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I?i?noa?noai aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie

Oi?aa?neoao aioo??oi?o ni?aa

OAeE 340.0 (477)

Aeoaei TH??e Aaeaioeiiae/

?aaeyinueea Nioe?ae?noe/ia ?anioae?ea Oaa?eaee:

?noi?eei-i?aaia? aniaeoe

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 12.00.01 – oai??y oa ?noi??y aea?aeaae ? i?aaa;

?noi??y iie?oe/ieo ? i?aaiaeo a/aiue

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? oai??? oa ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa
Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa IAN Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Caeoeaa Eaii?ae Ieaenaiae?iae/,

ia/aeueiee eaoaae?e oai??? oa ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Oi?aa?neoaoo
aioo??oi?o ni?aa

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

?iaiaeei Aiaoie?e Eineiiae/,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Iaoe?iiaeueii? th?eaee/ii?
aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?i. ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai;

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oeuee Ai?en Eineiiae/,

caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith ?noi??? oa oai??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?. O?aiea

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa ?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai
Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e ?noi?eei-iie?oieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 22 o?aaiy 1999 ?. i “ 10-00 ” aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.64.700.03 i?e Oi?aa?neoao?
aioo??oi?o ni?aa ca aae?anith: 310080, i. Oa?e?a, i?iniaeo 50-??//y
N?N?, 27.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oi?aa?neoaoo
aioo??oi?o ni?aa ca aae?anith: 310080, i. Oa?e?a, i?iniaeo 50-??//y
N?N?, 27.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 20 ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ee?e/aiei A.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. O ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae, yeee
ia?aaeeaa? iino?aaeyinueea noni?euenoai, aeey Oe?a?ie /e ia
iaeaaaeeea?oith iaoith ? noai?aiiy caeiiiaeaa/eo ? i?aai?caoe?eieo iniia
i?aaiai? aea?aeaae. Cia/iith ia?aoeiaeith ia oeyoo aeinyaiaiiy oe???
iaoe ? a?aenooi?noue i?aeoe/iiai aeina?aeo e iacia/ia e?euee?noue
oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue c iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?iaeai ?icaoaeiae i?aaiai?
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?.

Oiio ia’?eoeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aaiaeo iniia noai?aiiy /eneaiieo
aea?aeaaieo oi?ioaaiue o /ane ?oeiaoe?? eieeoiuei? ?in?enueei? ?iia??? a
1917-1921 ??., iiceoeaiee ? iaaaoeaiee aeina?ae o i?aaiaiio caaacia/aii?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeieeeeo aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a ia?ac? aoaea ei?eniei ?
canoa?aaea a?ae iiieeie o i?ioean? no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy.

Na?aae ia?oeo ?aaeyinueeeo aea?aeaaieo ooai?aiue ia oa?aiao ?iia?nueei?
?in??, ii?yae c ?in?enueeith ?aaeyinueeith Oaaea?aoeaiith ?anioae?eith,
Oe?a?inueeith Nioe?ae?noe/iith ?aaeyinueeith ?anioae?eith aoea noai?aia
e ?aaeyinueea Nioe?ae?noe/ia ?anioae?ea Oaa?eaee (aeae? ?N?O).

?anioae?ea Oaa?eaee aoea ia?oith c e?einueeeo ?anioae?e, ui
iaieiooaaeenue ai?iaeiaae 1918-1921 ??. Aea/aiiy i?aaiaeo iniia
noai?aiiy ? ae?yeueiino? ?N?O aeicaieeoue ?ica’ycaoe /eiaei aeeneon?eieo
ieoaiue, o oiio /ene? i?i oai?aoe/ia i?aea?oioy ?icaoaeiae ?aaeyinueei?
oaaea?aoe??, i?i iaoo ? caaaeaiiy ?anioae?ee Oaa?eaee, oa?aeoa? ??
aaoiiii?? c o?aooaaiiyi nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ? iaoe?iiaeueieo
iniaeeainoae E?eio. Iaoeiaa aena?oeaiiy cacia/aieo i?iaeai a iao? aei?
ia? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy. Eiai ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey
oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaeo aca?iia?aeiinei Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei c
oeaio?aeueiei aea?aeaaiei aia?aoii a iaaeao oi?oa?iiai aea?aeaaiiai
ono?ith Oe?a?ie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?th
aeeiiaii a?aeiia?aeii aei “Aieiaieo iai?yie?a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa IAN Oe?a?ie ia 1996 – 2000 ??.”, i?ia?aie
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue E?einueeiai oaeoeueoaoo Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o
ni?aa.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooia? aea?aeaaia ooai?aiiy – ?aaeyinueea
Nioe?ae?noe/ia ?anioae?ea Oaa?eaee, a iniiaieo eiiiiiaioao no?oeoo?e
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, oi?aae?iiy, noaeiai? nenoaie; aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaee
?aaeei; iniiai? iai?yiee ae?yeueiino?.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee oai?aoe/i? oa i?aaia? canaaee aeieeiaiiy
oa ae?yeueiino? ?N?O, i?aeoeea ?icaoaeiae aea?aeaaiino?, ii?iioai?/a
ae?yeuei?noue, noaeiaa i?aeoeea oiui. Niaoe?aeueiee i?aaeiao
aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeoue aeaea?aeueia aaca, niaoe?aeueia
?noi?eei-i?aaiaa oa aea?aeaaiciaa/a e?oa?aoo?a c i?iaeai
aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?iaeai.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o aena?oeaii? ?noi?eei-i?aaiaeo aniaeo?a
noai?aiiy, i?aai?caoe?? oa ae?yeueiino? ?N?O. A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai o
aeena?oaoe?? cina?aaeaeaii oaaao ia aeeiiaii? oaeeo aeine?aeieoeueeeo
caaaeaiue:

— aecia/eoe noai iie?oeei-i?aaiai? oai??? oa i?aeoeee oaaea?ae?cio ia
ii/aoeo OO no. oa i?iaiae?coaaoe nooi?iue aeei?enoaiiy ?o i?e noai?aii?
?N?O;

— anoaiiaeoe i?noea oa ?ieue ?N?O na?aae ia?oeo ?aaeyinueeeo aea?aeaaieo
ooai?aiue o na?oe? aaiiie?oe/ieo ieai?a a?eueoiaee?a ia ii/aoeo 1918
?ieo;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe iie?oe/i? oa ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? canaaee noai?aiiy
?anioae?ee Oaa?eaee, ?o a?aeiia?aei?noue caaaeueiiaeciaiei i?eioeeiai
naiiaecia/aiiy oa i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa;

— aeine?aeeoe oi?io aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith, nenoaio i?aai?a aeaaee,
oi?aae?iiy, noaeiono?ith, ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaa caaacia/aiiy i?aai?caoe??
oa ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio;

— ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iie?oe/iee oa aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaee ?aaeei ?N?O;

— aeaoe iie?oeei-i?aaiao ioe?ieo aioo??oiuei? oa ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee
?N?O;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe i?e/eie oa ia?aaeoiiae iaae?iiy ?N?O oa
iie?oeei-i?aaia? iane?aeee.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee ?iaioe ioiieththoue ia??iae ?nioaaiiy ?N?O –
aa?acaiue-ea?oaiue 1918 ?. O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeyiooi
i?iaeaie iie?oeei-i?aaiai? oai??? oa i?aeoeee oaaea?ae?cio aei ii/aoeo
1918 ?ieo.

