa?o ia`?eo?a aeaniino? ci?iththoueny
?ici??e oa nooi?iue oe??? naiaiaee. sse aniaeo naiaiaee aeani?noue
aaaeeeaa naia ii nia?, iacaeaaeii a?ae ?? ?acoeueoao?a.

Ioaea, aeani?noue – aaaaoiieaiiaa eaoaai??y. A aano?aeoi?e oi?i? ??
o?aeoothoue ye a?aeiineie i?ae ethaeueie c i?eaiaeo ?a/ae. Na?aae
aeine?aeiee?a iaia? iaeiinoaeiino? uiaei aecia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii?
eaoaai??? aeaniino?. O iaoiio aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? aeani?noue
aecia/aii ye ?noi?e/ii coiiaeai? noni?eueii-ae?iaie/? a?aeiineie i?ae
ethaeueie c i?eaiaeo i?enai?iiy oiia noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa eiai
?acoeueoao?a.

No/ania nenoaia aeaniino? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ia oi?o?eaoe??th, a
oneeaaeiaiiyi no?oeoo?e, aaaaoiiai?oi?noth oi?i aeaniino? e
ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Eiaeia oi?ia aeaniino? ca nai?th i?e?iaeith ?noi?e/ia.
Aiia aeeoo?caeaoia eeoa o aecia/aieo /aniaeo iaaeao. Eiee ae?y oaeoi??a,
ye? coiiaeee ?? aeieeiaiiy, i?eieiy?oueny, aiia ia? aooe cai?iaia ia
?ioo, i?ia?aneai?oo oi?io. Nenoaio a no/anieo a?aeiineiao aeaniino? a
aa?a?iiio naeoi?? ?icaeyiooi ca aaaeeeaei e?eoa???i eeaneo?eaoe??: a
iniiao iieeaaeaia caaaeueiioeea?e?caoe?eia oaiaeaioe?y nioe?ae?caoe??
i?eaaoii? aeaniino?. Aeae?eaii aeaa “iiethne” – i?eaaoio oa noni?eueio
aeaniino?, a iaao yeeo ooai?th?oueny aace?/ aeae?a aeaniino?, ui
iieacaii ia ?en.1.

?en.1 No?oeoo?a a?aeiinei aeaniino? a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee

Aea iaoiaeieia?/ii iai?aaeeueii ?icaeoie oi?i aeaniino? iia`ycoaaoe eeoa
c i?ioeanii ononi?eueiaiiy. Ni?aaa a oiio, ui aeani?noue, ye aeiiii?/ia
a?aeiioaiiy ?, ye a?aeiii, noni?eueiith oi?iith ?icaeoeo i?iaeoeoeaieo
nee acaaae?. Aaiethoe?th a?aeiinei aeaniino? iaiao?aeii ?icaeyaeaoe a
eiioaeno? anueiai i?ioeano ?icaeoeo i?iaeoeoeaieo nee. E??i oeueiai, oae
naii aaaeeeai a?aoiaoaaoe, ui ?icaeoie i?iaeoeoeaieo nee ia
iaiaaeo?oueny ?o ononi?eueiaiiyi, a?i a?aeaoaa?oueny ae?aeaeoe/ii, /a?ac
iaeii/ania ci?oeiaiiy i?ioean?a ?ioaa?aoe?? oa aeeoa?aioe?aoe??. Ioaea,
i?aeoeea, iaoeiaa aeoiea noaaeyoue i?ae noii?a iaa?oioiaai?noue ?
aeioe?euei?noue iaiaiaaeaiiai ononi?eueiaiiy cania?a ae?iaieoeoaa, a oei
a?eueoa eiai ?acoeueoao?a.

O aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? iaaieioo?oueny ia iaiao?aeiino?
aaiethoe?eiiai noaiiaeaiiy aaaaoioeeaaeii? aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee, i?ae yeei
?icoi??oueny cae?eniaiiy eiiieaeno caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia noai?aiiy
ia?aaeoiia aeey aoaeoeaii? ae?? naii?aaoethth/eo ? naiii?aai?coth/eo nee
noni?euenoaa, ye? a caaacia/oaaee iiooe oeyo?a oa cania?a i?e?iaeieo,
aaiethoe?eieo ci?i o nenoai? aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei. Aoaeue-yea
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy /iainue iiaiai c iiceoe?? i?eiono, aoaeue-yea oi?noaaiiy
oaii?a ?ooo i?e?iaeieo i?ioean?a iaiaei?iii iaoeia iaaaoeai? iane?aeee.
Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui iciaeith aaiethoe?eieo ci?i ia ? ?o yeanue oaoaeueia
i?e?a/ai?noue ia aeiaaio?eaae?noue. Ca?aeii c no/anieie oyaeaiiyie,
aaiethoe?eiee ?icaeoie – oea ?icaeoie, a iniia? yeiai eaaeaoue i?e?iaei?
naii?oo?ei? e naiii?aai?coth/? neee noni?euenoaa. Iniiaiei e?eoa???i
aaiethoe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o ci?i ? c?inoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? nenoaie. Oiio
aieiaiith iaoith ia?aoai?aiue o nenoai? aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei ia? noaoe
?icaoaeiaa eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiiai aa?a?iiai naeoi?a aeiiii?ee oeyoii
noai?aiiy oiia aeey aaiethoe?eiiai oi?ioaaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo
oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia iniia? ??cieo oi?i aeaniino?.

O ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? a?eueo?noue oi?i aeaniino?, ui i?aeoe/ii
?icaeaathoueny, iathoue oaeee aea ia?ao?aeiee oa?aeoa?. Aiie ?
neeaaeieie oi?iaie, ui ii?aeiothoue oae /e ?iaeoa iaoai?cie aieiae?iiy,
?icii?yaeaeaiiy oa ei?enooaaiiy aeaaaie, a oaeiae “io/ee
i?aaiii/iinoae”. I?e/iio aaniethoii iaiaia’yceiai, uia oea aoee i?aaa
iiaii? aeaniino?; oaeaeoa iaaiaee, ine?eueee aeani?noue iaoyaeo?
(aeiiii?/ii oa o?ainaeoe?eii). I?aei?e?ioeth iio??ai? i?aaa aeaniino?
oiai ??aiy, yeiai aeinoaoiuei aeey aeiiii?/iiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy
ainiiaea?nueei? iaeeieoe?. Aeey oeueiai iaei? ia’?eoe iiaeooue aooe a
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?e aeaniino?, ?io? — o ni?euei?e; iaei? — a iiai?e
aeaniino?, ?io? — ia i?aaao i?aiaee, e?ceiao, e?aaeeoo oiui.

