IAOe?IIAEUeIEE IAOEIAEE OeAIO?

“OA?E?ANUeEEE O?CEEI-OAOI?*IEE ?INOEOOO”

Ieeeiaiei Ieeiea Ieeieaeiae/

OAeE 669.294.4: 548.55

?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo

oa aeine?aeaeaiiy aeayeeo eiai aeanoeainoae

01.04.13 — o?ceea iaoae?a

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiien

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia o Iaoe?iiaeueiiio Iaoeiaiio Oeaio??
“Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?icoeooo”

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aaeaaea Aieiaeeie? Ieoaeeiae/

(canooiiee aee?aeoi?a ?inoeoooo o?ceee oaa?aeiai

o?ea, iaoa??aeiciaanoaa oa oaoiieia?e Iaoe?iiaeueiiai

iaoeiaiai oeaio?o “Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee

?inoeooo”).

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ioaa/ia Aiaoie?e Oa?aniae/

(i?ioani? eaoaae?e Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai

iie?oaoi?/iiai oiiaa?neoaoo)

eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,

Eao?e/ Ieeiea Iao?iae/

(noa?oee iaoeiaee niia?iaioiee ?inoeoooo

iiiie?enoae?a IAI Oe?a?ie, i.Oa?e?a).

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: ?inoeooo iaoaeio?ceee ?i.A.A.Eo?aethiiaa IAI
Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 30 “ aa?aciy 1999 ?ieo i 15-00 aiaeei?

ia can?aeaii? Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.845.01 o
Iaoe?iiaeueiiio iaoeiaiio oeaio?? “Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee
?icoeooo” (310108, i. Oa?e?a-108, aoe. Aeaaeai?/ia, 1)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaoeiaiai oeaio?o “Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee
?icoeooo” (310108, i.Oa?e?a-108, aoe. Aeaaeai?/ia, 1).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 26 “ ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
I.?.Aecaoeueeee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Oaioae ia? oi?eaeueiee eiiieaen o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae: aenieo oaiia?aoo?o ieaaeaiiy, aenieo i?oei?noue ?
ieanoe/i?noue, a oaeiae no?ee?noue i?ioe ei?ic?? ? ?ico??neoaaiiy i?ae
iai?oaeaiiyi.

Caaaeyee aeua ia?ae?/aiei aeanoeainoyi oeae iaoae, a oaeiae eiai nieaae,
ciaoiaeyoue oe?iea canoinoaaiiy a ?aae?iaeaeo?ii?oe? ? aeaeo?ioaoi?oe?,
iaoaeo?a?? eieuei?iaeo ? ??aeeicaiaeueieo iaoae?a. ?icoe?th?oueny
canoinoaaiiy oaioaeo a ?aeaoiaoaeoaaii?, yaea?i?e aia?aaoeoe? ?
o?i?/iiio aia?aoiaoaeoaaii?, a oaeiae aeey aeaioiaeaiiy aeayeeo
iaaee/ieo ?ino?oiaio?a oa i?enoinoaaiue.

I?ioa, oaioae oaoi?/iiai nooiaith /enoioe ia caaaeaee caaeiaieueiy?
aeiiaai oaoiieia?e, ui oaeaeei ?icaeaathoueny oa iiaei iaoa??aeai. Oae,
aeey iaea?aeaiiy eiiaeainaoi??a c a?eueo aenieeie ?iai/eie iai?oaaie oa
noaa?eueieie aenieoaoaoe?eieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aeiaaa?oueny oaioae
/enoioith 99,99 ian.%. Iia? oaoiieia??, cie?aia, i?oai?, ui
?icieeththoue, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey iaea?aeaiiy no/anieo
?ioaa?aeueieo noai aeiaaathoue oaioae ua a?eueo aeniei? /enoioe.

I?aeaeuaiiy /enoioe iaoae?a i?ecaiaeeoue ia o?eueee aei ci?ie a?aeiieo
?o aeanoeainoae, aea e aei aeyaeaiiy iiaeo, ?ai?oa “caaoaeueiaaieo”
aeii?oeaie. *eno? iaoaee ? iaiao?aeiei ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e?iaee
aieeao aeanieo, aeii?oeiaeo oa ?ioeo aeaoaeo?a ia no?oeoo?ii-/ooeea?
aeanoeaino?, ui iathoue aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey ?ic?iaee oai??? noai?aiiy
iaoae?/ieo iaoa??ae?a ?c caaeaieie aeanoeainoyie.

O neeaaei?e noai? io?eiaiiy /enoeo iaoae?a o?ce/i? iaoiaee ?ao?ioaaiiy ?
caaa?oaeueieie. Iniaeeaino? ?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo o?ce/ieie iaoiaeaie
aea/ai? iaaeinoaoiuei. Oaeiae iaaeinoaoiuei iiaii aeine?aeaeai? o?ce/i?
aeanoeaino? oaioaeo. Aea/aiiy o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae oaioaeo
i?iaaaeaii a iniiaiiio ia iaoae? oaoi?/iiai nooiaiy /enoioe. Oiio
iaea?aeaiiy oaioaeo a aeniei /enoiio noai? cia/ii ?icoe?eoue oyaeaiiy
i?i eiai aeanoeaino? oa a?aee?e? iia? iiaeeeaino? eiai canoinoaaiiy a
iiaeo iaeanoyo iaoee ? oaoi?ee.

O iei?oi?e /an a Oe?a?i? ?niothoue iaiao?aei? iaoaeo?a?ei? iiooaeiino?
oa noai?th?oueny ne?iaeiia aaca aeey ae?iaieoeoaa aino?iaeao?oeeoieo
iaoae?a, o oiio /ene? ? oaioaeo (I?ioieie ? 33 can?aeaiiy Eaa?iaoo
I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie a?ae 21 aa?aniy 1998 ?.). Aeoeaii aaaeooueny ?ic?iaee
oa inai?iiy iiaeo ia?niaeoeaieo ?iaeiaeu ?oae iaoae?a, noiooi?ie yeeo ?
? oaioaeia? ?oaee. A ia?niaeoea? oea aeicaieeoue iaeaaiaeeoe a Oe?a?i?
aeania ae?iaieoeoai iaoaeaaiai oaioaeo. Aea/aiiy iniiaieo
caeiiii??iinoae iaoiae?a ?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo aeicaieeoue ae??oeoe
caaea/o ae?iaieoeoaa oaioaeo iaiao?aeii? /enoioe aeey ??ciiiai?oieo
aaeocae aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.

C?inoath/ee ?ioa?an iiaeo iaeanoae iaoee ? oaoi?ee aei oi?eaeueiiai
eiiieaeno o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae oaioaeo, a oaeiae eiai nieaa?a
oa niieoe, ia?niaeoeai?noue a?eueo oe?ieiai eiai aeei?enoaiiy, ?ic?iaea
eiiieaenieo iaoiae?a ?ao?ioaaiiy ? iia’ycaia c oeei iiaeeea?noue
iiaeaeueoiai iaeiie/aiiy iiaeo aeaieo i?e aeine?aeaeaiiyo eiai
aeanoeainoae – ana oea ? aecia/a? aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aea?aiee
iai?yiie aeine?aeaeaiue o?nii iia’ycaiee c oaiaoeeith IIOe OOO? ?
eaai?aoi??? o?ceee oa oaoiieia?e /enoeo iaoae?a, aea aoea aeeiiaia
?iaioa, a ?aieao aea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai oa IAe?, ye? i?iaiaeeeenue o IIOe
OOO? ca?aeii c ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o (I?ia?aia ?ia?o c
aoiiii? iaoee oa oaoi?ee IIOe OOO? ia ia??iae 1992-2000 ??. a?ae
23.03.1993 ?., caoaa?aeaeaia I?iiaoi?iiii oa IAI Oe?a?ie) oa ca?aeii c
ieaiaie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o OOO? ca i?ia?aiith ? O12476-86.

