IAeANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OIIAA?NEOAO ii. I.I.IA*IEEIAA

IAOETH*AIEI Iaoaeiy Aieiaeeie?iaia

OAeE 802.0-4/5-086

?AAEICAOeIss EIINIIAIOIEO NIIEOE IA NOEEO EAENE*IEO IAeEIEOeUe
(iino?oiaioaeueii-oiiaoe/ia aeineiaeaeaiiy ia iaoa?iaei iiaeaiiy
aeeeoi?ia ?aaeii oa oaeaaa/aiiy Iiia//eie)

Niaoeiaeueiinoue 10.02.04 – aa?iainueei iiae

Aaoi?aoa?aoaeena?oaoei? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiyeaiaeeaeaoa
oieieiai/ieo iaoe

Iaeana-1999

Aeena?oaoei?th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oiiaa?neoaoi ii.
I.I.Ia/ieeiaa

Iaoeiaee ea?iaiee: eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaiai/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Aa?aeoeueea
Oaoyia Ae?iieae?aia, Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oiiaa?neoao
ii. I.I.Ia/ieeiaa, aeioeaio eaoaae?e i?iaoeueei? oieieiai?

Ioioeieii iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oieieiai/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A?ia/aiei Oaia?a
Ieaenaiae?iaia, Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oiiaa?neoao ii. I.I.Ia/ieeiaa,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e oai?aoe/ii? oa i?eeeaaeii? oiiaoeee aiaeienueei? iiae

eaiaeeaeao oieieiai/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Ea?aaaoeii Aieoi? Iaaiiae/,
Oa?eianueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, caaiaeoaa/ eaoaae?e i?iaoeueei?
oieieiai?

I?iaiaeia onoaiiaa: Ee?anueeee oiiaa?neoao ii. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Caoeno aeena?oaoei? aiaeaoaeaoueny 28 aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo i 13.30 aiaeeii
ia caniaeaiii niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 41.051.02 Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oiiaa?neoaoo ?i. I.I.Ia/ieeiaa ca aae?anith: 65058, Iaeana,
O?aioeocueeee aoeueaa?, 24/26, aoae. 91.

C aeena?oaoei?th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeiaie aiaeiioaoei Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oiiaa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 65057, Iaeana, aoe.
I?aia?aaeainueea, 24.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?icineaii “16” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoeiaeiciaaii?a/aii? ?aaee *a?iiiaaiaiei ?.I.

14

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aa?iaoeai?noue caoeiaeo ?aaeicaoe?e o iiaeaii?aiio eaioethaeeo
aecia/a?oueny aca?iiae??th naaiaioiiai ? noia?naaiaioiiai ??ai?a o
i?ioean? ii?iaeaeaiiy caoeiaiai aeneiaethaaiiy ? ? aaaeeeaith aeey
?icoi?iiy aioo?ioiuei? no?oeoo?e aeeiai?ee iiaeaii?aeo yaeu. Neeaaeia
eiiaiiaoe?y iaia?a?aieo oa aeene?aoieo oa?aeoa?enoee eaaeeoue a iniia?
aeeiai?/ii? i?e?iaee iiaeaiiy. Oiio iiooe ia’?eoeaieo e?eoa???a
ae/eaioaaiiy c iaia?a?aiiai iioieo iaiaaeaii? e?eueeino? aeaiaioa?ieo
caoeiaeo iaeeieoeue iaiiaeeeaee aac caeo/aiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i ia’?eoeai?
iciaee iaae a?eueoeo iaeeieoeue iiaeaiiy — neeaae?a, oiiaoe/ieo ne?a,
o?ac, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny o neeaaei?e caeaaeiino? a?ae iaeeieoeue
eaeneei-a?aiaoe/iiai ??aiy, a oaeiae iecee i?iniaee/ieo oaeoi??a.

?icaeoie iaeiia?oeo oaoiieia?e aeicaiey? aeine?aeaeoaaoe i?iaeaio
naaiaioaoei? nieneiaiai /eaioaaiiy iiaeaiiy o caeaaeiino? a?ae nooiaiy
i?aeaioiaeaiinoi e aiioe?eiiai noaio iiaoey, oiia eiioi?eaoeaii?
neooaoe??, ?aa?iiaeueieo oaeoi??a, ui ia? iniaeeaa cia/aiiy aeey
i?iaoeueei? aeiiaii? ii?ie, ai oey iiaa ? aea?aeaaiith a e?eueeio
e?a?iao ? ia? iaaio aa?iaoeaio niaoeeo?eo.

1. Aeooaeueiinoue ?iaioe iaoiiaeaia:

a) iac?ieith iaiaoiaeiinoth aaeaeaaoiiai aiaeico no/aniiai noaio
iiiaoeueei? aeiiaii? ii?ie, ui aeeth/a? a naaa ?ic?iaeo iaeiaio
aeineiaeaeaiiai o oiiaoe/iie eioa?aoo?i i?oioiii/iiai aniaeoo;

a) ?ic?iaeith aeineoue iaaeieieo i noai?eo e?eoa?i?a naaiaioaoei?
iiaeaii?aiai iioieo, aeei?enoiaoaaieo a aaoiiaoeciaaieo nenoaiao
?iciiciaaaiiy e ?icoiiiiy oniiai iiaeaiiy, yei ? iaiaoiaeiei aeaiaioii o
eaioethao aeonoe/iiai aeiaeiao “ethaeeia – iaoeia”;

a) aaaeeeainoth iaea?aeaiiy iaoeiai ia??oioiaaieo aiaeiiinoae i?i
niaoeeoieo ooai?aiiy i ooieoeiiioaaiiy caoeiniieo/aiue ia noeeao neia o
nooeieueiiio iiaeaiii, yei ni?eythoue iioe?aiith i?aaee iieno aa?iaioia
caoeia aiae ie?aieo neia ia neiainiieo/aiiy, ?eoiia?oie, neioaaie.

Ia’?eoii aeineiaeaeaiiy ? aeae iiaeaii?ai? aeiyeueiinoi – /eoaiiy aai
i?i/eoaia iiaeaiiy i?ioanieieo aeeeoi?ia ?aaeii oa oaeaaa/aiiy
Iiia//eie. sse i?aaeiao aeineiaeaeaiiy ia?aii eiiniiaioii
caoeiniieo/aiiy (eiiniiaioii naaiaioe) ia noeeao eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue,
aea o ia?aaenoeeiaie iiceoei? ciaoiaeyoueny ciieiaii i?i?eaii
i?eaieinii, a o iineynoeeiaie iiceoei? i?aaenoaaeaiee aanue ei?ion
i?eaieinieo iiiaoeueei? iiae. Aa?ithaaiiy yeinii-eieueeicieo
oa?aeoa?enoee i?eaieinieo aeineiaeaeoaaeiny c o?aooaaiiyi ?o iiceoei? o
oiiaoe/iiio neiai. Oiio aeiaeaoeiaei i?aaeiaoii aeineiaeaeaiiy c’yaeeiny
oiiaoe/ia neiai, i?eeiyoa o aeaiie ?iaioi ca iaeeieoeth naaiaioaoei?
oaenoo, ui cao/eoue.

Iaoa oeueiai aeineiaeaeaiiy iieyaa? o aeyaeaiii caeiiiii?iinoae
?aaeicaoei? eiiniiaioieo caoeiniieo/aiue ia noeeao neia o nooeieueiiio
iiaeaiii iiae aieeaii ?yaeo naaiaioieo i noi?anaaiaioieo oaeoi?ia. Aeey
aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aoee noi?ioeueiaaii oaei caaaeaiiy:

— Aea/eoe ooieoeiiioaaiiy eiiniiaioieo caoeiniieo/aiue ia noeeo neia o
?aieao oiiaoe/iiai neiaa i anoaiiaeoe oi/ii e?eoa?i? neiaaniiai oa
o?aciaiai ca’yceo a ?aieao ei?ioeiai oaenoo.

— Aeyaeoe niaoeeoieo ?aaeicaoei? caoeiaeo iineiaeiaiinoae “i?eaieiniee +
i?eaieiniee” ia noeeo neia, aea o ia?aaenoeeiaie iiceoei? ciaoiaeeoueny
a?oia ciieiaieo i?i?eaieo i?eaieinieo, a o iineynoeeiaie iiceoei?
i?aaenoaaeaiee aanue ei?ion i?eaieinieo iiiaoeueei? iiae.

— ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo i?iaaaeaiiy neooiaiai e iino?oiaioaeueiiai
aiaeicia, yea aea? ciiao aecia/eoe ciio aa?ithaaiiy i?eaieinieo caoeia
ia noeeao neia o nooeieueiiio iiaeaiii, ui i?yii iia’ycaia c ?ic?iaeith
aieueo oi/ieo e?eoa?i?a naaiaioaoei? iiaeaii?aiai iioieo.

— I?iaanoe aiaeic ?aaeicaoei? iciae anii?aoei?, aenieiceaiinoi,
iai?oaeaiinoi o ciieiaieo i?i?eaieo i?eaieinieo o noeeiaeo iiceoeiyo c
o?aooaaiiyi ?o iiceoei? o oiiaoe/iiio neiai (ON), oeio noeeo i iiceoei?,
yeo caeiathoue eiiiiiaioe caoeiniieo/aiiy ia noeeao neia.

— Iienaoe iniaeeainoi no?oeoo?e aeonoe/iiai neaiaeo eiiniiaioieo
caoeiniieo/aiue ia noeeao neia i aecia/eoe i?e/eie iiaeeoieaoeie
ie?aieo naaiaioia o caeaaeiinoi aiae iiceoeieii-eiiaiiaoi?ieo oaeoi?ia i
i?iniaeeee iiaeaii?aiai aeneiaethaaiiy.

