.

Рафінування танталу та дослідження деяких його властивостей: Автореф. дис… канд. фіз.-мат. наук / М.М. Пилипенко, Нац. наук.центр ‘Харк. фіз.-техн.

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IAOe?IIAEUeIEE IAOEIAEE OeAIO?

“OA?E?ANUeEEE O?CEEI-OAOI?*IEE ?INOEOOO”

Ieeeiaiei Ieeiea Ieeieaeiae/

OAeE 669.294.4: 548.55

?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo

oa aeine?aeaeaiiy aeayeeo eiai aeanoeainoae

01.04.13 – o?ceea iaoae?a

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1998

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiien

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia o Iaoe?iiaeueiiio Iaoeiaiio Oeaio??
“Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?icoeooo”

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aaeaaea Aieiaeeie? Ieoaeeiae/

(canooiiee aee?aeoi?a ?inoeoooo o?ceee oaa?aeiai

o?ea, iaoa??aeiciaanoaa oa oaoiieia?e Iaoe?iiaeueiiai

iaoeiaiai oeaio?o “Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee

?inoeooo”).

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ioaa/ia Aiaoie?e Oa?aniae/

(i?ioani? eaoaae?e Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai

iie?oaoi?/iiai oiiaa?neoaoo)

eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,

Eao?e/ Ieeiea Iao?iae/

(noa?oee iaoeiaee niia?iaioiee ?inoeoooo

iiiie?enoae?a IAI Oe?a?ie, i.Oa?e?a).

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: ?inoeooo iaoaeio?ceee ?i.A.A.Eo?aethiiaa IAI
Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 30 “ aa?aciy 1999 ?ieo i 15-00 aiaeei?

ia can?aeaii? Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.845.01 o
Iaoe?iiaeueiiio iaoeiaiio oeaio?? “Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee
?icoeooo” (310108, i. Oa?e?a-108, aoe. Aeaaeai?/ia, 1)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaoeiaiai oeaio?o “Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee
?icoeooo” (310108, i.Oa?e?a-108, aoe. Aeaaeai?/ia, 1).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 26 “ ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
I.?.Aecaoeueeee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Oaioae ia? oi?eaeueiee eiiieaen o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae: aenieo oaiia?aoo?o ieaaeaiiy, aenieo i?oei?noue ?
ieanoe/i?noue, a oaeiae no?ee?noue i?ioe ei?ic?? ? ?ico??neoaaiiy i?ae
iai?oaeaiiyi.

Caaaeyee aeua ia?ae?/aiei aeanoeainoyi oeae iaoae, a oaeiae eiai nieaae,
ciaoiaeyoue oe?iea canoinoaaiiy a ?aae?iaeaeo?ii?oe? ? aeaeo?ioaoi?oe?,
iaoaeo?a?? eieuei?iaeo ? ??aeeicaiaeueieo iaoae?a. ?icoe?th?oueny
canoinoaaiiy oaioaeo a ?aeaoiaoaeoaaii?, yaea?i?e aia?aaoeoe? ?
o?i?/iiio aia?aoiaoaeoaaii?, a oaeiae aeey aeaioiaeaiiy aeayeeo
iaaee/ieo ?ino?oiaio?a oa i?enoinoaaiue.

I?ioa, oaioae oaoi?/iiai nooiaith /enoioe ia caaaeaee caaeiaieueiy?
aeiiaai oaoiieia?e, ui oaeaeei ?icaeaathoueny oa iiaei iaoa??aeai. Oae,
aeey iaea?aeaiiy eiiaeainaoi??a c a?eueo aenieeie ?iai/eie iai?oaaie oa
noaa?eueieie aenieoaoaoe?eieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aeiaaa?oueny oaioae
/enoioith 99,99 ian.%. Iia? oaoiieia??, cie?aia, i?oai?, ui
?icieeththoue, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey iaea?aeaiiy no/anieo
?ioaa?aeueieo noai aeiaaathoue oaioae ua a?eueo aeniei? /enoioe.