Iaoiaeieia?/i? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. O i?ioean? aea/aiiy, aiae?oe/ii?
ia?iaee, ocaaaeueiaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e, i?e
iaa?oiooaaii? oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue ? aeniiae?a oa ?ic?iaoe?
i?iiiceoe?e ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aaoi? ea?oaaany ae?aeaeoe/iei iaoiaeii
iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy, nie?ath/enue ia iniiai? canaaee oai??? aea?aeaae ?
i?aaa, nioe?ieia?/i? oa ineoieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aei aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaiaoeee. Aiae?c aeine?aeaeoaaiiai iaoa??aeo (a?o?aieo aeaea?ae,
ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a, niaoe?aeueii? e?oa?aoo?e) cae?enithaaany ca
aeiiiiiaith caaaeueiiiaoeiaeo iaoiae?a – ?noi?eei-aiae?oe/iiai,
nenoaiiiai, eiie?aoii-nioe?ieia?/iiai, ooieoe?iiaeueiiai, oa
niaoe?aeueii-th?eaee/ieo iaoiae?a – ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaiai,
?noi?eei-i?aaiaiai, oi?iaeueii-eia?/iiai oa ?ioeo niinia?a iaoeiaiai
i?ciaiiy.

Noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. Iniiai? i?iaeaie noai?aiiy ?
ae?yeueiino? ?N?O aena?oethaaeeny eeoa a caaaeueii-?noi?e/iiio aniaeo?.
O i?aoe? “?aaiethoe?y ? a?iiaaeyinueea a?eia a E?eio” (1927 ?.)
I.O. Aoiaa?i aia?oa c?iaea ni?iao iiynieoe i?e/eie i?iaieioaiiy ?N?O. O
na?oe? io?oe?eii aeneiaeaii? c oeueiai i?eaiaeo oi/ee ci?o A.?. Eai?ia
aaoi? aeacaa ia aaaeaiiy ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee caa?aaoe E?ei a?ae
i?iaoeueei? iaaaee ? iinyaaiue ao?aeoacii? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, a oaeiae
caaacia/eoe a?eueoiaeoeueea iaioaaiiy ia *i?iiii?nueeiio oeio?. Oey
io?oe?eia eiioeaioe?y noai?aiiy ?N?O aaccaia?a/ii i?aeo?eioaaeany
?aaeyinueeith ?noi??ia?ao??th aei e?ioey 70-o ??. XX no.

O iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? 20-o ??. aacaeieaciai noaa?aeaeoaaeiny, ui ieoaiiy
i?i i?iaieioaiiy ?N?O ae??ooaaeiny ia c’?cae? ?aae Oaa??enueei? aoaa?i??
10 aa?aciy 1918 ?. O ia?en? c ?noi??? ?aae E?eio (1933 ?.) I.E. Aoean
aia?oa aeacaa ia oa, ui i?iaeaia noai?aiiy ?N?O ia aoaa?inueeiio c’?cae?
ia ?icaeyaeaeany acaaae?, a iineeaiiy OeAE Oaa?eaee ia ??oaiiy oeueiai
c’?caeo aoei aeaia aac aeiaeii? ia oa i?aenoaae. Ioaea, ? oeae oaeo
ona?aeiieaii oaeueneo?eoaaany ?aaeyinueeeie ?noi?eeaie.

Aeoaea aaaeei ?ica’ycoaaeiny ieoaiiy ? i?i ?i?oe?aoi??a noai?aiiy ?N?O.
I.O. Aoiaa?i eeoa cacia/aa, ui ?anioae?ea Oaa?eaee aoea i?iaieioaia c
?i?oe?aoeae ??ON?. O e?ioe? 50-60 ??. XX no. I.I. Iaaeeinueeee oa
I.N. ?oaeaiei iiaeaee aeieoiaioaeueiee iaoa??ae i?i oa, ui /eaie OeAE
Oaa??enueei? aoaa?i?? N. Iiainaeuenueeee oa I. Eieyaeaiei a ae?oa?e
aeaeaae? aa?aciy 1918 ?. io?eiaee a Iinea?, a ?aaeia?eii? ??ON?,
aeac?aee uiaei i?iaieioaiiy E?eio ?anioae?eith, ye?e iaeaaeeoue
*i?iiii?nueeee oeio.

O e?ioe? 50-70 ??. c’yaeeeny niaoe?aeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?i ?N?O –
noaoo? A.?. Oacaiiaa oa A.I. Aieueoniia, I.N. ?oaeaiea oa
I.I. Iaeneiaiea, a yeeo o caaaeueieo ?enao ? a?aeiia?aeii aei onoaeaieo
io?oe?eieo eiioeaioe?e aena?oethaaeany ?noi??y noai?aiiy ?anioae?ee
Oaa?eaee. A iniiaiiio aaoi?e oi?eaeeny iaeieo ? oeo naieo ieoaiue:
i?iaieioaiiy ?N?O a aeae?aoao OeAE Oaa??enueei? aoaa?i?? a?ae 19 oa 21
aa?aciy 1918 ?., noai?aiiy ? ae?yeueiino? aeueo i?aai?a ?anioae?ee –
?aaeia?eiio oa eiai ia?eiiao?a. Ia ie?aieo i?eeeaaeao ?ethno?oaaeeny oa
aicaaee/oaaeeny “nioe?ae?noe/i?” ia?aoai?aiiy OeAE ? ?aaeia?eiio
Oaa?eaee a noa?? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei – cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?iai/iai eiio?ieth oa iaoe?iiae?caoe?y i?iieneiaino?, aaie?a, noai?aiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo a?o?eae ? o. ?i. O caaaeueiiio ieai? aoee
aena?oeai? oaeiae inoaii? aei? ?aaeia?eiio Oaa?eaee: acyooy a iieii ?
?icno??e a Aeooo? ?yaeo eiai ea??aieo i?aoe?aiee?a, ia?aaaaeaiiy aei
Iiai?in?enueea *i?iiii?nueeiai oeioo oa eiai caaeaaeue.

O 1979 ?. I.?. Aa?/aa oa E.I. Eiiiiaiei iioae?eoaaee noaooth i?i Eai?ia
ye i?aai?caoi?a ?aeeiiai aieiaiai o?iioo ia I?aaei? e?a?ie a
aa?aci?-ea?oi? 1918 ?. O i?e aia?oa aoei iieacaii, ui ?N?O noai?thaaeany
ca aeac?aeaie A.?. Eai?ia ? ia aeey aeio?eiaiiy iaeo?ae?oaoo E?eio, a
aeey a?eie – caeo/aiiy a ?aeeiee aieiaee o?iio ia i?aaei? i?ioe
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee oa ?? i?iaoeueei-aano??enueeeo nithciee?a.