A?aeiineie ?aae?caoe?? aeaniino? — oea a?aeiineie, ui ni?yiiaai? ia
aeeiiaiiy aie? aeanieea ? caaeiaieaiiy eiai aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a.
Ii/eiathoueny aiie c ii?aeiaiiy oaeoi??a ae?iaieoeoaa, cae?eniththoueny
a i?ioean? a?aeoai?aiiy o an?e nenoai? aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei ?
caaa?oothoueny oaeoe/iei i?eaeaniaiiyi (ia?aoai?aiiyi o aeani?noue)
?acoeueoao?a ae?iaieoeoaa. Aac iaea?aeaiiy aeioiaeo o a?aeiia?aei?e
oi?i? a?aeiineie aeiiii?/ii? ?aae?caoe?? aeaniino? ao?a/athoue
aoaeue-yeee nain aeey ?? noa’?eo?a. Oaeoe/ia i?eaeaniaiiy cania?a
ae?iaieoeoaa ? i?aaeiao?a niiaeeaaiiy ? aieiaiith iciaeith aeiiii?/ii?
?aae?caoe?? aeaniino?.

O i?ioean? aaiethoe?? aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei i?eaeaniaiiy caciaei
?noioieo ci?i. Ana a?eueoa coneeue aeieeaaea?oueny aeey oiai, uia
ia?aeoe aei aca?iiae?? i?aoe? e eai?oaeo ia canaaeao ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa ?
ia?oia?noaa, oi?ie yeeo iniaeeai caaaaoeeeny a inoaii? aeanyoe??//y. I?i
oea na?ae/eoue aaaaoiiai?oi?noue nenoai o/ano? o i?eaooeao, oi?aae?ii?,
?ia?oieee ii/aee iaae?eyoeny i?aaiii/iinoyie aeaniino?, niinoa??aa?oueny
c?inoaiiy ca?ia?oii? ieaoi? in?a iaeiaii? i?aoe? oiui.

Oi?iith ?aae?caoe?? aeaniino? ia caieth aenooia? iaoai?ci ?aioieo
a?aeiinei. Caiaeueia ?aioa ye aeiiii?/ia eaoaai??y ae?aaea? a?aeiineie
i?eaeaniaiiy aeiaeaoeiaiai i?iaeoeoo aeanieeii caie? ca i?aai
ei?enooaaiiy caieath. O ?eieiaie aeiiiiioei, yeith a ii?ith aiia ia
iiaeaeaaaeany aea?aeaaiiio ?aaoethaaiith (aeoiaey/e ic caeiiiii?iinoae
oei?? aeiiiiiee, a ia anoia?a/ ?i), iniothoue ia’?eoeaii ia?aaeoiiae
ooai?aiiy aeiaeaoeiaiai i?eaooeo (iaaei?eaooeo) i ia?aoai?aiiy eiai a
caiaeueio ?aioo, ye? iia’ycaii c iniaeeaeie oiiaaie aiaeoai?aiiy o
nieuenueeiio ainiiaea?noai, ia?o ca ana c iaiaaeaiinoth caiaeueieo
?ano?nia, ui i?eaeaoi? aeey nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iio?aa, oa ?o
aiaeiiiiinoyie ca ?iaeth/inoth oa iinoeaciaoiaeaeaiiyi. I oi/a oei
oaeoi?e e oiiae ae?thoue iinoieii, ?eiie oa ?eieiaa eii’thieoo?a
iaoiiaeththoue aeeiai?eo ?aioieo aiaeiinei, ci?io ?o eieueeinieo
oa?aeoa?enoee.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “?aoi?ioaaiiy a?aeiinei aeaniino? ye iniiaii?
neeaaeiai? aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei oa iaoai?ci ?o ?aaoethaaiiy” ?ice?eoi
nooi?noue ?aoi?i, ui cae?eniththoueny a Oe?a?i? ca oiia noaiiaeaiiy
ci?oaii? aeiiii?ee, aeacaii ia iaaeie?ee o i?iaaaeaii? o?ainoi?iaoe?e a
aa?a?iiio naeoi?? oa cai?iiiiiaaii aeani? i?aeoiaee aei ae??oaiiy oe???
i?iaeaie.

Ia oa?aeoa? i?iyao a?aeiinei aeaniino? a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee
?noioii aieeaathoue iniaeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy a oe?e aaeoc? caie?.
Caiaeuei? ?ano?ne, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?, ?
ia o?eueee i?inoi?iaei aacenii ae?iaieoeoaa, a e aieiaiei ? iacai?iiei
caniaii ae?iaieoeoaa, ?ieue ? cia/aiiy yeiai a aa?a?iiio naeoi??
aecia/athoue iniaeeaa i?noea aeaniino? ia caieth ye ia’?eoa
ainiiaea?thaaiiy noiniaii aeaniino? ia ?io? caniae aa?a?iiai
ae?iaieoeoaa.

Caiaeuei? a?aeiineie aecia/aii ye noni?euei? a?aeiineie uiaei
aieiae?iiy, ei?enooaaiiy ? ?icii?yaeaeaiiy caieath ia aea?aeaaiiio,
ainiiaea?nueeiio ? aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeiio ??aiyo ye ia’?eoii
ainiiaea?thaaiiy ? caniaii ae?iaieoeoaa. Ioaea, ci?no iiiyooy “caiaeuei?
a?aeiineie” ioiieth? oe?iea eiei ieoaiue ye aeiiii?/iiai (ae?iaie/iai),
oae ? i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?o. Iaaaaeei iii?oeoe, ui a iniia? caiaeueieo
a?aeiinei eaaeeoue eaoaai??y aeaniino? ia caieth.

Aiai?y/e i?i ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo ia nueiaiaei? ?aoi?ioaaiue
a?aeiinei aeaniino? a aa?a?iiio naeoi??, iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui:
1)aenia?eiaio c “a?ae?iaeaeaiiyi ii/oooy ainiiaea?y” o naeyi ia iniia?
ia?nii?o?eaoe?? iaeia n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa iioa?i?a
iaaaea/o: iathaaiiy iiee ui ia aeeiio? aeiaeii? c ooieoe?e, ui eiio
a?aeaiaeeeeny; 2) iineeth?oueny oaiaeaioe?y ?iciaaeo ae?iaie/i? aace
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa; 3) iaaaoeai? yaeua a
a?iiaaenueeiio naeoi?? ia eiiiainothoueny ?icaeoeii i?eaaoiiai:
ae?iaieoeoai aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ca ia??iae
1991-1997 ??. nei?ioeeiny ia 42,2%, e?euee?noue caeoeiaeo ainiiaea?noa
c?inea c 1,1 aei 87,2% caaaeueii? e?eueeino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa.