Iaoa ? iniiaii caaea/? aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? aea/aiiy
i?ioean?a ?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo o?ce/ieie iaoiaeaie, iaea?aeaiiy /enoiai
oaioaeo oa aeine?aeaeaiiy eiai aeanoeainoae.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii aoei ae??oeoe ianooii?
caaea/?:

— oeyoii ?ic?aooie?a anoaiiaeoe aoaeoeai?noue ?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo
??cieie o?ce/ieie iaoiaeaie, o oiio /ene? aecia/eoe eiao?oe??ioe i/enoee
iaoaeo a?ae aeii?oie i?ae /an aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaai? ieaaee, ??aiiaaaei?
? aoaeoeai? eiao?oe??ioe ?iciiae?eo aeii?oeiaeo aeaiaio?a i?e ciii?e
ieaaoe? c o?aooaaiiyi aeia?iaoaaiiy aeii?oie;

— aenia?eiaioaeueii aea/eoe iiaaae?ieo aeii?oie i?e ?ao?ioaaii? oaioaeo
??cieie o?ce/ieie iaoiaeaie (aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaaith ieaaeith, ciiiith
ia?ae?enoae?caoe??th o aaeooi? ? o ?ic??aeaeaiiio na?aaeiaeu? eenith,
aeaeo?iia?aiinii);

— aecia/eoe aoaeoeai?noue iaoiae?a ?ao?ioaaiiy, cai?iiiioaaoe eiiieaenio
noaio ?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo ? iaea?aeaoe /eno? iiiie?enoaee oaioaeo;

— aea/eoe aieea ia?aiao??a ?ao?ioaaiiy ? /enoioe aeo?aeiiai iaoaeo ia
aeanoeaino? oaioaeo;

— noai?eoe onoaiiaeo aeey aea/aiiy i?ioeano aaciaeae?eaiiy i?e
aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaa?e aaeooii?e ieaaoe?, ui aeicaieeoue iioei?coaaoe oa
aaoiiaoecoaaoe i?ioean ?ao?ioaaiiy iaoae?a aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaaith
ieaaeith.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?e aeeiiaii? oe???
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoei aia?oa:

— ia iniia? ?ic?aooieiaeo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
anoaiiaeai? iniiai? caeiiii??iino? i?ioean?a ?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo
aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaaith ieaaeith ? ciiiith ia?ae?enoae?caoe??th, ioe?iaia
aoaeoeai?noue aeeo/aiiy aeii?oie oeeie iaoiaeaie;

— anoaiiaeaii, ui ??aiiaaaeiee eiao?oe??io ?iciiae?eo aeii?oie ?
?ici??iee oaeoi? iathoue ia??iaee/i?noue a caeaaeiino? a?ae aoiiiiai
iiia?o aeaiaioo a Ia??iaee/i?e nenoai?;

— cai?iiiiiaaii noaio eiiieaeniiai ?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo ii?aeiaiiyi
o?i?/ii? i/enoee a?ae aaaeeiaeeo/a?ieo aeii?oie ia noaae?? iaea?aeaiiy
aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo oa o?ce/ieo iaoiae?a: ia?aieaa o ?ic??aeaeaiiio
aeoeaiiio na?aaeiaeu?, ciiio ieaaeo o iaaeaenieiio aaeooi?, ciiio ieaaeo
a ii?aeiaii? c aeaeo?iia?aiinii;

— anoaiiaeaii iniaeeaino? oaiia?aoo?iiai oiaeo aeaeo?iiii?o oaioaeo oa
aea/aii iniaeeaino? aca?iiae?? oaioaeo c aacaie;

— aia?oa aenia?eiaioaeueii iaea?aeaii a?aeiiino? i?i i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy
aoii?a acioo a e?enoae?/i?e ?ao?ooe? oaioaeo;

— ?ic?iaeaii ? noai?aii i?eno??e, ui aeicaiey? iioei?coaaoe oa
aaoiiaoecoaaoe i?ioean ?ao?ioaaiiy iaoae?a aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaaith
ieaaeith.

Iaoeiai ?acoeueoaoe, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1. Iniaeeaino? iiaaae?iee aeii?oie i?e ?ao?ioaaii? oaioaeo
aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaaith ieaaeith, ciiiith ia?ae?enoae?caoe??th oa
aeaeo?iia?aiinii.