I?aeaeuaiiy /enoioe iaoae?a i?ecaiaeeoue ia o?eueee aei ci?ie a?aeiieo
?o aeanoeainoae, aea e aei aeyaeaiiy iiaeo, ?ai?oa “caaoaeueiaaieo”
aeii?oeaie. *eno? iaoaee ? iaiao?aeiei ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e?iaee
aieeao aeanieo, aeii?oeiaeo oa ?ioeo aeaoaeo?a ia no?oeoo?ii-/ooeea?
aeanoeaino?, ui iathoue aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey ?ic?iaee oai??? noai?aiiy
iaoae?/ieo iaoa??ae?a ?c caaeaieie aeanoeainoyie.

O neeaaei?e noai? io?eiaiiy /enoeo iaoae?a o?ce/i? iaoiaee ?ao?ioaaiiy ?
caaa?oaeueieie. Iniaeeaino? ?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo o?ce/ieie iaoiaeaie
aea/ai? iaaeinoaoiuei. Oaeiae iaaeinoaoiuei iiaii aeine?aeaeai? o?ce/i?
aeanoeaino? oaioaeo. Aea/aiiy o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae oaioaeo
i?iaaaeaii a iniiaiiio ia iaoae? oaoi?/iiai nooiaiy /enoioe. Oiio
iaea?aeaiiy oaioaeo a aeniei /enoiio noai? cia/ii ?icoe?eoue oyaeaiiy
i?i eiai aeanoeaino? oa a?aee?e? iia? iiaeeeaino? eiai canoinoaaiiy a
iiaeo iaeanoyo iaoee ? oaoi?ee.

O iei?oi?e /an a Oe?a?i? ?niothoue iaiao?aei? iaoaeo?a?ei? iiooaeiino?
oa noai?th?oueny ne?iaeiia aaca aeey ae?iaieoeoaa aino?iaeao?oeeoieo
iaoae?a, o oiio /ene? ? oaioaeo (I?ioieie ? 33 can?aeaiiy Eaa?iaoo
I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie a?ae 21 aa?aniy 1998 ?.). Aeoeaii aaaeooueny ?ic?iaee
oa inai?iiy iiaeo ia?niaeoeaieo ?iaeiaeu ?oae iaoae?a, noiooi?ie yeeo ?
? oaioaeia? ?oaee. A ia?niaeoea? oea aeicaieeoue iaeaaiaeeoe a Oe?a?i?
aeania ae?iaieoeoai iaoaeaaiai oaioaeo. Aea/aiiy iniiaieo
caeiiii??iinoae iaoiae?a ?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo aeicaieeoue ae??oeoe
caaea/o ae?iaieoeoaa oaioaeo iaiao?aeii? /enoioe aeey ??ciiiai?oieo
aaeocae aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.

C?inoath/ee ?ioa?an iiaeo iaeanoae iaoee ? oaoi?ee aei oi?eaeueiiai
eiiieaeno o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae oaioaeo, a oaeiae eiai nieaa?a
oa niieoe, ia?niaeoeai?noue a?eueo oe?ieiai eiai aeei?enoaiiy, ?ic?iaea
eiiieaenieo iaoiae?a ?ao?ioaaiiy ? iia’ycaia c oeei iiaeeea?noue
iiaeaeueoiai iaeiie/aiiy iiaeo aeaieo i?e aeine?aeaeaiiyo eiai
aeanoeainoae – ana oea ? aecia/a? aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aea?aiee
iai?yiie aeine?aeaeaiue o?nii iia’ycaiee c oaiaoeeith IIOe OOO? ?
eaai?aoi??? o?ceee oa oaoiieia?e /enoeo iaoae?a, aea aoea aeeiiaia
?iaioa, a ?aieao aea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai oa IAe?, ye? i?iaiaeeeenue o IIOe
OOO? ca?aeii c ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o (I?ia?aia ?ia?o c
aoiiii? iaoee oa oaoi?ee IIOe OOO? ia ia??iae 1992-2000 ??. a?ae
23.03.1993 ?., caoaa?aeaeaia I?iiaoi?iiii oa IAI Oe?a?ie) oa ca?aeii c
ieaiaie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o OOO? ca i?ia?aiith ? O12476-86.