O 1981 ?. E.I. Aa?/aaith (Eiiiiaiei) aoei i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy ia
oaio: “Noai?aiiy ?aaeyinueei? Nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?anioae?ee Oaa?eaee ?
ae?yeuei?noue ?? OeAE ? ?aaeia?eiio”, a yeiio a ?noi?e/iiio aniaeo?
aena?oethaaeeny i?e/eie noai?aiiy ?N?O, ae?yeuei?noue ?? aeueo i?aai?a
uiaei iaaeaiiy ca?ieii? aeiiiiiae ?aaeyinuee?e Oe?a?i? oa i?iaeiaieue/i?
aeiiiiiae ??ON?, ?aeaae?coaaeiny i?iaaaeaiiy “nioe?ae?noe/ieo”
ia?aoai?aiue o E?eio iaaani? 1918 ?.

O 1990 ?. aoei iioae?eiaaii ?iaioo I.?. Aa?/aaa, E.I. Eiiiiaiei ?
I.I. Iaeneiaiei, a ye?e iienaii ?noi??th aeieeiaiiy ?anioae?ee Oaa?eaee,
aeniei ioe?iaii i?iaaaeai? a i?e ?aaiethoe?ei? ia?aoai?aiiy, aena?oeaii
ai?ioueao ?anioae?ee c i?iaoeueeeie ?ioa?aaioaie ? “aioo??oiueith
eiio??aaiethoe??th”, aioeeiioi?noe/ieie iianoaiiyie.

O 1997 ?. e?einuee? aeine?aeieee I.A. Ca?oa?i ? A.A. Ca?oa?i aeaeaee
eieao c ?noi??? a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie a E?eio, iaaaeeeee ?icae?e yei?
i?enay/aii ?anioae?oe? Oaa?eae?. Aiie iinoaaeee i?ae noii?a oaeo
i?iaieioaiiy oe??? ?anioae?ee eeoa ca aeac?aeaie OeE ?NAe?I(a), Eai?ia.
I?e oeueiio aaoi?e iineeathoueny o?eueee ia niiaaaee iaeiiai c
ea??aiee?a ?N?O ?. O??aeaana, yeee ienaa i?i i?noeaao ?i?oe?aoeao a
noai?aii? E?einueei? ?anioae?ee. O i?aoe? aia?oa c?iaeai? ni?iae
e?eoe/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei ?acoeueoao?a ae?yeueiino? ?N?O, iiaeai?
iaoa??aee i?i aeeeoaoi?nueei-oa?i?enoe/iee ?aaeei, anoaiiaeaiee
a?eueoiaeeaie ia i?aino?ia?, i?iaae eiai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii?
iie?oeee.

Aaciina?aaeiuei i?aaiaei aniaeoai noai?aiiy ?N?O i?enay/ai? ?iaioe
A.I. A?eoi?iaa, ui iiaa/eee na?o i?ioyaii 1971-1973 ??.

Ioaea, iaeyae iayaieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?i ?N?O na?ae/eoue, ui, ca
aeiyoeii ?ia?o A.I. A?eoi?iaa, on? aiie iaienai? a caaaeueii-?noi?e/iiio
ieai?. Aaoi?e ia oi?eathoueny i?aaiaeo aniaeo?a noai?aiiy ?N?O,
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai caaacia/aiiy ae?yeueiino? ?? aeueo ? i?noeaaeo
i?aai?a. Aea?aeaaiee iaoai?ci ?N?O aiae?coaaany eeoa iia?aeii. Aei
?iciaaeo ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco ?noi?eee aoee ciooai? aeoaaeyoe
eiioi?noe/iee iie?oe/iee ?aaeei ?anioae?ee Oaa?eaee ? an? iai?yiee eiai
ae?yeueiino?, cie?aia ? /a?aiiee oa?i?. Aaaaoi aaaeeeaeo ieoaiue i?i
?N?O aei oeueiai /ano anaa?/ii ia aena?oeai?, caeeoathoueny
aeeneon?eieie. Iaeiiaie? oa ca?aeaieia?ciaai? ioe?iee ?aaeyinueeeo
?noi?ee?a iathoue aooe ia?aaeyioo? ia iniia? anueiai eiiieaeno iayaieo
aeaea?ae.

A?aenooi?noue no/aniiai ?noi?eei-i?aaiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?i ?N?O,
a?aaeath/? i?ioe??//y o o?aeoiaoe? i?e/ei ?? noai?aiiy ? oa?aeoa?o
ae?yeueiino? coiiaeee aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaee iaoa??aee oeaio?aeueieo ?
i?noeaaeo a?o?a?a, aeieoiaioaeuei? ioae?eaoe??, niaoe?aeueia oa iaioa?ia
e?oa?aoo?a, i?ana.

O Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee ? oi?aae?iiy
Oe?a?ie aaoi?ii aeei?enoai? oiiaee “Anaoe?a?inueeiai OeAE ?aae” ?
“Aieiaiiai Oi?aae?iiy Aaiooaao Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae”, ye? i?noyoue
?noi?eei-no?aoaa?/iee ia?en “Cia/aiiy E?eio aeey Oe?a?ie” oa ieceo ?ioeo
iaoa??ae?a. Oeaio?aeueiee aea?aeaaiee a?o?a a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue
Oe?a?ie a oiiaeao “Eieaeoe?y aeieoiaio?a c ?noi??? Eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o??
Oe?a?ie” ? “Eieaeoe?y aeieoiaio?a c ?noi??? a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie” ia?
iaoa??aee, i?iaiae?ciaai? aeena?oaioii, ye? aena?oeththoue oa?aeoa?
ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio ?anioae?ee. Iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy
neeaaeathoue iaoa??aee oiiae?a aeueo ? i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee ?N?O,
ye? caa??aathoueny a aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? i?e ?aae? I?i?no??a Aaoiiiiii?
?anioae?ee E?ei. O?eueee o oiiaeao OeAE, ?aaeia?eiio ? ia?eiiao?a ?N?O
i?noeoueny 260 iaeeieoeue caa??aaiiy.