2. Io?eiaiiy iiiie?enoae?a oaioaeo ?c ai?noii iaoaeaaeo aeii?oie
<10-4-10-6 ian %. 3. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae oaioaeo (i?noeaiieiaeaiiy aoii?a acioo a e?enoae?/i?e ?ao?ooe? oaioaeo, aeaeo?iii??, no?oeoo?a oa ?i.). 4. Noai?aiiy onoaiiaee, ui aeicaiey? iioei?coaaoe oa aaoiiaoecoaaoe i?ioean aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaai? ieaaee iaoae?a I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo ? eiai aeanoeainoae aeathoue iiaeeea?noue cae?enieoe iaoeiaee i?aeo?ae aei iaea?aeaiiy oaioaeo c iecueeei ai?noii aeii?oie aeey no/anieo oaoiieia?e oa noai?aiiy eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a aeey aoiiieo ?aaeoi??a iiaiai iieie?iiy oa ?ioeo iniaeeai a?aeiia?aeaeueieo canoinoaaiue. Anoaiiaeaii? caeiiii??iino? ?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo oa ?ic?iaeaiee eiiieaeniee iaoiae iaea?aeaiiy /enoiai oaioaeo iiaeooue aooe canoiniaai? i?e ?ao?ioaaii? o?i?/ii aeoeaieo ? ooaiieaaeeo iaoae?a. Cai?iiiiiaaiee o ?iaio? i?eno??e aeey aiae?co caeeoeiaeo aac?a i?e aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaa?e ieaaoe? ciaeoia i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy aeey iioei?caoe?? oa aaoiiaoecaoe?? i?ioeano ieaaee i?iieneiaeie ia/aie AII-250 oaioaeo ia OIC (i.Onoue-Eaiaiiai?nuee, Eacaonoai) oa i?ia?th ia NOC (i.N?eeaiya, Anoii?y) ? oiio iiaea iaeoe canoinoaaiiy ia i?aei?e?inoaao Oe?a?ie, ui caeiathoueny ae?iaieoeoaii iaoae?a ? nieaa?a aeey ??ciiiai?oieo aaeocae iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy oa aoiiii? aia?aaoeee. Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o aaciina?aaeiie o/anoi a iaea?aeaiii iaaaaeaieo a ?iaioi ?ic?aooieiaeo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ii ?ao?ioaaiith oaioaeo ??cieie o?ce/ieie iaoiaeaie, aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo i?e aeine?aeaeaii? eiai aeanoeainoae, ia?iaoei oa iioa?i?aoaoei? iaea?aeaieo aeaieo, ?o cinoaaeaiii c ?acoeueoaoaie ?iaio ii aeai?e i?iaeaii, ?ic?iaoe? onoaiiaee oa iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy aaciaeae?eaiiy ?c iaoae?a a i?ioean? ?o ieaaee oa ?o aei?iaoaaii? a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao, iiaeaioiaoei iaoa?iae?a aei ioae?eaoe??, oi?ioethaaiii iniiaieo iieiaeaiue aeena?oaoeieii? ?iaioe. A iinoaiiaoe? caaaeaiiy, iaaiai?aii? iioi/ieo ?acoeueoao?a, ?ic?iaoe? i?aeoiaeo aei ?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo i?eeiaa o/anoue iaoeiaee ea??aiee ?iaioe aeieoi? o?c.-iao. iaoe A.I.Aaeaaea. Aeiiiiiao o aecia/aii? i?noeaiieiaeaiiy aoii?a acioo o e?enoae?/i?e ?ao?ooe? oaioaeo iaaeaa aeieoi? o?c.-iao. iaoe I.I.Neaeoi, aeei?enoiaoth/e ?ic?iaeaio iei iaoiaeeeo. Aeiiiiiao a iaea?aeaii? aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a iaaeaee eaiaeeaeaoe o?c.-iao. iaoe I.I.A'thaia, N.Ae.Eaa?eiaiei oa A.A.?eainueeee. Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Iaoa?iaee aeena?oaoei? aeiiiaiaeaeenue ? aoee iaaiai?aii ia VIII Ananithci?e ia?aae? “Oece/aneea iaoiaeu iieo/aiey iaoaeeia iniaie /enoiou e enneaaeiaaiea eo naienoa (Oa?e?a,1988 ?.); I?aeia?iaeiiio nai?ia?? "Aiaei?iaeiay ia?aaioea iaoa?eaeia” (Aeiiaoeuee,1995?.), Iineianuee?e i?aeia?iaei?e oaeaeiioi?eaoe?ei?e eiioa?aioe?? nooaeaio?a oa iieiaeeo a/aieo “Iieiaeaaeue e iaoea-97” (Iineaa, 1997-1998??.), 11 I?aeaea?aeaai?e eiioa?aioe?? ii o?ceoe? ?aae?aoe?eieo yaeu oa ?aae?aoe?eiiio iaoa??aeiciaanoao (Aeoooa, 1998 ?.). Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 7 noaoae. No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ?c 121 iaeiaioaaiue. ?iaioa i?noeoue 146 noi??iie, aeeth/ath/e 25 ?ethno?aoe?e oa 32 oaaeeoe?. INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE O Anooii iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeueiinoue oaie aeena?oaoei?, aecia/aii iaoa ? iniiaii caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, iieacaii iaoeiao iiaecio iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia, ?o i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, a oaeiae noi?ioeueiaaii iniiaii iaoeiai ?acoeueoaoe ? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno. Ia?oee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? ? iaeyaeiaei ? neeaaea?oueny c /ioe?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a. O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? i?eaaaeai? o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? oaioaeo. O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi o?ce/i? i?ioeane, iaoiaee ? caeiiii??iino? ?ao?ioaaiiy iaoae?a o aaeooi?. O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? i?iaaaeaii aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ii iaea?aeaiith oa ?ao?ioaaiith oaioaeo. O /aoaa?oiio i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi caeiiii??iino? aca?iiae?? oaioaeo c aeii?oeaie oa i?eaaaeaii e?oa?aoo?i? aeai? ii aieeao aeii?oie ia aeanoeaino? oaioaeo. O caaa?oaii? a?aei?/aii, ui o?ce/i? i?ioeane iiaaae?iee aeii?oie ooeniaiiy a oaioae? i?e aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao a aaeooi? aea/ai? eeoa /anoeiai. Ia iiaenoaai i?iaaaeaiiai aiaeico noaio i?iaeaie o iiaenoieo ?icaeieo noi?ioeueiaaii iaoa ? iniiaii caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoeieii? ?iaioe. O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iienothoueny aeo?aei? iaoa??aee oa ?o aeaiaioiee aiae?c, iaoiaee ?ao?ioaaiiy ? aaeooiii-iaoaeo?a?eia iaeaaeiaiiy, yea aeei?enoiaoaaeinue aeey ?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo. I?eaiaeeoueny iien iaoiae?a oa onoaiiaie aeey aea/aiiy aca?iiae?? oaioaeo c aacaie, aoanoaoe?? /enoioe iaea?aeaiiai iaoaeo, iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae. Iienaii ono??e oa ii?yaeie ?iaioe ?ic?iaeaii? oa noai?aii? onoaiiaee “?acaaaeoaeue”, yea aeicaiey? ca aeiiiiiaith ian-niaeo?iiao?a eiio?iethaaoe neeaae caeeoeiaeo aac?a a eaia?ao aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaaeo onoaiiaie a i?ioean? ieaaee ooaiieaaeeo oa o?i?/ii aeoeaieo iaoae?a c iaoith iioei?caoe?? oa aaoiiaoecaoe?? i?ioeano ieaaee iaoae?a ye a eaai?aoi?ieo, oae ? i?iieneiaeo oiiaao. O?ao?e ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? i?enay/aii o?ce/iiio iaa?oiooaaiith i?ioean?a aeeaiei? i/enoee oaioaeo. O i?ae?icae?e? 3.1 i?iaaaeaii ?ic?aooiie ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe?? aeii?oie a oaioae? i?ae /an aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaai? ieaaee (AII) i?e ??ci?e ao?ao? iane iniiae. Nooi?iue i/enoee iniiaiiai iaoaeo a?ae aeii?oie, aeia?iaoaaiiyi o aaeooi? i?e aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaa?e ieaaoe?, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny eiao?oe??ioii i/enoee wmetafile8? ?????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A????&??yyyy?????Ayyycyyy@??b?? ???&? ?MathType???? ???u?????????"????-?????cAE???cO???c????c???u c???THO ???u?? ???????"????-????aeO???b???-?????b"???f????? f?????f?#???u?th??????aea - eiao?oe??io aeoeaiino?; P01 ? P02 - oene iane/aii? ia?e /enoeo eiiiiiaio?a; I1 ? I2 - iieaeoey?i? iane eiiiiiaio?a 1-ai ? 2-ai. ??aiyiiy, yea aaciina?aaeiuei ca’yco? nooi?iue i/enoee iaoaeo a?ae aeii?oee c ao?aoith iane iniiaiiai eiiiiiaioa, ia? aeaeyae: wmetafile8? ??O??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? @a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy©yyy ??e?? ???&? ?MathType??a? ???u?????????"????-?????  ??? o???  ??? ????u?th??????aea N2 ? N20 - ai?no aeii?oee aei ? i?ney aeia?iaoaaiiy; W1 ? W10 - iana iniiaiiai eiiiiiaioa aei ? i?ney aeia?iaoaaiiy. I?iaaaeaii aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? i/enoee oaioaeo a?ae aeii?oie a caeaaeiino? a?ae aaee/eie eiao?oe??ioo i/enoee . Aiae?c iiaeeeaino? i/enoee oaioaeo AII iieacaa, ui aeey iaea?aeaiiy /enoiai iaoa??aeo iaiao?aeii ia noaae?? io?eiaiiy oaioaeo o iaoae?/iiio noai? aeeo/aoe aeii?oee c <1, a oaeiae ciaiooaaoe aeo?aeiee ai?no aeii?oie c ~ 1-30, aeeo/aiiy yeeo iiaea a?aeaoaaoeny eeoa i?e cia/ieo ao?aoao iaoa??aeo iniiae. Cieaeaiiy ?o ai?noo o aeo?aeiiio iaoae? aeicaieeoue iaea?aeaoe iaiao?aeiee nooi?iue /enoioe c iaioeie ao?aoaie iaoa??aeo iniiae, a cieaeaiiy ia?oe?aeueiiai oeneo caeeoeiaeo ia? ca ?aooiie iie?auaiiy aaeooiieo oiia aai noai?aiiy eiio?ieueiaaieo aaeooiieo na?aaeiaeu aeicaieeoue i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue i/enoee a?ae aaciiiae?aieo aeii?oie (O2, N2, H2) oa niieoe aoaeaoeth. Ocaaaeueiai? ?acoeueoaoe ii aoaeoeaiino? i/enoee oaioaeo aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaaith ieaaeith i?eaaaeai? a oaae. 1. Oaaeeoey 1 Aoaeoeai?noue i/enoee oaioaeo a?ae aeii?oie i?e AII Cia/aiiy Aoaeoeai?noue i/enoee i?e AIIAeii?oeia? aeaiaioe<1iaia? i/enoeeW, Re1 - 30ia cia/ia Os, Nb30 - 100nooo?aa i/enoea i?e ao?ao? iane iniiae 10-15% Mo, Ir>100nooo?aa i/enoea i?e ao?ao?