Iaoa ? iniiaii caaea/? aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? aea/aiiy
i?ioean?a ?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo o?ce/ieie iaoiaeaie, iaea?aeaiiy /enoiai
oaioaeo oa aeine?aeaeaiiy eiai aeanoeainoae.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii aoei ae??oeoe ianooii?
caaea/?:

– oeyoii ?ic?aooie?a anoaiiaeoe aoaeoeai?noue ?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo
??cieie o?ce/ieie iaoiaeaie, o oiio /ene? aecia/eoe eiao?oe??ioe i/enoee
iaoaeo a?ae aeii?oie i?ae /an aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaai? ieaaee, ??aiiaaaei?
? aoaeoeai? eiao?oe??ioe ?iciiae?eo aeii?oeiaeo aeaiaio?a i?e ciii?e
ieaaoe? c o?aooaaiiyi aeia?iaoaaiiy aeii?oie;

– aenia?eiaioaeueii aea/eoe iiaaae?ieo aeii?oie i?e ?ao?ioaaii? oaioaeo
??cieie o?ce/ieie iaoiaeaie (aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaaith ieaaeith, ciiiith
ia?ae?enoae?caoe??th o aaeooi? ? o ?ic??aeaeaiiio na?aaeiaeu? eenith,
aeaeo?iia?aiinii);

– aecia/eoe aoaeoeai?noue iaoiae?a ?ao?ioaaiiy, cai?iiiioaaoe eiiieaenio
noaio ?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo ? iaea?aeaoe /eno? iiiie?enoaee oaioaeo;

– aea/eoe aieea ia?aiao??a ?ao?ioaaiiy ? /enoioe aeo?aeiiai iaoaeo ia
aeanoeaino? oaioaeo;

– noai?eoe onoaiiaeo aeey aea/aiiy i?ioeano aaciaeae?eaiiy i?e
aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaa?e aaeooii?e ieaaoe?, ui aeicaieeoue iioei?coaaoe oa
aaoiiaoecoaaoe i?ioean ?ao?ioaaiiy iaoae?a aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaaith
ieaaeith.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?e aeeiiaii? oe???
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoei aia?oa:

– ia iniia? ?ic?aooieiaeo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
anoaiiaeai? iniiai? caeiiii??iino? i?ioean?a ?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo
aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaaith ieaaeith ? ciiiith ia?ae?enoae?caoe??th, ioe?iaia
aoaeoeai?noue aeeo/aiiy aeii?oie oeeie iaoiaeaie;

– anoaiiaeaii, ui ??aiiaaaeiee eiao?oe??io ?iciiae?eo aeii?oie ?
?ici??iee oaeoi? iathoue ia??iaee/i?noue a caeaaeiino? a?ae aoiiiiai
iiia?o aeaiaioo a Ia??iaee/i?e nenoai?;

– cai?iiiiiaaii noaio eiiieaeniiai ?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo ii?aeiaiiyi
o?i?/ii? i/enoee a?ae aaaeeiaeeo/a?ieo aeii?oie ia noaae?? iaea?aeaiiy
aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo oa o?ce/ieo iaoiae?a: ia?aieaa o ?ic??aeaeaiiio
aeoeaiiio na?aaeiaeu?, ciiio ieaaeo o iaaeaenieiio aaeooi?, ciiio ieaaeo
a ii?aeiaii? c aeaeo?iia?aiinii;

– anoaiiaeaii iniaeeaino? oaiia?aoo?iiai oiaeo aeaeo?iiii?o oaioaeo oa
aea/aii iniaeeaino? aca?iiae?? oaioaeo c aacaie;

– aia?oa aenia?eiaioaeueii iaea?aeaii a?aeiiino? i?i i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy
aoii?a acioo a e?enoae?/i?e ?ao?ooe? oaioaeo;

– ?ic?iaeaii ? noai?aii i?eno??e, ui aeicaiey? iioei?coaaoe oa
aaoiiaoecoaaoe i?ioean ?ao?ioaaiiy iaoae?a aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaaith
ieaaeith.

Iaoeiai ?acoeueoaoe, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1. Iniaeeaino? iiaaae?iee aeii?oie i?e ?ao?ioaaii? oaioaeo
aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaaith ieaaeith, ciiiith ia?ae?enoae?caoe??th oa
aeaeo?iia?aiinii.