Iniaeeao oe?ii?noue ia? oiiae ?aaeia?eiio Oaa?eaee. A o?yae? E?eio
eiioi?noe iaea?aeaee a?eueoo ia?aaaao iaae ana?aie, i?ae o OeAE
Oaa?eaee. Anth ?iaioo aiie cina?aaeeee a ?aaeia?eii?, a can?aeaiiy OeAE
iaeaea ia i?iaiaeeeeny. Caa?aaeeny i?ioieiee an?o 19-oe can?aeaiue
?aaeia?eiio, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue iai?yiee ? niiniae ae?yeueiino? o
ea?oi? 1918 ?. oe??? iaeaeui? onoaiiae E?einueei? ?anioae?ee. ?c oiiae?a
ia?iaeieo eii?na??ao?a ?anioae?ee Oaa?eaee aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? oiiae
“Ia?eiiaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa”. Oeae i?aai oi?aae?iiy oaeoe/ii aoa
iaeaeuei ? eii?aeeioaaa ae?yeuei?noue onueiai aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo, ye
i?aai?caoe?eiee a?aeae?e ?aaeia?eiio ? OeAE Oaa?eaee, niieo/ia eaiea
i?ae ieie ? i?noeaaeie i?aaiaie aeaaee. A?i i?aeo?eioaaa ca’ycee ? c
ia?eiiaoii aioo??oi?o ni?aa ??ON?, io?eioaaa a?ae iueiai aee?aeoeae,
ia?aeieee, a o. /. iinoaiiae ? aeae?aoe AOeAE ? ?aaeia?eiio ??ON?.
Aaeeea e?euee?noue iaoa??ae?a c oiiaeo ia?eiiaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa ia?oi?
e?einueei? ?anioae?ee aeicaiey? ?ice?eoe nenoaio ?? aeueo ? i?noeaaeo
i?aai?a aeaaee, i?aaia? aniaeoe ?o noai?aiiy ? ae?yeueiino?. Oe?ii?
iaoa??aee caa??aathoueny oaeiae ? a oiiaeao ?ioeo ia?eiiao?a, a oaeiae o
“Ath?i ae?oeo ?aaeia?eiio Oaa?eaee”, “Ne?ae/?e eii?n??
N?ioa?iiieuenueei? ?aaee, Aeoooeinueei? aieinii? ?aaee”. Aaaaoi
aaaeeeaeo aeieoiaio?a ? niiaaae?a ae?y/?a ?anioae?ee Oaa?eaee
caa??aa?oueny o oiiae? I-150 (“Eii?n?? aeey aea/aiiy ?noi??? ia?o?? oa
?aaiethoe?? i?e E?einueeiio iaeii? ?EI(a) – AEI(a)”), ui c?a?ai? a
20-30 ??. XX no.

O aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? aeei?enoai? oaeiae iioae?eiaai?
aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee, a o. /. oaeaa?aie ? aeiiia?ae? A.?. Eai?ia,
iinoaiiae OeE ?EI(a) a?ae 15 aa?aciy 1918 ?. i?i i?aaiaee noaoon
E?einueei? ?anioae?ee. Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aeey iaienaiiy aeena?oaoe??
noaee oaeiae iaoa??aee e?einueeeo aacao ca aa?acaiue-ea?oaiue 1918 ?.,
iioae?eiaai? iaioa?e ae?y/?a ?anioae?ee Oaa?eaee.

Cia/ia /anoeia a?o?aieo oa ?ioeo aeieoiaio?a oia?oa aaiaeeoueny a
iaoeiaee ia?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?e ia aac?
aecia/aieo oai?aoe/ieo canaae oa aeaea?ae aia?oa i?iaiaeeoueny
eiiieaenia ?noi?eei-i?aaiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie i?iaieioaiiy,
i?aai?caoe?? oa ae?yeueiino? ?aaeyinueei? Nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?anioae?ee
Oaa?eaee – ia?oiai ?aaeyinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai ooai?aiiy ia oa?eoi???
E?eio o OO no.

Ia iniia? e?eoe/iiai aea/aiiy ?ia?o iiia?aaei?o aeine?aeiee?a, i?aaiaiai
aiae?co ii?iaoeaiiai oa a?o?aiiai iaoa??aeo, cia/ia /anoeia c yeiai
aeeth/aia aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao aia?oa, aaoi? aeine?aeea i?ioean
i?iaieioaiiy ?N?O ca aeac?aeith c Iineae, ?icaoaeiao aea?aeaaiiai
iaoai?cio aac a?aooaaiiy i?noeaaeo iniaeeainoae,
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e, ia’?eoeaieo oiia ?nioaaiiy
aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee. O ?iaio? aia?oa eiiieaenii aeine?aeaeaii
aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaee iaoai?ci ?N?O, ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaa caaacia/aiiy
i?aai?caoe?? oa ae?yeueiino? caeiiiaeaa/i?, aeeiiaa/i? oa noaeiai?
aeaaee, aeaii i?aaiao ioe?ieo aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/iiio ?aaeeio.

O ?iaio? c?iaeaia ni?iaa iiaeeaeoe ia’?eoeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy nooiino?
a?eueoiaeoeueei? aeeeoaoo?e, oioae?oa?ecio, /a?aiiiai oa?i?o ia
i?eeeaae? ?N?O.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ? ia?oei ocaaaeueithth/ei ?noi?eei-i?aaiaei
aeine?aeaeaiiyi ?anioae?ee Oaa?eaee a noaa?aii?e Oe?a?i?, a yeiio ia
o?eueee ni?inoiaothoueny ca?aeaieia?ciaai? ioe?iee oeueiai aea?aeaaiiai
ooai?aiiy, a e aeneiaeththoueny iiaaaeaiiy oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
i?aaiaiai noaio Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei o neeaae? Oe?a?ie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iaoiiaeth?oueny iiaeeea?noth
aeei?enoaiiy ?? ?acoeueoao?a oa iaoa??ae?a:

a) o iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e noa?? – i?e ?ic?iaoe? caaaeueiioai?aoe/ieo
i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c ia’?eoeaiei aena?oeaiiyi ie?aieo aoai?a ?noi???
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Oe?a?ie oa ?in??;

a) o i?aeoe/i?e noa?? – aeina?ae noai?aiiy oa ae?yeueiino? ?N?O iiaeiai
aooe a?aoiaaiee a i?ioean? aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaiai noaoono Aaoiiiiii?
?anioae?ee E?ei a neeaae? Oe?a?ie;

