I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE

OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IAAeE*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

AOIAN ?ai? Aaea??eiae/

OAeE 616-001.17:615.832.9 -02:591.424/.477

?aaeoe?? ia/?iEe UO??A ia iiOEIAeAEAIIss,

ssEA ?iaeoEiaaia eieaeueiiTH a?ia?-

OA a?iioa?i??TH OE??E

14.03.01 — ii?iaeueia aiaoii?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe

OA?E?A — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a A?iieoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
?i.I.?.Ie?iaiaa IIC Oe?a?ie

Iaoeia? eiinoeueoaioe: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eiaai Ai?en Eineiiae/

A?iieoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao;

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aai?i A?eoi? Aaneeueiae/

?in?enueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao,

ea??aiee a?aeae?eo ii?oieia?? ?AeIO

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

— aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eia?oi?eia Aieiaeeie? Aai?a?e-iae/,
Eoaainueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao IIC Oe?a?ie, ?aeoi?, caa.
eao. aiaoii?? ethaeeie;

— aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aia?ee ?aai ?aaiiae/, Iaoe?i-iaeueiee
iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey IIC Oe?a?ie, caa. eao.
aiaoii?? ethaeeie;

— aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iaeneioe TH??e Ieaenaiae?iae/,
Oe?a?inueea iaaee/ia noiiaoieia?/ia aeaaeai?y IIC Oe?a?ie, i?ioani? eao.
aiaoii?? ethaeeie.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?aaii-O?aie?anueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y,
eao. aiaoii?? ethaeeie, IIC Oe?a?ie, i.?aaii-O?aie?anuee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 24 a?oaeiy 1998?. ia 1100 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.64.600.03 i?e Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao? (310022, i.Oa?e?a-22, i?.Eai?ia 4).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (310022, i.Oa?e?a-22, i?.Eai?ia 4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 18 eenoiiaaea 1998?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee AEoa??eiaa E.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Ia caaaeath/e ia oa, ui a /enaeueieo
iiiia?ao?yo ? noaooyo a?aeia?aaeai? ??ci? aniaeoe i?iaeaie i?enoinoaaiiy
? eiiiainaoe?? ii?ooaieo ooieoe?e i?aai?a ia ae?th oaeoi??a
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, caaaeueiee o?ae ?? ?ic?iaee caeeoa? aaaeaoe
e?auiai [Na?eenia Ae.N., 1987]. I?e oeueiio ooieoe?iiaeuei? ? no?oeoo?i?
ci?ie, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a ca’yceo ?c ??cieie ii?ooai-iyie a i?aaiao,
oeaieiao, ee?oeiao ? i?aaiaeao, ye i?aaeei, iienai? a?eueo aeaoaeueii,
i?ae iaoai?cie, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo aeeaa nenoaia ?aaao? ia ieo, ?, ia
caaaeath/e ia ieo, i?iaeiaaeo? ooieoe?i-ioaaoe a neeaae? oe?e?niiai
i?aai?cio.

Aea/aiiy ?aaeoe?? i?aai?cio ia oaiia?aoo?i? iioeiaeaeaiiy, ui yaey?
niaith neeaaeiee i?ioean, iio?aao? ciaeoe ca’ycie i?ae eaieaie, ye?
aaciina?aaeiuei ia?aaoaathoue i?ae aieeaii oa?i?/iiai aaaioa ?
aeenoaeueieie (oe?eueiaeie) i?aaiaie. Iaeiei c oaeeo i?aai?a ? ia/?iea,
??ciiiai?oi? ooieoe?? yei? niiioeathoue ian oaaaeii ne?ae-eoaaoe ca ??
noaiii ye a oiiaao ii?ie, oae ? i?e ??ciiiai?oieo iaoieia?/ieo i?ioeanao
[Aeiaaaineee A.I. e ae?., 1989; Nolan J.P., Camara D.S., 1989].

I?iaeaia aaaeei? ii?eiai? o?aaie caeeoa?oueny iaei??th ?c oeaio?aeueieo
a no/ani?e iaaeeoeei?. Ii?ee ? ia eeoa iioe?aiei aeaeii iiaooiai? ?
ae?iaie/i? o?aaie, aea e iathoue yaio oaiaeaioe?th aei ia?inoaiiy
[Aeo?eaaa A.N., Ao?ieno?iaa A.I., 1986; Na?eenia Ae.N. e ae?., 1986].
Iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae iioa?i?eei a?ae i?i?e?a ia? iniaeeao aaao aeey
a?enueeiai-iaaee/ii? neoaeae o ca’yceo c iiaeeea?noth aeei?enoaiiy
oa?iiyaea?ii? ca?i? ? caiaethaaeueieo cania?a o a?enueeiaeo iia?aoe?yo
[Aeieeiei A.A., 1975]. Ia caaaeath/e ia ?ioaineai? iiooee iaoieia?a,
aein? ia ?nio? caaaeueiii?eeiyoi? oi/ee ci?o ia iaoai?cie ci?i a
i?aai?ci? a ??ci? ia??iaee ?icaeoeo ii?eiai? oai?iae [Eaiaoia N.A.,
1990; Sparkes B.G., 1993], a e?eoa??? aaeaioaoe?? i?aai?a ? nenoai aei
ae?? ii?eiai? o?aaie i?aeoe/ii ia ?ic?iaeai?. C e?oa?aoo?e a?aeii?
/enaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? noinothoueny a?aeiia?ae? ??cieo i?aai?a, a
oiio /ene? ? ia/?iee, ia ii?eiaa iioeiaeaeaiiy oe??e [Aieeia E.N. e
ae?., 1980; Nii?uie N.A. e ae?., 1984; Aaeaaeiaa Y.I. e ae?., 1988;
A?eoeaethe I.?., Iana/ea I.A., 1994; Chen F.M., 1992; Yang Z.C., 1992;
Iliopoulou E. et al., 1993; Carleton S.C., 1995; Vogt P. et al., 1995].
Iaeiae, an? aiie noinothoueny iaoieia?/ieo ci?i a i?aaiao ? ia
a?aoiaothoue ?o eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeueieo ?aaeoe?e, aea/aiiy yeeo
iaiao?aeia aeey ?ic?iaee aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a ei?aeoe?? ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
noaio i?aai?cio i?e iaoieia??.

Ae?y ia i?aai?ci aenieeo oaiia?aoo? aea/aia a?eueo aeaoaeueii, a oie /an
ye eiai ?aaeoe?y ia a?iioa?i?th aei inoaiiueiai /ano caeeoaeanue a o?i?.
A no/ani?e e?oa?aoo?? aaaaoi oaaae i?eae?ey?oueny ae?? caaaeueii?
a?iioa?i?? ia i?aai?ci ethaeeie ? eaai?aoi?ieo oaa?ei [Bangs C.C., 1984;
Marion D. et al., 1996], a oaeiae eieaeueiiio ioieiaeaeaiith aeeai?
oeaieie aei iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? [A?euaiei A.E., Naiaeiie?neee A.I.,
1985; Imamura H. et al., 1995; Bischof J.C. et al., 1997; De Loecker P.
et al., 1997; Peters S. et al., 1998]. Iaeiae, ee?i?/ieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? a noinoaaeenue ye iaoai?cio
iioeiaeaeaiiy, oae ? ?aaeoe?e i?aai?a ? nenoai o a?aeiia?aeue (a oiio
/ene? ? ia/?iee) i?ney oieiaeiaiai iioeiaeaeaiiy oe??e i?aeoe/ii iaia?.
I?e oeueiio a ee?i?oe? e??i-oa?ai?y oe?iei aeei?enoiao?oueny i?e ??cieo
caoai?thaaiiyo, ye? aeiaaathoue o??o?a?/iiai ao?o/aiiy [Oao?aiia A.A. e
ae?., 1985; Neoeianeee I.A. e ae?., 1986; Eineoeeay A.I., Ao?ueyiia
A.A., 1987; Eoiaeueoeaa A.E., Oeoi?ia TH.A., 1989; Oeiioaiei E.A.,
Oaa?ao A.A., 1991], a oiio /ene? ? i?e e?eoaaii? oa?i?/ieo iioeiaeaeaiue
oe??e [Necia A.I. e ae?., 1986; A?eaiaiae A.O., Necia A.I., 1988; Aonae
A.E. e ae?., 1994].

Ana aeeeaaeaia aeua na?ae/eoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue aeeaieiai aea/aiiy
eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeueieo ?aaeoe?e, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a ia/?ioe?
i?ney ae?? ia oe??o eieaeueii? a?ia?- ? a?iioa?i??.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

1. I?aaenoaaeaia ?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?aieao ieaiiai? iaoeiai? oaiaoeee,
yea ?ic?iaey?oueny ia aac? iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai oeaio?o A?iieoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.?.Ie?iaiaa.

2. Aea/aiiy ii?eiaeo iioeiaeaeaiue aoiaeeoue a caaaeueiiaea?aeaaio
i?ia?aio c ae??oaiiy ieoaiue iiia?aaeaeaiiy ? ?aaaoaaiiy ia iaaecae/aei?
neooaoe?? (eiae *N — 30600).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
eiiieaeniee ii?oieia?/iee ? a?io?i?/iee aiae?c aeeiai?ee iioeiaeaeaiiy ?
?aia?aoe?? oeaieie ia/?iee uo??a i?ney eieaeueiiai ii?eo ?
e??i-aeano?oeoe?? oe??e.

Aeey ?aae?caoe?? iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe ianooii? iniiai?
caaaeaiiy:

1. Noai?eoe iiaeaeue ii?eiaiai iioeiaeaeaiiy oe??e ???a-a nooiaiy,
ieiuath a?ey 10% iiaa?oi? o?ea uo??a, a oaeiae ?ic?iaeoe iiaeaeue
iioeiaeaeaiiy oe??e iaaeiecueeith oaiia?aoo?ith, ia aeeaeio ? ieiuo, ui
a?aeiia?aeathoue ii?eiaei iioeiaeaeaiiyi.

2. C aeiiiiiaith iaoiae?a ii?oieia?/iiai ? a?io?i?/iiai aein-e?aeaeaiiy
aea/eoe iieacieee, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue noai ia/?iee o ?ioaeoieo uo??a.

3. C aeiiiiiaith a?io?i?/ieo ? aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/ieo aeaieo c’ynoaaoe
ee?oeii? iaoai?cie iioeiaeaeaiiy ia/?iee i?ney oaieiai? ? oieiaeiai?
o?aaie oe??e.

4. Aea/eoe aeeiai?eo eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeueieo ci?i a ia/?ioe?
uo??a, ia ??cieo ??aiyo no?oeoo?ii? i?aai?caoe??, i?ney eieaeueii?
a?ia?oa?i?? ? e??iaeano?oeoe?? oe??e.

5. Ia iniia? aeaieo ii?oiiao?e/iiai ? noa?aieia?/iiai aia-e?co ia/?iee
?ic?iaeoe e?euee?ni? e?eoa??? ?? noaio i?e oa?i?/ieo iioeiaeaeaiiyo
oe??e ??ciiai aaiaco.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa ia ??cieo ??aiyo
no?oeoo?ii? i?aai?caoe?? aeyaeaii iniaeeaino? aeeiai?ee
eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeueieo ?aaeoe?e ia/?iee uo??a o a?aeiia?aeue ia
iane?aeee eieaeueii? a?ia?- ? a?iioa?i?? oe??e.

Anoaiiaeaii iniiai? a?noieia?/i? a?aei?iiino? i?ae ii?eiaei ? oieiaeiaei
iioeiaeaeaiiyie aaiaoioeeo?a, ye? iieyaathoue a a?eueo ae?aaeaieo, ia
i?ioyc? anueiai aenia?eiaioo, aeano?oeoeaieo ? aeeno?io?/ieo ci?iao
i?ney ii?eo oe??e, ui aeyaeai?, a iniiaiiio, a i?ii?aei?e cii?
ia/?ieiai? aeieueee ? iaaeiei noaeei o??aae, a i?ney e??iaeano?oeoe?? —
iaaeiei oeaio?aeueieo aai ? iaio ae?aaeai? a i?ii?aei?e cii? ia/?ieiai?
aeieueee; ae?aaeai?e aee?ia?e aeeno?io?? aaiaoioeeo?a, ii/eiath/e c 14
aeiae i?ney ii?eo oe??e, ? cia/ieo neea?ioe/ieo ci?iao o iaia/aieo uo??a
aei e?ioey aenia?eiaioo.

A?aei?iiino? ia oeueo?ano?oeoo?iiio ??ai? a ia/?ieia?e aeieueoe? i?ney
ii?eo ? e??iaeano?oeoe?? oe??e iinyoue oaeaeoa e?euee?niee, i?ae ye?niee
oa?aeoa?. Iniaeea?noth ii?eiaeo iioeiaeaeaiue oeaieie ia/?i-ee aoee
eieaeuei? iae?ice aaiaoioeeo?a, i?aeee?oeiiee iaa?ye ? ii?ooaiiy
ae?aioaaiiy aeia/?. Iioe?ai? aeano?oeoeai? i?ioeane ia oa?aeoa?i? aeey
?aaeoe?? oeaieie ia/?iee o a?aeiia?aeue ia e??iae?th. ?aia?aoe?y
iioeiaeaeaiue i?ney e??iae?? a?eueo aeineiiaea ? ia noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
iaaeeeoeiaei ?ic?inoaiiyi niieo/ii? oeaieie.

Aia?oa ?ic?iaeai? e?euee?ni? e?eoa???, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue ye
iioeiaeaeaiiy, oae ? eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeuei? ?aaeoe?? ia/?iee ia
??cieo ??aiyo ?? no?oeoo?ii? i?aai?caoe?? i?ney ii?eiaiai ? oieiaeiaiai
iioeiaeaeaiiy oe??e. Aeenia?n?eiee aiae?c aeicaieea iieacaoe
caeaaei?noue ci?i, ui niinoa??aathoueny, a?ae oa?aeoa?o ae?? oa?-i?/iiai
oaeoi?a.

Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii eiiieaeniee ii?oieia?/iee ? a?io?i?/iee aiae?c
ia/?ieiai? oeaieie o a?aeiia?aeue ia eieaeueio aeano?oeoe?th oe??e.
?acoeueoaoe aiae?co aeaee iiaeeea?noue anoaiiaeoe ?aeaioe/-i?noue
ee?oeiieo iaoai?ci?a iioeiaeaeaiiy ia/?iee i?e iaio ae?yo — ii?e ?
e??iaeano?oeoe?y.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe aein-e?aeaeaiue
aeei?enoiaothoueny a eaeoe?eieo eo?nao eaoaae? ii?iaeueii? aiaoii??,
iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? ? oiiia?ao?/ii? aiaoii??, caaaeueii? ?
oaeoeueoaonueei? o??o?a?? A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.?.Ie?iaiaa.

Ia iniia? io?eiaieo aeaieo iiaeeeaa ?ic?iaea i?aaaioeaieo i?io?eaeoe/ieo
? e?eoaaeueieo caoiae?a (aeei?enoaiiy aaiaoii?ioaeoi??a,
aioeieneaeaio?a), ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue ei?aeoe?th ii?ooaiue,
?i-aeoeiaaieo a ia/?ioe? oa?i?/iith o?aaiith oe??e.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi? i?eeiaa o/anoue a iinoaiiaoe?
aenia?eiaioo, cai?? iaoa??aeo aeey na?oeiai? ? aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii??,
c ianooiiith eiai i?iaiaeeith, caeeaeith, i?eaiooaaiiyi a?noieia?/ieo
i?aia?ao?a. Aaoi?ii naiino?eii i?iaaaeaii e?oa?a-oo?iee iiooe, aea/ai?
a?noieia?/i? i?aia?aoe ? aeaeo?iii? i?e?i-oioia?ao??, i?iaaaeaia
noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea iae?i-, i?e?iii?oiiao-?e/ieo ? a?io?i?/ieo aeaieo.
*anoeia ?acoeueoao?a (ia a?eueoa 5%), ye? noinothoueny aieeao
e??iaeano?oeoe?? oe??e ia ia/?ieo, io?eiaia ni?eueii c? ni?a?ia?oieeii
IAeOe A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo I.I.Oaiiaae ?
aeei?enoaia a ?? eaiaeeaeaonuee?e aeena?oaoe??, aeeiiai?e i?ae
ea??aieoeoaii aaoi?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iia?-aeiieai?
ia 92 can?aeaii? aiaoii?/iiai oiaa?enoaa I?ia//eie ? I?aea?eaiae?a
(Ieooei, 1997); ia I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? (I?eioeeie i?iii?oe??,
neiao???, no?oeoo?ii? aa?iii?? oa iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy a
ii?oieia??( (Oiaeueiee, 1997); ia iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? (Aeooaeuei?
ieoaiiy iaaee/ii? aio?iiieia?? oa ooieoe?iiaeueii? ii?oieia??(
(A?iieoey, 1998); ia 2-io I?aeia?iaeiiio eiia?an? c ?ioaa-?aoeaii?
aio?iiieia?? (A?iieoey, 1998); ia 2-io Iaoe?iiaeueiiio eiia?an?
aiaoii?a, a?noieia?a, aia??ieia?a ? oiiia?aoiaiaoii?a Oe?a?ie
(Eoaainuee, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 20 ae?oeiaaieo ?ia?o. C
ieo: noaoo? a iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao — 18 (8 — naiino?eieo ? 10 o
ni?aaaoi?noa?), oace eiioa?aioe?e — 2. A ioae?eaoe?yo, i?aaenoaaeaieo o
ni?aaaoi?noa? c iaoeiaeie eiinoeueoaioaie, eieaaaie ? o/iyie aianie
aaoi?a aoa iniiaiei c oeo ieoaiiyo, ye? noinoaaeenue aiae?co noaio
ia/?iee ? ae?? oa?i?/ieo oaeoi??a (io?eiaiiy ? aeeeaae ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?o iaaiai?aiiy, e?oa?aoo?ia ii?aoethaaiiy iaoa??aeo).

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, iaeyaeo
e?oa?aoo?e, ia?ae?eo ia’?eo?a ? iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, i’yoe ?icae?e?a
?acoeueoao?a aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ?o aiae?co ? iaaiai?aiiy,
aeniiae?a, ia?ae?eo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e oa aei-aeaoeo. Aeena?oaoe?y
aeeeaaeaia ia 419 noi??ieao iaoeiiieno. I?noeoue 217 ?ethno?aoe?e (73
i?e?ioioia?ao?? ? 144 a?ao?ee), ui caeiathoue 32 noi??iee oa 70
oaaeeoeue, ye? caeiathoue 51 noi??ieo iaoeiiieno. Ia?ae?e aeei?enoaieo
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae neeaaea?oueny c 402 iaeiaioaaiue (121 a?o/eciyiee
? 281 ?iicaiiee aaoi?), ui caeia? 50 noi??iie iaoeiiieno.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

Ca?aeii aeaieo e?oa?aoo?e, ci?ia ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio a?ieia?/ii?
nenoaie iia’ycaia c e?euee?nieie ci?iaie ?? no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a
[Na?eenia Ae.N., 1987]. Ia’?eoeaiee aiae?c oeeo i?ioean?a, a oiio /ene?
e eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeueieo, iaoiiaeth? canoinoaaiiy e?euee?nieo
iaoiae?a ii?oieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui oaeiae iaiao?aeii aeey
ni?anoaaeaiiy aeaieo a?io?i??, o?c?ieia?? oa ii?oieia??.

Aei oaia??oiueiai /ano iaeiie/aii cia/iee ee?i?/iee oa
aenia?eiaioaeueiee iaoa??ae, a yeiio ia na?oeiiioe/iiio e
aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/iiio ??aiyo aea/ai? ci?ie a ia/?ioe? i?ney ii?eiai?
o?aaie oe??e. Iaeiae, aeeaieeo ii?oiiao?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui
aeicaieythoue aeyaeoe e?eoa??? aaeaioaoe?? ia/?iee aei oa?i?/iiai
iioeiaeaeaiiy oe??e, iaie ia ciaeaeaii a aeinooii?e iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??.
E??i oiai, oaaao aeine?aeiee?a cia/ii /ano?oa i?eaa?oaee aeeaie? ii?ee c
ieiuath o?aaeaiiy a?eueo i?ae 15% iiaa?oi? oe??e, ine?eueee, ca?aeii
aeayeeo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo [Aeo?eaaa A.N., Ao?ieno?iaa A.I., 1986],
eeoa a oeueiio aeiaaeeo ?icaeaa?oueny ii?eiaa oai?iaa. Oiio aeooaeueiei
caeeoa?oueny aea/aiiy a aeeiai?oe? ii?oiooieoe?i-iaeueieo ci?i, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny a i?aai?ci? oai?iai (?, a ia/?ioe?, cie?aia) i?e
aeeaieeo ii?eao ?c ieiuath o?aaeaiiy aei 10% iiaa?oi? o?ea.

Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo iieacaa, ui ae?y iaaeiecueeeo oaiia?aoo? ia
oeaieie ?aae?co?oueny oeyoii iine?aeiaieo aca?iiiia’y-caieo ci?i ia an?o
??aiyo i?aai?caoe?? a?ieia?/iiai ia’?eoa, ye? ae?aaeathoueny neiae?iiii
aino?iai caiaeaiiy, i?iyae yeiai iaoiiaeai? nooiaiai iioeiaeaeaiiy,
aeaeyaeii oa iiia?aaei?i noaiii oeaiei. Iaeiae aeaieo, ui noinothoueny,
iane?aee?a iiaeeeaiai iaaaoeaiiai aieeao e??iaeano?oeoe?? oe??e ia
ia/?ieo iaie ia aeyaeaii ye o a?o/eciyi?e, oae ? a ca?oa?aei?e
e?oa?aoo??.

Ia’?eoe ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue

O a?aeiia?aeiino? c iaoith ? caaea/aie aeine?aeaeaiiy iaie i?iaaaeaii
aeine?ae ia 155 a?eeo aacii?iaeieo uo?ao o a?oe? 3 i?nyoe?, c
ii/aoeiaith ianith o?ea 190-215 a. Oaa?eie aoee ?icae?eai? ia 3 a?oie: 1
a?oia — ?ioaeoi? oaa?eie, ye? oo?eioaaeenue o cae/aeieo oiiaao a?aa??th;
2 a?oia — uo??, yeei iaiineee oa?i?/iee ii?e oe??e IIIa-a nooiaith,
ieiuath 9-10% iiaa?oi?; 3 a?oia — oaa?eie i?ney e??iaeano?oeoe?? oe??e,
ieiua ? aeeaeia yei? a?aeiia?aeaea oaeei a ii?eia?e a?oi?. Ia i?ioyc?
anueiai aenia?eiaioo ca oaa?eiaie i?iaiaeeee nenoaiaoe/ia niinoa?aaeaiiy
? aeiaeyae. Aiaeoaaiiy oaa?ei i?iaiaeeee aea?/? ia aeiao. Aiaeo ia
iaiaaeoaaee. Oaiia?aoo?a a i?ei?uaii?, aea oo?eioaaeenue uo?e,
iiaeo?eioaaeanue ia ??ai? 24-25 (N. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei ia?aii
ia/?ieo.

Oa?i?/iee ii?e IIIa-a nooiaith, yeee neeaaeaa 9-10% iiaa?oi? o?ea,
aeeeeeaee iaianaiiyi aeaiia i?aeieie ieanoeiaie (ieiuath 14,5 ni2
eiaeia), iiia?aaeiuei iaa??oeie o aiae? aei 90 (N. I?ae o?iiai-oaeiaei
aioo??oiuei/a?aaeiiei ia?eicii (c ?ic?aooieo 25 ia/ea) ieanoeie
iaeeaaeaee ia aeai?eueiaaio oe??o nieie ia 6 naeoiae [Regas F.C.,
Ehrlich H.P., 1992]. Aiaeia?/iei /eiii i?iaiaeeee e??iaeano-?oeoe?th
oe??e. Aeey oeueiai i?aei? ieanoeie caio?thaaee a ??aeeee acio, a iio?i
iaeeaaeaee ia aeai?eueiaaio oe??o nieie ia 6 naeoiae. I?e oeueiio
aeeaeia iioeiaeaeaiiy oe??e a?aeiia?aeaea oae?e i?e ii?eia?e o?aai?
[Gunas I. et al., 1997].

I?ney iiia?aaeiueiai o?iiaioaeiaiai ia?eico (c ?ic?aooieo 30-40 ia ia
100 a iane o?ea), oaa?ei aeaiaeeee c aenia?eiaioo oeyoii aeaeai?oaoe??
ia 1, 3, 7, 14 ? 28 aeiao i?ney iaianaiiy oa?i?/ii? o?aaie. Aecia/aee
iano oaa?ei, aaniethoio oa a?aeiinio iano ia/?i-ee.

C?acee i?aaio aeey a?noieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aee a on?o aeiaaeeao
c e?ai? aieiai? aeie? ia/?iee. Oeaieio o?enoaaee a 10% ?ic/ei?
iaeo?aeueiiai oi?iae?io. I?ney o?enaoe?? iaoa??ae i?iieaaee,
ciaaiaeaeoaaee a na??? nie?o?a c?inoath/i? eiioeaio?aoe??, i?iaiaeeee
e??cue oei?ioi?i oa caeeaaee a ia?ao?i. Ia ?ioaoe?eiiio i?e?ioii?
aiooaaee c??ce 6 iei caaoiaoee, oa?aoaaee aaiaoienee?i-aiceiii oa
iii?uaee a eaiaaenueeee aaeuecai.

I?e?iii?oiiao?e/iee aiae?c oeaieie i?iaiaeeee ca aeiiiiiaith n?oee
Aaeaaey, yeo iaeeaaeaee ia aeaiiino?aoe?eiee ae?ai i?e?ineiia Laborlux S
(Leitz), i?e ca?eueoaii? 100/1,25o10 [Weibel E.R., 1969; Oaoea K.,
1980]. Aiae?c aeeth/aa aecia/aiiy ieoiii? ieiu? iiaa?oi? oa ia’?iii?
u?eueiino? aaiaoioeeo?a, yaea? aaiaoioeeo?a, oeeoiieacie aaiaoioeeo?a ?
neioni?ae?a; e?euee?nii? u?eueiino? i?io?-eae aaiaoioeeo?a, aeaiyaea?ieo
aaiaoioeeo?a, aee-, oao?a- oa ieoaiei?aeieo aaiaoioeeo?a, caaaeueiiai
ioea ?aoeeoeiaiaeioae?aeueieo ee?-oei ? ee?oei Eoioa?a a 1 ii2 ieiu?
c??co. Iei?aei?noue aaiaoioeeo?a aecia/aee ca ia’?iii ?o yaea? [Ee?eeeia
I.E., 1977]. On? a?noi-iao?e/i? ia?aiao?e aoei ciyoi iaaeiei
oeaio?aeueii? aaie, iaaeiei noaeei o??aae ? a i?ii?aei?e cii? ia/?ieiai?
aeieueee (ia na?aaei?e a?aenoai? i?ae aeuaaeacaieie ae?eyieaie).

Ia iniia? io?eiaieo ia?aeiieo ia?aiao??a ia/enethaaee
yaea?ii-oeeoiieaciaoe/ia a?aeiioaiiy, iiaa?oiaai-ia’?ii? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
aaiaoioeeo?a ? iiaa?oiaaa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aaiaoioeeo?a ? neioni?-ae?a.

Aeey aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaoa??ae i?ney
iiia?aaeiuei? o?enaoe?? a 2,5% ?ic/ei? aethoa?iaiai aeueaeaa?aeo
i?iaiaeeee a 1% ?ic/ei? /ioe?eieeno ini?th ia oinoaoiiio aooa??, 1%
?ic/ei? oai?iiai? eeneioe, ciaaiaeaeoaaee o nie?oao c?inoath/i?
eiioeaio?aoe?? oa a aoeaoii?, caio?thaaee a aiii [Oeeee A., 1975].
Iai?aoiie? oa oeueo?aoiie? c??ce aiooaaee ia oeueo?ai?e?ioii? LKB-3
(Oaaoe?y). Iai?aoiie? c??ce oa?aoaaee 1% ?ic/eiii iaoeeaiiaiai neiueiai.
Oeueo?aoiie? c??ce eiio?anooaaee o?ai?eaoeaoaoii ? oeeo?aoii naeioeth ca
?aeiieueaenii. Oioia?aooaaiiy i?iaiaeeee ia aeaeo?iiieo i?e?ineiiao
Hitachi-9A ? Hitachi-12A (ssiii?y).