2. Io?eiaiiy iiiie?enoae?a oaioaeo ?c ai?noii iaoaeaaeo aeii?oie
? ?????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1????????????? A????&[email protected]??b?????&??MathType???? ???u?????????"????-?????cAE???cO???c????c???u c???THO ???u?? ???????"????-????aeO???b???-?????b"???f????? f?????f?#???u?th??????aea - eiao?oe??io aeoeaiino?; P01 ? P02 - oene iane/aii? ia?e /enoeo eiiiiiaio?a; I1 ? I2 - iieaeoey?i? iane eiiiiiaio?a 1-ai ? 2-ai. ??aiyiiy, yea aaciina?aaeiuei ca’yco? nooi?iue i/enoee iaoaeo a?ae aeii?oee c ao?aoith iane iniiaiiai eiiiiiaioa, ia? aeaeyae: wmetafile8? ??O??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1????????????? @a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy©yyy ??e?????&??MathType??a? ???u?????????"????-????? ???o?????? ????u?th??????aea N2 ? N20 - ai?no aeii?oee aei ? i?ney aeia?iaoaaiiy; W1 ? W10 - iana iniiaiiai eiiiiiaioa aei ? i?ney aeia?iaoaaiiy. I?iaaaeaii aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? i/enoee oaioaeo a?ae aeii?oie a caeaaeiino? a?ae aaee/eie eiao?oe??ioo i/enoee . Aiae?c iiaeeeaino? i/enoee oaioaeo AII iieacaa, ui aeey iaea?aeaiiy /enoiai iaoa??aeo iaiao?aeii ia noaae?? io?eiaiiy oaioaeo o iaoae?/iiio noai? aeeo/aoe aeii?oee c 100nooo?aa i/enoea i?e ao?ao?