Iiaeaii?aee iaoa?iae aeineiaeaeaiiy neeaaeaany c aaoaioe/ieo iiiaoeueeeo
oaenoia iiaei o ?aaeicaoei? aeeeoi?ia a?iiaaenueeeo eaiaeia ?aaeio oa
oaeaaa/aiiy Iiia//eie caaaeueiei /anii cao/aiiy 2,5 aiaeeie. Iaoa e
caaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy aecia/eee aeai? iaoiaeia aeineiaeaeaiiy. O
?iaioi aeei?enoaii eiiieaeniee iaoiae aeineiaeaeaiiy, yeee aeeth/a? a
naaa ia?oeaioeaiee aiaeic (neooiaee, aoaeeoi?nueeee), iino?oiaioaeueiee
aiaeic (inoeeeia?aoi/iee, iioiiia?aoi/iee, niaeo?aeueiee),
eiia??iinii-noaoenoe/iee aiaeic (oa?aeoa?enoeea iaea?aeaieo aeai?ie ia
ii?iaeueiinoue, aeinoaoiinoue; anoaiiaeaiiy noaoenoe/ii? cia/ouinoi
?icieoeue na?aaeiio; ei?aeyoeieiee aiaeic).

Iaoiaeieiai/iith iniiaith aeineiaeaeaiiy ? iieiaeaiiy i?i aa?iaoeaio
i?e?iaeo iiae i iiaia aa?ithaaiiy ye oi?io aeyaeaiiy iiaiiai aeeiaiicio
a neio?iii?, iiiyooy ii?ie a eioa?aoo?iie iiai, iieiaeaiiy i?i oiiaoe/ia
neiai ye iniiaio iaeeieoeth naaiaioaoei? iiaeaii?aiai iioieo, a/aiiy i?i
oiiaio ye iiiiiaeueio ?ic?icithth/o iaeeieoeth iiae oa ?? aeeoa?aioeieii
iciaee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui
aia?oa:

— canoiniaaii iaeiiaioi i?ia?aie ia?iaee caoeiaiai neaiaeo, yei aeaee
ciiao i?iaanoe naaiaioaoeith iiaeaii?aiai iioieo i ?iciiciaaaiiy
caoeiaeo ia?acia c iaeneiaeueiei nooiaiai iaaeieiinoi; aeei?enoaii
eiiieaenio iaoiaeeeo aea/aiiy caoeiaeo ?aaeicaoeie ia noeeao neia, yea
aeaea ciiao iaea?aeaoe ?o ia’?eoeaii ia?oeaioeaii e aeonoe/ii
oa?aeoa?enoeee;

— ?ic?iaeaii iaae?ei? e?eoa?i? naaiaioaoei? iiaeaii?aiai iioieo c
o?aooaaiiyi i?aaee ooieoeiiioaaiiy eiiniiaioieo caoeiniieo/aiue o
iiiaoeueeiio nooeieueiiio iiaeaiii;

— anoaiiaeaii caeiiiii?iinoi aa?ithaaiiy i?eaieinieo o ?aieao
caoeiniieo/aiiy ia noeeo eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue oa i??a?oith naaiaioieo,
noi?anaaiaioieo i aeno?aeiiaaaeueieo oaeoi?ia, yei aieeaathoue ia ?o
yeinii-eieueeinii iiaeeoieaoei?;

— iaea?aeaii eia?oeeoeyoi?io iiaeaeue caoeiaeo iineiaeiaiinoae ia iaaei
ceia, ocaiaeaeaio c oai?i?th niiaoai?aiiy caoeia i iiaeeaaeo caeiiai
aioeoeeioth/i? eia?oeeoeyoei?;

— i?iaaaeaii eeaneoieaoeith caoeia ia iieinaaiaioii oa iiiinaaiaioii,
aeoiaey/e c eieueeinoi /aniaeo naaiaioia, c yeeo neeaaea?oueny caoe;

— i?e ?icaeyaei no?oeoo?e ciieiaieo i?i?eaieo i?eaieinieo aeaeieythoueny
eia?oeeoeyoi?ii caeaaeii oa eia?oeeoeyoi?ii iacaeaaeii naaiaioe; iciaea
a?oeeoeyoi?ii? iai?oaeaiinoi caoeia iieno?oueny o ia?aiao?ao aeonoe/ii?
iiooaeiinoi, aeii?thaaii? o eaaae?aoieo iie?iianeaeyo; a?oeeoeyoi?ia
iai?oaeaiinoue ciieiaieo i?i?eaieo i?eaieinieo o?aeoo?oueny o
caeaaeiinoi aiae aeiaaioe oa iioaineaiinoi oace ciieiaiiy.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/ouinoue aeaiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy iieyaa? o iiaeaeueoie
?ic?iaoei oai?aoe/ieo aniaeoia iieno /eaioaaiiy iaia?a?aiiai
iiaeaii?aiai iioieo c iaoith aeeo/aiiy ia’?eoeaii? iioi?iaoei? i
i?aaeeueii? iiaoaeiae aeneiaethaaiiy a aeoi eiioiieaoei?. Aeaia
aeineiaeaeaiiy iiaea? aeinoaoiie iiaiee iaoa?iae aeey iiaeaeueoi?
?ic?iaee oaeiai ?icaeieo caaaeueii? e i?eeeaaeii? oiiaoeee ye
naaiaioieiaiy, a oaeiae o ieaii aea/aiiy iniaeeai? iaeeieoei
a?oeeoeyoei? – caoeiniieo/aiiy, yea ? i?iiiaeiith eaieith iiae caoeii i
neeaaeii i ia? eia?oeeoeyoi?iee oa?aeoa?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ouinoue ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui iaea?aeaii ?acoeueoaoe
iiaeooue aooe canoiniaaii a ?icieo noa?ao aeiyeueiinoi, ia?o ca ana o
aeeeaaeaiii iiiaoeueei? iiae ye iiicaiii?. ?icoiiiiy aa?iaoeaii?
niaoeeoiee ?aaeicaoei? nenoaie i?eaieinieo o nooeieueiiio iiaeaiii iiaea
ni?eyoe oniioiiio ni?eeiyooth aaoaioe/iiai iiaeaiiy ia neoo i
ae?iaeaiith aacaeoeaioii? aeiiae. Aeei?enoaiiy iaeiiaioeo i?ia?ai
ia?iaee caoea ia? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy o ieaii iaa/aiiy
nooaeaioia-aa?iaiinoia i?eeiiai i iaoiaeai i?eeeaaeii? oiiaoeee.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy aoee iaaiai?aii ia
caniaeaiiyo eaoaae?e iiiaoeueei? oieieiai? Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oiiaa?neoaoo ii. I.I.Ia/ieeiaa (1996-1999), ia iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ieo
eiioa?aioeiyo a Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oiiaa?neoaoi ii. I.I.Ia/ieeiaa
(1995-1998), iiaeaocianueeie iaoeiaie eiioa?aioei? Icia?euenueeiai
iaaeaaiai/iiai iinoeoooo “Iinoea eiiaainoe/ieo aeenoeeieii o oi?ioaaiii
eiioiieaoeaii? eiiiaoaioei?” (Icia?e, 1995), a oaeiae ia caniaeaiii
naeoei? iiaeaii?oai?aiiy i ni?eeiyooy iiaeaiiy 9 nani? ?inienueeiai
aeonoe/iiai oiaa?enoaa “No/anii iiaeaii?ai oaoiieiai?” (Iineaa, 1999).

O aiaeiiaiaeiinoi ic caaaeueiith iaoith i aeeeaaeaieie caaaeaiiyie
aeaiiai iino?oiaioaeueii-oiiaoe/iiai aeineiaeaeaiiy ia caoeno
aeiinyoueny oaei iniiaii iieiaeaiiy:

1. ?aaeicaoei? eiiniiaioieo caoeiniieo/aiue ia noeeao neia o
nooeieueiiio iiaeaiii aecia/athoueny ?aieaie no?oeoo?ieo caoeiaeo
iaeeieoeue aieueo aenieiai ii?yaeeo, oaeeo ye neeaae, neiai, oiiaoe/ia
neiai, i iiaeooue ?icaeyaeaoeny oieueee a oiiaao ciiie oeeo no?oeoo?ieo
iaeeieoeue.

2. Iiceoeiy caoeiniieo/aiue ia noeeao neia iaoiiaeth? ?o
eia?oeeoeyoi?iee oa?aeoa? i, ye ianeiaeie oeueiai, neeaaeio no?oeoo?o
aeonoe/iiai neaiaeo a?aeiia?aeii? caoeiai? iaeeieoei .

3. Ineieueee ia iaaeao neia iiaeeeaa oiiaieueiaiiy a?oeeoeyoei? i iiyaa
iaoc, ae?aaeaiinoue eiiiiiaioia noeeiaeo caoeiniieo/aiue aecia/a?oueny
oa?aeoa?ii iaocaoei? ia noeeao neia i ?o iiceoei?th a ?aieao oiiaoe/iiai
neiaa.

4. sseinii-eieueeinii iiaeeoieaoei? eiiniiaioieo caoeiniieo/aiue ia
noeeao neia aecia/athoueny i?iniaei?th iiaeaii?aiai aeneiaethaaiiy,
oa?aeoa?ii naaiaioiiai neeaaeo caoeiaeo iaeeieoeue, yei ooai?ththoue
noee, a oaeiae oaeei aeno?aeiiaaaeueiei oaeoi?ii ye oei aieino
(/ieiai/ee/aeiii/ee).

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoei?. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ci anooio, o?ueio
?icaeieia, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? eioa?aoo?e e
aeiaeaoeia. Ianya aeena?oaoei? neeaaea? 197 noi?iiie. Aeena?oaoeiy
iinoeoue 61 iethno?aoeith, 13 oaaeeoeue, 13 oi?ioe.

O anooii ia??oioiao?oueny aeooaeueiinoue oaie aeineiaeaeaiiy,
aecia/athoueny iaoa i caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, ?ice?eaathoueny ?? iaoeiaa
iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia cia/ouinoue i i?aeoe/ia oeiiiinoue, oi?ioeththoueny
iieiaeaiiy, yei aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icaeiei aiaeicothoueny i?aaenoaaeaii o niaoeiaeueiie
eioa?aoo?i aeaii i?i iniiae ooai?aiiy i ooieoeiiioaaiiy caoeiniieo/aiue
o iiaeaiii, ?icaeyaeathoueny ?icii aeineiaeieoeueei iiaeoiaee aei
i?iaeaie iiiaoeueei? aeiiaii? ii?ie, aecia/athoueny iniaeeainoi
iiaeaiiy, ui cao/eoue ia ?aaeii e oaeaaa/aiii Iiia//eie.