iane iniiae <5% Ru, Rh, V, Zr, Pt ,Cr, Ti, Pd, Si, Fe, Ni ,Cu, Al, Co O i?ae?icae?e? 3.2 ?c ae?aa?ai noaio oa oa?iiaeeiai?/iei ?ic?aooieii aecia/aii ??aiiaaaei? eiao?oe??ioe ?iciiae?eo E0 aeii?oie o oaioae?. I?iaaaeaii ii??aiyiiy cia/aiue aeey E0, ?ic?aoiaaieo ??aiyiiyie ? iaoiaeii aeioe/ieo. Aeyaeaii, ui i?aeoe/ii an? aeii?oee iathoue ??aiiaaaeiee eiao?oe??io ?iciiae?eo iaioa iaeeieoe?, ca aeiyoeii W. Ia ?en.1 i?aaenoaaeaia caeaaei?noue ??aiiaaaeieo eiao?oe??io?a ?iciiae?eo aeii?oie a oaioae?, oa aaee/eie ?ici??iiai oaeoi?o a?ae ii?yaeeiaiai iiia?o a Ia??iaee/i?e nenoai? aeaiaio?a (rini , ri - aoiiiee ?aae?on iniiae ? aeii?oee a?aeiia?aeii). wmetafile8? ???2?? ????????? ???????yyy???????????? XJ??? ????'yy??? ??????? ????yyy???? ???????uoey??????1/4???I???"Small Fonts?IS???-?????uoy??????1/4???I???"Arial Cyr?I????-????uoy??????1/4y??I???"Arial Cyr?IC???-????uoey??????1/4??I???"Small Fonts?IS???-????uoey???????en.1. Ci?ithaaiiy ??aiiaaaeieo eiao?oe??io?a ?iciiae?eo Ei (1) ? ?ici??iiai oaeoi?o |r| (2) aeey aeii?oie o oaioae? a caeaaeiino? a?ae aoiiiiai iiia?o aeaiaioa a Ia??iaee/i?e nenoai?. Aeyaeaii ia??iaee/i?noue ci?ithaaiiy E0 a?ae ii?yaeeiaiai iiia?o. Aeey an?o ia??iae?a eiao?oe??io ?iciiae?eo E0 i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac iaeneioi: aeey ae?oaiai ia??iaeo iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy E0 i?eoiaeeoueny ia A, N, o o?aoueiio ia??iae? ia Na, o /aoaa?oiio – Ti, V, Nr, Fe, o i’yoiio – ia?aaaaeii ia Nb, Ii, Ru, o oinoiio ia W, Re, Is. Aeey aaeeeeo ia??iae?a iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy E0 i?eoiaeyoueny ia aeaiaioe, ye? iathoue, ye i?aaeei, i?i?iaeueia cia/aiiy ?ici??iiai oaeoi?o |r|. Oaeei /eiii, iaeneiaeuei? cia/aiiy E0 i?eoiaeyoueny ia aeaiaioe, ye? iathoue i?i?iaeueiee ?ici??iee oaeoi?, oiaoi ia aeaiaioe c? cia/iith ?ic/eii?noth a iniia?. Aeey ioe?iee iiaaae?iee aeii?oeiaeo aeaiaio?a a i?ioean? ciiii? ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? (CI), aoei i?iaaaeaii ?ic?aooiie iniiaieo ia?aiao??a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue oeae i?ioean: aoaeoeaiee E oa ??aiiaaaeiee E0 eiao?oe??ioe ?iciiae?eo, caaaeaiee eiao?oe??io aeia?iaoaaiiy gi ? a?aeiinio eiioeaio?aoe?th aeii?oee Cngi/C0 c o?aooaaiiyi ?? aeia?iaoaaiiy i?e /ene? i?ioiae?a ciie n ii ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi : wmetafile8? ??+??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy???(?? ???&? ?MathType??p? ???u?????????"????-?????(Oe???(i???uAth??????wmetafile8? ??…??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ? ???&??yyyy?????AyYy`Y ???&? ?MathType??@???u????????????-?????p???? ??????????????a???u????????????-????‚??? ???u?th??????wmetafile8? ??o??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  A ???&??yyyy?????AyFy? A ???&? ?MathType??????u????????????-?????1/2E???1/2, ???u?th??????aea f - oaeaee?noue ?inoo e?enoaeo (ia?ai?uaiiy ciie), ni2/oa; D - eiao?oe??io aeeooc?? aeii?oee a ?icieaa?, ni2/n; - oiaueia aeeooc?eiiai oa?o a ?icieaa?, ni; I- oaieioa ieaaeaiiy ?ic/eiaiiai aeaiaioo, Aeae/iieue; R - oi?aa?naeueia aaciaa iino?eia, Aeae/iieue E; Oini- oaiia?aoo?a ieaaeaiiy iniiae, E; Oi - oiiaia oaiia?aoo?a ieaaeaiiy aeii?oeiaiai aeaiaioo, cia/aiiy yei? aeae?aeinue a caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio ae?aa?aie noaio iniiaa-aeii?oea, E; C0 - ii/aoeiaa eiioeaio?aoe?y i-i? aeii?oee a oaioae?; Cngi- a?aie/ia eiioeaio?aoe?y i-i? aeii?oee a caeaaeiino? a?ae /enea i?ioiae?a ciie n c o?aooaaiiyi aeia?iaoaaiiy aeey eaac?noaoeeiia?ii? iaeano?; gi - caaaeaiee eiao?oe??io aeia?iaoaaiiy (aac?ici??ia aaee/eia), yeee caeaaeeoue a?ae aeanoeainoae naii? aeii?oee (aeoeaiino?, iieueiiai /ano aeia?iaoaaiiy), iniiaiiai eiiiiiaioo (iieueiiai ia’?io) ? a?ae oiia i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioo (oaeaeeino? ia?ai?uaiiy ciie oa a?aeiioaiiy aeiaaeeie ciie aei ?? ?aae?ono). Aiae?c ?ic?aoiaaieo cia/aiue aoaeoeaiiai eiao?oe??ioo ?iciiae?eo E, oaeoi?o aeia?iaoaaiiy gi ? cia/aiue a?aeiinii? ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe?? aeii?oie a?ae /enea i?ioiae?a ciie Nng/N0 i?e oaeaeeino? ?ooo ciie 2 ii/oa ? 4 ii/oa iieacaa, ui aeey aeii?oie a oaioae?, ui iathoue gi a ?ioa?aae? 110-5-110-1, cia/ii? ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe?e aeii?oie ia aoaea iaa?oue i?e a?eueoa i?ae 20 i?ioiaeao ciie. Oea W, Is, Nb, N, Re, Mo, Ir, Ru, Rh, V, Zr, Pt a oaioae?. Aeey aeii?oie, ui iathoue gi ~ (1-3,5) 10-1 iacia/i? ci?ie ai?noo aeii?oie aoaeooue niinoa??aaoeny eeoa i?ney a?eueoa i?ae 10 i?ioiae?a ciie (Nr, Ti, Pd). I?e ci?i? gi a?ae 3,5 10-1 aei 2 cia/i? ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe?? aeii?oie iiaeia i/?eoaaoe a ?ioa?aae? a?ae 5 aei 10 i?ioiae?a ciie (Fe, Ni). I?e cia/aiiyo gi a?ae 2 aei 8 niinoa??aa?oueny cia/ia ci?ia eiioeaio?aoe?e aeii?oie i?ney 1 - 5 i?ioiae?a ciie (Nu, Al, No). Oaeei /eiii, aeey iaea?aeaiiy aeniei/enoeo iiiie?enoae?a c ai?noii eiaeiiai ?c aeii?oeiaeo aeaiaio?a ~ (10-5-10-6)%, iaiao?aeii, uia ai?no aeii?oie c gi < 3,5 10-1 o aeo?aeiiio noai? aoa 10-5 - 10-6 %, aeii?oie c gi = (3,510-1 - 2) iiaeiii aooe < (10-3 - 10-4 )% , a aeii?oie c gi a?ae 2 aei 8 - 10-2 % . Aiae?c aeo?aeiiai ai?noo aeii?oie o oaioae? na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui aeey aoaeoeaiiai eiai ?ao?ioaaiiy ciiiith ieaaeith iaiao?aeii i?iaiaeeoe a?ae 5 aei 10 i?ioiae?a ciie i?e oaeaeeino? ?ooo ciie 4 ii/oa. Iaiao?aeii oaeiae a?aecia/eoe, ui ia ci?io ai?noo aeii?oie a i?ioean? ciiii? ieaaee iiaea /eieoe aieea i?ioean aeia?iaoaaiiy iaoaeo iniiae, yeee i?e ?ic?aooieao ia a?aoiaoaaany, iniaeeai oea a?ae/o?oueny ia aeii?oeao, oaeoi? aeia?iaoaaiiy yeeo iaioa 8. Ocaaaeueiai? ?acoeueoaoe ii aoaeoeaiino? i/enoee oaioaeo ciiiith ia?ae?enoae?caoe??th i?eaaaeai? a oaae. 2. Oaaeeoey 2. Aoaeoeai?noue i/enoee oaioaeo a caeaaeiino? a?ae eiao?oe??ioa aeia?iaoaaiiy. ?ioa?aae cia/aiue gi *enei i?ioiae?a ciieAeii?oeia? aeaiaioeW, Re, Os, Nb, Mo, Ir,1,010-5 - 1,010-1>> 20 Ru,
Rh, C, V, Zr, Pt1,010-1 — 3,510-1 > 10 Cr, Ti, Pd,
Si 3,5.10-1 — 25 — 10 Fe, Ni2 — 81 — 5 Cu, Al,
Co

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? i?eaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? ii ?ao?ioaaiith
oaioaeo aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaaith ieaaeith, ciiiith ia?ae?enoae?caoe??th oa
aeaeo?iia?aiinii.

O i?ae?icae?e? 4.1 i?aaenoaaeai? aeai? i?iaaaeaieo nenoaiaoe/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue i?ioeano AII oaioaeo ?c ii?ioe?a oa i?ooe?a i?iieneiaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa. Aeyaeaii ui, ai?no aeayeeo aeii?oie o oaioae?
cieaeo?oueny. Iniiaieie aeii?oeaie, ui caeeoathoueny a oaioae? i?ney
AII, aoee W, C2, O2. Ii??aiyiiy c ?ic?aoiaaieie eiioeaio?aoe?yie
aeii?oie, i?iaaaeaieie o i?ae?icae?e? 3.1 i?e ci?i? iane iniiaiiai
iaoa??aeo ~5% iieaco?, ui eiioeaio?aoe?y Re, Os, Mo a oaioae? aeia?a
ca?aa?oueny c ?ic?aoiaaieie cia/aiiyie. I?ioa ai?no ae?oaeo iaoae?/ieo
aeii?oie ia?aaeuo? ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy, iniaeeai oea noino?oueny Zr,
Fe.

C iaoith c’ynoaaiiy oa?aeoa?o ci?ie ia?oe?aeueieo oene?a eiiiiiaio?a
caeeoeiaiai aaco a aaeooii?e eaia??, a ?iaio? aoei i?iaaaeaii aea/aiiy
aaciaeae?eaiiy ?c oaioaeo a i?ioean? AII. Aeey oeueiai canoiniaoaaany
ian-niaeo?iiao? IO-7304, c’?aeiaiee c onoaiiaeith aeey AII ca
aeiiiiiaith onoaiiaee “?acaaaeoaeue”, yea caaacia/oaaea ?iaioo
ian-niaeo?iiao?a iaa?oue a oiiaao iecueeiai aaeooio a eaia?? onoaiiaee
AII. Aeyaeaii, ui iniiaieie aacaie, ui aeae?eythoueny ?c oaioaeo i?e
ieaaoe? o aaeooi? ?: aiaeaiue, acio ? ieneae aoaeaoeth, ? a iaioiio
nooiai? aeae?ey?oueny aeaiieneae aoaeaoeth. Anoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii??iino?
i?ae ia?oe?aeueiei oeneii aac?a, ui aeae?eythoueny ?c iaoaeo a i?ioean?
AII oa ?o ai?noii o iaoae?, iaea?aeaiiio i?ney ieaaee aeicaiey?
iioei?coaaoe oeae i?ioean ? iaea?aeoaaoe iaoae ?c caaeaiei ai?noii oeeo
aeii?oie, a aeei?enoaiiy oeeo caeiiii??iinoae eiii’thoa?ii —
aaoiiaoecoaaoe i?ioean iaea?aeaiiy iaoaeo ?c caaeaiei ai?noii oeeo
aeii?oie.