iane iniiae ? ???2??????????? ???????yyy???????????? XJ??? ????'yy?????????? ????yyy???? ???????uoey??????1/4???I???"Small Fonts?IS???-?????uoy??????1/4???I???"Arial Cyr?I????-????uoy??????1/4y??I???"Arial Cyr?IC???-????uoey??????1/4??I???"Small Fonts?IS???-????uoey???????en.1. Ci?ithaaiiy ??aiiaaaeieo eiao?oe??io?a ?iciiae?eo Ei (1) ? ?ici??iiai oaeoi?o |r| (2) aeey aeii?oie o oaioae? a caeaaeiino? a?ae aoiiiiai iiia?o aeaiaioa a Ia??iaee/i?e nenoai?. Aeyaeaii ia??iaee/i?noue ci?ithaaiiy E0 a?ae ii?yaeeiaiai iiia?o. Aeey an?o ia??iae?a eiao?oe??io ?iciiae?eo E0 i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac iaeneioi: aeey ae?oaiai ia??iaeo iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy E0 i?eoiaeeoueny ia A, N, o o?aoueiio ia??iae? ia Na, o /aoaa?oiio – Ti, V, Nr, Fe, o i’yoiio – ia?aaaaeii ia Nb, Ii, Ru, o oinoiio ia W, Re, Is. Aeey aaeeeeo ia??iae?a iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy E0 i?eoiaeyoueny ia aeaiaioe, ye? iathoue, ye i?aaeei, i?i?iaeueia cia/aiiy ?ici??iiai oaeoi?o |r|. Oaeei /eiii, iaeneiaeuei? cia/aiiy E0 i?eoiaeyoueny ia aeaiaioe, ye? iathoue i?i?iaeueiee ?ici??iee oaeoi?, oiaoi ia aeaiaioe c? cia/iith ?ic/eii?noth a iniia?. Aeey ioe?iee iiaaae?iee aeii?oeiaeo aeaiaio?a a i?ioean? ciiii? ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? (CI), aoei i?iaaaeaii ?ic?aooiie iniiaieo ia?aiao??a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue oeae i?ioean: aoaeoeaiee E oa ??aiiaaaeiee E0 eiao?oe??ioe ?iciiae?eo, caaaeaiee eiao?oe??io aeia?iaoaaiiy gi ? a?aeiinio eiioeaio?aoe?th aeii?oee Cngi/C0 c o?aooaaiiyi ?? aeia?iaoaaiiy i?e /ene? i?ioiae?a ciie n ii ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi : wmetafile8? ??+??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1????????????? [email protected]???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy???(?????&??MathType??p? ???u?????????"????-?????(Oe???(i???uAth??????wmetafile8? ??…??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????? ???&??yyyy?????AyYy`Y???&? [email protected]???u????????????-?????p???? ??????????????a???u????????????-????‚??? ???u?th??????wmetafile8? ??o??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1????????????? A ???&??yyyy?????AyFy?A???&? ?MathType??????u????????????-?????1/2E???1/2, ???u?th??????aea f - oaeaee?noue ?inoo e?enoaeo (ia?ai?uaiiy ciie), ni2/oa; D - eiao?oe??io aeeooc?? aeii?oee a ?icieaa?, ni2/n; - oiaueia aeeooc?eiiai oa?o a ?icieaa?, ni; I- oaieioa ieaaeaiiy ?ic/eiaiiai aeaiaioo, Aeae/iieue; R - oi?aa?naeueia aaciaa iino?eia, Aeae/iieue E; Oini- oaiia?aoo?a ieaaeaiiy iniiae, E; Oi - oiiaia oaiia?aoo?a ieaaeaiiy aeii?oeiaiai aeaiaioo, cia/aiiy yei? aeae?aeinue a caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio ae?aa?aie noaio iniiaa-aeii?oea, E; C0 - ii/aoeiaa eiioeaio?aoe?y i-i? aeii?oee a oaioae?; Cngi- a?aie/ia eiioeaio?aoe?y i-i? aeii?oee a caeaaeiino? a?ae /enea i?ioiae?a ciie n c o?aooaaiiyi aeia?iaoaaiiy aeey eaac?noaoeeiia?ii? iaeano?; gi - caaaeaiee eiao?oe??io aeia?iaoaaiiy (aac?ici??ia aaee/eia), yeee caeaaeeoue a?ae aeanoeainoae naii? aeii?oee (aeoeaiino?, iieueiiai /ano aeia?iaoaaiiy), iniiaiiai eiiiiiaioo (iieueiiai ia’?io) ? a?ae oiia i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioo (oaeaeeino? ia?ai?uaiiy ciie oa a?aeiioaiiy aeiaaeeie ciie aei ?? ?aae?ono). Aiae?c ?ic?aoiaaieo cia/aiue aoaeoeaiiai eiao?oe??ioo ?iciiae?eo E, oaeoi?o aeia?iaoaaiiy gi ? cia/aiue a?aeiinii? ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe?? aeii?oie a?ae /enea i?ioiae?a ciie Nng/N0 i?e oaeaeeino? ?ooo ciie 2 ii/oa ? 4 ii/oa iieacaa, ui aeey aeii?oie a oaioae?, ui iathoue gi a ?ioa?aae? 110-5-110-1, cia/ii? ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe?e aeii?oie ia aoaea iaa?oue i?e a?eueoa i?ae 20 i?ioiaeao ciie. Oea W, Is, Nb, N, Re, Mo, Ir, Ru, Rh, V, Zr, Pt a oaioae?. Aeey aeii?oie, ui iathoue gi ~ (1-3,5) 10-1 iacia/i? ci?ie ai?noo aeii?oie aoaeooue niinoa??aaoeny eeoa i?ney a?eueoa i?ae 10 i?ioiae?a ciie (Nr, Ti, Pd). I?e ci?i? gi a?ae 3,5 10-1 aei 2 cia/i? ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe?? aeii?oie iiaeia i/?eoaaoe a ?ioa?aae? a?ae 5 aei 10 i?ioiae?a ciie (Fe, Ni). I?e cia/aiiyo gi a?ae 2 aei 8 niinoa??aa?oueny cia/ia ci?ia eiioeaio?aoe?e aeii?oie i?ney 1 - 5 i?ioiae?a ciie (Nu, Al, No). Oaeei /eiii, aeey iaea?aeaiiy aeniei/enoeo iiiie?enoae?a c ai?noii eiaeiiai ?c aeii?oeiaeo aeaiaio?a ~ (10-5-10-6)%, iaiao?aeii, uia ai?no aeii?oie c gi > 20 Ru,
Rh, C, V, Zr, Pt1,010-1 – 3,510-1 > 10 Cr, Ti, Pd,
Si 3,5.10-1 – 25 – 10 Fe, Ni2 – 81 – 5 Cu, Al,
Co

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? i?eaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? ii ?ao?ioaaiith
oaioaeo aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaaith ieaaeith, ciiiith ia?ae?enoae?caoe??th oa
aeaeo?iia?aiinii.