O ae?oaiio ?icaeiei iienothoueny iaoiaee e iiaeaii?aee iaoa?iae
aeineiaeaeaiiy, iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy oiiaoe/iiai aeineiaeaeaiiy, yea
aeeth/a? ia?oeaioeaiee, iino?oiaioaeueiee i noaoenoe/iee aeaee aiaeico.

O?aoie ?icaeie i?enay/aiee aeineiaeaeaiith oiiaoe/iiai neiaa ye
iaeeieoei naaiaioaoei? oaenoo, ui cao/eoue, a oaeiae o iueiio
i?aaenoaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe ia?oeaioeaiiai e iino?oiaioaeueiiai aeaeia
aiaeico ?aaeicaoei? eiiniiaioieo caoeiniieo/aiue ia noeeo eaene/ieo
iaeeieoeue o iiiaoeueeiio nooeieueiiio iiaeaiii ic noaoenoe/iith
iioa?i?aoaoei?th iaea?aeaieo aeaieo.

O caaaeueieo aeniiaeao iiaeaeoi iiaenoiei aeineiaeaeaiiy ?aaeicaoei?
eiiniiaioieo niieo/aiue ia noeeo eaene/ieo iaeieoeue o iiiaoeueeiio
nooeieueiiio iiaeaiii i aea?oueny eiiaainoe/ia iioa?i?aoaoeiy
?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiiy.

Nienie aeei?enoaii? eioa?aoo?e iinoeoue 246 iaca iaoeiaeo ?iaio
oe?a?inueeith, ?inienueeith, aiaeienueeith oa iiiaoeueeith iiaaie i
caeia? 17 noi?iiie.

?iaioa iinoeoue 6 aeiaeaoeia, yei ? i?ioieieaie neooiaiai aiaeico,
c?aceaie ?iai/iai aieia i?ia?aiiiai iaeaoo PRAAT 3.8, oaaeeoeyie
neooiaiai oa iino?oiaioaeueiiai aiaeico. Ianya aeiaeaoeia neeaaea? 14
noi?iiie.

INIIAIEE CIINO AeENA?OAOeI?

Aeyaeaiiy iiiiiaeueieo no?oeoo?ieo iaeeieoeue iiaeaii?ai? eiioiieaoei?
o?aaeeoeieii ia?aaoaa? a oeaio?i oaaae oiiaoe/ieo aeineiaeaeaiue i
iia’ycaia ci ni?iaaie ciaeoe oiiaa?naeueio iaeeieoeth naaiaioaoei?
iiaeaii?aiai iioieo c iaoith iieno iaoaiiciia ooieoeiiioaaiiy caoeia o
nooeieueiiio iiaeaiii. Aecia/aiiy oaei? iaeeieoei aea? ciiao iienoaaoe
iiaeaii?aa aeneiaethaaiiy ye oaiiiai, yeee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iayaiinoth
?ic/eaiiaaiinoi iiaeaii?aiai iioieo ia aeene?aoii neeaaeiai oa
iaia?a?aii? oeieiniinoi.

O?aaeeoeieii iiiiiaeueiith iaeeieoeath iiaeaii?aiai eiioeiooio
aaaaea?oueny neeaae, ai aii oi?io?oueny iiae aieeaii a?oeeoeyoi?ii? e
?eoii/ii? aace iiae i ? iniiaiith iiiiiaeueiith eaaciiinoieiith
naaiaioii-no?oeoo?iith iaeeieoeath iiaeaii?ai? eiioiieaoei? [Aiiaea?ei,
1991; Iioaiiaa,1986; I?ieiiiaa, 1973, Neaeicoa, 1979; Tillmann,1964].
I?ioa o aeayeeo oiiaoe/ieo aeineiaeaeaiiyo iiaeieia?oueny ieoaiiy i?i
iaiaoiaeiinoue aeaeieaiiy iniaeeai? iaeeieoei a?oeeoeyoei? –
caoeiniieo/aiiy, yea ?icaeyaea?oueny ye i?iiiaeia eaiea iiae caoeii ?
neeaaeii [Menzerath, 1933; Lindner, 1975; Iioaiiaa, Eeiaeia?, 1991].
sseui oiciieiai/iith iniiaith icieueiaaii aeiiaeaiiai caoea ? iaaia
?icoaooaaiiy i?aaiia iiaeaiiy, oi aeey caoeiniieo/aiiy oaeei ? ?oo
i?aaiia iiaeaiiy, iaiaoiaeiee aeey ia?aoiaeo aiae aeoiaeii? iiceoei? a
eiioeaao. O ca’yceo c oeei caoeiniieo/aiiy aecia/a?oueny ye iiiiiaeueia
iaeeieoey ?ooo iiaeaii?aeo i?aaiia [Lindner, 1975]. Caeiiiii?iinoi ciiie
caoeia ia noeeao ii?oai ? iaaeao aeaio neia iia’ycothoueny c iiiyoooyi
naiaeoi, a iniiai yeeo eaaeaoue aneiieyoeaii i?ioeane oa inoi?e/ii iiaii
ciiie. ?ic??ciythoue naiaeoi ciaiioi? (ia iaaei neia aai eiiiiiaioia
neeaaeiiai neiaa) i aioo?ioi? (ia noeeo ii?oai o iaaeao neiaa)
[sscueiciaiea, AYN, 1998].

Inio? iecea ?icieo iiaeaeae caoeiniieo/aiue, aai eia?oeeoeyoi?ieo
iiaeaeae, iien yeeo aea? ciiao aeyaeoe oiiaa?naeueii iiaii iaeeieoei
oai?aiiy iiaeaiiy, a oaeiae iaoaiicie, yei ca’ycothoue ?o. Na?aae ieo
eiioeaioeiy eia?oeeoeyoi?iiai iii?o [Bladon, Al-Bamerni, 1976; Recasens,
1984], “aieiiia” iiaeaeue eia?oeeoeyoei? caoeiniieo/aiue [Keating,
1990], oai?iy “niiaoai?aiiy” caoeia, yea nie?a?oueny ia aca?iiaieea
eiioaeoieo ? aeenoaioieo naaiaioia ia a?oeeoeyoi?iee oa aeonoe/iee
eiioeiooie [Fowler, Saltzman, 1993], a oaeiae “?aii/ia” iiaeaeue
eia?oeeoeyoei? [Bell-Berti, Harris, 1982].

Aiaeic eioa?aoo?e c i?iaeai ii?ie iieacaa, ui ni?iaa iiaoaeiae
ia’?eoeaiiai aecia/aiiy ii?ie iiae oeyoii ocaaaeueiaiiy ?icieo
aeaoiiioeie ia ? caaa?oaiith [Eina?eo, 1963; Aa?aeoeeay, 1976; Eoeeiae/,
1970]. Aecia/aiiy iiiyooy iiaii? ii?ie c iiceoei? aeiaeaoeiainoi aea?
ciiao aeaeieeoe ieceo oiiaa?naeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee iiiyooy ii?ie iiae,
aiaeiaaeoaaaoe ?o aiae iciae, yei iathoue ie?aio cia/ouinoue o ?aieao
yei?-iaaoaeue eiioeaioei?. Noiniaii iiiaoeueei? aeiiaii? ii?ie
aiaecia/a?oueny i?ioean caeeaeaiiy ?aaeueieo aeiiaieo oaiaeaioeie i
i?aaee, yei ?aaoeththoue eiaeeoieiaaio ii?io aeiiae [Krech, 1997;
Lotzmann, 1996; Stock, 1996]. Oea i?iyaey?oueny o cae?iieaiii eieueeio
aeiiaieo aa?iaioia o caeaaeiinoi aiae iecee oiiinoeeinoe/ieo oaeoi?ia
[Meinhold, 1973].

I?i?ioaoeiy ia iiaeaiiy aeeeoi?ia-i?ioaniiiaeia ye ia aeiiaiee noaiaea?o
caeeoa?oueny i?iaiaeiith i?e aeineiaeaeaiii iiiaoeueei? ii?iaoeaii?
aeiiae [Lotzmann, 1975; Kohler,1977; Schindler, 1974]. Iaeiae iiyaa
iiaeo aeai?iaeo oi?i ia ?aaeii e oaeaaa/aiii ?iaeoue oeae iiaeoiae
iaiaeiicia/iei, ineieueee a iiaeaiii aeeeoi?ia aiaecia/athoueny iaaii
iiaeeoieaoei? caoeia, yei ia ii?ooothoue i?oiaii/io ii?io, a
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ye i?oioiii/ii aa?iaioe o iaaeao ?icoe?aiiy
?aaeicaoeie oiiai [Strassner, 1980; Schmitz, 1995; Wissenberg, 1995].

I?iaaaeaia eiiieaenia oiiaoe/ia aeineiaeaeaiiy, yea aeeth/a?
eiiaainoe/iee, ia?oeaioeaiee, iino?oiaioaeueiee aeaee aiaeico, aeaei
ciiao aecia/eoe niaoeeoieo ?aaeicaoei? eiiniiaioieo niieo/aiue ia noeeao
ne?a i aeyaeoe ieceo nooo?aeo oaeoi?ia, ui aieeaathoue ia ?o
yeinii-eieueeinii iiaeeoieaoei? o iiaeaii?aiio iioioei.