Iieacaii, ui AII yaey?oueny aoaeoeaiei iaoiaeii aeey aeaeaeaiiy
aeia?iaoaaiiyi eaaeieaoo/eo aeii?oie c i >> 100, iaeiaoaeoeaia aeey
aeii?oie c i a?ae 1 aei 30 oa ia aoaeoeaia aeey aeii?oie c i < 1. Canoinoaaiiy AII ia caaacia/o? aeeaiei? i/enoee a?ae aeii?oeiaeo aeaiaio?a W, Nb, C, O. O i?ae?icae?e? 4.2 aeoiaey/e ?c aiae?co ?ic?aoiaaieo cia/aiue Ei, E, gi, Nngi, a oaeiae aiae?co ai?noo aeii?oie o aeo?aeieo i?ooeao oa ii?ioeao, c?iaeaii i?eiouaiiy, ui i?e ciii?e ieaaoe? (CI) ?c iaoaeo a ia?oo /a?ao aoaeooue aeaeaeyoeny a ?acoeueoao? aeia?iaoaaiiy eaaeieaoo/? aeii?oee. Uia a iaoae? ia iiaee iaa?iiaaeaeoaaoeny aeii?oee, ui aaaeei aeaeaeythoueny i?ae /an cia/iiai aeia?iaoaaiiy iaoaea iniiae, oaeaee?noue ia?ai?uaiiy ciie iiaeiia aooe aeinoaoiuei aaeeeith. A ca’yceo c oeei aeey i/enoee oaioaeo CI aoee aea?ai? oaeaeeino? ?ooo ciie 12 ii/oa ? 4 ii/oa. Aoee iaea?aeai? iiiie?enoaee oaioaeo ??cii? /enoioe, aeiaaeeia c?ace?a neeaaeaea 150 -180 ii, ae?aiao? c?ace?a 7 - 10 ii. Nooi?iue i/enoee oa oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo aeii?oie a iiiie?enoaeao oaioaeo eiio?iethaaany aei??thaaiiyie a?aeiiniiai caeeoeiaiai aeaeo?iiii?o Rcae = R(300K)/R(4,5K) ia o?ueio ae?eyieao e?enoaeo. I/enoea oaioaeo a?ae aeii?oie a?aeaoaa?oueny ye ca ?aooiie aeia?iaoaaiiy, oae ? ca ?aooiie ?o ?iciiae?eo ii ceeoeo (aeea. oaae.3). Aenia?eiaioe iieacaee, ui iioeiaeueieie ia?aiao?aie i/enoee i?ooeiaiai oaioaeo aeaii? aeo?aeii? /enoioe ? oae? aaee/eie: oaeaee?noue ?ooo ciie a ?ioa?aae? a?ae 2,5 aei 4 ii/oa, /enei i?ioiae?a 5 (iiaeaeueoa ca?eueoaiiy /enea i?ioiae?a ia i?eaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy /enoioe oaioaeo). Aeey ?ao?ioaaiiy ii?ioeiaiai oaioaeo iaea?eueo aoaeoeai? oae? i?ioeaaeo?e: ii/aoeiaa ciiia ieaaea c i?aeaeuaiith oaeaee?noth ?ooo ciie, a iio?i i?iaaaeaiiy 1-2 i?ioiae?a ?c oaeaee?noth 2 - 4 ii/oa. Ine?eueee aeo?aei? c?acee oaioaeo ai?uothoue aaeeeo e?euee?noue aoaeaoeth, oi aeey a?eueo iiaiiai eiai aeaeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeanue CI a eiio?ieueiaaiiio na?aaeiaeu? eenith (Po = 5 . 10-4 ii ?o.no.). Oaea iia?aoe?y i?eaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy ai?noo aoaeaoeth a oaioae? ca ?aooiie aca?iiae?? oaiini?aiaaiiai ia iiaa?oi? iaoaeo eenith c aoaeaoeai, ooai?thth/e ieneae aoaeaoeth yeee aeae?ey?oueny c oaioaeo, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy aaee/eie Rcae iaea?aeaieo c?ace?a. Iaea?eueo /eno? ae?eyiee c?ace?a, iaea?aeaieo CI a ?ic??aeaeaiiio na?aaeiaeu? eenith, iaee /enoioo 99,999 ian. %. Ai?no aeii?oeiaeo aeaiaio?a o iiiie?enoaeao oaioaeo, iaea?aeaieo ?c ii?ioeiaiai iaoa??aeo i?ney CI a ?ic??aeaeaiiio na?aaeiaeu? eenith, ciaoiaeeoueny ieae/a /ooeeaino? iaoiae?a aiae?co: aeey eaaeieaoo/eo aeii?oie <10-5 %, aeey aaaeeieaoo/eo <10-3 - 10-4 %. Ii??aiyiiy c ?ic?aooieiaeie aeaieie iieaco?, ui a aeia??e caiae? ciaoiaeyoueny aeii?oee Nb, Mo, Os, a??oa aeey W, Re, Ru, V, aeey aeii?oie Ni, Nu niinoa??aa?oueny ?ica?aei?noue i?ae aenia?eiaioaeueieie oa ?ic?aooieiaeie cia/aiiyie. Oaaeeoey 3 ?acoeueoaoe ?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo. Iaoae R cae.Ia?aiao?e ii/aoiena?aaeeia e?iaoeue aeo?aeiee i/enoee Ta 100 98 70 9 CI 5 i?ioiae?a, V =12 ii/oa i?ooie 160 154 140 9 CI 5 i?ioiae?a, V = 4 ii/oa Ta 109 115 110 - CI 5 i?ioiae?a, V =12 ii/oa ii?ioie 173 154 114 - CI 5 i?ioiae?a, V =12 ii/oa + 1 i?io?ae, V =4 ii/oa O i?ae?icae?e? 4.3 i?aaenoaaeai? aeai? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?ioeano ?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo iaoiaeii aeaeo?iia?aiino o iaaeaenieiio aaeooi?. Iieacaii, ui i?e canoinoaaii? aeaeo?iia?aiino aeinyaa?oueny ?icae?eaiiy aeii?oie (Nb, C ? a iaio?e i??? I), ye? iaiaaeothoue /enoioo oaioaeo i?e ?ao?ioaaii? eiai ciiiith ia?ae?enoae?caoe??th. O i?ae?icae?e? 4.4 ia iniia? aiae?co i?ioean?a ?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo o?ce/ieie iaoiaeaie iieacaii, ui iiaeaeueoa i?aeaeuaiiy /enoioe oaioaeo iiaeeeaa eeoa i?e eiiieaeniiio i?aeoiaeo aei i?ioeano i/enoee. Aeey iaea?aeaiiy oaioaeo iniaeeai? /enoioe ?aeiiaiaeiaaia noaia i/enoee, ui ii?aeio? o?i?/i? iaoiaee ia noaae?? io?eiaiiy aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo oa eiiieaeno o?ce/ieo iaoiae?a: aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaaa ieaaea, ciiia ieaaea a ?ic??aeaeaiiio na?aaeiaeu? eenith, ia caeeth/i?e noaae?? i/enoee aeei?enoaiiy ciiii? ieaaee o iaaeaenieiio aaeooi? a ii?aeiaii? c aeaeo?iia?aiinii. I’yoee ?icae?e i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith aeanoeainoae oaioaeo oa eiai aca?iiae?? c aaciaeie aeii?oeaie o aaeooi? i?e aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao. O i?ae?icae?e? 5.1 aoei i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy aca?iiae?? caeeoeiaeo aac?a c oaioaeii i?e eiai iaa??a? o aenieiio aaeooi?. Oa?aeoa? aca?iiae?? oaioaeo c caeeoeiaeie aacaie i?e ??cieo oaiia?aoo?ao iaa??ao aoa aeine?aeaeaiee iaoiaeii aei??thaaiiy caeeoeiaiai aeaeo?iiii?o. Caeaaei?noue a?aeiiniiai caeeoeiaiai aeaeo?iiii?o Rcae= R(300E)/R(4,5E) a?ae oaiia?aoo?e a?aeiaethaaiiy oaioaeo i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en.2. A?aeiaethaaiiy i?e 1875 E ni?e/eiy? cieaeaiiy cia/aiiy Rcae, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iaeneiaeueia iiaeeiaiiy aac?a oaioaeii o cacia/aiiio oaiia?aoo?iiio ?aaeei?. Aeniiaie, c?iaeaiee a?aeiinii iiaeeiaiiy aac?a oaioaeii i?e cacia/ai?e oaiia?aoo??, aoa i?aeoaa?aeaeaiee aei??thaaiiyie i?e?ioaa?aeino?. wmetafile8? ??9??? ???????? ???????yyy???????????? ‹???? ????'yy??? ??????? ????yyy???? ???????uiy??????1/4???I???"Arial Cyr?IN???-?????u? ?????1/4???I"System?I???-????'yy??? ????-?????yyy???? ???????‹????????-????'yy??? ????-?????yyy???? ???????‹????????ue??????????-? ???u?????????"????-????????????$???????H??H??? ???u?????????"????-????????????????????????H? ???H?????????????????H?????H:????H?????ue?:?? ??ue??????°?:????°??????c?:????c???????:????????? ?H?????H????M?????H?????M????H????M????? H?????M????H????M@???H@???M????H? ???u??????????"????-????ue??yyy??????-????-????'yy??? ????-?????-????-????yyy???? ???????…–?????-????-????-????'yy??? ????-?????-????-????yyy???? ???????M…?>????-????-????-????’yy???