a) a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? – i?e aeeeaaeaii? eo?no ?noi??? aea?aeaae ?
i?aaa Oe?a?ie, niaoe?aeueiiai eo?no ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa E?eio,
iniia aea?aeaae ? i?aaa a na?aaei?o caaaeueiiina?oi?o oeieao,
niaoe?ae?ciaaieo e?oeayo oa eieaaeaeao.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe? eiiieaenii?
?noi?eei-i?aaiai? i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy iaeiiai c ia?oeo ?aaeyinueeeo
aea?aeaaieo ooai?aiue – ?N?O, – yea i?i?nioaaea aeaa i?nyoe? ? aoea
ia?oei aea?aeaaiei ooai?aiiyi E?eio o OO no.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ai?iaiaai? o iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a a
iaoeiaeo oa iaoeiai-iiioey?ieo aeaeaiiyo, o aenooiao ia aeaio
i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo “?aaiethoe?y ? a?iiaaeyinueea a?eia
1917-1920 ?ie?a: Iiaa inieneaiiy” (N?ioa?iiieue, 1995), “A?ae?iaeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?: I?iaeaie ?noi??? oa eoeueoo?e” (Iaeana,
1996), aeaio Anaoe?a?inueeeo “80-??//y a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino?: Ieioea ? no/ania” (N?ioa?iiieue, 1997), “350-??//y
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?: Ieioea ? no/ania”
(N?ioa?iiieue, 1998), iaei?e ?anioae?eainuee?e “I?iaeaie iie?oe/ii?
?noi??? E?eio: I?aenoiee oa ia?niaeoeae” (N?ioa?iiieue, 1996).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeaii a
iiiia?ao??, 3 noaooyo, 2 aeiiia?aeyo, 5 oacao aeiiia?aeae eiioa?aioe?e,
c ieo 5 ioae?eaoe?e o i?ia?aeieo oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia iaoith, caaaeaiiyie oa aioo??oiueith
eia?eith aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c?
anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a (ianya ?iaioe – 165n.), a oaeiae
nieneo aeaea?ae oa aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (165 iaeiaioaaiue).
Caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe 197 n.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ?ice?eaa?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?ioeththoueny iaoa e caaaeaiiy, aeaea?aeueia e
oai?aoe/ia aaca, aecia/a?oueny iaoeiaa iiaecia, aeaco?oueny ia
oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? “Aeieeiaiiy ?aaeyinueei? Nioe?ae?noe/ii?
?anioae?ee Oaa?eaee” aeeeaaeaii iniiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie aea?aeaaii?
aaoiiii?? noaiii ia 1918 ?. Cie?aia cina?aaeaeaia oaaao ia ci?no? oaeeo
iiiyoue ye “eiioaaea?aoe?y”, “oaaea?aoe?y”,
“iaoe?iiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeueia aaoiiii?y”, “iaeania aaoiiii?y”,
“iaoe?iiaeueii-ia?niiaeueia aaoiiii?y”. Cacia/a?oueny, ui iaea?eueo
ni?eyoeeaith oi?iith aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith, yea caeaoia caaacia/eoe
aeeiiaiiy ooieoe?e aeeeoaoo?e i?ieaoa??aoo, a?eueoiaeee aaaaeaee
oi?oa?io aea?aeaao. ?acii c oei ?? oa?eoi??aeueii-aaei?i?no?aoeaia
i?aai?caoe?y iiaea aeeth/aoe aaoiiiii? iaeano?, iaoe?iiaeuei?
iniaeeaino? yeeo ia iaee ia?aaaaeiiai cia/aiiy. Oai?aoe/iith aacith
oaei? eiioeaioe?? aea?aeaaii? iiaoaeiae aoa eai?inueeee aeniiaie i?i
iiaeeea?noue ia?aiiae i?ieaoa?nueei? ?aaiethoe?? a aeae?eueeio aai a
iaei??? e?a?i?, yea noaaaea ieaoeaea?iii aeey ?iciianthaeaeaiiy a
iaeaooiueiio na?oiai? ?aaiethoe??.

?iciaae ?in?enueei? ?iia??? i?ney ethoiai 1917 ?., iiaooi?e ?oo ??
ia?iae?a ca iaoe?iiaeueia naiiaecia/aiiy, cie?aia noai?aiiy
Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith OI?, i?eioneee Eai?ia, ?NAe?I (a) a?aeiiaeoeny
a?ae aaciina?aaeiuei? ?aae?caoe?? naiai ?aeaaeo i?i oi?oa?iee
aea?aeaaiee ono??e. ?in?enueea ?anioae?ea aoea iaieioaia oaaea?aoe??th
ua aei i?eeiyooy Eiinoeoooe?? 1918 ?.

Eiioeaioe?y aaoiiii?? I. A?ooaanueeiai, ui i?iaiaeeeany Oeaio?aeueiith
?aaeith, a?ae??ciyeany a?ae eai?inueei-a?eueoiaeoeueei? a?eueoith
no?oie?noth ? aeaiie?aoeciii. Ii?aeiaiiy i?eioeei?a oaaea?ae?cio aeey
aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith ?in??, iaeoe?oi? oa?eoi??aeueii? aaoiiii?? a ??
neeaae? aeey Oe?a?ie ? iaoe?iiaeueii-ia?niiaeueii? aaoiiii?? aeey
iaioinoae aoei iioeiaeueiei c oi/ee ci?o caa?aaeaiiy oa?eoi??aeueii?
oe?e?niino? noa’?eo?a oaaea?aoe??. A oiiaao iie?oe/ii? eiio?iioaoe??, a
caiaeii oe?a?inueei-a?eueoiaeoeueei? a?eie ?in?enueeee ?aaeia?eii
a?aeeeaeaa eiioeaioe?th Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee ye ai?iaeo.

Iiyaa iecee aaoiiiiieo ?anioae?e o 1918 ?. ia aoea iane?aeeii
?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoiaii? i?ia?aie c iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy ? i?ia?aiieo
aeiia a?eueoiaee?a i?i “oe?ieo iaeanio aaoiiii?th” ia i?noeyo. I?e ?o
noai?aii? iaeaea ia a?aoiaoaaeeny “ainiiaea?/?, iiaooia?, eoeueoo?i?,
iaoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino?”, ia /iio ?ai?oa iaiieyaaea i?ia?aia ?NAe?I.
Aei oaaae ia?aaaaeii a?aeany iaiao?aei?noue ae??oaiiy oa?i?iiaeo
a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ieo caaaeaiue. I?eioeei oaaea?ae?cio iaaiith i??ith
ciaeoia nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy i?e noai?aii? ?aaeyinueei? ?in?enueei?
?anioae?ee eeoa aiane?aeie ?icaaeo ?iia??? ? oaeoe/ii? iiyae aaoiiii?e
ia ?? eieeoi?e oa?eoi???, ui ia iiaei aooe i?i?aii?iaaiei a?eueoiaeeaie.

Ia ? aeiyoeii ? ?aaeyinueea ?anioae?ea Oaa?eaee. Ieai ?? noai?aiiy aeiee
o Iinea?, o aocueeiio eie? /eai?a Iie?oath?i OeE ?EI(a) ia /ie? c
Eai?iei. A?i ia aoa iia’ycaiee c naiiaecia/aiiyi E?eio /a?ac
iaoe?iiaeueiee neeaae eiai ianaeaiiy, aeiiii?/i?, eoeueoo?i? ? ?io?
iniaeeaino? ?aa?iio. Oeae ieai noaa iane?aeeii ai?iii-iie?oe/ieo
caaeoi?a Oeaio?o e iniaenoi A.?. Eai?ia aeei?enoaoe iiao ?anioae?eo ?
*i?iiii?nueeee oeio a ?ioa?anao noai?aiiy “?aeeiiai o?iioo ca?ieii?
ai?ioueae ia I?aaei?” i?ioe Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee ? ?? nithciee?a. I?e
?aae?caoe?? oeueiai ieaio cian?i ia a?aoiaoaaany na?oiaee ? a?o/eciyiee
aeina?ae ? oai??y oaaea?ae?cio, aaoiiii?? o ae??oaii? iaoe?iiaeueiiai
ieoaiiy. ?aii?oaaeeny ? a?aeiia?aei? aeani? i?ia?aii? onoaiiaee ia?o??
a?eueoiaee?a. Eiai no?aoaa?/iith iaoith aoa aea?ao /ano aeey caa?aaeaiiy
aeaaee a?eueoiaee?a, ia?aiiae na?oiai? nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aaiethoe?? ?
anoaiiaeaiiy anana?oiuei? aeeeoaoo?e i?ieaoa??aoo. A oaeoe/iei
caaaeaiiyi – i?aeo?eiea coneeue i?iaieioaii? ?aaeyinueei? Oe?a?ie o
aieiaeo ae?yo i?ioe Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee.