Ia aeaeo?iiia?aiao, i?iaeoiaaieo /a?ac oioica?eueooaa/ ia n?oeo Aaeaaey,
i?iaiaeeee i?ae?aooiie /enaeueii? u?eueiino? i?oi-oiiae??e,
iioeiaeaeaieo i?oioiiae??e, ia’?iii? u?eueiino? i?oioii-ae??e,
a?aioey?iiai ? aeaaeaiueeiai aiaeiieaciaoe/iiai ?aoeeoeoio.

Aeey a?io?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia/?ieo ia?oocoaaee oieiaeiei 1,15%
?ic/eiii oei?eaeo eae?y ? aiiiaai?coaaee ia i?ioyc? 1 oaeeeie i?e 3000
ia/oa (oaoeii-neei). Iaooeiaeaeai? ee?oeie ? yae?a inaaeaeoaaee
oeaio?eooaoaaiiyi i?e 600 g, a i?oioiiae??? ? e?ciniie — i?e 8000 g.
*anoeio iinoi?oioiiae??aeueii? o?aeoe?? oeaio?eooaoaaee i?e 100000 g ia
i?ioyc? 1 aiaeeie aeey io?eiaiiy i?e?inii.

I?ioeane ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a aecia/aee ca i?e?inoii
iaeiiiaiai aeeaeueaeaa?aeo (i?iaeoeo?a, ye? ?aaaothoue c
o?iaa?a?-oo?iaith eeneioith) [Aeaaeeie?ia TH.A., A?/aeia A.E., 1972].
Ai?no a?eea aecia/aee i?e?ia?o?aoiaei iaoiaeii [Ei/aoia A.A., 1980].
Eiioeaio?aoe?th oinoie?i?ae?a ioe?ithaaee ca ?o aeanoea?noth ooai?thaaoe
a?ae?ioiai? eiiieaene c oa?io?ioeeaiaoii aiii?th [Iaiothe A.A. e ae?.,
1987]. Aeoeai?noue ai?e?ia?ae?ieneeace ioe?ithaaee ca ooai?aiiyi
ia?aai?iioaiieo c ai?e?io [Ea?oceia E.E., A?/aeia A.E., 1977].
Aeoeai?noue a??eanoa?ace (EO 3.1.1.2) aei??thaaee ca ciaioaiiyi
noano?aoo, yeee aecia/a?oueny a ?aaeoe?? Oano??ia [Iie?ianeee A.A.,
A?/aeia A.E., 1968]. ?ieoaaoe?eia na?aaeiaeua i?noeei oai?eaoeaoao ?
?ia?a?oi? oie?ianoa?ace ? ae?anoa?ace — ia?aienii. Eiioeaio?aoe?th
caaaeueieo e?i?ae?a ioe?ithaaee caaaeueiii?eeiyoei iaoiaeii ca
?aaeoe??th c oinoi?iiaai?e?iiaei ?aaeoeaii. O?aeoe?? e?i?ae?a aecia/aee
iaoiaeii oiieioa?iai? o?iiaoia?ao?? [Eaeon I., 1975]. Aeoeai?noue
eaoaineio Ae a iinoyaea?iiio aiiiaaiao? ia/?iee ioe?ithaaee,
aeei?enoiaoth/e a yeino? noano?aoa aaiiaeia?i [Iie?ianeee A.A., A?/aeia
A.E., 1968].

Noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo /eneiaeo aeaieo i?iaiaeeee ia ia?niiaeueiiio
eiii’thoa?? «Pentium-166», ca aeiiiiiaith noaiaea?oieo i?ia?aiieo
iaeao?a «Statistica 5.0» ? «Statgraphics» aeey Windows 95. Ioe?ithaaee
i?aaeeuei?noue ?iciiae?eo iciae ca eiaeiei io?eiaiei aa-??aoe?eiei
?yaeii (i?aeoe/ii an? aea/ai? ia?aiao?e iaee ii?iaeueiee ?iciiae?e),
na?aaei? cia/aiiy ii eiaei?e c aea/aieo iciae, noaiaea?oi? iiieeee.
A??ia?aei?noue a?aei?iiinoae cia/aiue i?ae iacaeaaeieie aaee/eiaie
aecia/aee ca e?eoa???i Nouethaeaioa. Ie??i oiai, aeey ioe?iee
aca?iica’yceo ? ??aiy aieeao ii?eo ? e??iaeano?oeoe?? oe??e ia
ii?oiiao?e/i? iieacieee, ui aea/aeenue, i?iaiaeeee iaeiioaeoi?iee
aeenia?n?eiee ? ei?aeyoe?eiee aiae?ce.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?o aiae?c.

Iana o?ea uo??a oa ?? i?e??no /a?ac 3 ? 7 ae?a i?ney ii?eo oa
e??iaeano?oeoe?? oe??e a??ia?aeii ieae/a, i?ae o ?ioaeoieo oaa?ei. I?e
oeueiio i?ney e??iaeano?oeoe?? oe??e c 7 aeiae ? aei e?ioey
aenia-?eiaioo i?e??no iane cia/ii a?eueoee, i?ae i?ney ii?eo. Ii/eiath/e
c 14 aeiae iana o?ea i?ney e??iaeano?oeoe?? a??ia?aeii ia
a?ae??ciy-?oueny a?ae eiio?ieueieo iieaciee?a, a i?ney ii?eo
caeeoa?oueny a??ia?aeii ieae/ith, i?ae o ?ioaeoieo oaa?ei aei e?ioey
aenia?eiaioo.

Aaniethoia iana ia/?iee a a?eueoino? oa?i?i?a niinoa?aaeaiiy ye i?ney
ii?eo, oae ? i?ney e??iaeano?oeoe?? oe??e aoea ieae/ith, i?ae a
eiio?ie?. Ia i?ioyc? anueiai aenia?eiaioo nooo?aeo ci?i a?aeiinii? iane
ia/?iee a iaio aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao aeyaeaii ia aoei.

Io?eiai? iaie a?noieia?/i? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui aaea /a?ac 1
aeiao i?ney ii?eiai? o?aaie oe??e a ia/?ioe? uo??a ia oii? noaeeiieo
ii?ooaiue (ae?aaeaia e?iaiiaiiaiaiiy neioni?ae?a, oeaio?aeueieo aai oa
noaeei o??aae), aeyaeythoueny aeeno?io?/i? (ia?aaaaeii yaeua
a?ae?ii?/ii? aeeno?io??), a ?iiae? e aeaaaia?aoeai? ci?ie aaiaoioeeo?a,
a?eueo ae?aaeai? a i?ii?aei?e cii? ia/?ieiai? aeieueee. *a?ac 3 aeiae a
ia?aioei? ia/?iee ia na?oeiiioe/iiio ??ai? caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao
iica?/i?noue e?iaiiaiiaiaiiy aaeeeeo noaeei ia oii? oiai ae naiiai
e?iaiiaiiaiaiiy neioni?ae?a, a a ia?aioei? ??aiii??ii ae?aaeai? yaeua
a?ae?ii?/ii? oa ca?ienoi? aeeno?io?? ia?aeaeueii c aeaaaia?aoeaieie
ci?iaie aaiaoioeeo?a, ia?aaaaeii a i?ii?aei?e cii? ia/?ieiai? aeieueee
oa iaaeiei noaeei o??aae. Iaea?eueo ae?aaeai?
aeaaaia?aoeaii-aeeno?io?/i? ci?ie a ia/?ioe? niinoa??aathoueny /a?ac 7
ae?a i?ney ii?eiai? o?aaie oe??e. Ia a?aei?io a?ae iiia?aaeiueiai
oa?i?io, neioni?aee aoee iii??ii iiaiie?iai?, /anoeia c ieo aai
?icoe?aia, aai ciaioaia a ae?aiao??, a aaiaoioeeoao ia?aaaaea?
a?ae?ii?/ia aeeno?io?y, cono??/athoueny ae?eyiee aee?iai? aeeno?io??
ia/?ieiaeo ee?oei. *a?ac 14 ae?a i?ney ii?eo oe??e, ia a?aei?io a?ae
iiia?aaei?o oa?i?i?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, a aaiaoioeeoao ia?aaaaeii
a?aecia/athoueny yaeua aee?iai? aeeno?io??, a a ae?-eyieo iae?ic?a
i?i?inoathoue aioo??oiueiaeieueeia? eai?ey?e. *a?ac 28 ae?a caa?oathoue
ia naaa oaaao ae?eyiee ae?aaeaiiai neea?ico ii?oaeueieo o?aeo?a, a
oaeiae, ye ? i?ney 14 ae?a aenia?eiaioo, ia?aaaaa aee?iai? aeeno?io??
aaiaoioeeo?a. Iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe, ui, ii/eiath/e c 3 aeiae e aei
e?ioey aenia?eiaioo, aeano?oeoeai? ci?ie a aeieueoe? ia/?iee i?ney
ii?eiai? o?aaie oe??e, aieiaiei /eiii aecia/aeenue a i?ii?aei?e cii?
aeieueee oa iaaeiei noaeei o??aae.

Iiaeeea? ci?ie ia/?ieiai? oeaieie i?ney eieaeueii? e??iaeano-?oeoe??
oe??e acaaae? ia aoee i?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiue aei oaia??o-iueiai /ano,
i?eiaeii?, ie ia ciaeoee ?ia?o, ui noinothoueny oeueiai ieoaiiy.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae ii?eiaiai o?aaeaiiy, i?ney e??iaeano?oeoe?? ci?ie a
aaiaoioeeoao oa ?ioeo ee?oeiao cia/ii iaio?. Oae, /a?ac aeiao i?ney
oieiaeiaiai iioeiaeaeaiiy oe??e a ia/?ioe? ia?aaaaeathoue yaeua
ca?ienoi? aeeno?io?? aaiaoioeeo?a ? niinoa??aa?oueny iica?/ia ea?oeia
e?iaiiaiiaiaiiy neioni?ae?a ? aaeeeeo noaeei. Eeoa ia 3 aeiao a
ia?aioei? c’yaeythoueny ae?eyiee i/aaeaeiiai ii?ooaiiy o?aaaeoey?ii?
aoaeiae. *a?ac 7 ae?a, ye ? i?ney ii?eo, niinoa??aathoueny iaeneiaeuei?
aeano?oeoeai? e aeeno?io?/i? ci?ie a ia/?ioe?. A aaiaoioeeoao ??aiii??ii
ae?aaeai? yaeua ca?ienoi? oa a?ae?ii?/ii? aeeno?io??. Ia a?aei?io a?ae
ii?e?a iaea?eueo ae?aaeaia ?oeiaoe?y aaiaoioeeo?a aecia/a?oueny iaaeiei
oeaio?aeueieo aai. C??aeea niinoa??aathoueny iae?ice a i?ii?aei?e cii?
ia/?ieiai? aeieueee. Aaaeeeai cacia/eoe, ui ia a?aei?io a?ae ii?eo, i?e
e??iaeano?oeoe?? aaea /a?ac 14 ae?a iayaia cia/ia ii?iae?caoe?y
a?noieia?/ii? ea?oeie. O?aaaeoey?ia aoaeiaa ia?aioeie ia/?iee ii?ooaia
iacia/iith i??ith, neioni?aee iii??ii iiaiie?iai?. A ae?eyioe? iae?ic?a
iaaeiei oeaio?aeueieo aai ? a i?ii?aei?e cii? aeieueee i?i?inoathoue
/enaeuei? neioni?aei? eai?ey?e. Ia a?aei?io a?ae ii?eo, yaeua aee?iai? ?
a?ae?ii?/-ii? aeeno?io?? aaiaoioeeo?a neaaei ae?aaeai?. Iai?ee?ioe?
aenia?iaioo o oaa?ei i?ney e??iaeano?oeoe?? oe??e a?eueo?noue
aaiaoioeeo?a aac ci?i, ii?ooaiue o?aaaeoey?ii? aoaeiae ia/?ieiai?
aeieueee ia aeyaeaii. Eeoa aeoaea ??aeei a i?ii?aei?e cii? aeieueee
cono??/aeenue ae??ai?, aeia?a aaneoey?eciaai? iinoiae?ioe/i? ae?eyiee —
iaiaaeai? ino??aee niieo/ii? oeaieie.

Oaeei /eiii, iniiaia a?noieia?/ia ??cieoey i?ae ii?eiaei ? oieiaeiaei
iioeiaeaeaiiyi aaiaoioeeo?a iieyaa?: a a?eueo ae?aaeaieo ia i?ioyc?
anueiai aenia?eiaioo aeano?oeoeaii-aeeno?io?/ieo ci?iao i?ney ii?eo
oe??e, oiiia?ao?? oeeo iioeiaeaeaiue (i?ney ii?eo — a iniiaiiio a
i?ii?aei?e cii? ia/?ieiai? aeieueee ? iaaeiei noaeei o??aae, a i?ney
e??iaeano?oeoe?? — iaaeiei oeaio?aeueieo aai ? iaio ae?aaeaieo a
i?ii?aei?e cii? ia/?ieiai? aeieueee), ae?aaeai?e aee?ia?e aeeno?io??
aaiaoioeeo?a ii/eiath/e c 14 aeiae i?ney ii?eo oe??e ? cia/ieo
neea?ioe/ieo ci?iao o iaia/aieo uo??a aei cae?i/aiiy aenia?eiaioo.

Aiae?c aeaieo e?oa?aoo?e iieacaa, ui ci?ie oeueo?ano?oeoo?e aaiaoioeeo?a
i?e ae?? ??cieo ca nai?th i?e?iaeith iioeiaeaeoaaeueieo oaeoi??a
(?ioieneeaoe?y, ?oai?y, aiien?y ? ?i.) iathoue, ye i?aaeei, noa?aioeiiee
oa?aeoa? [Eai?aeyioe A.N. e ae?., 1985; Aa?ooaei TH.A. e ae?., 1989;
Aeiaaaineee A.I. e ae?., 1989; Noaaioeia O.E., 1997; Rink R.D. et al.,
1985; Dabholkar A.S., Carmichael W.W., 1987; Marsh D.C. et al., 1993;
Hermansky S.J. et al., 1993; Woltmann A. et al., 1994]. Oe? aeai?
ciaoiaeyoue i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy ? a iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo. A?aei?iiino? ia
oeueo?ano?oeoo?iiio ??ai? a ia/?ieia?e aeieueoe? i?ney ii?eo ?
e??iaeano?oeoe?? oe??e iathoue oaeaeoa e?euee?niee, ai?ae ye?niee
oa?aeoa?.