Iiaeaii?aee iaoa?iae aeineiaeaeaiiy neeaaeaany c aaoaioe/ieo iiiaoeueeeo
oaenoia iiaei o ?aaeicaoei? aeeeoi?ia a?iiaaenueeeo eaiaeia ?aaeii oa
oaeaaa/aiiy Iiia//eie (4 aeiii/i e 4 /ieiai/i aieine) caaaeueiei /anii
cao/aiiy 2,5 aiaeeie. O ia?aaiao neooiaiai aiaeico oaenoe aeioneia iiaei
(90) aoee iineiaeiaii ?icaeieaii ia o?ace (505) i oiiaoe/ii neiaa
(2043), c yeeo aeaeieaii 1411 eiiniiaioieo ia? caoeiniieo/aiue,
ca?oiiaaieo ca oeiii noeeo ianooiiei /eiii: o ia?aaenoeeiaie iiceoei?
ciaoiaeeoueny a?oia ciieiaieo i?i?eaieo aeooeo i?eaieinieo p/t/k, a o
iineynoeeiaie iiceoei? i?aaenoaaeaiee aanue ei?ion iiiaoeueeeo
i?eaieinieo o oaeie iineiaeiaiinoi: (1) ieicea, (2) o?eeaoea, ao?eeaoa,
(3) niii?iee.

E?ii oiai, aoei aeineiaeaeaii ?aaeicaoeith ciieiaieo i?i?eaieo
i?eaieinieo o niieo/aiii c ianooiiei aieiniei, a oaeiae o iiceoei?
aaniethoiiai eiioey o?ace (AE), eiee ca ieiceaii ia eaea yeee-iaaoaeue
caoe i aeiaaioa iaoce ? iaeneiaeueiith (aei 1000 in). Oaeei /eiii, o
caaaeueiiio ?aooieo ooai?eany 81 aeae caoeiniieo/aiue.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iineiaeiaiinoue oi?ioaaiiy caoeiniieo/aiue ia noeeo neia
aeaea ciiao i?ineiaeeoaaoe iiaeeoieaoei? aeineiaeaeoaaieo ieiceaia i
nooiiiue ?o ei?aeyoei? c ieceith iiceoeieii-eiiaiiaoi?ieo i i?iniaee/ieo
oaeoi??a – oei ianooiiiai i?eaieiniiai, iiceoeith a ?eoii/iie a?oii, a
naia iiceoeith a iaaieioaiiio neeaaei, ana?aaeeii aai ia iaaeao
?eoiia?oi, iayaiinoue iaoce ana?aaeeii niieo/aiiy.

Ia?oeaioeaiee aiaeic ni?eeiyoeo aeonoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee eiiiiiaioia
caoeiniieo/aiue, yei ciaoiaeyoueny ia noeeo neia, a oaeiae
iioa?naaiaioieo iaoc iieacaa ?iciiiaiioiinoue oaeoi?ia, ui aieeaathoue
ia ?o ?aaeicaoeith a oniiio aeneiaethaaiii i nooiiiue ?o ?iciiciaaaiiy a
nooeieueiiio iiaeaiii. I?iaiaeieie c ieo ? iayaiinoue iaoce o
caoeiniieo/aiii (p < 0,001) i iiceoeiy o oiiaoe/iiio neiai (p < 0,005). Oaei oaeoi?e, ye iaaiein, oei noeeo i /anoeiiiiaia iaeaaeiinoue eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue, ye? aa?ooue o/anoue a ooai?aiii noeeo, ? iaio nooo?aeie o ia?aaiao ?aaeicaoei? iineiaeiaiinoi caoeia ia iaaeao neia. O iaoiio aeineiaeaeaiii i?eeiyoa ?iciaaeoaaiiy aeonoe/ieo iaoc ia iiiiiaeueii (5-20 in), na?aaeii (20 – 60 in) oa iaeneiaeueii (60 – 100 in). O ia?oeaioeaiiio ieaii iaoce, iaeaieueo neaaei iaeaioeoieiaaii aoaeeoi?aie, aiaeiinyoueny aei aeieyiie ia iaaeao iiae eaene/ieie iaeeieoeyie a ?aieao oiiaoe/iiai neiaa. ?i aiaeiiaiaeathoue iiaia aiaenooiinoue oice/ii? iaoce aai oice/ia iaoca aeiaaioith iaio 60 in. Iaoce, iaeaioeoieiaai? aoaeeoi?aie iaee?auei /eiii, aoee aiaecia/aii oieueee ia iiaeo?aciaeo iaaeao. ?o aeiaaioa eieeaa?oueny o iaaeao aiae 100 aei 900 in. Aei i?iiiaeii? ciie ioeiiie aiaeiinyoueny iaoce ia noeeao oiiaoe/ieo neia. ?o aeiaaioa aa?ith? a aeiaiaciii aiae 60 aei 100 in. O ia?aaiao aoaeeoi?nueeiai aiaeico aoea aeaeieaia ua iaeia a?oia iaoc, aei yei? aiaeiinyoueny ni?eeiyoi iaoce aac ia?a?ae oice/iiai neaiaeo. Eieueeinoue oaeeo aeiaaeeia neeaaea? 7 % aiae caaaeueii? eieueeinoi iaoc, caoieniaaieo aoaeeoi?aie ia iaaeao oiiaoe/ieo neia. Aeieeiaiiy iaociiiaeiaiiai aeaeo iaoc iia’ycaia c iayaiinoth aieiaiiiaaieioaiiai oiiaeueiiai neeaaeo, aeoeaioia aeaeieaiiy yeiai noai?thaaei a aoaeeoi?ia aoaeo iaocaoei?. Ia aeonoe/iee aiaeic aoei aeianaii oaei oa?aeoa?enoeee ia?aaenoeeiaeo aeooeo ciieiaieo caoeia ye anii?aoeiy, aenieiceaiinoue i a?oeeoeyoi?ia iai?oaeaiinoue. Anii?aoeiy ieiceaia aoea iienaia a oaiii?aeueieo ? /anoioieo oa?aeoa?enoeeao, aeoiaey/e c aeiaaioe anii?aoeaii? oace ? /anoioiiai ?iciiaeieo ooiia o niaeo?i caoea. Aoei aecia/aii, ui ia?aaenoeeiai aeooi ieiceae o oiiaeueiie iiceoei? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny cia/iith ao?aoith anii?aoei? (70 %). Aeiaaioa iioa?naaiaioii? iaoce ana?aaeeii caoeiniieo/aiiy aeua 60 in ? nooo?aith aeey iieno anii?iaaiinoi ieiceaia (p < 0,01). Noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea iaea?aeaieo aeaieo iieacaea /ioeo ei?aeyoeith aeiaaioe anii?aoeaii? oace c aeiaaioith iioa?naaiaioii? iaoce (r = 0,79; p < 0,0001). I?e oeueiio oei noeeo (oei ianooiiiai i?eaieiniiai) ia ? nooo?aei (p > 0,07). Aeiaaioa iaoce 5-20 in
i?ecaiaeeoue aei nei?i/aiiy eieueeinoi anii?iaaieo ieiceaia (28 %) aai
nei?i/aiiy aeiaaioe anii?aoeaii? oace aei 10-15 in. Iiyaa iaoc ia noeeo
neia aeiaaioith 40-60 in iiaea neoaoaaoe e?eoa?i?i anii?iaaiinoi aeooiai
ieiceaa a 58 % aeiaaeeia. sseui iaoca neeaaea? 60-100 in, oi aeiaaioa
anii?aoei? aeinyaa? 80-140 in, ? a oeueiio aeiaaeeo iiaeia ?ic?aoiaoaaoe
ia aenieee aiaenioie anii?aoei? (92 %).

O iiceoei? aaniethoiiai eiioey o?ace, eiee ca ieiceaii ia eaea
yeee-iaaoaeue caoe ? aeiaaioa iaoce ? iaeneiaeueiith, eieueeicoue
anii?iaaieo ieiceaia neeaaea? 93,5 %. Eieueeinoue noeeia aac
iioa?naaiaioii? iaoce, aea c ?aaeicaoei?th anii?aoeaii? iciaee neeaea 8
% aeiaaeeia, ui aiai?eoue i?i aeiaaeeiaee oa?aeoa? yaeua.

Aieea iaaieioaiiai neeaaeo ? nooo?aei oieueee aeey ?aaeicaoei? neeueii
anii?iaaieo ieiceaia (p < 0,001), yei neeaaeathoue eeoa 11,5 % aiae caaaeueii? eieueeinoi ia?aaenoeeiaeo ieiceaia. Aeey aecia/aiiy eieueeiniiai ?iciiaeieo anii?aoei? iiceoeiy a iaaieioaiiio neeaaei, yea ia?aaeaa/a? a?oioaaiiy ieiceaia ia anii?iaaii/iaanii?iaaii, ia ? cia/ouith (p > 0,1).

Ieiceae o eiiniiaioieo niieo/aiiyo ia noeeo oiiaoe/ieo neia
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aieueo aeiaaith oacith anii?aoei? o ii?iaiyiii ci
noeeaie neia ana?aaeeii ON (p < 0,5). Iaeneiaeueia aeiaaioa anii?aoeaii? oace ia?aaenoeeiaiai ieiceaa ia noeeo ON (55-100 in) neeaea 52 % aiae caaaeueii? eieueeinoi noeeia oiiaoe/ieo neia, oiaei ye iiaeiaia aeiaaioa anii?aoeaii? oace ieiceaia ia noeeo neia ona?aaeeii ON neeaaea? 15 % o oeueiio aeaei noeeo. Aiaeic ?iciiaeieo aeniei/anoioieo ooiia o naaiaioi anii?aoei? iieacaa, ui i?e na?aaeiie aeiaaio? anii?aoeaii? oace anii?aoeaiee ooi oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oe?eiith nioae 5200-6300 Aoe, i?ioyaiai?noth ii anie eiii? niaeo?o (F1-F5). Nei?i/aiiy aeiaaioe anii?aoeaii? oace iaoiiaeth? cnoiaiiy iaeanoae anii?aoeaiiai ooio a iaeanoue aa?oiio oi?iaio (F3-F5) i nei?i/aiiy nioae ooio aei 4500 Aoe (p < 0,01). Aoei aecia/aii, ui cia/aiiy caaaeueii? aeiaaioe ia?aaenoeeiaeo aeooeo ieiceaia aa?iththoue o caeaaeiinoi aiae oeio aieino (p < 0,005). Oae, aeey ae?ii/eo aiein?a na?aaei? iieacieee caaaeueii? aeiaaioe ieicea?a neeaaeathoue 89,57 in, aeey /ieia?/eo – 71,0 in. ?aae?oe?y ieicea?a c a?eueoith ani??aoeaiith oacith a?aecia/a?oueny oaeiae o aeeeoi??a-ae?iie (? < 0,02). Na?aaei? iieacieee aeiaaioe ani??aoeaii? oace aeey ae?ii/eo aiein?a neeaaeathoue 38,28 in. Aeey /ieia?/eo – 26,34 in. Aenieiceai?noue c?ieiaieo i?i?eaieo caoe?a aoea iienaia a oaiii?aeueieo, /anoioieo ? aia?aaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoeeao, aeoiaey/e c? cia/aiue aeiaaioe aenieiceaii? oac?, i?e?a ?ioaneaiino? i?i?eao ? iaeneioi?a ?ioaineaiino? a ciiao eiioeaio?aoe?? aia?a?? i?i?eao. Aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui aeiaaioa aenieiceaii? oace ia?aaenoeeiaeo aeooeo ieicea?a neeaaea? a na?aaeiueiio 10-12 in ? ? na?aaeiueith aaee/eiith aeey an?o caoe?a oe??? a?oie iacaeaaeii a?ae ?o i?noey ooai?aiiy (? > 0,7).