????-?????-????-????yyy????
???????P??8????ue?????yy???-??????
???u?????????»????-?????????w????????????»—????
)·????%C????*????Oe?e?????en.2. Caeaaei?noue Rcae a?ae
oaiia?aoo?e a?aeiaethaaiiy oaioaeo o aaeooi?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aca?iiae?? oaioaeo c acioii oa eeniai aoei i?iaaaeaii i?e
eiai iaa??a? o eiio?ieueiaaiiio na?aaeiaeu? acioo oa eenith,
a?aeiia?aeii. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e iaa??a? oaioaeo o oaiia?aoo?iiio
?ioa?aae? 1825-1875 E a?aeaoaa?oueny iaeneiaeueia iiaeeiaiiy oaioaeii
aac?a. I?e/iio, ii/aoie cacia/aiiai ?ioa?aaeo a?aeiia?aea?
iaeneiaeueiiio iiaeeiaiith acioo, a eiai cae?i/aiiy oa?aeoa?ia oei, ui
i?e oe?e oaiia?aoo?? a?aeaoaa?oueny iaeneiaeueia iiaeeiaiiy eenith ?
cia/ia aeaeaeaiiy acioo. I?e oaiia?aoo?? aeua 1875 E a?aeaoaa?oueny
ia?aaaaeii aeaaacaoe?y: aaeni?aoe?y noa? aeoaea iaeith, a ?acoeueoao?
/iai a?aie/ia eiioeaio?aoe?y aoii?a noa? iaioa eiioeaio?aoe?? aaciaeo
aoii?a a iaoae?, aiane?aeie oeueiai aeeooc?eiee iio?e iai?aaeaiee aei
iiaa?oi?.

O i?ae?icae?e? 5.2 ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue ci?ie
ia?oe?aeueiiai oeneo acioo c /anii i?e iaa??a? oaioaeo o aaeooi?,
?ic?aoiaai? eiao?oe??ioe ianiia?aiino acioo o oaioae? oa anoaiiaeaia
oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue eiao?oe??ioo ianiia?aiino acioo aeey
i?iieneiaeo c?ace?a oaioaeo.

O i?ae?icae?e? 5.3 i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino?
aeaeo?iiii?o oaioaeo ??cii? /enoioe a ?ioa?aae? 4,2 — 300 E.
A?aei?ii?noue aeaeo?iiii?o c?ace?a oaioaeo ??cii? /enoioe iaea?eueo
cia/ia a iaeano? oaiia?aoo? ieae/a 0,5 D (D=238 E, oaiia?aoo?a Aeaaay).
Iiaeia a?aei?oeoe oae? iniaeeaino? oaiia?aoo?iiai oiaeo aeaeo?iiii?o:
i?e O< 50E oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue caaeia?eueii iieno?oueny ae?acii (O) = aO2 + bO5; i?e oaiia?aoo?ao O> 70 E aeaeo?iii?? oaioaeo e?i?eii
caeaaeeoue a?ae oaiia?aoo?e.

Aeey aeaeo?iiii?o oaioaeo i?e oaiia?aoo?ao ieae/a 50 E ciaeaeaii
cia/aiiy ia?aiao??a 0 , a ? b aeey c?ace?a ??ciiai nooiaiy /enoioe. A
iaeano? oaiia?aoo? aeua 70 E aeaeo?iii?? aeine?aeaeoaaieo c?ace?a
caaeia?eueii iieno?oueny i?yiith c oaiaainii eooa iaoeeo 4,43.10-10
Ii.i/E. O?eueee a ?ioa?aae? 140-210 E niinoa??aa?oueny iacia/ia
a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae e?i?eii? caeaaeiino?. Oey aiiiae?y ae?aaea?oueny
ci?iith oaiia?aoo?iiai eiao?oe??ioo iii?o a cacia/ai?e iaeano?
oaiia?aoo?.

O i?ae?icae?e? 5.4 i?aaenoaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?e?ino?oeoo?e iiiie?enoae?a oaioaeo. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui
naiiaeia?eueiee ??no e?enoae?a a iniiaiiio a?aeaoaaany a iai?yieo <110>.
Aeey iiiie?enoae?a oaioaeo oa?aeoa?ii ii?aeiaiiy y/a?noi? oa
nooi?i/anoi? no?oeoo?e ?inoo. Aeey iaae y/aeie oa?aeoa?ia aeiaae?iiy
aeii?oie. O?ao?e o?aaeaiiy a?aeia?aaeathoue e?enoaeia?ao?/io neiao??th
ieiuei ?, iaiaaii, yaeythoueny i?noeai aeoiaeo aeeneieaoe?e ia ieiueio
e?enoaeo. I?aeaeuaiiy nooiaiy /enoioe iiiie?enoae?a oaioaeo i?ecaiaeeoue
aei ciaioaiiy cia/aiue i?e?ioaa?aeino?.

O i?ae?icae?e? 5.5 i?aaenoaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? ii aecia/aiith
i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy aoii?a acioo a oaioae?. Aeey aecia/aiiy
i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy aoii?a acioo a oaioae? ?c io?eiaieo iiiie?enoae?a
aoee i?aeaioiaai? c?acee, iiaa?oi? yeeo a?aeiia?aeaee ieiueiai 100 ?
110. Oe? c?acee iane/oaaee acioii, caaaa/aiei aei 98% ?cioiiii 15N.
Aeey ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ?cioiio 15N aeei?enoiaoaaee yaea?io ?aaeoe?th
15N(p, )12C, caoaeaeaio i?ioiiaie c aia?a??th 730 eaA.

Uia aecia/eoe iieiaeaiiy aoii?a acioo a oaioae? ci?iaee caeaaei?noue
aeoiae?a cai?ioii?icn?yieo i?ioii?a ia yae?ao oaioaeo oa -/anoie
?aaeoe?? 15N(p, )12C a?ae eooa i?ae iai?yieii io/ea oa iaeiei ?c
aea?aieo e?enoaeia?ao?/ieo iai?yie?a.

Eooiaa neaioaaiiy iieacaei cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy aeoiaeo -/anoie i?e
niieo/aii? iai?yieo io/ea i?ioii?a c e?enoaeia?ao?/ieie inyie <100> ?
<110> oa ieiueiith 110, ui na?ae/eoue i?i ?ici?uaiiy aoii?a acioo o
iaeiiio ?c ?aaoey?ieo i?aeaoce?e. Ii?iiaaiee aeo?ae -/anoie aeey in?
<110> i?ae eooii 0,6° neeaaea? 0,7, ui oeaco? ia ?ici?uaiiy 1/3 aoii?a
acaeiaae aoiiieo eaioethaee?a oaioaeo <110>, a 2/3 aoii?a acioo
?ici?uothoueny a oeaio?? eaiaeo. Iiae?ai?noue caeaaeiino? aeoiaeo
-/anoie ? ?icn?yieo i?ioii?a aeey ieiueie 100 na?ae/aoue i?i ?ici?uaiiy
acioo a ieoa-i?aeaoceiaeiao. Oaeei /eiii, aeai? eooiaiai neaioaaiiy
iaaeiei iai?yie?a e?enoaeo Ta15N na?ae/aoue i?i ?ici?uaiiy aoii?a acioo
a ieoa-i?aeaoceiaeiao.