Aeyaeai? iaie aeeno?io?/i? ci?ie a aaiaoioeeoao ye i?ney ii?-eo, oae ?
i?ney e??iaeano?oeoe?? oe??e ia noai?e?ineii?/iiio ??ai? i?iyaeythoueny
iaeiioeiieie ci?iaie a i?aaiaeao, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue ca ??ci? ooieoe??
oeeo ee?oei. Oae, i?eai?/aiiy a?ineioaoe/ii? ooieoe?? aaiaoioeeo?a
i?iyaey?oueny o?aaiaioaoe??th a?aioey?iiai aiaeiieaciaoe/iiai ?aoeeoeoio
c ia??aiii??ii ?icoaoiaaieie ? iaei/enaeueieie ?eainiiaie ia eiai
iaia?aiao. Aeyaeai? ci?ie a i?oioiiae??yo (/anoeiaa aai iiaia ?aaeoeoe?y
e?eno, ?oeiaoe?y cia-i?oiuei? iaia?aie, aiiiaai?caoe?y aai cia/ia
i?ina?oeaiiy iao?eena) na?ae/aoue i?i cia/i? ci?ie aia?aaoe/ieo
i?ioean?a, ui i?io?-eathoue a aaiaoioeeoao. Iaaei??ia aeoeaaoe?y
e?ciniiaeueiiai aia?aoo (iiiaeeii? aoi?eii? e?ciniie a ??cieo ae?eyieao
oeeoiieacie aaiaoioeeoo) na?ae/eoue i?i i?ioeane aooie?co a ia/?ieiaeo
ee?oeiao. E?eue-e?noue ae?eiaaio a aeano?oeoeaii ci?iaieo aaiaoioeeoao
cia/ii cieaeaia, ia i?noe? eiai cae/aeiiai ?icoaooaaiiy
niinoa??aathoueny ae?eyiee i?ina?oeaiiy oeeoiieacie. *anoi
a?aecia/a?oueny cia/ia aaeoie?caoe?y oeeoiieacie aaiaoioeeo?a. Ne?ae
cacia/eoe, a aeayeeo aei-ne?aeaeaiiyo [Roberts S.M. et al., 1997]
iieacaii, ui oeeoiieaciaoe/ia aaeoie?caoe?y aaiaoioeeo?a i?ney iecueeeo
aeic oienei?a iiaea aooe caaaeyee iaaeeeoeiaiio iaeiie/aiith ae?eiaaio o
aeaeyae? iiii/anoeiie. A oeeo ee?oeiao aoee a?aenooi? iciaee
aeaaaia?aoe?? aai ?aaaia?aoe??, ? aiie aoee cia/ii iaio /ooeea? aei
iioeiaeaeoaaeueii? ae?? aaeeeeo aeic NN14. Oey no?ee?noue aei oiene/iiai
iioeiaeaeaiiy, i/aaeaeii, iia’ycaia c iaaeeeoeiaei iaeiie/aiiyi
aioo??oiueiee?oei-iiai ae?eiaaio. Iaeiae, a?aeiii, ui ae?eiaai
neioaco?oueny a oeeoiieaciaoe/iiio iao?een? (a?aeiieaci?) ? neoi/aiiy
a?aioe ae?eiaa-io ia iiaeooue aooe ioi/aieie iaia?aiith [Aeueaa?on A. e
ae?, 1994]. Ia aeaeo?iiia?aiao oe? neoi/aiiy ?iiae? aeaeyaeathoue ye
i?ina?oeai? ae?eyiee oeeoiieacie, eio?? iiaeooue neioethaaoe
(aaeoie?caoe?th( oeeoiieacie ia na?oeiiioe/iiio ??ai?. Oiio iiaeia
i?eionoeoe, ui aaaaoi ?c (aaeoie?ciaaieo( aaiaoioeeo?a, i?e o?aai?
??ciiai aaiaco, iani?aaae? ? ee?oeiaie c? cia/iei ai?noii ae?eiaaio, ye?
a?eueo no?ee? aei iioeiaeaeoaaeueieo oaeoi??a ? caeaoi? aei oaeaeei?
?aia?aoe?? aiane?aeie aenieeo aia?ai?ano?n?a. Iiaeeeai oiio ? i?e ii?eo,
? i?e e??iaeano?oeoe?? ie a?aecia/aee iano?eueee ae?aaeaio iica?/i?noue
ia eeoa iioeiaeaeaieo ae?eyiie ee?oei, aea e ee?oei c iciaeaie
aioo??oiueiee?oeiii? ?aaaia?aoe??.

A yae?ao iioeiaeaeaieo aaiaoioeeo?a a?aecia/athoueny iiiaeeii? ina?aaeee
?ic??aeaeaiiy ioeeaiieacie, neoi/aiiy aaoa?io?iiaoeio ii ia?eoa???
yae?a, a e?aei?o aeiaaeeao — ae?eyiee ?oeiaoe?? yaea?ii? iaieiiee ?
eiiaeainaoe?y o?iiaoeio (ea??ii?eiic).

I?ina?o aeia/ieo eai?ey??a, a ae?eyieao aeano?oeoeaii ci?iaieo
aaiaoioeeo?a cia/ii ?icoe?aiee, iaei/enaeuei? i?e?iai?neiee a ?o
i?ina?oao /anoeiai aai iiai?noth ?aaeoeiaai?. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui iciaee
aioo??oiueiia/?ieiaiai (oi/i?oa, aioo??oiueiaeieueeiaiai) oieanoaco i?e
ii?eo a?aei?/aeenue iianthaeii ia i?ioyc? anueiai aenia?eiaioo. I?ney
e??iae?? ?o eieae?caoe?y iaiaaeoaaeany ae?eyieaie iioeiaeaeaieo ee?oei.
Ca?aeii c e?oa?aoo?ieie aeaieie, aioo??oiueiia-/?ieiaee oieanoac
na?ae/eoue i?i ii?ooaiiy aene?aoi?ii? ooieoe?? ia/?iee [Noaaioeia O.E.,
1997; Liepins A., 1989].

I?inoi?e Ae?nna cia/ii ?icoe?ai?, i?e?iai?neiee a ?o i?ina?-o? /anoi
c?oeiiaai? aai ?o iaia? acaaae?. Aiaeioae?e neioni?aeieo eai?ey??a a
ie?aieo ae?eyieao /anoeiai aai iiai?noth c?oeiiaaiee, ia eiai iiaa?oi?
i?aeoe/ii ia aecia/athoueny neeaaeee oa ae?inoe, a a oeeoiieaci?
niinoa??aathoueny /eneaii? e?ciniie oa i??e?iiiiae?ai? o?ea.

Iaiao?aeii cacia/eoe, ui i?ney ii?e?a e?euee?noue iioeiaeaeaieo ae?eyiie
a ia/?ioe? cia/ii a?eueoa, i?ae i?ney e??iaeano?oeoe?? oe??e. E??i oiai,
iienaia aeua ea?oeia i?ney ii?eiai? o?aaie ?iiae? aeia?a i?inoaaeo?oueny
oaea /a?ac 3 aeiae i?ney ii/aoeo aenia?eiaioo, a i?ney oieiaeiai? o?aaie
oe??e — o?eueee i?ney 7 aeiae.

Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth ii?eiaeo iioeiaeaeaiue ia/?iee ia
oeueo?ano?oeoo?iiio ??ai? aoei cia/ia ?icoe?aiiy i?ii?aee?a i?ae
non?aei?ie aaiaoioeeoaie, /anoi ?c caa?aaeaiiyi i?aeee?oeiieo eiioaeo?a
eeoa a ae?eyioe? aeia/ieo eai?ey??a. Oea aeyaeyeinue i?aeoe/ii ia
i?ioyc? anueiai aenia?eiaioo ? na?ae/eei i?i iayai?noue ae?aaeaiiai
?ioa?noeoe?aeueiiai iaa?yeo a ia/?ioe?.

Ii/eiath/e c 14 aeiae i?ney oa?i?/ii? o?aaie oe??e caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao
/anoa neoi/aiiy e?i?aeieo aaeoieae a oeeoiieaci? aaiaoioeeo?a, yea
caa??aa?oueny o iaia/aieo oaa?ei aei e?ioey aenia?eiaioo. *a?ac 28 ae?a
i?ney eieaeueii? a?ia?oa?i?? oe??e a i?inoi?ao Ae?nna ?, iniaeeai,
ia?eii?oaeuei?e cii? aeieueee a?aecia/aeinue ?ic?inoaiiy eieaaaiiai?
oeaieie — ae?eyiee neea?ico. I?ney e??iaieeao ie ciaoiaeeee eeoa
iaaaeee? io/ee eieaaaiiaeo o?a?ee a i?inoi?ao Ae?nna.

Oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? iciaee iioeiaeaeaiiy, ye? ie aeyaeee i?ney ae?? iaio
oaeoi??a aeinoaoiuei noaiaea?oi? ? ?ai?oa aoee iienai? i?e aea/aii?
i?neyae?? cia/ieo ii?e?a [Aaeaaeiaa Y.I. e ae?., 1988; Caaoe O.E. e
ae?., 1989; Kremer B. at al., 1977, 1979]. Iaeiae, ia a?aei?io a?ae
aeaieo e?oa?aoo?e ie ciaeoee, ui a ia/?ieiaeo ee?oeiao ii?yae c iciaeaie
iioeiaeaeaiiy iiaeia niinoa??aaoe yaeua ?aia?aoe??, eio?? ne?ae aoei a
a?aeianoe aei ?ic?yaeo eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeueieo. Aiie
aeyaeythoueny i?e e?euee?niiio oeueo?ano?oeoo?iiio aeine?aeaeaii?. Oae,
oaea /a?ac aeiao i?ney oa?i?/ii? o?aaie oe??e, ia caaaeath/e ia
o?aaiaioaoe?th a?aioey?iiai aiaeiieaciaoe/iiai ?aoeeoeoio,
a?aecia/a?oueny a??ia?aeia ca?eueoaiiy eiai ieoiiiai ia’?io a iaio
aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao. *a?ac 3 aeiae ye i?ney ii?eiai?, oae ? i?ney
oieiaeiai? o?aaie oe??e noaoenoe/ii cia/eii c?inoa? e?euee?noue
i?oioiiae??e ? ?o ieoiiee ia’?i a oeeoiieaci? aaiaoioeeo?a, ui
iaeii/anii c a??ia?aeiei ca?eueoaiiyi a?aeiiniiai ia’?io a?aioey?ii?
aiaeiieaciaoe/ii? n?oee a?aeia?aaea? iineeaiiy a?ineioaoe/ieo ?
aia?aii?iaeoeoth/eo i?ioean?a, i?eiaeii? a aeaye?e aeie? iiioeyoe??
aaiaoioeeo?a.

I?ney oieiaeiaiai iioeiaeaeaiiy oe??e (3-14 aeiaa aenia?eiaioo)
niinoa??aaeinue ca?eueoaiiy ieoiiiai ia’?io aa?aioey?iiai
aiaeiieaciaoe/iiai ?aoeeoeoio. Oey ?aaeoe?y cae/aeii anioe?th?oueny c?
noeioeyoe??th i?ioean?a a?io?ainoi?iaoe?? aiaeiaaiieo ? aeciaaiieo
(enaiia?ioee?a) oiene/ieo eiiiiiaio?a [Oaeeiia C.C. e ae?., 1987;
Noaaioeia O.E., 1997]. Oaeei /eiii, aeoeaaoe?y aeaoieneeoth/i? ooieoe??
ia/?iee ?a?no?o?oueny ia eeoa i?e ii?eo, aea ? i?e eieaeuei?e e??iae??.

Ia i?ioyc? i?aeoe/ii anueiai aenia?eiaioo niinoa??aaeanue aeoeaaoe?y
e?ciniiaeueiiai aia?aoo a aaiaoioeeoao aac iciae aeano?oeoe??
(ca?eueoaia e?euee?noue aoi?eiieo e?cinii ia a?e?a?iiio iiethn?
ee?oeie). Oaeei /eiii, nai? aaiaoioeeoe iaeo?ae?cothoue o?aaiaioe
iioeiaeaeaieo ee?oei ? aeei?enoiaothoue, i/aaeaeii, i?iaeoeoe
e?ciniiaeueiiai a?ae?ie?co aeey aeanieo iio?aa. Oey, i/aaeaeii,
i?enoinoaaeueia ?aaeoe?y, aeicaiey? aaiaoioeeoai a?aeiiaethaaoe aeani?
a?eeia? no?oeoo?e, aia?aaoe/i? ?ano?ne ? iaa?oue i?aeo?eioaaoe
eiioeaio?aoe?th aetheice a e?ia?, ui ? oeiiaith ?aaeoe??th ia
iioeiaeaeaiiy ? no?ania? aieeae cae/aeiiai aaiaco [Iaa?nii O.C., 1986].
?icoaooaaiiy /anoeie e?cinii a iaaeieiyaea?i?e cii? ee?oeie [Oa?ei A.I.,
1992; Liepins A., 1989] /anoi iia’ycaia c aeoeaaoe??th neioaco a?eea
oaeiae iiaeia ?icoe?ithaaoe ye i?iya eiiiainaoi?ieo i?ioean?a.

Io?eiai? iaie oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? aeai? i?i ci?ie a aaiaoioeeoao i?ney
oa?i?/ii? o?aaie oe??e, a aeaye?e i??? ia?aeeeeathoueny c aeaieie
E.E.?iiaiiai? [1984], yea a ?aaaia?aoe?ei?e a?ia?o?io?? ee?-oei ia/?iee
aeae?ey? aea? oace — aeano?oeoeaii-?aaeoeaio ? ianooiio — i?ie?oa?aoeaio
oaco. A ia?o?e oac? a?aeaoaa?oueny o?aaiaioaoe?y ca?ienoi?
aiaeiieaciaoe/ii? n?oee, cieea? ae?eiaai, iiaeaith?oueny ia i?ioyc?
aeiae ia’?i i?oioiiae??e, iaeiie/othoueny e?i?aee. A oac? i?ie?oa?aoe??,
a ia??iae aeoea?caoe?? neioaco AeIE, a yae?ao ia?aaaaea? aeeoociee
o?iiaoei (aoo?iiaoei) ? a?ia?o?ioothoueny yaea?oey. A oeeoiieaci?
c?inoa? ia’?i oeueo?ano?oeoo? ? i?ioyaei?noue ieaciieaie, e?ciniie
?ici?uai? ia?eioeeaa?ii.