A?aenooi?noue iaoce i?ecaiaeeoue aei nooo?ai? ??cieoe? a aia?aaoe/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoeeao oace i?i?eao. Oae, i?e iayaiino? na?aaei?o iaoc
iieacieee i?e?a ?ioaineaiino? neeaaeathoue 83,2 aeA, i?e a?aenooiino?
iaoce ana?aaeei? caoeiniieo/aiiy – 74,3 aeA (p < 0,001). Cia/ii ?ic??ciythoueny oaeiae iieacieee ??aiy ?ioaineaiino? an??? aenieiceaii? oace. C iaocith aiie neeaaeathoue 62,05 aeA, aac iaoce 60,2 aeA (p < 0,02). Iic?oe?y ieiceaa a iaaieioaiiio neeaae? ia ? cia/ouith aeey aenieiceaii? oace (p > 0,3).

Ia naaiaioiiio ?iaii aeyaeaiee aca?iica’ycie iiae ?ioaineai?noth oace
c?ieiaiiy e ?ioaineai?noth aenieiceaii? oace (r = 0,58; p < 0,001), yeee i?iyaey?oueny o oae?e caeaaeiino?: /ei a?eueoa ?ioaineai?noue c?ieiaiiy, a cia/eoue iaioa iai?oaeai?noue cieeath/iai ?ooo, oei a?eueoa ?ioaineai?noue i?i?eao. O aeaiiio aeine?aeaeaii? aoei c?iaeaii ni?iao iienaoe iciaeo a?oeeoeyoi?ii? iai?oaeaiino? c?ieiaieo i?i?eaieo i?eaieinieo o ia?aiao?ao aeonoe/ii? iiooaeiino?, yea aei??th?oueny o eaaae?aoieo i?e?iianeaeyo (ieIa2). Aea?? oeueiai ia?aiao?a a?aeiia?aea? iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ine?eueee a?i aeinoaoiuei aaeaeaaoii a?aeia?aaea? nooi?iue o/ano? aieino a a?oeeoeyoe?? caoe?a ? iiaea neoaoaaoe iaae?eiei e?eoa???i ?o aeooino?/aeca?ieino?. O ia?aa?ao aeine?aeaeaiiy aoea i?iaaaeaia caaaeueia eeaneo?eaoe?y caoe?a ca ?o iieacieeaie iiooaeiino?, ye? aecia/athoueny niiniaii ? i?noeai a?oeeoeyoe?? caoe?a. Iaea?eueo nooo?aa ??cieoey o iieacieeao iiooaeiino? aoea aeyaeaia o ca’yceo c aeeoa?aioe?aoe??th caoe?a ca niiniaii ooai?aiiy. Na?aaei? cia/aiiy iiooaeiino? aeey ieicea?a neeaee 505 ieIa2, aeey u?eeiieo caoe?a – 1000 ieIa2, niii?ieo – 11102 ieIa2, aieinieo caoe?a 16000 ieIa2. Ia?aa??ea noaoenoe/ii? cia/ouino? ??cieoe? na?aaei?o aaee/ei iiooaeiino? ooiieo (ieiceae, o?eeaoeae), niii?ieo i?eaieinieo ? aieinieo ca U-e?eoa???i Iaiia-O?oi? iieacaea iayai?noue nooo?ai? ??cieoe? i?ae ieie (p < 0,001), ui aea? ciiao a iiaeaeueoiio aeio?eioaaoeny iaea?aeaiiai a?oioaaiiy caoe?a ca ?o iieacieeaie iiooaeiino?. Na?aaei? iieacieee iiooaeiino? aeooeo ieicea?a, ye? aecia/athoueny i?noeai ooai?aiiy caoe?a, neeaaeathoue aeey a?eaa?aeueiiai ieiceaa [p] – 231 ieIa2, aeueaaiey?iiai [t] – 599 ieIa2, aaey?iiai [k] – 313 ieIa2, i?e oeueiio ??cieoey i?ae na?aaei?ie cia/aiiyie iiooaeiino? a?eaa?aeueiiai oa aeueaaiey?iiai ieicea?a ? nooo?aith (p < 0,03). I?aeaeuaiiy iieaciee?a iiooaeiino? a aeooeo i?eaieinieo na?ae/eoue i?i ?o eai?caoe?th, a cia/eoue i?i iineaaeaiiy iai?oaeaiino?. Ioaea, iai?oaeai?noue ooiieo i?eaieinieo caoe?a iaa?iaii-i?iii?oe?eia ?o iiooaeiino?. O ia?aa?ao aeine?aeaeaiiy iieaciee?a iiooaeiino? ia?aaenoeeiaeo aeooeo ieicea?a iaiao?aeii aoei anoaiiaeoe, /e caeaaeaoue ia?aiao?e iiooaeiino? caoe?a a?ae i?iniaee/ieo oaeoi??a, /e aiie aecia/athoueny aca?iia?aeiineiaie i?ae iaeeieoeyie naaiaioiai ??aiy. Aiae?c aeaieo, iaea?aeaieo aiane?aeie aei??thaaiiy iiooaeiino? aeooeo ia?aaenoeeiaeo ieicea?a, iieacaa a?aenooi?noue caeaaeiino? ia?aiao??a iiooaeiino? caoe?a a?ae iayaiino? ?ioa?naaiaioii? iaoce a caoeiniieo/aii? ia?aaenoeeiaeo ieicea?a c iaocith neeaee 670,2 ieIa2, a i?e a?aenooiino? ?ioa?naaiaioii? iaoce 786,2 ieIa2 (p > 0,1).

Aei??thaaiiy iieaciee?a iiooaeiino? ieicea?a o iaaieioaiiio oa
iaiaaieioaiiio neeaaeao oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ??cieie na?aaei?ie
aaee/eiaie. A iaaieioaiiio neeaae? na?aaei? iieacieee iiooaeiino?
aei??aiththoue 1043 ieIa2, a iaiaaieioaiiio neeaae? – 712,9 ieIa2.
Iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo i?aeaeuaiiy iieaciee?a
iiooaeiino? a iaaieioai?e iiceoe?? iia’ycaia ?c aieeaii aieae?/iiai
eiiiiiaioa, yeee aeeiio? ooieoe?th iaaieioaiiai naaiaioa o neeaae?.
Ioaea, c?inoaiiy iieaciee?a iiooaeiino? na?ae/eoeia i?i ciaioaiiy
iai?oaeaiino? i?eaieinieo naaiaio?a ? i?i ca?eueoaiiy iai?oaeaiino?
aieiniiai. Iaeiae ia?aa??ea aeaieo, iaea?aeaieo aiane?aeie aeaio
aea??ie, iieacaea ianooo?a?noue anoaiiaeaieo ca’yce?a i?ae ci?iieie
aea??ee (p > 0,7). Iiceoe?y ia noeeao ne?a o ?aieao ON ? ia iaaeao ia ?
nooo?aith i?e aecia/aii? iiooaei?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aaenoeeiaeo
ieicea?a (p > 0,5). Na?aaei? iieacieee iiooaeiino? ia?aaenoeeiaeo o
noeeao ne?a ia iaaeao ON neeaaeathoue 411,2 ieIa2. Noeee ne?a o ?aieao
ON oa?aeoa?ecothoueny a?eueoith iiooaei?noth – 511,6 ieIa2.