O i?ae?icae?e? 4.1 i?aaenoaaeai? aeai? i?iaaaeaieo nenoaiaoe/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue i?ioeano AII oaioaeo ?c ii?ioe?a oa i?ooe?a i?iieneiaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa. Aeyaeaii ui, ai?no aeayeeo aeii?oie o oaioae?
cieaeo?oueny. Iniiaieie aeii?oeaie, ui caeeoathoueny a oaioae? i?ney
AII, aoee W, C2, O2. Ii??aiyiiy c ?ic?aoiaaieie eiioeaio?aoe?yie
aeii?oie, i?iaaaeaieie o i?ae?icae?e? 3.1 i?e ci?i? iane iniiaiiai
iaoa??aeo ~5% iieaco?, ui eiioeaio?aoe?y Re, Os, Mo a oaioae? aeia?a
ca?aa?oueny c ?ic?aoiaaieie cia/aiiyie. I?ioa ai?no ae?oaeo iaoae?/ieo
aeii?oie ia?aaeuo? ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy, iniaeeai oea noino?oueny Zr,
Fe.

C iaoith c’ynoaaiiy oa?aeoa?o ci?ie ia?oe?aeueieo oene?a eiiiiiaio?a
caeeoeiaiai aaco a aaeooii?e eaia??, a ?iaio? aoei i?iaaaeaii aea/aiiy
aaciaeae?eaiiy ?c oaioaeo a i?ioean? AII. Aeey oeueiai canoiniaoaaany
ian-niaeo?iiao? IO-7304, c’?aeiaiee c onoaiiaeith aeey AII ca
aeiiiiiaith onoaiiaee “?acaaaeoaeue”, yea caaacia/oaaea ?iaioo
ian-niaeo?iiao?a iaa?oue a oiiaao iecueeiai aaeooio a eaia?? onoaiiaee
AII. Aeyaeaii, ui iniiaieie aacaie, ui aeae?eythoueny ?c oaioaeo i?e
ieaaoe? o aaeooi? ?: aiaeaiue, acio ? ieneae aoaeaoeth, ? a iaioiio
nooiai? aeae?ey?oueny aeaiieneae aoaeaoeth. Anoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii??iino?
i?ae ia?oe?aeueiei oeneii aac?a, ui aeae?eythoueny ?c iaoaeo a i?ioean?
AII oa ?o ai?noii o iaoae?, iaea?aeaiiio i?ney ieaaee aeicaiey?
iioei?coaaoe oeae i?ioean ? iaea?aeoaaoe iaoae ?c caaeaiei ai?noii oeeo
aeii?oie, a aeei?enoaiiy oeeo caeiiii??iinoae eiii’thoa?ii –
aaoiiaoecoaaoe i?ioean iaea?aeaiiy iaoaeo ?c caaeaiei ai?noii oeeo
aeii?oie.

Iieacaii, ui AII yaey?oueny aoaeoeaiei iaoiaeii aeey aeaeaeaiiy
aeia?iaoaaiiyi eaaeieaoo/eo aeii?oie c i >> 100, iaeiaoaeoeaia aeey
aeii?oie c i a?ae 1 aei 30 oa ia aoaeoeaia aeey aeii?oie c i ? ??9??? ???????? ???????yyy???????????? ‹???? ????'yy?????????? ????yyy???? ???????uiy??????1/4???I???"Arial Cyr?IN???-?????u? ?????1/4???I"System?I???-????'yy??? ????-?????yyy???? ???????‹????????-????'yy??? ????-?????yyy???? ???????‹????????ue??????????-? ???u?????????"????-????????????$???????H??H??? ???u?????????"????-????????????????????????H? ???H?????????????????H?????H:????H?????ue?:?? ??ue??????°?:????°??????c?:????c???????:????????? ?H?????H????M?????H?????M????H????M????? [email protected][email protected]???M????H? ???u??????????"????-????ue??yyy??????-????-????'yy??? ????-?????-????-????yyy???? ???????…–?????-????-????-????'yy??? ????-?????-????-????yyy???? ???????M…?>????-????-????-????’yy???