Ieaie Eai?ia uiaei E?eio iiae?eyeeny i?noeaaeie a?eueoiaeeaie. Ia
eiioa?aioe?? ooo/ieo ?aaeyinueeeo ?anioae?e o Eaoa?eiineaa? aiie
aeiiiaeeny i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy i?i oi?iaeueia caa?aaeaiiy iaeo?ae?oaoo
?N?O, yeo ia?aaeaa/aeiny i?iaieineoe i?e iaeii/aniiio iaaeaii? iath
i?eoiaaii? aeiiiiiae ?ioei ?anioae?eai. Eai?i oaeiae iaiaaaany aanoe
a?eio oa?iii, aea i?i onyeee aeiaaeie ae??oea iaieineoe *i?iiii?nueeee
oeio iaeaaeiei iia?e ?anioae?oe?. Oea aeaaaei iiaeeea?noue ?aaeyinuee?e
?in?? caa?aaoe aeaeei?noue noai?iai aeeiiaiiy oiia A?anonueeiai ie?iiai
aeiaiai?o.

Aeae?ao, yeee i?iaieiooaaa Oaa??enueeo ?anioae?eo ?aae ?ia?oie/eo,
nieaeaonueeeo oa naeyinueeeo aeaiooao?a aoei i?eeiyoi ia aeno?aiiio
can?aeaii? OeAE ?aae Oaa??enueei? aoaa?i?? o i.Naaanoiiie? 19 aa?aciy
1918 ?. Oi?iaeueii oea ??oaiiy aoei i?aee??ieaia iineeaiiyi ia iinoaiiao
? Onoaiia/iai c’?caeo ?aae ?ia?oie/eo, nieaeaonueeeo, naeyinueeeo oa
iinaeyinueeeo-ionoeueiainueeeo aeaiooao?a a?ae 10 o?aaiy 1918 ?., yei?
iani?aaae? ia ?nioaaei. Ia oeueiio ae can?aeaii? OeAE aoei aecia/aii e
neeaae o?yaeo – ?aaee Ia?iaeieo Eii?na??a ?anioae?ee.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? ?aae?caoe?? eai?inueeiai ieaio ?anioae?ea Oaa?eaee
aenooiaea de jure ye naiino?eia aea?aeaaia ooai?aiiy. Iani?aaae?,
(ca?aeii c nae?aoieie ?icii?yaeaeaiiyie) aoea aaoiiii??th o neeaae?
??ON?, ui aeeiioaaea an? aeac?aee ?? ?IE. Ia ae?oaiio aoai?, o ca’yceo
c? ci?iaie ii/aoeiaiai caaeoio Eai?ia, ?N?O ? *i?iiii?nueeee oeio aoee
acyo? i?ae aeeieiiaoe/iee caoeno Iineae. Ia?iaeiee eii?na? caei?aeiiieo
ni?aa ?NO?? *e/a??i 23 ea?oiy 1918 ?. aeneiaea i?ioano o?yaeia?
I?ia//eie o ca’yceo c i?inoaaiiyi ?? a?enuee o E?eio. A?i aeacaa, ui oea
ii?ooo? A?anonueeee ie?iee aeiaia??, ai ? aoi?aiaiiyi o iaae?
?aaeyinueei? ?anioae?ee, ui caa?iaeo? *i?iiii?nueeiio oeioo. Ioaea, E?ei
? *i?iiii?nueeee oeio oaia? aeciaaaeeny de jure iaeaaeieie ?in?enuee?e
?anioae?oe?. Iaeiae eai?inueeee ieai iioa?i?a i?iaae: *i?iiii?nueeee
oeio ia aoa aeei?enoaiee aeey iai?iie i?aino?iaa. ?anioae?ea Oaa?eaee ia
aeeiiaea naiai ai?iii-iie?oe/iiai caaaeaiiy. A E?ei oa?eoee a?enueeia?
/anoeie I?ia//eie ? ca?iei? oi?ioaaiiy OI?.

?aaeyinueea ?anioae?ea Oaa?eaee aoea ooo/iei, aeiiii?/ii ? iie?oe/ii
iaaeeoo?caeaoiei aea?aeaaiei ooai?aiiyi. ?? aeieeiaiiy ia coiiaethaaeiny
ia’?eoeaiith iaiao?aei?noth. Oea aoa iaaaoeaiee aenia?eiaio, ye ? o
?yae? aaaaoueio ?ioeo aooaoi?nueeeo ?aaeyinueeeo ?anioae?e, noai?aieo o
1918 ?ioe?, ui i?eca?a o e?ioeaaiio ?acoeueoao? aei aia?o??,
nioe?aeueiiai ?ica?aoo, ?ic?eao i?e?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo, nioe?aeueieo,
eoeueoo?ieo ca’yce?a, aei a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie c ?? no?aoieie
iane?aeeaie.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? “Aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaa i?aai?caoe?y
?aaeyinueei? Nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?anioae?ee Oaa?eaee” aiae?cothoueny
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? canaaee oi?ioaaiiy ?anioae?ee, ?? i?aaie aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee ? oi?aae?iiy, noaeiaa nenoaia. Aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaa i?aai?caoe?y
?anioae?ee Oaa?eaee a iniiaiiio aoaeoaaeany ca aiaeia??th c
?aaeyinueeith ?in??th, a?ae??ciyth/enue aeayeeie aeaoaeyie.
Eiino?othaaiiy ?? nenoaie i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy
?icii/aeiny ua aei i?iaieioaiiy ?N?O. A?eueo?noue eii?na??ao?a aoei
noi?iiaaii aaea ia c’?cae? ?aae Oaa??enueei? aoaa?i?? 10 o?aaiy 1918
?ieo. I?ney oeueiai noai?thaaeeny eeoa aeaye? iia? ia?eiiaoe (c
a?enueeiaeo, ?iicaiieo ni?aa), cae?enithaaeeny iia? ia?niiaeuei?
i?ecia/aiiy.

Aaea c /ano anoaiiaeaiiy ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee a E?eio a na?aaeei? n?/iy
1918 ?ieo ? aei i?iaieioaiiy ?anioae?ee ?aaeiie, ?aaee, aoaa?inueeee
c’?cae ?aae ? ?aaeii?a aeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaee ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? aeoe,
i?eeiyo? Ana?in?enueeeie c’?caeaie ?aae, OeAE ? ?aaeia?eiiii
?aaeyinueei? ?in??. Iniiaith ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai caaacia/aiiy
?anioae?ee Oaa?eaee aoee aeae?aoe II ? III Ana?in?enueeeo c’?cae?a ?aae,
AOeAE ? ?aaeia?eiio ??ON?, ?ino?oeoe?? ? aee?aeoeae ana?in?enueeeo
ia?eiiao?a, iniaeeai Ia?iaeiiai eii?na??aoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa (IEAN). O
a?aeiia?aeiino? c ?ino?oeoe?yie IEAN ?aaeyinueei? ?in?enueei?
?anioae?ee, ye? iaaeaaaee iaai? aeaaei? oiiaiiaaaeaiiy i?noeaaei ?aaeai,
o E?eio i?eeiaeenue ? aeani? ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? aeoe. Aiie ?iiae?
aeia?aaeaeaee aeae?aoe Oeaio?aeueii? aeaaee (a ieoaiiyo iaoe?iiae?caoe??
oi?aiaaeueiiai oeioo, i?aei?e?inoa, aoaeeie?a, e?aiieoeue). I?e
iaoe?iiae?caoe?? iii?ueoeueeeo ia?oe?a caiey (o a?aeiia?aeiino? ?c
caeiiii i?i iaoe?iiae?caoe?th caie?) aoea iaaeaia naeyiai eeoa aeey
oei/aniaiai ei?enooaaiiy, ui a iaeaooiueiio iaei aaeee? iie?oe/i?
iane?aeee.