A?ieia?/i? ia’?eoe ? yaeua oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aaeeeith neeaae-i?noth ?
aaaaoioaeoi?i?noth, ui iaoiiaeth? aenie? aeiiae aei iaae?e-iino?,
oi/iino? ? a??ia?aeiino? aeniiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue. Io?eiaiiy /?oeeo
(oi/ieo) aeieac?a iia’ycaii c aeiaeaoeiaeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie, ye?
aacothoueny ia canoinoaaii? i?eioeei?a ? iaoiae?a nenoaiii? ii?oi- ?
noa?aiiao??? ni?eueii c i?iaaaeaiiyi no/aniiai noaoenoe/iiai aiae?co
[Aaoaiaeeeia A.A., 1990].

Aaaeeeaei iaoai?ciii iaoa??aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy iaia?a?aieo
aaeaioaoe?eieo eieeaaiue ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? i?aai?a a
iianyeaeaiieo oiiaao ?nioaaiiy, ?o aeniei? ?iai/i? iai?oae i?e o?eaaeeo
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aaaioaaeaiiyo, a oaeiae a i?ioean? a?aeiiaeaiiy
ii?iaeueiiai ??aiy ?o aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? i?ney iioeiaeaeaiiy ?
iiaiooai?aiiy (a?ia?ieac?y) no?oeoo?. I?e oeueiio iaei??th c iaea?eueo
oa?aeoa?ieo iniaeeainoae ii?oieia?? eiiiainaoi?ii-i?e-noinoaaeueieo
i?ioean?a i?aai?cio, yea i?inoaaeo?oueny ia an?o ??a-iyo i?aai?caoe??, ?
/anoa ?icai?oaiiy ?aia?aoeaieo ? a?ia?iean-oe/ieo i?ioean?a ia a i?noe?
iioeiaeaeaiiy, a ii?yae c iei, aai o a?aeaeaeaii? a?ae iueiai a
iioeiaeaeaiiio i?aai? [Aaoaiaeeeia A.A. e ae?., 1984; Na?eenia Ae.N.,
1987]. Oiio aeey ioe?iee ??aiy aaeaioaoe?? i?aaio aei ae?? ??cieo aeci-
? aiaeiaaiieo oaeoi??a iaiao?aeii i?iaiaeeoe e?euee?ni? iae?i- ?
i?e?iii?oiiao?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

I?iaaaeaiee iaie aeenia?n?eiee aiae?c /?oe?oa aeyaea cia/iee aieea ?
ii?eo, ? e??iaeano?oeoe?? oe??e ia e?euee?ni? a?noiiao?e/i? iieacieee a
ia/?ieia?e aeieueoe?. I?e oeueiio aeeiai?ea ci?ie a?eueoin-o? iieaciee?a
a iaio aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao aoea a iniiaiiio iaeiaeiaa.
A?aei?iiino? /ano?oa niinoa??aaeenue a ci?i? ?o ??aiy a ??cieo ae?eyieao
ia/?ieiai? aeieueee. Oae, e?euee?noue aaiaoioeeo?a a ia/?ieia?e
aeieueoe? /a?ac aeiao i?ney oa?i?/ii? o?aaie oe??e a??i-a?aeii
ca?eueoo?oueny a iaio aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao a i?ii?aei?e cii?
aeieueee ? iaaeiei noaeei o??aae (ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? aaiaoioeeo?a
niinoa??aa?oueny eeoa iaaeiei oeaio?aeueieo aai i?ney e??i-aeano?oeoe??
oe??e). I?ci?oa, aei 7 aeiae aenia?eiaioo, niinoa??aa?oueny cia/ia
cieaeaiiy aeaiiai iieacieea (a?eueo ae?aaeaia i?ney ii?eiai? o?aaie
oe??e), yea ni?aiaaea? ca /anii c iae?ia?ioe/ieie ci?iaie a ia?aioei?
ia/?iee, ye? iiaeia niinoa??aaoe ia na?oeiiioe/iiio ??ai? i?ney
ii?eiai?, aai oieiaeiai? o?aaie oe??e. Aei 14 aeiae e?euee?noue
aaiaoioeeo?a ca?eueoo?oueny a a?eueoino? ae?eyiie ia/?ieiai? aeieueee
(iniaeeai ae?aaeaii i?ney ii?eo oe??e), a aei cae?i/aiiy aenia?eiaioo
ciiao iacia/ii cieaeo?oueny. Oaiaeaioe?y ciaioaiiy e?eueeino?
aaiaoioeeo?a ia i?ioyc? ianyoey niinoa??aa?oueny ? o ?ioaeoieo oaa?ei,
iiaeeeai oiio, ui cieaeo?oueny o?aeoe?y naia aeeiei?aeieo aaiaoioeeo?a ?
aeaiyaea?ieo ee?oei. Ciaioaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? ia/?ieiai?
oeaieie, yea iiaei a aooe iane?aeeii cieaeaiiy /enea ee?oei,
eiiiaino?oueny c?inoaiiyi aeie? oao?aiei?aeieo ee?oei, ye?
a?aecia/athoueny a?eueo aenieeie ooieoe?iiaeueieie iioaioe?yie [Ee?eeeia
I.E., 1977; A?iaeneee A.ss., O?uaaaaa E.A., 1981].

Iaeiei ?c iieaciee?a aeoeaaoe?? ?aaaia?aoi?ieo i?ioean?a aaaaea?oueny
e?euee?noue aeaiyaea?ieo aaiaoioeeo?a. Ca?aeii aeaieo e?oa?aoo-?e, a
ia?o? 3-4 aeiae ?aia?aoeaii? ?aaaia?aoe?? e?euee?noue aeaiyaea?ieo
ee?oei ciaioo?oueny, aiie i?aeaeathoueny i?oioe/iiio ae?eaiith ? a
?acoeueoao? ooai?ththoueny ii aea? iaeiiyaea?i? ee?oeie ianooiiiai
nooiaith iei?aeiino?. Ooai?aiiy ae aeaiyaea?ieo aaiaoioeeo?a ?c
iaeiiyaea?ieo a i?ioean? ?aia?aoeaii? ?aaaia?aoe?? a a?eueo i?ci? no?iee
yaey? niaith ?aca?a iie?iei?ae?caoe?? [Oaeoi? A.I., O?uaaaaa E.A., 1980;
A?iaeneee A.ss., O?uaaaaa E.A., 1981]. Iaiao?aeii cacia/eoe, ui
a?ia?ieac?y (iniiaaia ia ca?eueoaii? ia’?io aaiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo ye ca
?aooiie iiae?eo, oae ? ca ?aooiie iie?iei?ae?? ee?oei) ? a?ia?o?io?y
(i?e ye?e ee?oeie eeoa ca?eueoothoueny a ia’?i?) ?icai?oathoueny
iaeii/anii ? caaacia/othoue oaeaeea a?aeiiaeai-iy ao?a/aii? ooieoe??
i?aaia i?e eiai iioeiaeaeaii?. *enoi? a?ia?-ieac?? a ia/?ioe?, oiaoi
i?inoiai ca?eueoaiiy /enea aeeiei?aeieo ee?oei, i/aaeaeii, acaaae? ia
iiaea aooe, ine?eueee aiia ooai?aia aaiaoioeeoaie ??cii? iei?aeiino?.

A io?eiaieo iaie ?acoeueoaoao caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao cia/ii a?eueoa
e?euee?noue aeaiyaea?ieo aaiaoioeeo?a o ?ioaeoieo uo??a iaaeiei
oeaio?aeueieo aai ii??aiyii c ?ioeie ae?eyieaie ia/?ieiai? aeieueee.
Iaeiiiai?aaeaii? aeeiai?ee ?o ci?ie i?ney oa?i?/ii? o?aaie oe??e a
??cieo ae?eyieao aeieueee iaie ia aeyaeaii. A?aecia/a?oueny eeoa a
a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ca?eueoaiiy ?o e?eueeino? ii??aiyii c eiio?ieueieie
iieacieeaie a i?ii?aei?e cii? aeieueee ? iaaeiei noaeei o??aae ia
i?ioyc? anueiai aenia?eiaioo, a /a?ac 28 ae?a — a on?o oiiia?ao?/ieo
ae?eyieao aeieueee. A??ia?aeia ciaioaiiy aeaiiai iieacieea ieae/a
eiio?ieueiiai ??aiy aeyaeaii /a?ac 3 ? 7 ae?a i?ney ii?eiai? o?aaie
oe??e iaaeiei oeaio?aeueieo aai.

Aea?aaeaioii ee?oeiiiai ?iciiiaeaiiy aaiaoioeeo?a i?e ?ino? ia/?iee
aaaaeathoue ?o iie?iei?ae?caoe?th. Iaiao?aeii cacia/eoe, ui noiniaii
iai?iieo i?ioean?a iie?iei?aei? ee?oeie iathoue ia?aaaae ia?aae
aeeiei?aeieie [Ee?eeeia I.E., 1977]. Ieoiia aeoeai?noue iai?-io ?a/iaei
a iie?iei?aeieo ee?oeiao ia aeua, i?ae a aeeiei?aeieo, iaeiae noia?ia
i?iaeoeoaaiiy ??cieo niieoe ca?eueoaia. Iaie anoaiiaeaii a?eueo
ae?aaeaiee aieea ii?eiai? o?aaie ia iei?aei?noue aaiaoioeeo?a a ia?o? 3
aeiae aenia?eiaioo. I?ney e??iaeano?oeoe?? oe?-?e iei?aei?noue iiaea
iii?oii ci?ithaaoenue /a?ac 7 ae?a ? aei e?ioey aenia?eiaioo (28 ae?a).
I?e oeueiio a a?eueoino? ae?eyiie ia/?ieiai? aeieueee aeyaeaii
iaeiiiai?aaeaio aeeiai?eo ci?i aaiaoioeeo?a ??ciiai ??aiy iei?aeiino?
aeey ii?eiai? ? oieiaeiai? o?aai oe??e. E?euee?noue aee- ?
oao?aiei?aeieo aaiaoioeeo?a ia i?ioyc? ia?oeo 7 ae?a i?ney oa?i?/iiai
iioeiaeaeaiiy ci?ith?oueny ?aoeei?ieii. Oae, e?euee?noue aeeiei?aeieo
aaiaoioeeo?a ia? aeeiai?eo aei ciaioaiiy a?ae 1 aei 7 aeiae i?ney
oa?i?/ii? o?aaie oe??e, a e?euee?noue oao?aiei?aeieo aaiaoioeeo?a,
iaaiaee, ca?eueoo?oueny a oeae /aniaee ia??iae a iaio aenia?eiaioaeueieo
a?oiao. Oaeiae caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao cia/ia cieaeaiiy aei e?ioey
aenia?eiaioo e?eueeino? oao?aiei?aeieo aaiaoioeeo?a iaaeiei
oeaio?aeueieo aai ? a i?ii?aei?e cii? ia/?ieiai? aeieueee. I?ney
eieaeueii? a?iioa?i?? oe??e ca?eueoo?oueny e?euee?noue ieoaiei?aeieo
aaiaoioeeo?a a on?o ae?eyieao ia/?ieiai? aeieueee. Iaiao?ii cacia/eoe,
ui i?aeoe/ii ia i?ioyc? anueiai aenia?eiaioo (ca aeeeth/aiiyi 28 ae?a)
aaniethoia e?euee?noue iie?iei?aeieo ee?oei a ??cieo ae?eyi-eao
ia/?ieiai? aeieueee i?ney e??iaeano?oeoe?? oe??e aoea aeuith, i?ae i?ney
ii?eiai? o?aaie oe??e.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui ci?ia e?eueeino? ?ioeo ee?oeiieo eiiiiiaio?a
ia/?ieiai? aeieueee (ia aaiaoioeeo?a) i?aeoe/ii a on? no?iee
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoea iaeiiiai?aaeaiith c? ci?iith e?eueeino? ee?oei
Eoioa?a a iaio aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao. Caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao cia/ia
ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? c??/anoeo ee?oei /a?ac 7 ae?a i?ney ii?eo oe??e a
on?o ae?eyieao ia/?ieiai? aeieueee c iiaeaeueoei ae?aaeaiei ca?eueoaiiyi
?o e?eueeino? aei 14 aeiae aenia?eiaioo, ui oaeaeoa ca ana, iaoiiaeaii
ia i?ie?oa?aoe??th o?eniaaiiai ioea ee?oei Eoioa?a, a iaaeoiaeaeaiiyi ?o
?c e?noeiaiai iiceo. ??cea ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? ee?oei Eoioa?a i?ney 7
aeiae iiynith?oueny ye ?o ?oeiaoe??th, oae ? i?a?aoe??th a iaeanoue
iiiaeeiieo iae?ioe/ieo ae?eyiie a ia?aioei? ia/?iee, ui aeyaey?oueny ia
na?oeiiioe/iiio ??ai?.

Iaiao?aeii cacia/eoe, ui ? ii?e, ? e??iaeano?oeoe?y ia i?ioyc? anueiai
aenia?eiaioo a a?eueoino? ae?eyiie ia/?ieiai? aeieueee aeyaeyee
iaea?eueo /anoo ? ae?aaeaio ae?th ia e?euee?noue aaiaoioeeo?a,
aeaiyaea?ieo aaiaoioeeo?a, caaaeueiee ioe ?aoeeoeiaiaeioae?aeueieo
ee?oei ? e?euee?noue ee?oei Eoioa?a.

Noa?aieia?y o??? aai ?ioi? oeaieie, oiaoi oyaeaiiy i?i ini-aeeaino?
i?inoi?iaiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?? no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a a eiaeiiio
eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo, iiee ui iaei aea/aia. Iaeiae, ? i?ae-noaae
aaaaeaoe, ui eeoa aiiiaeueia aca?iia ?icoaooaaiiy oe?eeii ii?iaeueieo
ee?oei oaea iiaea noi?iaiaeaeoaaoenue a?aeiia?aeieie ooie-oe?iiaeueieie
ci?iaie [Aaoaiaeeeia A.A. e ae?., 1981; Aaoaiaeeeia A.A., 1990].