????-?????-????-????yyy????
???????P??8????ue?????yy???-??????
???u?????????”????-?????????w????????????”—????
)·????%C????*????Oe?e?????en.2. Caeaaei?noue Rcae a?ae
oaiia?aoo?e a?aeiaethaaiiy oaioaeo o aaeooi?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aca?iiae?? oaioaeo c acioii oa eeniai aoei i?iaaaeaii i?e
eiai iaa??a? o eiio?ieueiaaiiio na?aaeiaeu? acioo oa eenith,
a?aeiia?aeii. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e iaa??a? oaioaeo o oaiia?aoo?iiio
?ioa?aae? 1825-1875 E a?aeaoaa?oueny iaeneiaeueia iiaeeiaiiy oaioaeii
aac?a. I?e/iio, ii/aoie cacia/aiiai ?ioa?aaeo a?aeiia?aea?
iaeneiaeueiiio iiaeeiaiith acioo, a eiai cae?i/aiiy oa?aeoa?ia oei, ui
i?e oe?e oaiia?aoo?? a?aeaoaa?oueny iaeneiaeueia iiaeeiaiiy eenith ?
cia/ia aeaeaeaiiy acioo. I?e oaiia?aoo?? aeua 1875 E a?aeaoaa?oueny
ia?aaaaeii aeaaacaoe?y: aaeni?aoe?y noa? aeoaea iaeith, a ?acoeueoao?
/iai a?aie/ia eiioeaio?aoe?y aoii?a noa? iaioa eiioeaio?aoe?? aaciaeo
aoii?a a iaoae?, aiane?aeie oeueiai aeeooc?eiee iio?e iai?aaeaiee aei
iiaa?oi?.

O i?ae?icae?e? 5.2 ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue ci?ie
ia?oe?aeueiiai oeneo acioo c /anii i?e iaa??a? oaioaeo o aaeooi?,
?ic?aoiaai? eiao?oe??ioe ianiia?aiino acioo o oaioae? oa anoaiiaeaia
oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue eiao?oe??ioo ianiia?aiino acioo aeey
i?iieneiaeo c?ace?a oaioaeo.

O i?ae?icae?e? 5.3 i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino?
aeaeo?iiii?o oaioaeo ??cii? /enoioe a ?ioa?aae? 4,2 – 300 E.
A?aei?ii?noue aeaeo?iiii?o c?ace?a oaioaeo ??cii? /enoioe iaea?eueo
cia/ia a iaeano? oaiia?aoo? ieae/a 0,5 D (D=238 E, oaiia?aoo?a Aeaaay).
Iiaeia a?aei?oeoe oae? iniaeeaino? oaiia?aoo?iiai oiaeo aeaeo?iiii?o:
i?e O 70 E aeaeo?iii?? oaioaeo e?i?eii
caeaaeeoue a?ae oaiia?aoo?e.

Aeey aeaeo?iiii?o oaioaeo i?e oaiia?aoo?ao ieae/a 50 E ciaeaeaii
cia/aiiy ia?aiao??a 0 , a ? b aeey c?ace?a ??ciiai nooiaiy /enoioe. A
iaeano? oaiia?aoo? aeua 70 E aeaeo?iii?? aeine?aeaeoaaieo c?ace?a
caaeia?eueii iieno?oueny i?yiith c oaiaainii eooa iaoeeo 4,43.10-10
Ii.i/E. O?eueee a ?ioa?aae? 140-210 E niinoa??aa?oueny iacia/ia
a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae e?i?eii? caeaaeiino?. Oey aiiiae?y ae?aaea?oueny
ci?iith oaiia?aoo?iiai eiao?oe??ioo iii?o a cacia/ai?e iaeano?
oaiia?aoo?.

O i?ae?icae?e? 5.4 i?aaenoaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?e?ino?oeoo?e iiiie?enoae?a oaioaeo. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui
naiiaeia?eueiee ??no e?enoae?a a iniiaiiio a?aeaoaaany a iai?yieo .
Aeey iiiie?enoae?a oaioaeo oa?aeoa?ii ii?aeiaiiy y/a?noi? oa
nooi?i/anoi? no?oeoo?e ?inoo. Aeey iaae y/aeie oa?aeoa?ia aeiaae?iiy
aeii?oie. O?ao?e o?aaeaiiy a?aeia?aaeathoue e?enoaeia?ao?/io neiao??th
ieiuei ?, iaiaaii, yaeythoueny i?noeai aeoiaeo aeeneieaoe?e ia ieiueio
e?enoaeo. I?aeaeuaiiy nooiaiy /enoioe iiiie?enoae?a oaioaeo i?ecaiaeeoue
aei ciaioaiiy cia/aiue i?e?ioaa?aeino?.