Iaoiae, ui aeei?enoiaoaaany, ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ioeo a?aeiieo, ? i?yiei
iaoiaeii aecia/aiiy i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a a e?enoae?.
A?aecia/eii, ui iaae?ei? a?aeiiino? i?i i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy aoii?a acioo
a oaioae? iaea?aeai? aia?oa.

aeniiaee

1. Ia iniia? ?ic?aooieiaeo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
anoaiiaeai? iniiai? caeiiii??iino? ?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo
aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaaith ieaaeith a aaeooi? ? ciiiith
ia?ae?enoae?caoe??th. Iieacaii, ui aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? ii
aeaeaeaiith ? ?iciiae?eo aeii?oie i?e aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaa?e ieaaoe? oa
ciii?e ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? aeia?a ocaiaeaeothoueny aeey a?eueoino?
aiae?co?ieo oa aaaeeiaeaeaey?ieo aeii?oie c ?ic?aooieiaeie aeaieie
eiao?oe??io?a i/enoee ? eiao?oe??io?a ?iciiae?eo aeeiiaieo aeey
?aeaaeueieo ?ic/ei?a. Onoaiiaeaii, ui ??aiiaaaeiee eiao?oe??io
?iciiae?eo aeii?oie (Ei) ? ?ici??iee oaeoi? iathoue ia??iaee/i?noue a
caeaaeiino? a?ae aoiiiiai iiia?o aeaiaioo a Ia??iaee/i?e nenoai?
Iaiaeaea?aa.