O?aeooaaiiy a?oeeoeyoi?ii? iai?oaeaiino? c?ieiaieo i?i?eaieo caoe?a o
aeaiiio aeine?aeaeaii? iia’yco?oueny, ia?o ca ana, c? nooiaiai
iai?oaeaiino? cieeath/iai ?ooo, yeee ? iniiaiei a?oeeoeyoi?iei aeaiaioii
on?o c?ieiaieo i?i?eaieo caoe?a ? aeeiio? ooieoe?th ia?aoeiaee ia oeyoo
iia?o?yiiai iioieo. Ioaea, iai?oaeai?noue c?ieiaiiy aecia/aoeiaoueny
/anoeith o/ano? aieino a ?? ooai?aii?, ui ae?aaea?oueny o i?aeaeuaii?
aai cieaeaii? ??aiy ?ioaineaiino?: /ei ieae/a ?ioaineai?noue, oei aeua
?? iai?oaeai?noue. A?aeiia?aeii, i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ?ioaineaiino?
c?ieiaiiy aiai?eoeia i?i neaae?noue cieeath/iai ?ooo. Nooo?aith ?
??cieoey aeooeo ieicea?a ca aeiaaioith oace c?ieiaiiy ieicea?a o
caeaaeiino? a?ae ?o i?noey ooai?aiiy. Aeiaaioa a?eaa?aeueiiai c?ieiaiiy
o na?aaeiueiio neeaaea? 47 in, aeueaaiey?ia c?ieiaiiy 35 in, aaey?ia
c?ieiaiiy 27 in (p < 0,01). Aeiaaioa ani??aoeaii? oace ia?aaenoeeiaeo aeooeo ieicea?a ia aieeaa? ia ??aaiue iiooaeiino?, ai nooi?iue iia?o?yiino? ia ? aecia/aeueiei aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee caoe?a ye iai?oaeaieo (R = 0,16). Ieiceae c i?i?iaeueiith ani??aoeaiith oacith (10-15 in), aea c iaeneiaeueiith aeiaaioith oace c?ieiaiiy (60-90 in) iathoue iiooaei?noue 100-300 ieIa2. Nei?i/aiiy c?ieiaiiy aei 7-10 in i?ecaiaeeoue aei ??ceiai ca?eueoaiiy iieaciee?a iiooaeiino? (aei 3000 ieIa2 e aeua), ui na?ae/eoue i?i caaaeueia iineaaeaiiy a?oeeoeyoe??, yea ae?aaea?oueny a eai?caoe?? aeooeo ia?aaenoeeiaeo ieicea?a. Aeyaeaii cai?ioiee ooieoe?iiaeueiee ca’ycie ?ioaineaiino? oace c?ieiaiiy c ?? aeiaaioith: /ei a?eueoa aeiaaioa oace c?ieiaiiy, oei iaioa ?? ?ioaineai?noue (r = -0,79), oei iai?oaeai?oei ? cieeath/ee a?oeeoeyoi?iee aeano. Iieacieee iiooaeiino? ieiceaa, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue nooi?iue eiai iai?oaeaiino?, iiaeooue aooe a?cia/ai? aeaiia oaeoi?aie – aeiaaioith c?ieiaiiy oa eiai ?ioaineai?noth. I?iaaaeaiee ei?aeyoe?eiee aiae?c i?ae aeiaaioith c?ieiaiiy, eiai ?ioaineai?noth ? iiooaei?noth anueiai caoea iieacaa iayai?noue iaaiiai ca’yceo i?ae ?ioaineai?noth c?ieiaiiy ? iiooaei?noth caoea (R = 0,53), a oie /an ye aca?iica’ycie iiooaeiino? c aeiaaioith c?ieiaiiy ? cia/ii neaaoei (R = 0,3). Ioaea, ae??oaeueiei oaeoi?ii o aecia/aii? nooiaiy iai?oaeaiino? caoea ? ia aeiaaioa c?ieiaiiy, a eiai ?ioaineai?noue. Na?aae oaeoi??a, ui aieeaathoue ia iineaaeaiiy iai?oaeaiino? aeooeo ia?aaenoeeiaeo ieicea?a, ne?ae iacaaoe, ia?o ca ana, niieo/oaai?noue o?iaeueieo ieicea?a c iiia?aaei?i caoeii. O aeiaaeeao, eiee c?ieiaiiio i?i?eaiiio ia?aaeo? aiii?aaiiee niii?iee, oaca c?ieiaiiy iiaea cia/ii nei?ioeoeny aai aooe iiai?noth a?aenooiueith, ai ooieoe?th c?ieiaiiy a oeueiio aeiaaeeo aeeiio? nai niii?iee caoe (p < 0,005). Iine?aeiaia ii??aiyiiy cia/aiue aeiaaioe oace c?ieiaiiy o?iaeueieo aeooeo ieicea?a c oeiii iiia?aaeiueiai caoea iieacaei iayai?noue nooo?ai? ??cieoe? i?ae na?aaei?ie aeaio aea??ie (p < 0,0001). Oae, o niieo/aii? c iiia?aaei?i aiii?aaiiei niii?iei na?aaeiy aeiaaioa c?ieiaiiy neeaaea? 16 in. sseui ia?aae ieiceaii ciaoiaeeoueny aeooee u?eeiiee caoe, aeiaaioa oace c?ieiaiiy ca?eueoo?oueny o 2,5 ?ace e neeaaea? o na?aaeiueiio 41 in. Ia?aa??ea na?aaei?o cia/aiue iiooaeiino? ca U-e?eoa???i Iaiia-O?oi? iieacaea iayai?noue nooo?ai? ??cieoe? a ?aae?caoe?? iai?oaeaieo caoe?a i?ae /ieia?/eie oa ae?ii/eie aieinaie (p < 0,03). Iiooaei?noue ieicea?a o aeiiaeaii? aeeeoi??a-ae?iie iaioa, i?ae o aeeeoi??a-/ieia?e?a ? neeaaea?, a?aeiia?aeii, 420,2 ieIa2 ? 798,3 ieIa2 . Iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe, ui canoinoaaiiy iaeiia?oeo i?ia?ai eiii’thoa?ii? ia?iaee e aiae?co caoeiaiai neaiaeo (Goldwave 4.02, PRAAT 3.8) aeaei ciiao i?iaanoe naaiaioaoe?th iiaeaii?aiai iioieo oa aeae?eaiiy c iueiai i?i?iaeueieo caoeiaeo naaiaio?a c aenieei nooiaiai iaae?eiinoe. ?ici?ciaaaiiy caoeiaeo ia?ac?a i?iaiaeeeiny ia iniia? niieo/aiiy a?coaeueiiai e aoaeeoeaiiai eiio?ieth naaiaioaoe??, aei??thaaiiy /aniaeo, aia?aaoe/ieo oa iiooaei?nieo ia?aiao??a aeae?eaieo naaiaio?a, a oaeiae c aeei?enoaiiyi aeenoeieoeaieo iciae caoe?a, ye? ooai?ththoue noee. Noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea iaea?aeaieo aeaieo aoea aeeiiaia c aeei?enoaiiyi i?ia?aiiiai iaeaoo STATISTICA 5.0 ia ia?niiaeueiiio eiii’thoa?? AMD K-6/2 300. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c neeaaeii? aeonoe/ii? no?oeoo?e eiiniiaioieo eiiiiiaio?a neiaaniiai noeeo aeaa ciiao aecia/eoe ieceo caeiiii??iinoe, ye? aecia/athoue aa??thaaiiy i?eaieinieo caoe?a ia noeeao ne?a ? ca’ycoaaiiy ?o o ?aeeiee eaioethaeie. O ia?aa?ao aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui ia ?aae?caoe?th iciae noeeiaeo i?eaieinieo aieeaathoue ??ci? oaeoi?e – naaiaioi?, noi?anaaiaioi?, eiia?iaoi?i? (eia?oeeoeyoi?i?), aeno?ae?iaaaeuei?. I?e oeueiio cia/ou?noue oeeo oaeoi??a ? ??ciith. Aeai? ia?oeaioeaiiai e ?ino?oiaioaeueiiai aeae?a aiae?co aeathoue ciiao anoaiiaeoe ???a?o?th aeine?aeaeoaaieo oaeoi??a ca cia/ou?noth ? c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui aeaye? c ieo iathoue oi?aa?naeueiee oa?aeoa?, ?io? ae – o?eueee iaiaaeaio ae?th. Ci?ia ye?nii-e?euee?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?eaieinieo cia/iith i??ith aecia/a?oueny i?iniae??th iiaeaii?aiai aeneiaethaaiiy. Oae, iaocaoe?y ? oi?aa?naeueiei oaeoi?ii, yeee aieeaa? ia ?aae?caoe?th i?eaieinieo ia noeeao ne?a: iayai?noue iaoce aeua 60 in. ni?ey? caa?aaeaiith aeenoeieoeaieo iciae i?eaieinieo, ye? ooai?ththoue noee, a naia ani??iaaiino? oa aenieiceaiino? ia?aaenoeeiaeo aeooeo c?ieiaieo i?eaieinieo (p < 0,001). Iaaiein o oiiaoe/iiio neia? ? nooo?aei o?eueee aeey ?aae?caoe?? neeueii ani??iaaieo ieicea?a ? ia aieeaa? ia iieaciee aenieiceaiino? e iiooaeiino? caoe?a. Iiceoe?y ia noeeo ON ia? nooo?aa cia/aiiy aeey ?aae?caoe?? aeiaaioe ani??aoeaii? oace o?iaeueieo aeooeo ieicea?a (p < 0,05). Aeine?aeaeaiiy naaiaioii? no?oeoo?e i?eaieinieo caoe?a, ye? ooai?ththoue neiaaniee noee, aeaei ciiao aenoiooe a?iioaco i?i oa, ui i?e/eie ye?nii-e?euee?nieo iiaeeoeeaoe?e aecia/athoueny ?o naaiaioiei neeaaeii, a naia e?euee?noth /aniaeo naaiaio?a, ye? ooai?ththoue caoe. Oae, iie?naaiaioi? caoee (c?ieiai? i?i?eai? i?eaieini?, ao?eeaoe, aeeooiiae) iathoue iioaioe?eio iiaeeea?noue ?ic/eaiiaoaaoeny (ae?iaeoeny) o iioioe? iiaeaiiy i?ae aieeaii iaaieo i?iniaee/ieo ? iiceoe?eii-eiia?iaoi?ieo oaeoi??a (iaoca, iaaiein, oei eiioaeoiiai caoea). Iiiinaaiaioi? caoee (u?eeii?, niii?i?, a?a?aioe, aieini? iiiiooiiae), iaaiaee, iathoue cia/io noaa?euei?noue, yea ae?aaea?oueny o caa?aaeaii? aeenoeieoeaieo iciae ? oe?e?nii? no?oeoo?e naaiaioa. ?o ci?ie a?eueoith i??ith ca’ycai? c iiaeeo?eaoe?yie ca aea?ie?noth/aeoo?noth, oiaoi ca nooiaiai o/ano? aieino, e iathoue, nei??oa, e?euee?niee oa?aeoa?. Aiae?c no?oeoo?e aeooeo ieicea?a aeaa ciiao aeae?eeoe eia?oeeoeyoi?ii caeaaei? ? eia?oeeoeyoi?ii iacaeaaei? naaiaioe. Aei eia?oeeoeyoi?ii caeaaeieo naaiaio?a iaeaaeaoue oace c?ieiaiiy e i?i?eao c?ieiaieo i?i?eaieo i?eaieinieo. Iai?eeeaae, oaca c?ieiaiiy aeooiai ieiceaa aoaea cia/ii ei?iooith, a cia/eoue, iaio iai?oaeaiith, yeui ia?aae ieiceaii ?oeia aiii?aaiiee niii?iee caoe aai aieiniee; yeui ia?aae ieiceaii ? u?eeiiee caoe, oi aeiaaioa ? iai?oaeai?noue cieeath/iai aeanoo cia/ii ca?eueooaaoeiaoueny (p < 0,0001). Aeiaaioa oa ?ioaineai?noue aenieiceaii? oace oaeiae ia caeaaeaoue a?ae i?iniaee/ieo oaeoi??a, ca aeiyoeii i?eiai? ?ioaineaiino? i?i?eao, iieacieee yei? aa??ththoue a?ae iayaiino?