Ia aeaeue, aeiiiii/ia e?eca, ui ioiieea i?aeoe/ii ani aaeoci
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno e?a?ie, aeeth/ath/e AIE, ia aeicaiey?
ia’?eoeaii ioeiieoe ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue aa?a?ii? ?aoi?ie ca aeiiiii/ieie
e?eoa?iyie. Ia nueiaiaei? ua iaia? nenoaiieo ia?aeiieeaeo i?eeeaaeia,
ye? a na?ae/eee i?i iiaeaeuaiiy a?iaeaeiinoi /e cia/ia caieueoaiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoei? c iaeeieoei ieiui a
?acoeueoaoi ia?a?iciiaeieo caiaeue i ciiie oi?i aeaniinoi ia caieth /e
iaeii. Oa ana ae, iacaaaeath/e ia o?oaeiiu? e iaaeie?ee, ui aeieeee i?e
i?iaaaeaii? o?ainoi?iaoe?e a aa?a?iiio naeoi??, aiie iathoue ? iiceoeai?
?acoeueoaoe, a naia: c?oeiiaaii iiiiiie?th (o aeaiiio aeiaaeeo
aea?aeaaio) ia caieth; noai?aii i?aea?oioy aeey ?nioaaiiy oeea?e?ciaaii?
i?eaaoii? aeaniino?; iaaeaii a?eueoino? noa’?eoai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo a?aeiinei iaeiaeia? (oi/ ? ia caaaeaee
ii?iaeuei?) oiiae ooieoe?iioaaiiy, oiaoi noai?aii ca/aoee caei?iai?
eiieo?aioe??.

Oiae aa?a?ii? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?ii ia’?eoeaii aaaea aei o?ainoi?iaoei?
eieaeoeaii? aeaniinoi ia caieth o i?eaaoio aeaniinoue. Aei oiai ae oaea
o?ainoi?iaoeiy aiaeaoaa?oueny aaea ia aoai? iathaaiiy
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo caiaeue eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa (ENI). O ?acoeueoaoi iathaaiiy caiei ciiiththoue naie
i?aaiaee noaoon, ia?aoai?thth/enue ic caiaeue, ui iaeaaeaoue ENI ia
i?aai eieaeoeaii? aeaniinoi, o i?eaaoio aeaniinoue /eaiia ENI o oi?ii ?o
niieueii? aeaniinoi.

Oa ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui ye i?eaaoia, oae ? eieaeoeaia aeani?noue ia
caieth ia? nai? ia?aaaae oa iaaeie?ee a ?nioth/?e nenoai?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei. Ia ei?enoue i?eaaoecaoe?? caiaeueieo
ae?eyiie /eai?a ENI na?ae/aoue oae? aniaeoe: 1) io?eiaiiy ae?eyiee o
aeani?noue c aecia/aiiyi ?? o iaoo?? iaaea? noa’?eoia? eiinoeoooe?eieo
i?aa aeaniino?. Caiey, yea ia?aaoaa? o eieaeoeai?e aeaniino?, iiaea aooe
aeeo/aia a ?aooiie iiaaoaiiy ai?a?a o ?ac? ianoa/? iaeia, eiee
i?aei?e?inoai caaie?oooaaei; 2) ca?aeii ?c Caiaeueiei eiaeaenii i?aai
?icii?yaeaeaiiy caiaeueiith ae?eyieith ianoa? eeoa i?ney aeoiaeo c ENI ?
aeeo/aiiy caiaeueii? ae?eyiee a iaoo??; 3) aeani?noue ia caiaeueio
ae?eyieo iaaea? naeyiai i?aai aeiiae i?aiaeii? ieaoe. Oiaoi aac
i?eaaoecaoe?? caiaeueieo ae?eyiie ia iiaeooue io?eiaoe iaeaaeiiai
?icaeoeo i? ?eiie caie?, i? i?ioeaaeo?a canoaae, i? i?aiaei? a?aeiineie.

I?ioa aeeiiaiiy caieaaii?yaeieo ?ia?o aeey ia?aaea/? caiaeueieo ae?eyiie
o i?eaaoio aeani?noue iio?aao? aeineoue nooo?aeo o?iainiaeo aeo?ao. Oa
iaeaieiai?oa – i?e oeueiio ?nio? ?aaeueia caa?ica ii?ooaiiy oe?e?niino?
caiaeueiiai ianeao, iiae??aiaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa. Ioaea, ia ne?ae oi?noaaoe i?ioean i?aai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy
eieaeoeaii? aeaniino? a i?eaaoio, iniaeeai a?aoiaoth/e iaioaeuei?,
?inoeoooe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa.

E??i oiai, eieaeoeaia aeani?noue ia? o?ainoi?iiaoaaoenue ? a aea?aeaaio
aeani?noue oeyoii aeeoio aea?aeaaith caiaeue caaie?oo?eeo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa (ui iiaeeeai eeoa ca oiiae
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieo caie?), a oaeiae aeni?ii??aoe??
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue /a?ac iaaeei?enoaiiy ?o aeanieeaie ca
i?ecia/aiiyi ca?aeii ?c Caiaeueiei eiaeaenii. Oaeei /eiii io?eia?
?icaeoie ua iaeei noa’?eo i?aiaeieo a?aeiinei – aea?aeaaa – a yeino?
i?aiaeiaeaaoey.

O i?ioean? ?aoi?i cia/io oaaao iaiao?aeii i?eae?eyoe ia o?eueee
i?eaaoi?e aeaniino? ia caieth, a e i?eaaoiiio aieiae?iith. O?niee
ca’ycie noa’?eo?a no/aniiai ?eieo coiiaeth? ia?aoai?aiiy oeooeueiiai
aeanieea o aeeeth/ii neiaie?/io o?ao?o “iai?ioo” iaeiiaeo i?aa o
ii??aiyii?, neaae?ii, c i?aiaea?ai. Ca’ycie oeooea aeaniino? c
i?eaaoiith iniaith (o?ce/iith /e th?eaee/iith) aenooia?, oaeaeoa,
oyaa?ai aeey aeiiii?ee, yea ciooaia niea/oaaoe o?eoeaio “iineoao”
aeanieea (iaaeaiiy iei naiai ?i’y) ?aioith a?ae aeaniino?. Aaaeeeai, uia
nenoaia aeiiii?/ieo ?inoeooo?a a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? oa acaaae? a Oe?a?i?
i?eioneaea aio/eee ia?a?iciiae?e iaeiiaeo i?aa i?ae ??cieie noa’?eoaie,
na?aae yeeo, cae/aeii, iiaeiia aooe i?enooiy ? aea?aeaaa ye aaaio
ainiiaea?nueeiai iai?ioo, ui ae?? ia ??aieo i?aaao c ?ioeie.

Cai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?aaa niieueii? /anoeiai? aeaniinoi a i?aeoeeo
caiaeueieo aiaeiinei, ui aeieeathoue aianeiaeie ia?aaea/? caiei o
aeaniinoue iaaea?aeaaiei nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeei iiaei?e?inoaai ?
?iciiaeieo ?? iiae ?o /eaiaie ia caiaeueii /anoee (ia?), aeanoue
iiaeeeainoue oi?ioaaoe a i?ioeani ?ai?aaiicaoei? ENI aieueo aoaeoeaii
iiaei?e?iieoeueei no?oeoo?e ii?iaiyii c oeie, ui noai?aii ieii.