2. Iaea?aeaii iiiie?enoaee oaioaeo c ai?noii iaoae?/ieo aeii?oie
<10-4-10-6 ian.% Aecia/ai? iioeiaeuei? ia?aiao?e ciiii? ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? oaioaeo ? iniiai? aeii?oee, ye? iaiaaeothoue /enoioo iaoaeo. Cai?iiiiiaaia noaia eiiieaeniiai ?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo ii?aeiaiiyi o?i?/ii? i/enoee a?ae aaaeeiaeaeaey?ieo aeii?oie ia noaae?? iaea?aeaiiy aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo oa o?ce/ieo iaoiae?a: ia?aieaa o ?ic??aeaeaiiio aeoeaiiio na?aaeiaeu?, ciiia ieaaea o iaaeaenieiio aaeooi? a ii?aeiaii? c aeaeo?iia?aiinii. 3. Aeine?aeaeaiiyi i?ioeano aca?iiae?? oaioaeo c caeeoeiaeie aacaie o aaeooi? onoaiiaeaii, ui o oaiia?aoo?iiio ?ioa?aae? 1825-1875 E a?aeaoaa?oueny iaeneiaeueia iiaeeiaiiy oaioaeii acioo ? eenith. Aecia/aia oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue eiao?oe??ioo ianiia?aiino acioo a oaioae?. Aeine?aeaeaia oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue aeaeo?iiii?o oaioaeo ??cii? /enoioe a ?ioa?aae? 4,2-300 E. Aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? oaiia?aoo?iiai oiaeo aeaeo?iiii?o. Aea/aia i?e?ino?oeoo?a io?eiaieo iiiie?enoae?a oaioaeo. Aia?oa aenia?eiaioaeueii aecia/aii i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy aoii?a acioo a e?enoae?/i?e ?ao?ooe? oaioaeo. Aeyaeaii, ui aoiie acioo ?ici?uai? a ieoaaae?e/ieo i?aeaoceiaeiao e?enoae?/ii? ?ao?oee oaioaeo. 4. ?ic?iaeaia ? noai?aia onoaiiaea aeey aiae?co caeeoeiaeo aac?a a eaia?? ieaaee oa aeine?aeaeaiiy aaciaeae?eaiiy ?c ooaiieaaeeo ? o?i?/ii aeoeaieo iaoae?a a i?ioean? aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaai? ieaaee aeey iioei?caoe?? ? aaoiiaoecaoe?? i?ioeano ?ao?ioaaiiy iaoae?a aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaaith ieaaeith. NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO ?IA?O CAeIAOAA*A CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?? 1. Aaeaaea A.I., Auethaia I.I., Ieeeiaiei I.I. Oaioae e aai naienoaa // Oaioae e ieiaee, eo naienoaa. I.: AIEE oeie/aneie oaoiieiaee. -1992.- Aui. 1.- N.5-50. 2. Aaeaaea A.I., Aoaianueaa A.E., Auethaia I.I., Aoiaithe A.N., Cei/aiei I.N., Eaa?eiaiei N.Ae., Ieeeiaiei I.I. I?eiaiaiea aunieiia?aaainiie yeaeo?iiiie iooee aeey ia?aieaaa iaoaeeia // Aii?inu aoiiiie iaoee e oaoieee (AAIO). Na?ey: Iauay e yaea?iay oeceea. -1987. - Aui.1(7). - N.53-55. 3. Auethaia I.I., Aii/a?ia E.N., Eocueiaiei A.A., Eaa?eiaiei N.Ae., Ieeeiaiei I.I., ?aiaaa A.A. Iiiaiyeaiaioiue aeoeaaoeeiiiue aiaeec n iiiiuueth (p,n)-?aaeoeee // Oa?ueeia: OOOE AI ONN?. - 1987. - 10 N. 4. Aaeaaea A.I., Auethaia I.I., Aeaineee A.A., Ieeeiaiei I.I., Neaeoi I.A., Ea?eeia C.A. Iieo/aiea iiiie?enoaeeia oaioaea ciiiie ia?ae?enoaeeecaoeeae // AAIO. Na?ey: Aaeooi, /enoua iaoa?eaeu, naa?oi?iaiaeieee. - 1998. - Aui.1(2). - N.63-71. 5. Aaeaaea A.I., Auethaia I.I., Aeaineee A.A., Eaa?eiaiei N.Ae., Ieeeiaiei I.I. Iieo/aiea auniei/enouo iaoaeeia: oeoaia, oee?eiiey, aaiaaeey, ieiaey e oaioaea // AAIO. Na?ey: Aaeooi, /enoua iaoa?eaeu, naa?oi?iaiaeieee. - 1998. - Aui.1(2). - N.72-76. 6. Aaeaaea A.I., Aia?ia TH.I., Auethaia I.I., Ea?eeia C.A., Ieeeiaiei I.I. Acaeiiaeaenoaea oaioaea n inoaoi/iuie aacaie i?e iaa?aaa a aaeooia // AAIO. Na?ey: ssaea?ii-oece/aneea enneaaeiaaiey (oai?ey e yenia?eiaio). - 1994. - Aui.1(27). - N.3-6. 7. Aaeaaea A.I., Aiaaiaeei A.I., Caeaineee A.O., Aeaineee A.A., Eaa?eiaiei N.Ae., Iaeethaeia E.I., Ieeeiaiei I.I. Aiaeec i?eiaieiinoe ooaiieaaeeo iaoaeeia e nieaaia a ea/anoaa eiino?oeoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia iiaecaiiiai ?aaeoi?a // AAIO. Na?ey: Oeceea ?aaeeaoeeiiiuo iia?aaeaeaiee e ?aaeeaoeeiiiia iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiea. - 1998. - Aui.3(69), 4(70). - N. 106-108. Aiioaoe?y Ieeeiaiei I.I. ?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo oa aeine?aeaeaiiy aeayeeo eiai aeanoeainoae. - Poeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.13 - o?ceea iaoaeia. Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaoeiaee oeaio? “Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”. Oa?e?a. 1998. Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aea/aiith iniiaieo caeiiii??iinoae ?ao?ioaaiiy oaioaeo o?ce/ieie iaoiaeaie (aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaaith ieaaeith, ciiiith ia?ae?enoae?caoe??th, aeaeo?iia?aiinii). Io?eiaii iiiie?enoaee oaioaeo ?c ai?noii iaoae?/ieo aeii?oie <10-4 - 10-6 ian.%. Aecia/aii iioeiaeuei? ia?aiao?e ciiii? ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? oaioaeo ? iniiai? aeii?oeia? aeaiaioe, ui iaiaaeothoue /enoioo iaoaeo. Cai?iiiiiaaii eiiieaenio noaio iaea?aeaiiy /enoiai oaioaeo. Onoaiiaeaii iniaeeaino? oaiia?aoo?iiai oiaeo aeaeo?iiii?o oaioaeo oa aea/aii iniaeeaino? aca?iiae?? oaioaeo c aacaie. Aia?oa io?eiaii aenia?eiaioaeuei? a?aeiiino? i?i i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy aoii?a acioo o iiiie?enoaeao oaioaeo. Cai?iiiiiaaiee a ?iaio? i?eno??e aeey aiae?co caeeoeiaeo aac?a ciaeoia i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy aeey iioei?caoe?? ? aaoiiaoecaoe?? i?ioeano aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaai? ieaaee iaoae?a. Eeth/ia? neiaa: oaioae, ?ao?ioaaiiy, ciiia ia?ae?enoae?caoe?y, aeii?oee, aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaaa ieaaea, iiiie?enoaee, /enoioa, aace. AIIIOAOeEss Ieeeiaiei I.I. ?aoeie?iaaiea oaioaea e enneaaeiaaiea iaeioi?uo aai naienoa. - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.13 oeceea iaoaeeia. Iaoeeiiaeueiue iao/iue oeaio? “Oa?ueeianeee oeceei-oaoie/aneee einoeooo”. Oa?ueeia. 1998. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth iniiaiuo caeiiiia?iinoae ?aoeie?iaaiey oaioaea oece/aneeie iaoiaeaie e enneaaeiaaieth naienoa oaioaea ?acee/iie noaiaie /enoiou. Aeey ioeaiee iiaaaeaiey i?eianiuo yeaiaioia a i?ioeanna ?aoeie?iaaiey oaioaea oece/aneeie iaoiaeaie aue i?iaaaeai ?an/ao iniiaiuo ia?aiao?ia oa?aeoa?ecothueo yoe i?ioeannu: eiyooeoeeaiou i/enoee iaoaeea io i?eianae a i?ioeanna yeaeo?iiii-eo/aaie ieaaee (YEI), yooaeoeaiua e ?aaiiaaniua eiyooeoeeaiou ?ani?aaeaeaiey, i?eaaaeaiiua eiyooeoeeaiou enia?aiey e ioiineoaeueiua eiioeaio?aoeee i?eianiiai yeaiaioa n o/aoii aai enia?aiey i?e ciiiie ia?ae?enoaeeecaoeee (CI). Aiaeec ?ann/eoaiiuo cia/aiee, a oaeaea aiaeec niaea?aeaiey i?eianae a enoiaeiii oaioaea iicaieee ioeaieoue yooaeoeaiinoue oaeaeaiey i?eianae yoeie iaoiaeaie e ii?aaeaeeoue ia?aiao?u yooaeoeaiiai ?aoeie?iaaiey oaioaea. Yenia?eiaioaeueii eco/ai i?ioeann ?aoeie?iaaiey oaioaea iaoiaeii yeaeo?iiii-eo/aaie ieaaee e ciiiie ia?ae?enoaeeecaoeee. Ii?aaeaeaiu iioeiaeueiua ia?aiao?u YEI e CI oaioaea e iniiaiua i?eiane ia?aie/eaathuea /enoioo iaoaeea. Iieo/aiu iiiie?enoaeeu oaioaea n niaea?aeaieai iaoaeee/aneeo i?eianae <10-4 -10-6 ian.%. Iiiie?enoaeeu oaioaea, iieo/aiiua CI a eiio?iee?oaiie n?aaea eenei?iaea, eiaee /enoioo 99,999 ian.%. I?iaaaeaii n?aaiaiea yenia?eiaioaeueiuo e ?an/aoiuo aeaiiuo niaea?aeaiey i?eianiuo yeaiaioia a oaioaea iinea YEI e CI. Aeey auyniaiey oa?aeoa?a eciaiaiey ia?oeeaeueiuo aeaaeaiee eiiiiiaioia inoaoi/iuo aacia a eaia?ao yeaeo?iiii-eo/aauo onoaiiaie a i?ioeanna ieaaee auea ?ac?aaioaia e nicaeaia onoaiiaea “?acaaaeoaeue” e n aa iiiiuueth ii?aaeaeaiu iniiaiua aacu, auaeaeythueany ec oaioaea i?e aai ieaaea. Onoaiiaeaiea caeiiiia?iinoe iaaeaeo ia?oeeaeueiui aeaaeaieai aacia e eo niaea?aeaieai a iaoaeea, iieo/aiiii iinea ieaaee iicaieyao iioeiece?iaaoue i?ioeann YEI e iieo/aoue iaoaee n caaeaiiui niaea?aeaieai yoeo i?eianae, a eniieueciaaiea yoeo caeiiiia?iinoae eiiiuethoa?ii - aaoiiaoece?iaaoue i?ioeann iieo/aiey iaoaeea n caaeaiiui niaea?aeaieai aaciauo i?eianae. Ia iniiaa enneaaeiaaiee i?ioeannia i/enoee oaioaea i?aaeeiaeaia eiiieaeniay noaia aeoaieiai ?aoeie?iaaiey oaioaea, aeeth/athuay a naay oeie/aneea iaoiaeu ia noaaeee iieo/aiey enoiaeiiai iaoa?eaea e eiiieaena oece/aneeo iaoiaeia ia caeeth/eoaeueiuo noaaeeyo: ia?aieaa a ?ac?aaeaiiie aeoeaiie n?aaea, ciiioth ieaaeo a naa?oaunieii aaeooia, ciiioth ieaaeo a ni/aoaiee n yeaeo?iia?aiinii. Eco/ai i?ioeann acaeiiaeaenoaey oaioaea n inoaoi/iuie aacaie a aaeooia. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi a oaiia?aoo?iii eioa?aaea 1825 - 1875 E i?ienoiaeeo iaeneiaeueiia iiaeiuaiea oaioaeii acioa e eenei?iaea. Onoaiiaeaia oaiia?aoo?iay caaeneiinoue eiyooeoeeaioa ianniia?aiina acioa a oaioaea e ii?aaeaeaii o?aaiaiea aeey ?an/aoa inoaoi/iiai niaea?aeaiey acioa i?e aaeooiiie aeaaacaoeee oaioaea. Ii?aaeaeaii ianoiiieiaeaiea aoiiia acioa a iiiie?enoaeeao oaioaea. Iaia?oaeaii, /oi aoiiu acioa ?aciauaiu a ieoayae?e/aneeo iaaeaeioceeyo e?enoaeee/aneie ?aoaoee oaioaea. Enneaaeiaaia oaiia?aoo?iay caaeneiinoue yeaeo?inii?ioeaeaiey oaioaea ?acee/iie /enoiou a eioa?aaea 4,2-300 E. Auyaeaiu iniaaiiinoe oaiia?aoo?iiai oiaea yeaeo?inii?ioeaeaiey. Eco/aia iee?ino?oeoo?a iieo/aiiuo iiiie?enoaeeia oaioaea. Auyaeaii, /oi aeey iiiie?enoaeeia oaioaea oa?aeoa?ii ni/aoaiea y/aenoie e nooiai/aoie no?oeoo?u ?inoa. Iaia?oaeaii, /oi iiiie?enoaeeu oaioaea iaeaaeatho aiecio?iieae iee?ioaa?aeinoe. ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee ?aoeie?iaaiey oaioaea e aai naienoa aeatho aiciiaeiinoue inouanoaeoue iao/iue iiaeoiae e iieo/aieth oaioaea n ieceei niaea?aeaieai i?eianae aeey nia?aiaiiuo oaoiieiaee e nicaeaieth eiino?oeoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia aeey aoiiiuo ?aaeoi?ia iiaiai iieieaiey e ae?oaeo iniai ioaaonoaaiiuo i?eiaiaiee. Onoaiiaeaiiua caeiiiia?iinoe ?aoeie?iaaiey oaioaea e ?ac?aaioaiiue eiiieaeniue iaoiae iieo/aiey /enoiai oaioaea iiaoo auoue i?eiaiaiu i?e ?aoeie?iaaiee oeie/anee aeoeaiuo e ooaiieaaeeo iaoaeeia. I?aaeeiaeaiiia a ?aaioa ono?ienoai aeey aiaeeca inoaoi/iuo aacia iaoei i?aeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea aeey iioeiecaoeee e aaoiiaoecaoeee i?ioeanna yeaeo?iiiieo/aaie ieaaee iaoaeeia. Eeth/aaua neiaa: oaioae, ?aoeie?iaaiea, ciiiay ia?ae?enoaeeecaoeey, i?eiane, yeaeo?iiii-eo/aaay ieaaea, iiiie?enoaeeu, /enoioa, aacu. SUMMARY Pilipenko N.N. Refining of tantalum and research of its some properties. - Manuscript. Thesis applied for Ph.D. in Physics and mathematics on specialty 01.04.13 physics of metals. - Science National Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology”, Kharkov, 1998. The dissertation is devoted to study of the basic laws of refining of tantalum by physical methods (electron-beam melting, zone recrystallization, electrotransport) and research of properties of tantalum of a various degree of purity. The monocrystals of a tantalum with the contents of metal impurities < 10-4 - 10-6 mas.% are obtained. The optimal parameters of refining of tantalum are determined and the base impurities which limit purity of metal are found. The complex scheme of producing of a pure tantalum is offered. The features of temperature course of electroresistance of tantalum are established and the peculiarities of interaction of tantalum with gases are investigated. The experimental information about position of atoms of nitrogen in monocrystals of tantalum for the first time are received. The device, offered in work, for the analysis of residual gases has found practical application for optimization and automation of process of electron-beam melting of metals. Key words: tantalum, refining, zone recrystallization, impurities, electron-beam melting, monocrystals, purity, gases.

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