/a?aenooiino? iaoce o caoeiniieo/aii? (p < 0,001). I/?eoaaia ??cieoey aia?aaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aenieiceaii? oace a caeaaeiino? a?ae i?noey ooai?aiiy c?ieiaiiai i?i?eaiiai caoea [Machelett, Tillmann, 1996] ia i?aeoaa?aeeeany, ui aea? ciiao aaaaeaoe oeth caeaaei?noue ae?eniith o?eueee i?e ?aae?caoe?? ie?aii aeiiaeaieo ne?a. O nooe?eueiiio iioioe? iiaeaiiy ??cieoey ca i?noeai ooai?aiiy caoe?a iaoeia ae?oai?yaeiee oa?aeoa?, ine?eueee a?eueo cia/ouei ooo ? nooi?iue aca?iiae?? caoe?a iaeei c iaeiei, oiaoi eia?oeeoeyoe?y. Ani??aoeaia oaca, iaaiaee, iaeaaeeoue aei eia?oeeoeyoi?ii iacaeaaeieo naaiaio?a, ai ?? ?aae?caoe?y caeaaeeoue o a?eueo?e i??? a?ae oaeeo i?iniaee/ieo oaeoi??a ye iayai?noue ianooiii? iaoce (p < 0,001), iiceoe?y ia noeeo ON (p < 0,05), iaaiein (?aae?caoe?y neeueii ani??iaaieo caoe?a) (p < 0,001), a oaeiae a?ae oaeiai aeno?ae?iaaaeueiiai oaeoi?a ye oei aieino (/ieia?/ee/ae?ii/ee) (p < 0,02). Aiae?c iaea?aeaieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeonoe/ii? iiooaeiino? ia?aaenoeeiaeo ieicea?a aeyaey? a?aenooi?noue caeaaeiino? ia?aiao??a iiooaeiino? a?ae iecee ciai?oi?o i?iniaee/ieo oaeoi??a, oaeeo ye iiceoe?y a iaaieioaiiio neeaae? ON, noee ?eoiia?oi aai iayai?noue iaoce o caoeiniieo/aii?. A?oeeoeyoi?ia iai?oaeai?noue caoeiaeo ?aae?caoe?e aeooeo ieicea?a, iienaia a ia?aiao?ao aeonoe/ii? iiooaeiino?, aecia/a?oueny aca?iia?aeiineiaie iaeeieoeue naaiaioiiai ??aiy, cie?aia nooiaiai iai?oaeaiino? cieeath/iai aeanoa. Ci?ia ia?aiao??a iiooaeiino? ieicea?a /?oei ei?aeth? c? ci?iith aeiaaioe e ?ioaineaiino? oace c?ieiaiiy. Iaeiae ?aae?caoe?y oace c?ieiaiiy o cia/i?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae oeio eiioaeoiiai iiia?aaeiueiai caoea, a ?? ?ioaineai?noue aecia/a?oueny nooiaiai o/ano? aieino (niii?iino?) a ooai?aii? iiia?aaeiueai caoea. Oaeiae i?inoaaeo?oueny /?oea ei?aeyoe?y iieaciee?a iiooaeiino? caoe?a o caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio aieino (/ieia?/ee/ae?ii/ee), oiaoi aieea aeno?ae?iaaaeueiiai oaeoi?o. Ioaea, aeonoe/ia iiooaei?noue caoe?a aecia/a?oueny naaiaioieie, eiia?iaoi?ieie oa aeno?ae?iaaaeueieie oaeoi?aie. ?icaeyaeath/e cia/ou?noue eiia?iaoi?ieo (eia?oeeoeyoi?ieo) oaeoi??a, aaaeeeai a?aecia/eoe nooo?aee aieea iiae?aiino? aai ??cieoe? noeeiaeo eiiniiaio?a ca i?noeai ooai?aiiy, oiaoi aiii?aaii?noue/aaoa?ii?aaii?noue caoeiaeo iine?aeiaiinoae. Oae, aiii?aaii? niieo/aiiy i?eaieinieo oa?aeoa?ecothoueny cia/ieie iiaeeo?eaoe?yie, iaa?oue yeui aiie e ?ic??ciythoueny ca niiniaii ooai?aiiy, iai?eeeaae, niieo/aiiy “ieicea+o?eeaoea”, “ieicea+niii?iee”. O aaoa?ii?aaiieo niieo/aiiyo aaaeeeaith ? iaaia iine?aeiai?noue caoe?a, a oaeiae ?o ??cieoey ca niiniaii ooai?aiiy. ?aae?caoe?y iine?aeiaiinoae i?eaieinieo eiiiiiaio?a i?aeeyaa? cia/iith i??ith caeiiai aioeoeeioth/i? eia?oeeoeyoe??, i?e ye?e a?oeeoeyoi?iee aeano ianooiiiai caoea aeii?io? iaae a?oeeoeyoi?iei aeanoii iiia?aaeiueiai caoea. Oae, o iine?aeiaiino? “aaey?iee i?eaieiniee + a?eaa?aeueiee i?eaieiniee” oi?ioaaiiy aaey?iiai c?ieiaiiy aecia/aoeiaoueny aeiiaaie eaa?aeueiiai c?ieiaiiy, ine?eueee ?ooe uaeaie e aoa ni?yiiaai? ia aeinyaiaiiy c?ieiaiiy iacaeaaeii a?ae oiiaoe/iiai eiioaenoo ? ia?aaaaeeiooue iaae c?ieiaiiyi nieiee yceea c i’yaeei i?aeiaa?iiyi. Iaea?aeaia iiaeaeue caoeiaeo iine?aeiaiinoae ia iaaeao ne?a i?aeoaa?aeo? oai??th “ni?aoai?aiiy” caoe?a, yea ??oioo?oueny ia aca?iiaieea? eiioaeoieo ? aeenoaioieo naaiaio?a ia a?oeeoeyoi?iee oa aeonoe/iee eiioeiooie. Aoei aecia/aii, ui iecea iciae i?eaieinieo caoe?a ei?aeth? c oaeei aeno?ae?iaaaeueiei oaeoi?ii ye oei aieino (/ieia?/ee/ae?ii/ee), a naia caaaeueia aeiaaioa o?iaeueieo aeooeo ieicea?a, ?o ani??iaai?noue ? iai?oaeai?noue. O oe?eiio, c?ieiai? i?i?eai? aeoo? i?eaieini?, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny o ia?aaenoeeia?e iiceoe?? a eiiniiaioieo caoeiniieo/aiiyo ia noeeo ne?a, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny /anoeiaith aai iiaiith ao?aoith ani??aoe??, nei?i/aiiyi aenieiceaii? oace, iineaaeaiiyi iai?oaeaiino?, ui ae?aaea?oueny a ?aae?caoe?? eai?ciaaieo oi?i ieicea?a. Oae? iiaeeo?eaoe?? i?eaieinieo ia noeeo ne?a a?aeaoaathoueny aiane?aeie i?ioean?a anei?eyoe?? oa eia?oeeoeyoe?? caoe?a ? caeaaeaoue a?ae iiceoe?eii-eiia?iaoi?ieo oaeoi??a, i?iniae?? iiaeaii?aiai aeneiaethaaiiy, a oaeiae a?ae oaeiai aeno?ae?iaaaeueiiai oaeoi?a ye oei aieino (ae?ii/ee//ieia?/ee). Aeine?aeaeaiiy eiiniiaioieo caoeiniieo/aiue ia noeeao ne?a o nooe?eueiiio aeeeoi?nueeiio iiaeaii? ? iaaiei aianeii o ?icoe?aiiy i?oioii?/iiai aniaeoo i?iaoeueei? aeiiaii? ii?ie, ui i?yii ca’ycaia c aiae?cii ?aae?caoe?? oiiai o iiaeaii?, oiaoi ?o aeioii?a. Cao?eniaai? iiaeeo?eaoe?? i?eaieinieo, ye? ae?aaeathoueny a ?aaeoeoe?? ie?aieo caoeiaeo eiiiiiaio?a aai ?o ae?c??, na?ae/aoue i?i caaaeueia iineaaeaiiy a?oeeoeyoe?? caoe?a o nooe?eueiiio iiaeaii? ? ia ? a?aeoeeaiiyi a?ae ii?iaoeaii? ?aae?caoe??. Iaeiae iayai?noue cia/ii? e?eueeino? ?aaeoeiaaieo oi?i o iiaeaii? i?ioan?eieo aeeeoi??a iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny, c iaeiiai aieo, ye iineaaeaiiy aieeao i?ane?eioeaii? ii?ie, a c ?ioiai aieo, ye iineeaiiy i???ioaoe?? ia a?eueo i?e?iaeiee oei aeiiae, oa?aeoa?iee aeey oniiai iiaeaiiy. Oaea cieaeaiiy ye?niiai ??aiy onii? i?acaioaoe?? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaeno?a iiaea aooe aei?aaaeaia i?aaiaiiyi aeeeoi??a aei noai?aiiy ?ethci?iiai aoaeoo cai?ie /eoaiiy aiai??iiyi. Aea/aiiy aeonoeei-a?oeeoeyoi?ieo iniaeeainoae niieo/aiue caoe?a ia noeeo ne?a iiaea aooe ni?yiiaaia ia ?ic?iaeo iaae?eieo e?eoa???a i?e?i- ? iae?inaaiaioaoe?? oaenoo, yeee cao/eoue, ui ? iaiao?aeiei i?e noai?aii? i?ia?ai aiae?co e neioaco iiaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe canoiniaai? a oea?ei? eoeueoo?e iiaeaiiy o caniaao ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? aeey aeinyaiaiiy aacaeoeaioii? aeiiae, a oaeiae o eiaiiaaee/i?e oa oii?ao?e/i?e i?aeoeoe?. NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO AAOI?II ?IA?O CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?? 1. Aa?aeoeeay O.Ae., Iaoeth/aiei I.A. ?ieue oiiinoeeenoeee a oi?ie?iaaiee eiiioieeaoeaiie eiiiaoaioeee // Iaoa?eaeu niiauaiee iaaeaocianeie iao/iie eiioa?aioeee “Iinoea eiiaainoe/ieo aeenoeeieii o oi?ioaaiii eiioiieaoeaii? eiiiaoaioei?”