C iiiaioo oi?ioaaiiy i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? oi?aae?iiy ?N?O (OeAE
?aaee, ?aaea Ia?iaeieo Eii?na??a, Ia?iaei? eii?na??aoe) ?anioae?eainuee?
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? aeoe iaaoaathoue a?eueoiai cia/aiiy. ?acii c oei
o?eueee ua noai?ai? ia?eiiaoe i?iaeiaaeothoue aenooiaoe a aeayeeo
aeiaaeeao o ?ie? eaiie, ye? ia?aaeathoue i?noeaaei ?aaeai ??oaiiy ?IE ?
ia?eiiao?a ?in?enueei? ?anioae?ee. I?ney iineaaeaiiy ca’yce?a c
Iineaith, aeeeeeaiiai ianooiii i?iaoeueei-oe?a?inueeiai a?enueeiaiai
eiioeiaaioo, nooi?iue naiino?eiino? ?aaeia?eiio Oaa?eaee, eiai
ia?eiiao?a c??n, aea ea??aieoeoai ?N?O aeei?enoiaoaaei aoaeue-yeo
iiaeeea?noue aeey eiinoeueoaoe?e c oeaio?ii. Aiai?eoe i?i “caeiii?noue”
i?eeiyoeo ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a iiaeia eeoa c oi?iaeueieo iiceoe?e,
ine?eueee a iniia? i?aaioai?/ino? oaa?eaenueeeo caeiiiaeaaoe?a eaaeaa
a?eueoiaeoeueeee i?eioeei ?aaiethoe?eii? aeioe?eueiino?.

?anioae?ea Oaa?eaee aoea iaeaa?oeiiei aea?aeaaiei oi?ioaaiiyi, ine?eueee
i?iaieiooaaeany ia c’?caeii ?aaee E?eio, a OeAE ?aaee Oaa??enueei?
aoaa?i??. ?ioiai aeuiai caeiiiaeaa/iai i?aaio ?N?O oae ? ia iaea?aeaea.
Ana caiaeeeinue aei oi?ioaaiiy ?aaeia?eiio oe??? ?anioae?ee ?c
a?eueoiaee?a ? e?aeo ana??a c aaeeeith ia?aaaaith ia?oeo, a iniiaiiio
iineaioe?a Eai?ia ia /ie? c A. Neooeueeei. E?euee?noue ia?iaeieo
eii?na??a ? i?ney noai?aiiy ?anioae?ee iaeaea ia ci?ieeany, a?eueo?noue
eieeoi?o ?aaeyinueeeo eii?na??a Oaa??enueei? aoaa?i?? caeeoeeenue ia
nai?o iinaaeao. sse ? ?ai?oa, ia iinaaeao ia?eii?a a iniiaiiio
ia?aaoaaee /eaie OeAE. Iaeii/anii aiie aoee /eaiaie Oaa??enueeiai
aoaeiio ?EI(a) /e e?aea?aie i?noeaaeo ana??a. sse ? a ??ON?, a?aeaoeiny
“c?iuaiiy” caeiiiaeaa/i? ? aeeiiaa/i? a?eie aeaaee c ia?o?eiith
aa?o?aeith. Iacaeaaeia noaeiaa a?eea aeaaee aoea a?aenooiy, ui icia/aei
noai?aiiy oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio c i?aaiaith iaiaiaaeai?noth.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae Oeaio?aeueii? ?in??, ?ieue aoaa?inueeiai eii?oaoo
ia?o?? a?eueoiaee?a ye ea??aiiai i?aaio iaio iii?oia. Oea iiynith?oueny
iiaeeiaiiyi i?aeoe/ii anueiai aoaeiio uieii noai?aieie aea?aeaaieie
i?aaiaie, a i?noeaa? ?aaee ? ?aaeiie iiaeeioee a?aeiia?aei? ia?o?ei?
i?aai?caoe??. Ea??ai? ia?o?ei? i?aoe?aieee cae?enithaaee aeeeoaoo?o
ia?o?? a?eueoiaee?a /a?ac iinaaeia? iaia’ycee a i?aaiao ?aaeyinueei?
aeaaee, aea aiie e?euee?nii cia/ii ia?aaaaeaee e?aeo ana??a.

*a?ac a?ae aeina?ae/aieo eaae??a ?iaioa ?aaeia?eiio ? ia?eiiao?a
a?ae??ciyeanue iaaenieith i?aai?caoe??th. Oeaio?aeueiee Aeeiiaa/ee
Eii?oao eeoa ?i?ooaaa ?ieue aeuiai i?aaio aeaaee, c’?cae ?aae ia
cae?aany, can?aeaiiy ?IE eii?thaaee iaoiaee ? oi?ie ?iaioe ia?o?eieo
i?aai?a. ?iciiae?e iiaiiaaaeaiue i?ae OeAE ? ?IE, ia?eiiaoaie, i?ae
oeaio?aeueieie aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie ? i?noeaaeie ?aaeaie aoa oiiaiei.
Ia?iaei? eii?na??aoe ao?o/aeeny o noa?o ?ioeo eii?na??ao?a, a i?noeaa?
?aaee aeoiaeeee ca iaae? nai?? eiiiaoaioe??.

Nenoaia i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee ?N?O neeaaeaeanue ?c i?nueeeo,
iia?oiaeo, aieinieo, naeeuieo ? n?euenueeeo ?aae ? ?aaeii?a. Oi?iaeueii
a neeaae ?N?O aoiaeeei eeoa 5 iia?o?a (E?eio), aea i?aeoe/ii ?IE
Oaa?eaee, eiai ia?eiiaoe iaiaaaeeny ea?oaaoe e ?aaeyinueeeie i?aaiaie
o?ueio iia?o?a I?ai?/ii? Oaa???. A?eueoiaeoeueei-e?aiana??anuee? ?aaee a
?N?O noai?thaaeenue aac aeio?eiaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ii? nenoaie aeai??a. O
aaaaoueio i?noeyo ? oaeeo ?aae ia aoei -caa??aaeeny “?aaeiie” o neeaae?
aeae?eueeio eiioi?no?a ? e?aeo ana??a. Aiie cai?uoaaee oaeiae cainuee?
(ana?i-iaioiaeoeuee?) i?aaie naiioi?aae?iiy.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? “Aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaee ?aaeei
?aaeyinueei? Nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?anioae?ee Oaa?eaee. Iniiai? iai?yiee
ae?yeueiino?” ?icaeyiooi noaiiaeaiiy iie?oe/iiai ?aaeeio ?anioae?ee, ??
aioo??oith ? ciai?oith iie?oeeo, i?e/eie ?? e?aoo.