O i?ae?icae?e? 5.5 i?aaenoaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? ii aecia/aiith
i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy aoii?a acioo a oaioae?. Aeey aecia/aiiy
i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy aoii?a acioo a oaioae? ?c io?eiaieo iiiie?enoae?a
aoee i?aeaioiaai? c?acee, iiaa?oi? yeeo a?aeiia?aeaee ieiueiai 100 ?
110. Oe? c?acee iane/oaaee acioii, caaaa/aiei aei 98% ?cioiiii 15N.
Aeey ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ?cioiio 15N aeei?enoiaoaaee yaea?io ?aaeoe?th
15N(p, )12C, caoaeaeaio i?ioiiaie c aia?a??th 730 eaA.

Uia aecia/eoe iieiaeaiiy aoii?a acioo a oaioae? ci?iaee caeaaei?noue
aeoiae?a cai?ioii?icn?yieo i?ioii?a ia yae?ao oaioaeo oa -/anoie
?aaeoe?? 15N(p, )12C a?ae eooa i?ae iai?yieii io/ea oa iaeiei ?c
aea?aieo e?enoaeia?ao?/ieo iai?yie?a.

Eooiaa neaioaaiiy iieacaei cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy aeoiaeo -/anoie i?e
niieo/aii? iai?yieo io/ea i?ioii?a c e?enoaeia?ao?/ieie inyie ?
oa ieiueiith 110, ui na?ae/eoue i?i ?ici?uaiiy aoii?a acioo o
iaeiiio ?c ?aaoey?ieo i?aeaoce?e. Ii?iiaaiee aeo?ae -/anoie aeey in?
i?ae eooii 0,6° neeaaea? 0,7, ui oeaco? ia ?ici?uaiiy 1/3 aoii?a
acaeiaae aoiiieo eaioethaee?a oaioaeo , a 2/3 aoii?a acioo
?ici?uothoueny a oeaio?? eaiaeo. Iiae?ai?noue caeaaeiino? aeoiaeo
-/anoie ? ?icn?yieo i?ioii?a aeey ieiueie 100 na?ae/aoue i?i ?ici?uaiiy
acioo a ieoa-i?aeaoceiaeiao. Oaeei /eiii, aeai? eooiaiai neaioaaiiy
iaaeiei iai?yie?a e?enoaeo Ta15N na?ae/aoue i?i ?ici?uaiiy aoii?a acioo
a ieoa-i?aeaoceiaeiao.

Iaoiae, ui aeei?enoiaoaaany, ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ioeo a?aeiieo, ? i?yiei
iaoiaeii aecia/aiiy i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a a e?enoae?.
A?aecia/eii, ui iaae?ei? a?aeiiino? i?i i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy aoii?a acioo
a oaioae? iaea?aeai? aia?oa.

aeniiaee

1. Ia iniia? ?ic?aooieiaeo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
anoaiiaeai? iniiai? caeiiii??iino? ?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo
aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaaith ieaaeith a aaeooi? ? ciiiith
ia?ae?enoae?caoe??th. Iieacaii, ui aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? ii
aeaeaeaiith ? ?iciiae?eo aeii?oie i?e aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaa?e ieaaoe? oa
ciii?e ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? aeia?a ocaiaeaeothoueny aeey a?eueoino?
aiae?co?ieo oa aaaeeiaeaeaey?ieo aeii?oie c ?ic?aooieiaeie aeaieie
eiao?oe??io?a i/enoee ? eiao?oe??io?a ?iciiae?eo aeeiiaieo aeey
?aeaaeueieo ?ic/ei?a. Onoaiiaeaii, ui ??aiiaaaeiee eiao?oe??io
?iciiae?eo aeii?oie (Ei) ? ?ici??iee oaeoi? iathoue ia??iaee/i?noue a
caeaaeiino? a?ae aoiiiiai iiia?o aeaiaioo a Ia??iaee/i?e nenoai?
Iaiaeaea?aa.

2. Iaea?aeaii iiiie?enoaee oaioaeo c ai?noii iaoae?/ieo aeii?oie

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