I?ioa aoei a iaaeioe?eueii, ia iaoo aeoieo, aaniethoecoaaoe ?icaeoie
yei?nue iaei??? oi?ie aeaniino? ia caieth, oei a?eueoa, ui i?eeeaae
iiiiiie?? aea?aeaaii? aeaniino? ia caniae ae?iaieoeoaa ua aeia?a
iai’yoa?oueny. *an ? nai? ainiiaea?? ia caie? ?icnoaaeyoue ana ia nai?
i?noey. Ca?ac ne?ae iaaeaoe a?eueoa oaaae caaacia/aiith ii?iaeueieo,
eiieo?aioieo oiia ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaai c ??cieie oi?iaie
aeaniino?. E??i oiai, ia o?aaa caaoaaoe, ui naia oi?ia aeaniino? cian?i
ia ae??oo? i?iaeaie aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa, aiia ? eeoa
ia?aaeoiiaith, oi/a e aeoaea aaaeeeaith, iaea?aeaiiy aeioiaeo a?ae
ia’?eoa aeaniino?. Naia oiio a aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? cia/ia
oaaaa iaaea?oueny ainiiaea?nueeei oi?ioaaiiyi ia iniia? ??ciiiai?oieo
oi?i aeaniino?.

Ine?eueee a nueiaiaei?oi?e aeiiii?/i?e neooaoe?? naiino?eia aaaeaiiy
ie?aiiai iaaaeeeiai ainiiaea?nueeiai ia’?aeiaiiy, naeyinueeiai
(oa?ia?nueeiai) ainiiaea?noaa /e aoaeue-yei? ?ioi? ae??aii? ii??aiyii c
eieaeoeaieie ainiiaea?noaaie (ENI, ?aaeainie oa ?i.) ? aeoaea
i?iaeaiaoe/iei, a a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao iaa?oue iaiiaeeeaei, oi?ioaaiiy a
naeyieiia? ainiiaea?y ae?iaieoeoaa, yeee i?aoeth? nueiaiaei? a ENI,
aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoaao oa ?ioeo eieaeoeaieo oa aea?aeaaieo
i?aei?e?inoaao a?aeaoaa?oueny aeoaea iia?eueii. Oiio, a?aoiaoth/e
iiceoeaii oa iaaaoeaii noi?iie ainiiaea?nueeeo oi?ioaaiue, ui ae?thoue o
nieuenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? Oe?a?ie, iaei??th c iaeaieueo i?ia?aneaieo
ainiiaea?nueeeo iaeeieoeue aaaaea?ii eiiia?aoeaia oiaa?enoai. Naia
eiiia?aoeaia oiaa?enoai, ia iaoo aeoieo, iaeneiaeueii caa?iaath/e
ia?aaaae aaeeeiianooaaiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, eaae?e, ia’?eoe ae?iaie/i? oa
nioeiaeueii? iio?ano?oeoo?e, noai?th? oiiae aeey oi?ioaaiiy ia aaci
ia?aeiii? eaiee ae?iaieoeoaa (iiae?icaeieo, i?aoeiaieea)
iiaei?e?iieoeueei? no?oeoo?e. Iai?aoeueiaaia i?aaiaa iiea oa i?iaaaeaia
a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao iathaaiiy caie? oa iaeia
cia/ii ni?iuothoue oa iaeneiaeueii oiiaeeeaeththoue noai?aiiy iiae?aieo
eiiia?aoeaieo oi?ioaaiue. ?oo ia?a o i?ioeani ooai?aiiy eiiia?aoeaiiai
oiaa?enoaa cia?aaeaii ia ?en.2.

O iaeaeeae/ie ia?niaeoea? iniiaieie oeyoaie noai?aiiy eiiia?aoeaia, ia
iao iiaeyae, noaiooue: iiaa?iaiiy eieaeoeaiei ainiiaea?noaai
eiiia?aoeaieo iciae; ?aoi?ioaaiiy aioo?ioiueiainiiaea?nueeeo
iiae?icaeieia o ae?iaie/i, na?ainii, e?aaeeoii, caooiai,
iinoa/aeueieoeueei oa iioi eiiia?aoeae; noai?aiiy oaeeo eiiia?aoeaia ia
iiaie iniiai; ia’?aeiaiiy oa?ia?nueeeo oa iioeo ainiiaea?noa o
eiiia?aoeae aa?oeeaeueiiai oa ai?eciioaeueiiai oeio. Iniiaieie ae
oi?iaie ?ioaa?oaaiiy n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa c i?iieneia?noth c
iaoith io?eiaiiy iaeneiaeueiiai i?eaooeo ai?iaeiaae onueiai
oaoiieia?/iiai eaioethaa a?ae ae?iaieoeoaa ne?iaeie aei ?icae??aiiai

?en.2. Noaia ?ooo ia?a o i?ioean? ooai?aiiy eiiia?aoeaieo oiaa?enoa

caooo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? iathoue noaoe aa?ii?iieneia?
i?aei?e?inoaa, eiia?iaoe, iaoeiai-ae?iaie/? ia’?aeiaiiy.

I?ioa i?ioeane eiiia?aoei? oa iioaa?aoei? a ?icaeoeo iiaeo oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia naei ia iniia? ?aoi?ioaaiue o a?aeiineiao aeaniino?
?ice?eaathoue eeoa iaeio noi?iio i?iaeaie aoaeoeaiinoi aa?a?ieo
a?aeiinei. Acaaaei ae nueiaiaeii a oai?i? oa i?aeoeoei
caaaeueiii?eeiyoith ? oaca, ui aeey ainiiaea?nueeiai oniioo aa?a?iiai
iiaei?e?inoaa ae?ioaeueio ?ieue aiaeia?athoue ia noieueee i?aaiai e
iiaei?e?iieoeueei oi?ie, neieueee ?iaaiue iaiaaeaeiaioo e iioeaaoeiy
niia?iaioieeia oa /eai?a i?aei?e?inoaa. Eiaeia i?aaiaa oi?ia aa?a?ieo
iiaei?e?inoa ia? nai? ia?aaaae oa iaaeieiee. Iaeneiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy
ia?aaaa oa iineaaeaiiy iaaeie?e?a —

ae??oaeueia oiiaa aeey iaeaooiueiai anio i?aaiaeo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

Nueiaiaei?, eiee i?aeoe/ii ia ?nio? aeinoaoiuei /?oeiai ?icoi?iiy
iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo aa?a?iiai naeoi?a, eiee aea?aeaaa i?aeoe/ii
ao?aoeea aaaaoi ooieoeie oi?aae?iiy, ui iiaei?aaei noaaieueiinoue
ae?iaieoeoaa i i?ecaaei ia aei anoaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, a aei ?o
aee?eaeaiiy oa aeene?aaeeoaoe??, i???ioaoe?y n?euenueeeo
oiaa?iae?iaiee?a ia aeei?enoaiiy ni?eueieo coneeue aeicaieeoue oo?eiaoe
/anoeio i?eaooeo a aa?a?i?e noa??, ui iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye aeiaeaoeia?
?iaanoeoe?? a n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai.