. – Eciaee, 1995. – N.15-16 2. Iaoeth/aiei I.A. E aii?ino i ?aaeecaoeee iaiaoeeie i?ieciineoaeueiie ii?iu a iiaeaioiaeaiiie ?a/e // Caienee c ?iiaii-aa?iainueei? oieieiai?: Cai?iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue oaeoeueo. ?ii.-aa?i. oieie. IAeO. – Iaeana, 1997. – Aei.1. – N.74-80. 3. Petlyuchenko N.V. Specific features of realization of plosives in juncture positions in German prepared speech // Caienee c ?iiaii-aa?iainueei? oieieiai?: Cai?iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue oaeoeueo. ?ii.-aa?i. oieie. IAeO. – Iaeana, 1998. – Aei.3. – N.245-258. 4. Iaoeth/aiei I.A. Oiiaoe/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee iaeioi?uo niaeaniuo a iaiaoeeie iiaeaioiaeaiiie ?a/e // Nia?aiaiiua ?a/aaua oaoiieiaee. Nai?iee o?oaeia IX nannee ?inneeneiai aeonoe/aneiai iauanoaa. – I.: AAIN, 1999. – N.112-117. 5. Iaoeth/aiei I.A. Aieea i?iniaee/ieo oaeoi??a ia aeonoe/i? ia?aiao?e c?ieiaieo i?i?eaieo i?eaieinieo ia noeeo ne?a // Caienee c ?iiaii-aa?iainueei? oieieiai?: Cai?iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue oaeoeueo. ?ii.-aa?i. oieie. IAeO. – Iaeana, 1999. – Aei.4. – N.119-131. AIIOAOe?ss Iaoeth/aiei I.A. – ?aaeicaoeiy eiiniiaioieo niieoe ia noeeo eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue (iino?oiaioaeueii-oiiaoe/ia aeineiaeaeaiiy ia iaoa?iaei iiaeaiiy aeeeoi?ia ?aaeii oa oaeaaa/aiiy Iiia//eie). – ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oieieiai/ieo iaoe ci niaoeiaeueiinoi 10.02.04 – aa?iainueei iiae. – Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oiiaa?neoao ii. I. I. Ia/ieeiaa, Iaeana, 1999 Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia iieno ia?oeaioeaieo oa aeonoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?eaieinieo caoeia o ?aieao caoeiniieo/aiue ia noeeo aeaio neia o nooeieueiiio iiaeaiii aeeeoi?ia ?aaeii oa oaeaaa/aiiy Iiia//eie. O ?iaioi aeineiaeaeothoueny 81 oei i?eaieinieo caoeiniieo/aiue, aea o ia?aaenoeeiaie iiceoei? ciaoiaeyoueny ciieiaii i?i?eaii i?eaieinii, a o iineynoeeiaie iiceoei? i?aaenoaaeaiee aanue ei?ion i?eaieinieo iiiaoeueei? iiae. O ia?aaiao aeineiaeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui ?aaeicaoei? eiiniiaioieo caoeiniieo/aiue ia noeeao neia o nooeieueiiio iiaeaiii aecia/athoueny ?aieaie no?oeoo?ieo caoeiaeo iaeeieoeue aieueo aenieiai ii?yaeeo, oaeeo ye neeaae, neiai, oiiaoe/ia neiai, i iiaeooue ?icaeyaeaoeny oieueee a oiiaao ciiie aeaieo no?oeoo?ieo iaeeieoeue. Eia?oeeoeyoi?ia iiaeaeue caoeiaeo iineiaeiaiinoae ia iaaei ceia ocaiaeaeo?oueny c oai?i?th niiaoai?aiiy caoeia i iiaeeyaa? caeiiai aioeoeeioth/i? eia?oeeoeyoe??. I?e ?icaeyaei no?oeoo?e ciieiaieo i?i?eaieo i?eaieinieo aeaeieythoueny eia?oeeoeyoi?ii caeaaeii oa eia?oeeoeyoi?ii iacaeaaeii naaiaioe. Iciaea a?oeeoeyoi?ii? iai?oaeaiinoi caoeia iieno?oueny o ia?aiao?ao aeonoe/ii? iiooaeiinoi. A?oeeoeyoi?ia iai?oaeaiinoue ciieiaieo i?i?eaieo i?eaieinieo o?aeoo?oueny o caeaaeiinoi aiae aeiaaioe oa iioaineaiinoi oace ciieiaiiy. Eeth/iai neiaa: aeiiaia ii?ia, i?i/eoaia iiaeaiiy, eia?oeeoeyoi?ia iiaeaeue, oiiaoe/ia neiai, eiiniiaioii caoeiniieo/aiiy, naaiaioaoeiy, ani??aoeiy, aenieiceaiinoue, iai?oaeaiinoue. Iaoeth/aiei I.A. – ?aaeecaoeey eiiniiaioiuo ni/aoaiee ia nouea eaene/aneeo aaeeieoe (eino?oiaioaeueii-oiiaoe/aneia enneaaeiaaiea ia iaoa?eaea ?a/e aeeeoi?ia ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaiey Aa?iaiee). – ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.04 – aa?iaineea ycuee. – Iaeanneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ei. E. E. Ia/ieeiaa, Iaeanna, 1999. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia iienaieth ia?oeaioeaiuo e aeonoe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee niaeaniuo caoeia a ?aieao caoeini/aoaiee ia nouea aeaoo neia, auaeaeaiiuo ec i?i/oaiiie iaiaoeeie ?a/e. A ?aaioa enneaaeoaony 81 oei eiiniiaioiuo caoeini/aoaiee, aaea a i?aaenoueiaie iiceoeee iaoiaeeony aeooie ieicea, a a canoueiaie iiceoeee i?aaenoaaeai aanue ei?ion iaiaoeeeo niaeaniuo. A oiaea enneaaeiaaiey onoaiiaeaii, /oi ?aaeecaoeee eiiniiaioiuo caoeini/aoaiee ia noueao neia a neeoiie ?a/e ii?aaeaeythony ?aieaie no?oeoo?iuo caoeiauo aaeeieoe aieaa aunieiai ii?yaeea, oaeeo eae neia, neiai, oiiaoe/aneia neiai e iiaoo ?anniao?eaaoueny oieueei a oneiaeyo eciaiaiey aeaiiuo no?oeoo?iuo aaeeieoe. Eia?oeeoeyoi?iay iiaeaeue caoeiauo iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoae ia a?aieoeao neia niaeanoaony n oai?eae nii?iecaiaenoaa caoeia e iiae/eiyaony caeiiai aioeoeeie?othuae eia?oeeoeyoeee. I?e ?anniio?aiee no?oeoo?u niu/iuo ac?uaiuo niaeaniuo auaeaeythony eia?oeeoeyoi?ii caaeneiua e eia?oeeoeyoi?ii iacaaeneiua naaiaiou. I?eciae a?oeeoeyoi?iie iai?yaeaiiinoe niaeaniuo caoeia, ia?acothueo neiaaniue noue, iienuaaaony a ia?aiao?ao aeonoe/aneie iiuiinoe. A?oeeoeyoi?iay iai?yaeaiiinoue niu/iuo ac?uaiuo niaeaniuo o?aeooaony a caaeneiinoe io aeeeoaeueiinoe e eioaineaiinoe oacu niu/ee. Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?oiyie/aneay ii?ia, i?i/oaiiay ?a/ue, eia?oeeoeyoi?iay iiaeaeue, oiiaoe/aneia neiai, eiiniiaioiua caoeini/aoaiey, naaiaioaoeey, anie?aoeey, yenieiceaiinoue, iai?yaeaiiinoue. Petlyuchenko N.V. Realization of Consonant Sequences at Boundaries of Lexical Units (instrumental phonetic research based on speech of German radio and television newscasters). – Manuscript (Typescript). Thesis for PhD degree by speciality 10.02.04 – Germanic languages. – The Mechnikov Odessa State University, Odessa, 1999. The dissertation describes perceptive and acoustic features of consonants with the sound sequence framework at word boundaries. It investigates 81 types of consonant sequences, where the prejuncture position is occupied by a plosive, whereas the postjuncture position is represented by the whole set of German consonants. As a result of the research it was established that realization of consonant sequences at word boundaries in continuous speech is determined by the framework of higher structural sound units, such as syllables, words, rhythmic groups. Therefore, they can be studied only under condition of alteration of these structural units. The coarticulatory model of sound sequences at word boundaries is in agreement with the theory of word co-production and complies with the law of anticipating coarticulation. When considering the structure of plosives, coarticulatory dependent and coarticulatory independent segments can be singled out. The feature of articulatory tension of consonants forming the juncture is described in terms of acoustic power. Articulatory tension of plosives is interpreted depending on the duration and intensity of the closure phase. Key words: pronunciation norm, read speech, coarticulatory model, rhythmic group, consonant sequence, segmentation, aspiration, explosiveness, tension.

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