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai iaie aeenia?n?eiiai aiae?co noa?aiiao?e/ieo
iieaciee?a, ui aea/aeenue a ia/?ieia?e aeieueoe? anoaiiaeaii, ui ? ii?e
? e??iaeano?oeoe?y oe??e a ia?o? 7 ae?a aenia?eiaioo iae-a?eueo
ae?aaeaiee aieea aeyaeythoue ia ieoiio ieiuo iiaa?oi? aaiaoioeeo?a, ?o
oeeoiieacie ? iiaa?oiaai-ia’?iia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a aaiaoioeeoao.
I?e/iio, /a?ac 3 aeiae a??ia?aeii ae?aaeaiee aieea oa?i?/-iiai oaeoi?a
aecia/a?oueny eeoa i?ney e??iaeano?oeoe?? oe??e. *a?ac 14 ae?a i?ney
ii/aoeo aenia?eiaioo anoaiiaeaii cia/iee aieea ii?-eo oe??e ia ia’?iio
aonoeio aaiaoioeeo?a ? neioni?aeia, a oaeiae ia iiaa?oiaai-ia’?iia
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aaiaoioeeo?a ? iiaa?oiaaa ni?a-a?aeiioaiiy aaiaoioeeo?a
? neioni?ae?a. Aei cae?i/aiiy aenia?eiaioo caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao
ae?aaeaiee aieea eieaeueii? a?ia?- ? a?ii-oa?i?? oe??e ia ieoiiee ia’?i
aaiaoioeeo?a ? neioni?ae?a, a?aeiinio ieiuo iiaa?oi? neioni?ae?a ?
iiaa?oiaaa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aaiaoioeeo?a ? neioni?ae?a.

Iaiao?aeii cacia/eoe, ui aeeiai?ea ci?i noa?aiiao?e/ieo iieaciee?a a
??cieo ae?eyieao ia/?ieiai? aeieueee i?ney oa?i?/ii? o?aaie oe??e
iae/ano?oa iaeiioeiia a i?ii?aeeo a?ae 3 aei 7 aeiae aenia?eiaioo, ui
oaeaeoa ca ana iia’ycaii c iaea?eueo ae?aaeaieie a oeae ia??iae
aeano?oeoeaii-aeeno?io?/ieie ci?iaie a ia?aioei? ? no?ii? ia/?iee.
Iaea?eueo? a?aei?iiino? noa?aiiao?e/ieo iieaciee?a a ??cieo ae?eyieao
aeieueee i?ney ii?eiaiai ? oieiaeiaiai iioeiaeaeaiiy oe??e /ano?oa
niinoa??aathoueny /a?ac aeiao ? i?ney 28 ae?a aenia?eiaioo, ui,
iiaeeeai, iia’ycaii ye c a?eueo ?aii?ie ae?aaeaieie aeeno?io?/ieie
ci?iaie a ia/?ioe? i?ney eieaeueii? a?ia?oa?i?? oe??e, oae ? c ?o
caa?aaeaiiyi aei cae?i/aiiy aenia?eiaioo.

Aeyaeaia iaie /anoa ??ciiiai?aaeai?noue ci?i noa?aieia?/ieo iieaciee?a
aaiaoioeeo?a ? neioni?ae?a a ??cieo a?aeae?eao ia/?ieiai? aeieueee ye
i?ney ii?eo, oae ? i?ney e??iaeano?oeoe?? oe??e, ai/aaeaeue, iaoiiaeaia
?o ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieie iniaeeainoyie. Inoaii? /anoi aecia/athoueny
eieae?caoe??th ee?oei a i?inoi?? aeieueee: i?ney ii?eo a iniiaiiio
aeano?oeoeaii-aeeno?io?/i? ci?ie niinoa??aathoueny a i?ii?aei?e cii?
aeieueee ? iaaeiei noaeei o??aae, a i?ney e??iaeano-?oeoe?? — iaaeiei
oeaio?aeueieo aai ? a i?ii?aei?e cii? ia/?ieiai? aeieueee. O
a?aeiia?aeiino? c oiiia?ao??th iioeiaeaeaiue nai? iniaeeaino? ia? ?
i?ioean ?aia?aoe?? — ?ioaineai?noue aioo??oiueiee?oeiii? ?aaaia?aoe??
caeaaeeoue a?ae iieiaeaiiy ee?oeie a o?e /e ?io?e cii? ia/?ieiai?
aeieueee.

Eeniaaicaeaaei? i?ioeane neeaaeathoue iniiao iaoaaie?cio an?o ee?oei,
aecia/ath/e ?ioaineai?noue ?aaeoe?e aeoioeyoe?? ? o?ainoi?iaoe??
aia?a??, ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a, a?io?ainoi?iaoe?? ?
aeaoieneeaoe?? [?yaeiei A.A., Eeooeoe ?.E., 1990, 1991]. Ii?ooaiiy
ieenethaaeueieo i?ioean?a i?e ??cieo iaoieia?/ieo noaiao ? iniiaiei
iaoaaie?/iei neiae?iiii, yeee oi?io? ?icaeoie /enaeueieo
ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo ci?i [Ando Y. et al., 1989; Bekiarova G., Kozarev
I., 1991; Yoshida M. et al., 1995; Horton J.W., 1996; Kerver E.D. et
al., 1997]. Aea/aiiy noaio ? iiaeeeaeo iaoai?ci?a ii?ooaiue oeeo
i?ioean?a aea? iiaeeea?noue anoaiiaeoe caaaeueio caeiiii??i?noue ?
aca?iiiaoiiaeai?noue i?io?eaiiy eenaiuecaeaaeieo ?aaeoe?e, oiaoi,
ooi/ieoe iaoiaaiac caoai?thaaiiy ? c?iaeoe a?eueo iai?aaeaiith ?
iaa?oioiaaiith ei?aeoe?th iaoio?i?/ieo ?iceaae?a. Ae??oaiiy oeeo ieoaiue
o?nii iia’ycaia c ooiaeaiaioaeueieie caaaeueiia?ieia?/ieie i?iaeaiaie
o?ainii?oo ? ooee?caoe?? eenith a ee?oe-i?, ooieoe?iioaaiiyi a?iiaia?ai
? iiaea aeyaeoeny ei?eniei aeey aeyaeaiiy neeaaeieo aca?iica’yce?a
??cieo iaoaaie?/ieo i?ioean?a i?e aeno?aiaeueieo aieeaao [?yaeiei A.A.,
Eeooeoe ?.E., 1986; Basoglu A. et al., 1992; Sabeh F. et al., 1995].

Io?eiai? iaie a?io?i?/i? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i cia/ia c?inoaiiy ai?noo
iaeiiiaiai aeeaeueaeaa?aeo a iaia?aiao aiaeiieaciaoe/iiai ?aoeeoeoio
(i?e?iniiaeueia o?aeoe?y) aaiaoioeeo?a i?ney ii?eo oe??e. Oae,
iai?eeeaae, /a?ac aeiao i?ney ii?eiai? o?aaie ai?no iaeiiiaiai
aeeaeueaeaa?aeo i?e ?ic?aooieo ia e?euee?noue a?eea i?e?inii c?inoa? a
2,9 ?ace ii??aiyii c eiio?ieueieie cia/aiiyie; ia o?aoth aeiao eiai
??aaiue ia ci?ith?oueny; /a?ac 7 aei?a — iiieaeo?oueny, oi/a ?
caeeoa?oueny a 1,8 ?ace aeuei ca eiio?ieuei? cia/aiiy; /a?ac 14 aei?a
??aaiue iaeiiiaiai aeeaeueaeaa?aeo eeoa ia 32% aeuee, i?ae a eiio?ie?;
/a?ac 28 aei?a a??ia?aeiiai ca?eueoaiiy ??aiy iaeiiiaiai aeeaeueaeaa?aeo
ia niinoa??aa?oueny.

Ua a?eueo cia/iei aoei i?aeaeuaiiy iaeiiiaiai aeeaeueaeaa?aeo i?e
ia?a?aooieo ia oinoie?i?aee (a?aeiia?aeii: /a?ac aeiao — 3,3 ?ace; /a?ac
3 aei? — 4,2 ?ace; /a?ac 7 aei?a — a 2,6 ?ace; /a?ac 14 aei?a — ia 70%).
A?eueo? cia/aiiy ??aiy iaeiiiaiai aeeaeueaeaa?aeo i?e ?ic?aooieo ia
e?i?aeio o?aeoe?th iiynith?oueny oei, ui naia e?i?aee iaia?ai ?
noano?aoii ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy [?yaeiei A.A., Eeooeoe ?.E., 1990].

Aeyaeaia c 1 aei 14 aeiae aenia?eiaioo ciaioaiiy ??aiy oinoie?i?ae?a a
iaia?aiao aiaeiieaciaoe/iiai ?aoeeoeoio i?ney ii?eo oe??e, ia iao
iiaeyae, ? iane?aeeii ye ?o aeaa?aaeaoe?? a i?ioean? ia?aeeniiai
ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a (i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi /iai ? i?aeaeuaiee ??aaiue
iaeiiiaiai aeeaeueaeaa?aeo), oae ? iane?aeeii aeoeaaoe?? oinoie?iac.

I?i aeoeaaoe?th oinoie?iac na?ae/eoue ??cea ca?eueoaiiy ??aiy
e?cioinoaoeaeeeoie?ia i?e cieaeaii? ??aiy oinoaoeaeeeoie?ia ?
ca?eueoaii? e?eueeino? iaanoa?eo?eiaaieo aee?ieo eeneio. A?aeiii, ui
i?ae ae??th oinoie?iace A-2 a?ae oinoaoeaeeeoie?ia a?aeuaieth?oueny
iaeei aee?ii-eeneioiee caeeoie ? ooai?th?oueny e?cioinoaoeaeeeoie?i.
Noano?aoii oinoie?iace A-2 ? oaeiae ? oinoaoeaeeeaoaiieai?i.
Iiii-ae?oea?eaee ? aeeae?oea?eaee ? i?iaeoeoii ?aaeoe?? aeaa?aaeaoe??
o?eae?-oea?eae?a, yea eaoae?co?oueny o?eae?oea?eaee?iacith. I?ae aieeaii
oeueiai oa?iaioo ?c o?eae?oea?eae?a ooai?ththoueny aee- ?
iiiiae?oea?eaee ? iaanoa?eo?eiaai? aee?i? eeneioe [Chan P.H. et al.,
1983; Gasser H. et al., 1995]. Aeai? ci?ie, oae ye ? ciaioaiiy ??aiy
oinoie?-i?ae?a, a??ia?aeii i?iyaeythoueny a i?ii?aeeo c 1 aei 14 aeiae
i?ney eieaeueii? a?ia?oa?i?? oe??e. I?aeaeuaiiy eiioeaio?aoe??
oinoaoeaeeeoie?ia ? oinoaoeaeeeaoaiieai?ia, ye ? caaaeueieo
oinoie?i?ae?a, /a?ac 28 ae?a i?ney ii?eo, i/aaeaeii, ? iane?aeeii
?aia?aoe?? iaia?ai aiaeiieaciaoe/iiai ?aoeeoeoio.

Aeyaeaia iaie, i?aeoe/ii ia i?ioyc? anueiai aenia?eiaioo, i?aeaeuaiiy
aeoeaiino? eaoaineio Ae (e?ciniiaeueii? i?ioaace) a?aeia?aaea? oaeo
aeoeaaoe?? i?ioaie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeaoaa-thoueny a aaiaoioeeoao
i?ney ii?eo oe??e.

I?ney ii?eo oe??e cia/ii iiieaeo?oueny aeoeai?noue ai?e?i-a?ae?ieneeace
? a?eeanoa?ace, oa?iaio?a, ui anioe?ththoueny c e?i?ae-iith o?aeoe??th
iaia?ai aiaeiieaciaoe/iiai ?aoeeoeoio. Oe? oa?iaioe ? ?ioaa?aeueieie
a?eeaie iaia?ai ? oiio ?o aeoeai?noue iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny, ye iaaiee
oi?aa?naeueiee ?iaeeeaoi? neioaoe/ii? aeoeaiino? a?aioey?iiai
aiaeiieaciaoe/iiai ?aoeeoeoio [Anulacion B.F. et al., 1997]. ??cea
cieaeaiiy aeoeaiino? oeeo oa?iaio?a a ii/aoeia? oa?i?ie aenia?eiaioo
ci?iththoueny ca?eueoaiiyi ?o aeoeaiino? aei 28 ae?a. sse ie cacia/aee,
aei oeueiai /ano c?inoa? ai?no e?i?ae?a ?aoeeoeoio, ui ?acii c?
ca?eueoaiith aeoeai?noth oa?iaio?a na?ae/eoue i?i eiai a?aeiiaeaiiy (aai
iaa?oue a?ia?o?io?th) i?ney iioeiaeaeaiiy. Iaaaaeei iii?oeoe, ui
a?io?i?/i? iieacieee aeia?a ei?aeththoue c aeaieie noa?aieia?/iiai
aiae?co, ye? i?yii iieacothoue ca?eueoaiiy aeie? aiaeiieaciaoe/iiai
?aoeeoeoio a ee?oeiao.

Cia/ia cieaeaiiy aeoeaiino? ai?e?ia?ae?ieneeace ? a?eeanoa?ace a
ii/aoeia? no?iee i?ney ii?eiaiai iioeiaeaeaiiy oe??e ? ia-ne?aeeii ?yaeo
i?e/ei. 1). Ai?e?ia?ae?ieneeaca ? a?eeanoa?aca ? iaa?aiica’ycaieie
oa?iaioaie. I?e aeoeaaoe?? ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a ?
oinoie?iaciiai iioeiaeaeaiiy iaia?ai ii?ooo?oueny i?e?iioi/aiiy oeeo
oa?iaio?a. Aeoeai?noue oa?iaio?a caeaaeeoue a?ae oinoie?i?aeiiai
ioi/aiiy. Ii?ooaiiy a?ae?ioiaii? caoenii? ciie iaaeiei ?ioaa?aeueiiai
(?aceaeaioiiai) a?eea ?iaeoue eiai aeinooiiei aeey ??cieo
iioeiaeaeoth/eo oaeoi??a — i?ioaie?oe/ieo oa?iaio?a, aeoeaieo oi?i
eenith, aoi?eiieo i?iaeoeo?a ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a [?yaeiei
A.A., Eeooeoe ?.E., 1990; Chen Z. et al., 1996]. 2). Ia aeeeth/a?oueny ?
i?yia ?ia?aoth/a ae?y aeayeeo ii?eiaeo oienei?a ia aeoeai?noue aeacaieo
oa?iaio?a. Iiae?aiee iaoai?ci ?iaeoeaaoe?? oa?iaio?a aeia?a aeiaaaeaiee
ia i?eeeaae? i?oioiiae??e [?yaeiei A.A., Eeooeoe ?.E., 1991].

Ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? o?eae?oea?eae?a, ii/eiath/e c nueiii? aeiae i?ney
ii?eo ? aei e?ioey aenia?eiaioo, i/aaeaeii, iia’ycaia c ii?ooaiiyi
neioaco a?eea, aiane?aeie /iai e?iii?ioa?aee ia ooai?ththoueny a
ee?oeiao ia/?iee ? neioaciaai? e?i?aee ia ia?aoiaeyoue a e?ia, a
ii/eiathoue a?aeeeaaeaoeny a aaiaoioeeoao. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui aeai?
ci?ie ni?aiaaeathoue ca /anii c iaeiie/aiiyi iaeo?aeueieo aee??a a
ia/?ioe?, aeyaeaieo a?noieia?/ii.

I?e aiae?c? a?io?i?/ieo ci?i a i?e?iniiao ia/?iee i?ney e??iaeano?oeoe??
oe??e caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao i?aeoe/ii ?aeaioe/ia ii?eo aeeiai?ea ci?i
iieaciee?a. I?e oeueiio, a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ?o ??aaiue a??ia?aeii
ieae/ee ii?eiaiai. Ii/eiath/e c 14 aeiae i?ney e??iaeano?oeoe?? oe??e,
ca aeeeth/aiiyi ??aiy eaoaineio Ae, a?eueiiai oieanoa?eio ?
o?eae?oea?eae?a, a?io?i?/i? iieacieee a??ia?aeii ia a?ae??ciyeenue a?ae
eiio?ieueieo cia/aiue. ?aeaioe/i?noue aeeiai?ee ci?i a?io?i?/ieo
iieaciee?a a i?e?iniiao ia/?iee i?ney ii?eo ? e??i-aeano?oeoe?? oe??e
iina?aaeiuei i?aeoaa?aeaeo? iaeiioeiiee iaoai?ci iioeiaeaeaiiy ?
eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeueieo ?aaeoe?e o a?aeiia?aeue a ia/?ioe? i?e
oa?i?/ieo o?aaiao oe??e.

Ni?anoaaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a e?euee?niiai ii?oieia?/iiai aiae?-co ? aeaieo
a?io?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue noaio iaia?ai iieaco? oe?eeii caaeia?eueio
ei?aeyoe?th. A?io?i?/i? iieacieee, ye? na?ae/aoue i?i ia?aeenia
ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a iaia?ai, ?o a?ae?ie?c ? cieaeaiiy aeoeaiino?
oa?iaio?a, a?aeiia?aeathoue ciaioaiith o?aeoe?? iaia?aiieo i?aaiae, yea
aeyaey?oueny i?e aei??ao. Iaaiaee, a?io?i?/ii i?aeoaa?-aeaeaia
?aia?aoe?y eiiiiiaio?a ee?oeie aeiaiaeeoueny a?aeiiaeaiiyi no?oeoo?e ?
iaa?oue a?ia?ieac??th i?aaiae. Iaeiae, iaiao?aeii cacia/eoe, ui
a?eueo?noue aea/aieo a?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a ia/?iee iaeneiaeueii
ci?ith?oueny oaea /a?ac 3 aeiae ? i?ney ii?eo ? i?ney e??i-aeano?oeoe??
oe??e, oiae? ye iaeneioi ci?i no?oeoo?iiai oa?aeoa?o i?eoiaeeoueny ia 7
aeiao. A iaeiaeia?e i??? a?io?i?/i? iieacieee eiiiainaoe?? ia/?iee
a?aecia/athoueny ?ai?oa, i?ae ci?iththoueny ?? ii?oieia?/i? e?eoa???.
Oey ianoaaeia na?ae/eoue i?i aeaa aaaeeea? iiiaioe. Ii-ia?oa, no?oeoo?i?
ci?ie aaiaoioeeo?a aiane?aeie oa?i?/iiai ooeiaeaeaiiy oe??e iiaeii? aooe
iaoiiaeai? i?yiith ae??th oeeoioiene/ieo aaaio?a, ye? ii?ooothoue
oe?e?ni?noue iaia?aiieo eiiiiiaio?a ee?oeie. Ii-ae?oaa, a iniia?
?aaeoe?e ia/?ieiai? oeaieie, ye? ?iaeoeiaai? ae??th aeniei? oa iecueei?
oaiia?aoo?e ia oe??o, eaaeaoue iaei? e o? ae oeeoieia?/i? iaoai?cie.
Oeth ianoaaeio iiaeia ?icoe?ith-aaoe ye oaeoi? caaaeueiia?ieia?/iiai
cia/aiiy, ui aeiaiaeeoue oi?aa?naeuei?noue a?aeiia?ae? ee?oeie i?e
??cieo, iaa?oue i?ioeeaaeieo ca iai?aaeai?noth, ae?yo.

AENIIAEE

1. Oa?i?/ia iioeiaeaeaiiy oe??e uo??a (eieaeueia ii?eiaa ? oieiaeiaa
o?aaie) noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny nooo?aeie, i?eioeeiiai iaeiioeiieie,
ii?oieia?/ieie ? ooieoe?iiaeueieie ci?iaie a ia/?ioe? aenia?eiaioaeueieo
oaa?ei. Oeaieii? ? ee?oeii? i?iyae iioeiaeaeaiue ia/?iee i?ney ii?eo
oe??e ? e??iae?? ??ciyoueny iniaeeainoyie /aniai? aeeiai?ee, nooiaiai
ae?aaeaiino? ? aoaeoeaiino? eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeueieo i?ioean?a.

2. A?noieia?/ia aea/aiiy (na?oeiiioe/iee ??aaiue) iieacaei, ui ii?e
oe??e i?ecaiaeeoue aei a?eueo cia/ieo iioeiaeaeaiue oeaieie ia-/?iee,
i?ae e??iae?y. Ia i?ioyc? anueiai aenia?eiaioo a?aecia/a?oueny cia/ia
ae?aaeai?noue aeeno?io?/ieo (aei 7 aeiae — a?ae?ii?/ia, a aei 14 aeiae —
aee?iaa aeeno?io?y) ? aeano?oeoeaieo (eieaeuei? iae?ice) ci?i
aaiaoioeeo?a. ?acoeueoaoe a?noiiao??? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui
iaeneiaeueiee ??aaiue iioeiaeaeaiue ia/?ieiai? oeaieie ?a?no?o?oueny
/a?ac 7 ae?a i?ney ae?? iaio oaeoi??a — ? ii?eo ? caii?iaeaiiy oe??e.

3. Oa?aeoa? oa?i?/iiai oaeoi?o aieeaa? ia oiiia?ao?th ina?aaeeiaeo
iioeiaeaeaiue a aeieueeao ia/?iee: i?ney ii?eo iioeiaeaeaiiy
eieae?cothoueny, ia?aaaaeii, a (ii?oaeuei?e cii?( (iaeanoue o??aae ?
i?eeaaeeo a?aeae?e?a); i?ney e??iae?? — a (ia/?ieia?e cii?( (iaaeiei
oeaio?aeueieo aai) aeieueee. Iioeiaeaeaiiy ia/?ieiai? oeaieie i?ney
ii?eo oe??e i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?icaeoeo eieaeueieo neea?ioe/ieo ci?i,
ia?aaaaeii, a iaeano? o??aae aei e?ioey oa?i?io niinoa?aaeaiiy (28
ae?a). ?aia?aoe?y iioeiaeaeaiue ia/?iee i?ney e??iae?? ia oe??o a?eueo
aoaeoeaia — iaaeeeoeiaeo ?ic?inoaiue niieo/ii? oeaieie i?e
a?noi-eia?/iiio aea/aii? ia a?aei?/aii.

4. ?acoeueoaoe oeueo?ano?oeoo?iiai aiae?co iieacothoue, ui o
a?aeiia?aeue ia oa?i?/ia iioeiaeaeaiiy oe??e, aeeeeeaia iaiia oaeoi?aie,
a aaiaoioeeoao niinoa??aa?oueny noaiaea?oiee (iaa??( ci?i, yeee
na?ae/eoue i?i iioeiaeaeaiiy ee?oeiieo i?aaiae ? cieaeaiiy ooie-oe?e
ee?oei. Oe? ci?ie aeeth/aee: aioo??oiueiee?oeiia aeaiiioaaiiy e?i?ae?a o
aeaeyae? aaeeeeo aai /eneaieo ae??aieo e?aiaeue, ciaioaiiy e?eueeino?
a?aioe ae?eiaaio, eieaeueio aeano?oeoe?th i?aaiae (i?-oioiiae??e,
a?aioey?ii? aiaeiieaciaoe/ii? n?oee), ae?aaeaiee iaa?ye ee?oeiiiai
iao?eena ?, ia??aeei, ia?oe?aeuei? iae?ice aaiaoioeeo?a. I?e ii?eia?e
o?aai? iciaee ee?oeiiiai iioeiaeaeaiiy i?iyaeyeenue ?ai?oa (c 3 aeiae),
aoee a?eueo ae?aaeai? ? a?aecia/aeenue aae aei ca-e?i/aiiy oa?i?io
niinoa?aaeaiiy. Oeeoieia?/i? iciaee iioeiaeaeaiiy ia/?ieiai? oeaieie,
oae naii, ye ? a?noieia?/i?, aoee iaeneiaeueii ae?aaeai? ia 7 aeiao
i?ney iaianaiiy oa?i?/ii? o?aaie oe??e.

5. ?icoe?aiiy i?aeee?oeiieo i?inoi??a a ia/?ieiaeo aaeeao, yea ia??aeei
iiyaeyeinue a i?neyii?eiaiio ia??iae?, na?ae/eei i?i ii?ooaiiy aa?’??ieo
aeanoeainoae eiioaeo?a i?ae non?aei?ie aaiaoioeeoaie. I?i aaeueioaaiiy
aene?aoi?ii? ooieoe?? ia/?iee iiaeia aoei noaeeoe ca ?icoe?aiiyi
aeia/ieo eai?ey??a ? ?aaeoeoe?? i?e?iai?neiie ia a?aeiia?aei?e ee?oeii?e
iiaa?oi?. Aei e?ioey oa?i?io aenia?eiaioo (28 ae?a) i?e iaio aeaeao ae??
ca?eueooaaany ai?no eieaaaiiaeo o?a?ee a i?inoi?ao Ae?nna.

6. Aiae?c oeeoiiao?e/ieo ? noa?aieia?/ieo iieaciee?a aeicaieea iieacaoe,
ui ii/aoeia? i?iyae eiiiainaoe?? ii?ooaieo ooieoe?e aaiaoioeeo?a (iciaee
aioo??oiueiee?oeiii? ?aaaia?aoe??) aeieeathoue ua ia oii? i?ioean?a
iioeiaeaeaiiy i?aaiae oa ?ioeo eiiiiiaio?a ee?oei. Ii?oieia?/iee i?iya
eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeueieo ?aaeoe?e ?aae?coaaany a ina?aaeeia?e
a?ia?ieac?? o?aaiaio?a aiaeiieaciaoe/iiai ?aoeeoeoio, iiya? u?eueieo
i?oioiiae??e iaaaeeeiai ?ici??o, eieaeuei?e eiioeaio?aoe?? a?aioe
ae?eiaaio. Iiioeyoe?? aaiaoioeeo?a a aeieueeao a?ae??ciyeenue yaiei
aaoa?iii?o?ciii, c /a?aoaaiiyi iioeiaeaeaieo ? a?aeiinii caa?aaeaieo
ee?oei.

7. Aeei?enoaiiy aeenia?n?eiiai aiae?co aeaei iiaeeea?noue aeyaeoe i?yiee
? neeueiee aieea oa?i?/iiai iioeiaeaeaiiy oe??e ia a?eueo?noue
a?noiiao?e/ieo (e?euee?noue aaiaoioeeo?a oa ?ioeo ee?oei-ieo aeaiaio?a,
e?euee?noue aeaiyaea?ieo ee?oei) ? oeeoiiao?e/ieo (e?-euee?noue
iioeiaeaeaieo i?oioiiae??e, ia’?iia u?euei?noue aiaeiieaciaoe/iiai
?aoeeoeoio) iieaciee?a. Oeae aieea i?ine?aeeiao?oueny ia i?ioyc? anueiai
oa?i?io niinoa?aaeaiiy. Aeaye? ia?aiao?e (iiaa?oiy aaiaoioeeo?a, ?o
ia’?iia u?euei?noue, ia’?iia aeiey neioni?ae?a) aeaoa?i?iiaai? aieeaii
oa?i?/ii? ae?? a iaio?e i???.

8. Aeeiai?ea ii?oieia?/ieo iieaciee?a oeaieie ia/?iee i?ney
iiaeaethaaiiy eieaeueiiai ii?eo ? e??iaeano?oeoe?? oe??e ei?aeth? c?
ci?iith a?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue noai a?ieia?/ieo
iaia?ai ? oa?iaioieo nenoai aaiaoioeeo?a. O a?aeiia?aeiino? c ?aaeueiei
ia?aa?aii i?ioeano, ci?ia a?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a (ooieoe?-iiaeueia
oa?aeoa?enoeea) aeia?aaeaea? ?icaeoie ii?oieia?/ieo i?iya?a
iioeiaeaeaiiy ee?oei.