Oaiaeaioe?y aei iiaiai ?icoi?iiy aeaniino? a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? iio?aao?
? a?aeiia?aeieo ?aaoethth/eo ooieoe?e aea?aeaae. Eii?aeeiaoe?y oaii?a ?
i?iii?oe?e ?icaeoeo ? na?oeaaeiith, ina?aaeeii ?aaoethth/i? ae?yeueiino?
aea?aeaaiiai ea??aieoeoaa aa?ii?iieneiaei naeoi?ii aeiiii?ee. Aei
aeiiii?/ieo ?aaoeyoi??a aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa a ?iaio? a?aeianaii:

1) aea?aeaaiee aieea ia ?eieiaa oe?iiooai?aiiy;

2)ia?eaoeiaiao iie?oeeo, ui iia`ycaia c ?aae?caoe??th
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? ye ia aioo??oi?o, oae ? ia
ciai?oi?o ?eieao;

3) iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia caaacia/aiiy n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa;

4) iiiaoa?io oa o?neaeueio iie?oeeo;

5) e?aaeeoii-o?iainiao iie?oeeo;

6) aea?aeaai? e ?aa?iiaeuei? ?iaanoeoe?? a ?icaeoie aa?a?iiai naeoi?o
aeiiii?ee;

7) caoeno a?o/eciyiiai ae?iaieea /a?ac noaaee ieoiiai cai?o ia ?iii?o
oa ?io? oi?ie ieoiiai iaiaaeaiiy.

Aac ?aoi?ioaaiiy a?aeiinei aeaniino? ia nae?, ae??oaiiy ieoaiue
i?eaaoecaoe?? caie? oa ?? aeei?enoaiiy ye ia`?eoa canoaae, ni?iuaiiy
i?ioeaaeo?e ?aae?caoe?? canoaaeaiiai iaeia, i?iaeaie aeiaaino?ieiaiai
e?aaeeooaaiiy oa ?iaanooaaiiy ye iiooiaoo aeey aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy
aaeoc? aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno ?ica`ycaoe iaiiaeeeai. I?iaeaia
caaacia/aiiy aa?aio?e iiaa?iaiiy iaaeaieo aeiaaino?ieiaeo e?aaeeo?a
iio?aao? inoaoi/iiai ae??oaiiy o caeiiiaeaa/iio ii?yaeeo ieoaiiy
aeaniino? ia caieth c ia?aaeaa/aiiyi iiaeeeaino? i?eeiyooy ?? a canoaao
i?e e?aaeeooaaii?, a o ?ac? ii?ooaiiy oiia e?aaeeoiiai aeiaiai?o —
iiaeeeaino? ?? ?aae?caoe??.

?ic?aoiaoaaoe ia aaaii? ?iaanoeoe?? cciai? a no/anieo aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao
iaia? iaeaaeieo i?aenoaa. Oa ana ae, ia iaoo aeoieo, o no?aoaa?/iiio
aniaeo? o?aaa iieeaaeaoeny ia?aaaaeii ia aeani? ?ano?ne e iiaeeeaino?,
iiaa?ioaoe aaie?anueeee ? o?iueiaee eai?oae ia cae?eniaiiy aoaeoeaieo
?eieiaeo o?ainoi?iaoe?e, noai?aiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeieo iaoe?iiaeueieo
ae?iaieoeoa ia no/ani?e oaoiieia?/i?e aac? oa a ?ioa?anao aeoeaiiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ? aenieii?iaeoeoeaii? i?aoe?.

A?eueo?noue ?iaanoeoe?e a ainiiaea?noai ? i?aei?e?iieoeoai iathoue
iaae?eoe c i?eaaoieo aeaea?ae. O? oi?ie aeaniino? ? i?aai?caoe?ei?
no?oeoo?e, ui iiaeooue i?eaa?iooe i?eaaoi? ?iaanoeoe??, aoaeooue a?eueo
no?eeeie i?ae ainiiaea?noaa, ui ia caeaoi? ca?o/eoeny o?iainoaaiiyi
?iaanoeoe?e aai iiaaneoe a iaeaooiueiio naith caai?aiaai?noue. O
i?eaaoieo aeaniee?a c`yaeythoueny ?aaeuei? noeioee aeeaaeaoe eiooe o
aeania ae?iaieoeoai, aea ?iaeoe oea aiie aoaeooue eeoa a oiio aeiaaeeo,
yeui iaeaooi? aeaniino? ia aoaea aeeeeeaoe aeiaeieo iiaithaaiue.

Aea?aeaaa ia? ni?yiiaoaaoe i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo oi?i
aeaniino? a ?onei no/anieo oaiaeaioe?e, a?aoiaoaaoe iaea?eueo i?eeiyoi?
aaeoc? aeey o??? /e ?ioi? oi?ie aeaniino? a aa?a?iiio naeoi??. Eiaeia
oi?ia aeaniino? ooai?th? naith aeiiii?/io i?oo c oa?aeoa?iei /anii
i?ioiaeaeaiiy i?ioean?a. Aeiiii?/ia ae nenoaia a oe?eiio oa aa?a?iee
naeoi? cie?aia neeaaea?oueny c oaeeo i?o, ooai?thth/e ???a?o?/io
nenoaio, noae?noue ? ?icaeoie yei? aecia/athoueny noae?noth ? ?icaeoeii
eiaeii? ?? eaiee. Noai?aiiy a?eueo aii?yaeeiaaii? aeiiii?/ii? no?oeoo?e
/a?ac naiii?aai?caoe?th, yea coeaiaioiaaia an?ia i?eeiyoieie oi?iaie
aeaniino?, caaacia/o? no?ee?oue an??? nenoaie a oe?eiio ? iiaeeeaino?
aeey ?? ?icaeoeo. Eiaeia c oi?i aeaniino? a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? a aeaiee
eiie?aoiee ?noi?e/iee ia??iae ia? nai? ca?iaeaeaiiy, ?icea?o oa e?eco.
*ei a?eueoa ca’yce?a o nenoai? (?? aaaaoioeeaaei?noue), /ei aaaaooa
no?oeoo?a, oei eaaoa aeaiaeeoe nenoaio c e?eciai? neooaoe??. Iaa?oue ca
e?ece iaei??? c oi?i aeaniino?, iai?eeeaae aea?aeaaii?, ?io? ia
aeicaieythoue nenoai? aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei c?oeioaaoeny.

Oaeei /eiii, aaaaoiiai?oi?noue oi?i aeaniino? – oea aa?aio?y
noaa?eueiino? aa?a?iiai naeoi?a oa noni?euenoaa acaaae?, iaeia c
aaaeeeaeo oiia caiia?aaiiy nioe?aeueiei iio?yn?iiyi.

Iiaa?iaiiy aei aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee aai eiai iineeaiiy —
oea ia iaiaaeaiiy ?ioa?an?a ? naiaiae ?eieiaiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa.
Iaaiaee, oea aeio?eiaiiy oaeeo naiaiae ? ?ioa?an?a o ?aieao ia`?eoeaieo
caeii?a oa aa?iii?caoe?y oeeo ?ioa?an?a c caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueieie
?ioa?anaie.

AENIIAEE OA I?IIICEOe??

1. A ?acoeueoao? iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui a?aeiineie
aeaniino? ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei iaoai?ciii, ui caaacia/o?
aca?iiae?th ethaeeie ? noni?euenoaa, oi?ioaaiiy ? ?aae?caoe?th
nioe?aeueii-?iaeea?aeoaeueii? i?e?iaee ethaeeie. Aa?a?i? a?aeiineie –
oea a?aeiineie i?ae ethaeueie c i?eaiaeo i?eaeaniaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy
caie? oa iniiaieo cania?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa,
i?iaeoeoe?? e aeioiae?a.

2. Iaa?oioiaaii iieiaeaiiy, ui ana iaio i?eaaaeeaith oa aeiiii?/ii
aea?aeiith aeey ainiiaea?thth/eo a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee noa’?eo?a
noa? iiaia aeani?noue, ui aeeth/a? a naaa aaniethoio iiiiiie?th ia
ia’?eoe, ye? i?eaeaniththoueny, oa i?aai ?o iiaiiai a?ae/oaeaiiy. O
no/ani?e aeiiii?/i?e nenoai? ana a?eueo ?iciianthaeaeaieie noathoue
a?aeiineie iaiiaii?, iaaaniethoii? aeaniino? (e?ceia, i?aiaea oa ?i.).

3. Eiaeia oi?ia aeaniino? ca nai?th i?e?iaeith ?noi?e/ia. A iniia?
?icaeoeo oi?i aeaniino? a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? eaaeeoue
caaaeueiioeea?e?caoe?eia oaiaeaioe?y nioe?ae?caoe?? a?aeiinei aeaniino?.
Ci?ie, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao, noinothoueny oi?ie, a
ia ci?noo aeaniino?. Caeeoath/enue ii noo? eai?oae?noe/iith, aeani?noue
iaaoea oi?io iae?iaeiiii?/ii?, caaaeueiiainiiaea?nueei?. Iaaieioo?oueny
ia iaiao?aeiino? aaiethoe?eiiai noaiiaeaiiy aaaaoioeeaaeii? aa?a?ii?
aeiiii?ee, i?ae yeei ?icoi??ii cae?eniaiiy eiiieaeno caoiae?a,
ni?yiiaaieo ia noai?aiiy ia?aaeoiia aeey aoaeoeaii? ae??
naii?aaoethth/eo ? naiii?aai?coth/eo nee noni?euenoaa, ye? a
caaacia/oaaee iiooe oeyo?a oa cania?a i?e?iaeieo, aaiethoe?eieo ci?i o
nenoai? aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei. Cai?iiiiiaaia noaia no?oeoo?e a?aeiinei
aeaniino? a no/ani?e nenoai? aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei.

4. O no/anieo oiiaao ana ae?aci?oa i?inoaaeothoueny ?aaeuei?
oaiaeaioe?? a?aeae?eaiiy aeaniino? a?ae oi?aae?iiy, ?ic/eaioaaiiy
eiiieaeno i?aa aeaniino? ia ie?ai? neeaaeia?, ui eiia?iothoueny o ana
a?eueo ??ciiiai?oieo niieo/aiiyo i?ae o/anieeaie ainiiaea?nueeiai
i?ioeano. Aac iaea?aeaiiy aeioiaeo o a?aeiia?aei?e oi?i? a?aeiineie
aeiiii?/ii? ?aae?caoe?? aeaniino? ao?a/athoue aoaeue-yeee nain aeey ??
noa’?eo?a. Oaeoe/ia i?eaeaniaiiy cania?a ae?iaieoeoaa ? i?aaeiao?a
niiaeeaaiiy ? aieiaiith iciaeith aeiiii?/ii? ?aae?caoe?? aeaniino?.

5. Iniiaith oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei ? aeani?noue ia
caieth. Caeiiiaeaa/i a iao?e e?a?i? cai?iaaaeaeaii aea?aeaaio,
eieaeoeaio ? i?eaaoio oi?ie aeaniino? ia caieth, ye? ? ??aiii?aaieie. C
i?eeiyooyi Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie anoaiiaeaii i?eaaoio, aea?aeaaio ?
eiioiaeueio oi?ie aeaniino?. Iaa?oioiaaii, ui eieaeoeaia aeani?noue a
aa?a?iiio naeoi?? aaiethoe?iio? a i?eaaoio oa aea?aeaaio. Iaaieioaii ia
iaaei?a/iino? oi?noaaiiy i?ioeano i?aai?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy eieaeoeaii?
aeaniino? a i?eaaoio, iniaeeai a?aoiaoth/e iaioaeuei?,
?inoeoooe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa.

6. Cia/io oaaao iaiao?aeii iaaeaoe ai?iaaaeaeaiith ia o?eueee i?eaaoii?
aeaniino? ia caieth, a e i?eaaoiiai aieiae?iiy c ia?aaea/ath oeooea
iiiiiieueiiai aeanieea aea?aeaa?, iaaeaaoe oaeei /eiii i??i?eoaoo oiio,
ooi aaciina?aaeiuei oacyeio? ia caie? ia?aae ?aioiio?eioaa/ai.
Cai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?aaa niieueii? /anoeiai? aeaniinoi a i?aeoeeo
caiaeueieo aiaeiinei, ui aeieeathoue aianeiaeie ia?aaea/? caiei o
aeaniinoue iaaea?aeaaiei nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeei iiaei?e?inoaai ?
?iciiaeieo ?? iiae ?o /eaiaie ia caiaeueii /anoee (ia?), aeanoue
iiaeeeainoue oieeiooe iiae??aiaiiy ?aeeieo caiaeueieo ianea?a.