9. A i?e?iniiaeuei?e o?aeoe?? ee?oei ia/?iee oaea c 3 aeiae
ca?eueoo?oueny ai?no iaeiiiaiai aeeaeueaeaa?aeo, cieaeo?oueny
eiioeaio?aoe?y oinoie?i?ae?a, ia?aeaeueii ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ai?noo ?o
e?ci-oi?i, ui na?ae/eoue i?i aeoeaaoe?th ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy iaia?ai ?
ae?yeueiino? oinoie?iac. Aeoeai?noue oa?iaio?a (?aceaeaioieo aaee?a)
aiaeiieaciaoe/iiai ?aoeeoeoio aeyaey? aeaioaciee oa?aeoa? — cieaeaiiy c
ianooiiei ca?eueoaiiyi aei 28 aeiae, ui aeaco? ia eiiiainaoe?th
ii?ooaii? neioaoe/ii? ooieoe?? ee?oei.

10. Aiaeia?/ia aeeiai?ea ii?oieia?/ieo ? ooieoe?iiaeueieo iieaciee?a
noaio oeaieie ia/?iee i?ney eieaeueiiai ii?eo ? e??i-iioeiaeaeaiiy
aeicaiey? iaaiai?thaaoe ni?euei?noue oeeoieia?/ieo iaoai?ci?a, ui
eaaeaoue a iniia? ?icaeoeo ?aaeoeaii? a?aeiia?ae? ia-/?iee ?
eiiiainaoe?? ii?ooaieo ooieoe?e i?e iaio aeaeao ae??. ?acoeueoaoe
na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui iioeiaeaeaiiy iaia?aiieo no?oeoo? aaiaoioeeo?a ?
ea?aeeiaeueiei i?ioeanii, yeee aeiaaa? a?aeiia?aeii? ei?aeoe??
(iai?eeeaae, aioeieneaeaioii? oa?ai??) i?e e?eoaaii? oa?-i?/ieo
iioeiaeaeaiue oe??e.

NIENIE I?AOeUe, IIOAE?EIAAIEO CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

Ii?oiooieoeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea ia/aie a ?aiiea n?iee iinea eieaeueiie
aeia?- e aeiioa?iee eiaee /Aoian E.A., Aeiaaaiue E.I., Aieoaue E.I.,
?iiaineay E.I., Oaiiaae A.I. //A?niee ii?oiei-a??.- 1997.- O.3, ?1.-
N.51-52.

Eiaai A.E., Aoian ?.A., Eooa? ?.Ae. Ci?ie iane aeayeeo aioo??o-i?o
i?aai?a uo??a i?ney e??iaeano?oeoe?? oe??e //A?niee A?iieoeue-eiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.- 1997.- O.1, ?1.- N.25-26.

Eiaai A.E., Aoian ?.A., Eooa? ?.Ae. Iae?iiao?e/i? ia?aiao?e aeayeeo
aioo??oi?o i?aai?a uo??a i?e ii?eia?e o?aai? oe??e //A?niee ii?oieia??.-
1997.- O.3, ?2.- N.79-80.

Eiaai A.E., Aoian ?.A., Eooa? ?.Ae. Ci?ie iane aeayeeo aioo??o-i?o
i?aai?a uo??a i?ney ni?eueiiai aieeao ia oe??o eieaeueii? a?ia?- oa
a?iioa?i?? //A?niee A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.-
1997.- O.1, ?2.- N.10-11.

Aoian E.A., Oaiiaae A.I. Iany/iay aeeiaieea iieeieieaeecaoeee
aaiaoioeeoia o iieiaic?aeuo e?un-naioeia a ?aciuo o/anoeao ia/aii/iie
aeieueee //A?niee A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.-
1997.- O.2, ?1.- N.82-83.

Aoian E.A. Eciaiaiey ieieaeiinoe aaiaoioeeoia o e?un-naioeia a oa/aiea
ianyoea iinea iaeiaa eiaee a ?aciuo o/anoeao ia/aii/iie aeieueee
//A?niee A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?ne-oaoo.- 1997.-
O.2, ?1.- N.84-86.

Aoian E.A. Iiaia ia eciaiaieyo a ia/aie, eiaeooee?iaaiiuo
yiaeioieneiaie //?inneeneea ii?oieiae/aneea aaaeiiinoe.- 1998.- ?1 (2).-
N.120-122.

Aoian E.A. N?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea aicaeaenoaey eieaeueiie aeia?-
e aeiioa?iee eiaee ia ianno ia/aie e?un //?inneeneea ii?oieiae/aneea
aaaeiiinoe.- 1998.- ?1(2).- N.122-125.

Aoian E.A., Oaiiaae A.I., Iaieaineee A.A. Aeeiaieea eciaiaiee
noa?aiiao?e/aneeo ia?aiao?ia, niyouo a ?aciuo o/anoeao ia/aii/iie
aeieueee o iieiaic?aeuo e?un-naioeia //A?niee ii?oieia??.- 1998.- O.4,
?1.- N.24-26.

Aoian E.A. Eciaiaiea iaeioi?uo noa?aiiao?e/aneeo ia?aiao?ia ia/aie o
e?un a oa/aiea ianyoea iinea iaeiaa eiaee //A?niee ii?oieia??.- 1998.-
O.4, ?1.- N.28-30.

Aoian E.A., Oaiiaae A.I. Aeeiaieea eciaiaiey ieieaeiinoe aaiaoioeeoia o
e?un-naioeia iinea e?eiaeano?oeoeee eiaee //A?niee iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue.- 1998.- ?3-4.- N.38-39.

Aoian E.A. N?aaieoaeueiay ioeaiea aeeyiey eieaeueiie aeia?- e
aeiioa?iee eiaee ia iaeioi?ua noa?aiiao?e/aneea ia?aiao?u ia/aie e?un
//?inneeneea ii?oieiae/aneea aaaeiiinoe.- 1998.- ?3 (4).- N.103-107.

Aoian E.A. Ioeaiea aeeyiey eieaeueiie aeia?- e aeiioa?iee eiaee ia
iaeioi?ua aenoiiao?e/aneea iieacaoaee aaiaoioeeoia e?un //?inneeneea
ii?oieiae/aneea aaaeiiinoe.- 1998.- ?3(4).- N.108-111.

Aoian ?.A., Oaiiaae I.I. Ci?ie noa?aiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a ia/?iee o
uo??a i?ney e??iaeano?oeoe?? oe??e //A?niee A?iieoeue-eiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.- 1998.- O.2, ?2.- N.304-307.

Aeeiai?ea ci?i a?io?i?/iiai noaio ia/?iee i?ney oa?i?/iiai ooeiaeaeaiiy
oe??e /Iaiothe I.I., Aoian ?.A., Aeiaaaiue ?.I., Aei?o-???aa E.TH.,
Aei?o???aa ?.I. //A?niee A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.- 1998.- O.2, ?2.- N.337-340.

Aoian E.A. N?aaieoaeueiay ioeaiea aeeyiey iaeiaa e e?eiaeano?oeoeee
eiaee ia oeueo?ano?oeoo?iua ia?aiao?u aaiaoioeeoia e?un //A?niee
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue.- 1998.- ?5-6.- N.44-45.

Aoian E.A. Oeueo?ano?oeoo?iua eciaiaiey a ia/aie e?un iinea iaeiaa
eiaee //A?niee ii?oieia??.- 1998.- O.4, ?2.- N.174-175.

Aeeiaieea oeueo?ano?oeoo?iuo eciaiaiee a ia/aie e?un iinea
e?eiaeano?oeoeee eiaee /A.A.Aaiei, E.A.Aoian, A.I.Oaiiaae, A.A.
Iaieaineee //A?niee ii?oieia??.- 1998.- O.4, ?2.- N.185-186.

Gunas I. Morphological changings in the rat liver during thermal
burning shock //Verhandlungen der Anatomischen Gesellschaft. 92. In
Olsztyn vom 24. Bis 27. Mai 1997: bipartitemeeting /zusammen mit der
Polish Anatomical Society with the participation of the Association des
Anatomistes.- 1997.- P.105.

Gunas I., Dovgan I., Masur O. Method of thermal burn trauma correction
by means of cryoinfluence //Verhandlungen der Anatomischen Gesellschaft.
92. In Olsztyn vom 24. Bis 27. Mai 1997: bipartitemeeting /zusammen mit
der Polish Anatomical Society with the participation of the Association
des Anatomistes.- 1997.- P.105.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aoian ?.A. ?aaeoe?? ia/?iee uo??a ia iioeiaeaeaiiy, yea ?iaeoeiaaia
eieaeueiith a?ia?- oa a?iioa?i??th oe??e.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.03.01 — ii?iaeueia aiaoii?y.- Oa?e?a-nueeee
aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi aieeao ii?eo ? e??iaeano-?oeoe?? oe??e
ia ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiee noai ia/?iee uo??a. A ?iaio? ca aeiiiiiaith
eiiieaeniiai ii?oieia?/iiai ? a?io?i?/iiai aiae?co aea/aii ae?iai?eo
ooeiaeaeaiiy ? ?aia?aoe?? oeaieie ia/?iee uo??a i?ney eieaeueiiai
oaieiaiai ? oieiaeiaiai iioeiaeaeaiiy oe??e. Anoaiiaeai? iniiai?
a?noieia?/i? ? oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? ci?ie a ia/?ioe? uo??a i?ney eieaeueii?
a?ia?- ? a?iioa?i?? oe??e. ?ic?iaeai? e?euee?ni? e?eoa???, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ye ooeiaeaeaiiy, oae ? a?aeiia?aei?
eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeuei? ?aaeoe?? ia/?iee ia ??c-ieo ??aiyo ??
no?oeoo?ii? i?aai?caoe?? i?ney ii?eiai? oa oieiaeiai? o?aaie oe??e. Ca
aeiiiiiaith aeenia?n?eiiai aiae?co iieacaia caeaaei?noue caaaeaieo ci?i
a?ae oa?aeoa?o ae?? oa?i?/iiai oaeoi?o. Eiiieaenia aeei?enoaiiy
ii?oieia?/iiai ? a?io?i?/iiai aiae?c?a aeicaieeei anoaiiaeoe
?aeaioe/i?noue ee?oeiieo iaoai?ci?a iioeiaeaeaiiy ia/?iee i?ney ii?eo ?
e??iaeano?oeoe?? oe??e. Ia i?aenoaa? io?eiaieo aeaieo c’yaey?oueny
iiaeeea?noue i?iaiaeeoe ?ac?iaeo i?io?-eaeoe/ieo ? e?eoaaeueieo
caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia ei?aeoe?th ii?ooaiue, ui ?iaeoeiaai? a ia/?ioe?
oa?i?/iith o?aaiith oe??e.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ia/?iea, ii?e oe??e, e??iaeano?oeoe?y oe??e, uo?,
ii?oiooieoe?iiaeuei? ci?ie, ii?oiiao??y.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aoian E.A. ?aaeoeee ia/aie e?un ia iia?aaeaeaiea, eiaeooee?iaaiiia
eieaeueiie aeia?- e aeiioa?ieae eiaee.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.03.01 — ii?iaeueiay aiaoiiey.- Oa?ueeianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeeoeeineee oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai aeeyiey iaeiaa e e?eiaeano?oeoeee eiaee
ia ii?oiooieoeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea ia/aie e?un. A ?aaioa n iiiiuueth
eiiieaeniiai ii?oieiae/aneiai e aeioeie/aneiai aiaeeca eco/aia aeeiaieea
iia?aaeaeaiey e ?aia?aoeee oeaie ia/aie e?un iinea eieaeueiiai oaieiaiai
e oieiaeiaiai iia?aaeaeaiey eiaee. Onoaiiaeaiu iniiaiua aenoieiae/aneea
e oeueo?ano?oeoo?iua eciaiaiey a ia/aie e?un iinea eieaeueiie aeia?- e
aeiioa?iee eiaee. ?ac?aaioaiu eiee/anoaaiiua e?eoa?ee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea
eae iia?aaeaeaiea, oae e ioaaoiua eiiiainaoi?ii-i?eniiniaeoaeueiua
?aaeoeee ia/aie ia ?aciuo o?iaiyo aa no?oeoo?iie i?aaiecaoeee iinea
iaeiaiaie e oieiaeiaie o?aaiu eiaee. N iiiiuueth aeenia?neiiiiai aiaeeca
iieacaia caaeneiinoue iaaethaeaaiuo eciaiaiee io oa?aeoa?a aicaeaenoaey
oa?ie/aneiai oaeoi?a. Eiiieaeniia eniieueciaaiea ii?oieiae/aneiai e
aeioeie/aneiai aiaeecia iicaieeei onoaiiaeoue eaeaioe/iinoue eeaoi/iuo
iaoaieciia iia?aaeaeaiey ia/aie iinea iaeiaa e e?eiaeano?oeoeee eiaee.
Ia iniiaa iieo/aiiuo aeaiiuo aiciiaeia ?ac?aaioea i?ioeeaeoe/aneeo e
ea/aaiuo ia?ii?eyoee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia ei??aeoeeth ia?ooaiee,
eiaeooee?iaaiiuo a ia/aie oa?ie/aneie o?aaiie eiaee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ia/aiue, iaeia eiaee, e?eiaeano?oeoeey eiaee, e?una,
ii?oiooieoeeiiaeueiua eciaiaiey, ii?oiiao?ey.

ANNOTATION

Gunas I.V. Rat’s liver reaction after skin’s local impairment by hyper-
and hypothermia.- Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by specialty 14.03.01 — normal anatomy.-
Kharkov State Medical University, Kharkov, 1998.

Dissertation is devoted to the questions of the burn and cryodestruction
influence on the morphofunctional status of the rats’ liver. In this
work impairment’s dynamic and rats’ liver’s tissue reparation after
local warm and cold destruction of the skin by complex morphological and
biochemical analyses were studied. A basic histologic and
ultrastructural changes in the rat’s liver after local hypo- and
hyperthermia of the skin were established. A quantitative parameters for
impairment’s assessment and for the evaluation of
compensation-reparative reactions of the liver on the different levels
their structural organization after skin’s burn and cryodestruction were
determined. We have shown a dependence of the changes in the liver from
the character of the thermal factor influence by ANOVA and MANOVA. The
morphological and biochemical complex of investigations gives us a
possibility to clearing of identical of the cells mechanisms of the
liver’s tissue changes after skin’s burn and cryodestruction. On the our
data basis there is a possibility for the new prophylactic and
therapeutic steps development for the correction liver’s impairment
after thermal trauma.

Key words: liver, skin’s burn, skin’s cryodestruction, rat,
morphofunctional changes, morphometry.

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