7. I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeaiiy ainiiaea?thaaiiy
i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai oeio iieacothoue, ui ?icaeoie iiaeo i?aai?caoe?eieo
no?oeoo? ia iniia? ??cieo oi?i aeaniino? ia caieth oa iaeii iia`ycaiee c
a?ae?iaeaeaiiyi eiiia?aoe??. Iaaaaeaii noaio ooai?aiiy eiiia?aoeaiiai
oiaa?enoaa ye ia?niaeoeaii? oi?ie ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

8. Aeiaaaeaii, ui aac iino?eii? aeoeaii? o/ano? aea?aeaae iaiiaeeeai
oni?oii ae??oeoe iaa?aeeeaaei? caaaeaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
oa?aeoa?o, ni?yiiaai? ia ?icaeoie aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei, oi?ioaaiiy
?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua a aa?a?i?e noa??. Aeiaaaeaii iaiao?aei?noue
i?aeo?eiee aea?aeaaith ?icaeoeo ??ciiiai?oieo oi?i aeaniino? ia nae?.
Cai?iiiiiaaii ?yae iai?yie?a aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aa?a?ieo
a?aeiinei.

IA?AE?E IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe

1. Ea?aaaaeaeae E.N. Iniaeeaino? ?aoi?ioaaiiy oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy a
aa?a?iiio naeoi?? Oe?a?ie. // Aeiiii?ea oa i?aei?e?iieoeoai: Ca??iee
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue iieiaeeo a/aieo oa ani??aio?a. Aei.1.-E.:EIAO, 1997.-
N.45-150.

2. Ea?aaaaeaeae E.N. No/ani? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo oi?i aeaniino?. //
Aeiiii?ea oa i?aei?e?iieoeoai: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue iieiaeeo a/aieo
oa ani??aio?a. Aei.2.-E.:EIAO, 1998.- N.3-8.

3. Ea?aaaaeaeae E.N. Caiaeueia ?aioa, ?? aeaee oa oi?ie ?aae?caoe?? ca
oiia ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. — 1998.
-?100 (167) – N.65-70.

4. Ea?aaaaeaeae E.N. Ethaeeia oa i?eaaoia aeani?noue. // I?iaeaie
aeiiii?/ii? oai??? ? i?aeoeee ia no/aniiio aoai?. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue/ Oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao Iiae?eey. – Oiaeueieoeueeee: Aeae-ai
OOI, 1998. – N.45-47.

5. Ea?aaaaeaeae E.N. Iai?yie aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aa?a?ieo
a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?. // Oace aeiiia?aeae ?? I?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe??
“Iaoea ? ina?oa — 99”. -O.11. -Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999. -N.115.

AIIOAOe??

Ea?aaaaeaeae E.N. ?aoi?ioaaiiy a?aeiinei aeaniino? a aa?a?iiio naeoi??
Oe?a?ie a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy ci?oaii? aeiiii?ee. -?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.01.01. – “Aeiiii?/ia oai??y”. — Ee?anueeee
iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyiooi oai?aoe/i? oa i?eeeaaei? aniaeoe ?aoi?ioaaiiy
a?aeiinei aeaniino? a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? Oe?a?ie a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy
ci?oaii? aeiiii?ee. Aeine?aeaeaii iniaeeaino? aeaniino? oa oi?ie ??
?aae?caoe?? ca oiia ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue, ?icaeoie ?aae?caoe?? i?aaa
aeaniino?. Aecia/aii iniaeeaino? a?aeiinei aeaniino? oa ?o ?aae?caoe?? a
aa?a?iiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.

I?iaaaeaii aiae?c o?ainoi?iaoe?e caiaeueieo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?, aeacai?
i?e/eie e?ece oa oeyoe aeoiaeo c ia?. Cai?iiiiiaaia noaia eiiia?aoeaiiai
oiaa?enoaa ye i?aai?caoe?eii? oi?ie ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia nae?. Aeiaaaeaia
iaiao?aei?noue ?eieo caie?, ?icaeoeo ii?o/ c i?eaaoiith aea?aeaaii?
oi?ie aeaniino? ia caie? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?ecia/aiiy. Aeacaii
ia aaaeeea?noue aeio?eiaiiy aaiethoe?eieo ci?i o i?ioean? ?icaeoeo
a?aeiinei aeaniino? a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. Cai?iiiiiaaii
iai?yiee aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei ca no/anieo oiia.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeani?noue, oi?ia aeaniino?, aa?a?i? a?aeiineie,
aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy.

Ea?aaaaeaeae E.N. ?aoi?ie?iaaiea ioiioaiee nianoaaiiinoe a aa?a?iii
naeoi?a Oe?aeiu a oneiaeyo noaiiaeaiey niaoaiiie yeiiiieee. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.01.01. – “Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey”. — Eeaaneee
iaoeeiiaeueiue yeiiiie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee ioia/aaony, /oi ?aciiia?acea oi?i nianoaaiiinoe e
oicyenoaiaaiey — iauaeoeaiia yeiiiie/aneia yaeaiea, eioi?ia auoaeaao ec
?aaeueiie neiaeiinoe e iiiaiieaiiainoe yeiiiie/aneie aeecie iauanoaa.
Nouanoaaiiui aniaeoii i?iaeaiu ?aoi?ie?iaaiey nianoaaiiinoe yaeyaony a?
noaiiaeaiea ia iiauo, ?uii/iuo ia/aeao a aa?a?iie noa?a, eioi?oth
ni?aaaaeeeai ioiinyo e no?aoaae/anee i?ei?eoaoiui noa?ai yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey Oe?aeiu.

Oeacuaaaony, /oi nianoaaiiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie enoi?e/aneoth
eaoaai?eth, iia i?enoua i?aeoe/anee anai yiioai ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa e
aunooiaao iaeiie ec naiuo aaaeiuo ninoaaiuo iauaeoeaiuo yeiiiie/aneeo
caeiiia ?acaeoey iauanoaa. Yeiiiie/aneay nooue nianoaaiiinoe oanii
naycaia n iaiaaeaeiaioii, i?aaiecaoeeae eniieueciaaiey oao oaeoi?ia,
eioi?ua aeaeatho aiciiaeiui i?iecaiaenoai. Eo iauaaeeiaiea
iaania/eaaaony oi?aaeaieai, eioi?ia yaeyaony niiniaii ?aaeecaoeee
nianoaaiiinoe a a? yeiiiie/aneii niaea?aeaiee, /oi aeey iineoaey i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe ia yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiui.

Nenoaio a ioiioaieyo nianoaaiiinoe a aa?a?iie noa?a ?anniio?aii ii
aaaeiiio e?eoa?eth eeanneoeeaoeee: ca iniiao acyoa iauaoeeaeeecaoeeiiiay
oaiaeaioeey nioeeaeecaoeee /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe. Auaeaeaii aeaa
“iiethna” — /anoioth e iauanoaaiioth nianoaaiiinoue, a ?aieao eioi?uo
ia?acoaony iiiaeanoai aeaeia nianoaaiiinoe. Aeieacaii, /oi a ia?aoiaeiie
yeiiiieea aieueoeinoai oi?i e aeaeia nianoaaiiinoe, eioi?ua i?aeoe/anee
?acaeaathony, eiatho oaeie aea ia?aoiaeiue oa?aeoa?; iie yaeythony
neiaeiuie oi?iaie, eioi?ua oae eee eia/a iauaaeeiytho iaoaieciu
aeaaeaiey, ?anii?yaeaiey e iieueciaaiey aeaaaie, a oaeaea “io/ee
i?aaiii/iinoae”. I?e yoii aaniethoii iaiaycaoaeueii, /oiau yoi auee
i?aaa iieiie nianoaaiiinoe, nei?aa iaiai?io, oae eae nianoaaiiinoue
ioyaiuaao (yeiiiie/anee e o?ainaeoeeiiii).

?ane?uaaaony nooue yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i, eioi?ua inouanoaeythony a
aa?a?iii naeoi?a Oe?aeiu a oneiaeyo noaiiaeaiey niaoaiiie yeiiiieee,
oeacuaathony iaaeinoaoee a i?iaaaeaiee o?ainoi?iaoeee, i?aaeeaaathony
nianoaaiiua iiaeoiaeu e i?ioeanno ?aoi?ie?iaaiey. Aeieacuaaaony, /oi
oiae caiaeueiie ?aoi?iu iauaeoeaii aaaeao e o?ainoi?iaoeee eieeaeoeaiie
nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth a /anoioth e ainoaea?noaaiioth. Aieueoia
aieiaiea oaeaeyaony ia oieueei /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth, ii e
/anoiiio caieaaeaaeaieth. Aaaeii, /oiau nenoaia yeiiiie/aneeo einoeoooia
a aa?a?iii naeoi?a yeiiiieee e aiiaua a Oe?aeia aeiioneaea aeaeia
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea eiouanoaaiiuo i?aa iaaeaeo ?aciuie noauaeoaie, n?aaee
eioi?uo, anoanoaaiii, aeieaeii i?enoonoaiaaoue e ainoaea?noai eae aaaio
oicyenoaaiiiai iai?ioa, aeaenoaothuee ia ?aaiuo i?aaao n ae?oaeie. Iniai
aaaeiay ?ieue a i?ioeanna noaiiaeaiey niaoaiiie yeiiiieee ioaaaeaia
?acaeoeth a?aiaeiuo ioiioaiee a aa?a?iie noa?a.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiii enneaaeiaaiee cia/eoaeueiia aieiaiea oaeaeaii
noaiiaeaieth e ?acaeoeth oicyenoaaiiuo oi?ie?iaaiee ia iniiaa ?acee/iuo
oi?i nianoaaiiinoe. I?aaeeiaeaia noaia eiiia?aoeaiiai oiaa?euanoaa eae
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie oi?iu oicyenoaiaaiey. A aeeaeaeoae ia?niaeoeaa
iniiaiuie iooyie ia?aciaaiey eiiia?aoeaia noaioo: aica?ao eieeaeoeaiui
oicyenoaai eiiia?aoeaiuo i?eciaeia; ?aoi?ie?iaaiea aioo?eoicyenoaaiiuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee a i?iecaiaenoaaiiua, na?aeniua, e?aaeeoiua, nauoiaua,
niaaaeai/aneea e ae?oaea eiiia?aoeau; iauaaeeiaiea oa?ia?neeo e ae?oaeo
oicyenoa a eiiia?aoeau aa?oeeaeueiiai e ai?eciioaeueiiai oeia.

Iiae/a?eeaaaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue yaiethoeeiiiiai noaiiaeaiey
iiiaioeeaaeiie yeiiiieee a aa?a?iie noa?a, iiae eioi?ui iiae?acoiaaaaony
inouanoaeaiea eiiieaena ia?ii?eyoee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia nicaeaiea oneiaee
aeey yooaeoeaiiai aeaenoaey naii?aaoee?othueo e naiii?aaiecothueo nee
iauanoaa, eioi?ua iaania/eaaee au iiene iooae e niiniaia anoanoaaiiuo,
yaiethoeeiiiuo eciaiaiee a nenoaia aa?a?iuo ioiioaiee. Aeieacaia
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?uiea caiee, i?aaeeiaeaiu iai?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey aa?a?iuo ioiioaiee a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo, a eiaiii:
ainoaea?noaaiiia aeeyiea ia ?uii/iia oeaiiia?aciaaiea; ia?eaoeiaiaay
iieeoeea, naycaiiay n ?aaeecaoeeae naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee eae
ia aioo?aiieo, oae e ia aiaoieo ?uieao; iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneia
iaania/aiea naeueneiai oicyenoaa; e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaay iieeoeea;
ainoaea?noaaiiua e ?aaeiiaeueiua eiaanoeoeee a ?acaeoea aa?a?iiai
naeoi?a yeiiiieee; caueoa ioa/anoaaiiiai i?iecaiaeeoaey n iiiiuueth
noaaie oaiiaeaiiiai nai?a ia eiii?o.

Aeieacaii, /oi aac iinoiyiiiai aeoeaiiai o/anoey ainoaea?noaa
iaaiciiaeii oniaoii ?ac?aoeoue iaioeiaeiua caaeaiey
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, iai?aaeaiiua ia ?acaeoea aa?a?iuo
ioiioaiee, oi?ie?iaaiea ?acee/iuo oi?i nianoaaiiinoe e ?uii/iie n?aaeu,
aoiaeaeaiea no?aiu a oeeaeeeciaaiiia ie?iaia niae?oaeanoai.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: nianoaaiiinoue, oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe, aa?a?iua
ioiioaiey, ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea.

Karabadjak K.S. The reforming of property in the agrarian sector in
Ukraine under the conditions of mixed economic formation. — Manuscript.

The thesis for the candidate’s degree of Economic Sciences by speciality
08.01.01. — “Economics”. The Kyiv National University of Economics,
Kyiv, 1999.

The theoretical and applied aspects of the reforming of property in the
agrarian sector in Ukraine under the conditions of mixed economic
formation are modified in the thesis. The essence of property and the
forms of its realization under the conditions of market transformation,
the development of the realization of the property right are explored.
The peculiarities of property and its realization in the agrarian sector
are determined.

The transformation of the agriculture attitudes in Ukraine is analyzed.
The causes of the crisis and means for its overcome are indicated. The
scheme of cooperative association as form of economy in the village is
proposed. Necessity of the land market, development of private and
state form of property for land is proved. The importance of the
evolutionary changes support in development process of the property in
the agrarian sector in Ukraine is showed. The ways of the state
regulation of the agrarian relations at present-time condition are
worked out.

Key words: property, form of property, agrarian relations, state
regulation.

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