Aeaaea a ?N?O iaeaaeaea ia?o?yi a?eueoiaee?a ? e?aeo
nioe?ae?no?a-?aaiethoe?iia??a, i?ia?aie yeeo c i?eioeeiiaeo ieoaiue
caeaa?eueoiai ca?aaeeny. Iniaeea? iiaiiaaaeaiiy iaee a?eueoiaeee, yee
caeiaee eeth/ia? iinaaee a Oeaio?aeueiiio Aeeiiaa/iio Eii?oao? ?aae ?
?aae? Ia?iaeieo Eii?na??a. Aiie ia?aaaaeaee a i?noeaaeo ?aaeao, ui
noai?thaaeeny ia i?noe? “oaiae?anueeeo” ?aae, aeieeeeo ca /an?a
Oei/aniaiai o?yaeo. Iaai? eaaaeuei? iiaeeeaino? aeey nai?? ae?yeueiino?
caa??aaee e aeaye? iii??eiaaii nioe?ae?noe/i? ia?o??: iaioiaeee, ana?e,
oe?a?inuee? nioe?ae?noe/i? ia?o??. ?anioae?ea Oaa?eaee, o
a?aeiia?aeiino? aei ?in?enueei? ?aaeyinueei? Oaaea?aoeaii? ?anioae?ee,
aoea caaeoiaia nai?ie oai?oeyie ye ca?iy aeeeoaoo?e i?ieaoa??aoo.
Iani?aaae? oea aoea aeeeoaoo?a iaioino?, ai e?euee?noue o E?eio
a?eueoiaee?a ? e?aeo ana??a ia aoea ia?aaaaeath/ith. Aeaaea
eiioi?noe/ii-e?aiana??anueeiai aeieo a ?N?O nie?aeanue eeoa ia
a?enueeiaeo iao?in?a, nieaeao ? i?ioa?ee i?nueei? a?aeiioe, ye?
neeaaeaee cia/io iaio?noue ii??aiyii c ?aooith ianaeaiiy E?eio.
Iie?oe/iee ?aaeei, ui anoaiiaethaaany a ?anioae?oe?, ia iaa /?oei
icia/aieo ?en oioae?oa?ecio, ine?eueee ooo ?nioaaea aeaiia?o?eia
nenoaia, ia anoeaea neeanoeny ?aeaieia?/ia iiiiiie?y ia caniae ianiai?
?ioi?iaoe??, caa??aaeany aeayea eaaaeueia iiaeeea?noue aeey ae?yeueiino?
iiiceoe??. C iaeyaeo ia aocuee?noue aeaaeii? nioe?aeueii? aace,
noaa?euei?noue ?aaeeio caaacia/oaaeanue no?aoii ia?aae iiaeeeaei
iiaoi?aiiyi oa?i?o, yeee noi?iaiaeaeoaaa onoaiiaeaiiy ?aaeyinueei?
aeaaee a E?eio. ?ai?aneai? caoiaee a ?anioae?oe? Oaa?eaea
cae?enithaaeeny a?enueeiaeie oi?ioaaiiyie, yeei aoei iaaeaia i?aai
cae?enithaaoe o?one ? a?aooe. OeAE oa ?aaeia?eii Oaa?eaee ia
ia?aoeiaeaeaee a oeueiio *a?aii?e Aaa?ae??, /anoeiai *a?aiii? A?i??,
i?noeaaei ?aaeai. Caaaeueia aeeeoaoo?a ia ?iciianthaeaeoaaeanue ia
ie?ai? i?noeaaino?. Aea o ia?niaeoea? ?aaeei, yeee iaaoaaa neee c
ooai?aiiyi ioi?iiieo i?aai?a, ia?aoai?thaaany a oioae?oa?iee.

O noa?? aioo??oiuei? iie?oeee iniiaiith ooieoe??th ?anioae?ee aoea
ai?iii-i?aai?caoe?eia, ine?eueee aieiaiith iaoith noai?aiiy ?N?O aoa
ca?ieiee ii?? a?enueeai Oeaio?aeueieo aea?aeaa ? OI?. ?aaeia?eii
Oaa?eaee oeth ?iaioo iieeaa ia Ai?iii-ii?nueeee eii?na??ao.

Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia iie?oeea cae?enithaaeanue a aeon? ai?iiiai
eiioi?cio ? oni?oo ia iaea. Iaoe?iiae?caoe?y i?aei?e?inoa ? ceai noa?iai
aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo ia aeeeeeaee aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy, ni?eyee
?ioeyoe??, iioe?aiith aac?ia?ooy. O no?oeoo?? aeueo aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a
?anioae?ee ia aoea noai?aia ?aaea ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, a ooieoe?y
iinoa/aiiy iaoe?iiae?ciaaieo i?aei?e?inoa aoea iieeaaeaia ia Ia?iaeiee
eii?na??ao i?iaeiaieuenoaa (i?ci?oa – iinoa/aiiy), yeee ? aac oeueiai
aoa iaaei??ii caaaioaaeaiee ?iaioith ii caaio?ae? oa a?aei?aaoe?
i?iaeiaieuenoaa a ?in?enuee? aoaa?i??. O?iainiaa oa aeiiii?/ia e?eca,
yea iiaeeaethaaeanue, ia aeicaieyea ae??ooaaoe nioe?aeuei? ieoaiiy.
Iaea?eueo aia?a?eii ae?ya ia?eiiao i?iaeiaieuenoaa, aea oey eiai
ae?yeuei?noue aecia/aeany i?eioeeiaie eiioi?noe/iiai ?iciiae?eo ? aaea
aei iia?aaoaaiiy I?aaeiy ia ei?enoue I?aii/?, ine?eueee i?ae ieie ia
aoei aea?aaeaioiiai ?eieiaiai iai?io.

Iiceoeai? ioe?iee aioo??oiuei? iie?oeee ?anioae?ee Oaa?eaee, ye?
aeaaaeeny ?aaeyinueeeie ?noi?eeaie o iaaeaaiueiio ieioeiio,
aaci?aenoaai?. An? e?iee ?aaeia?eiio ?anioae?ee o noa?? aeiiii?/ieo ?
nioe?aeueieo ia?aoai?aiue i?yeeo ?noioieo i?aeoe/ieo iane?aee?a ia iaee.
Ca ei?ioeee oa?i?i naiai ?nioaaiiy o?yae ?N?O o?ce/ii ia i?a anoeaiooe
i?iaanoe ?iaioo, yeo eiio i?eienoaaee i?ci?oa, iaa?oue ca oiia aeniei?
i?aai?caoe?? nai?? ae?yeueiino?. I?ioa ye?ac o oeueiio ieoaii?
?aaeia?eii ? a?eueo?noue eiai ia?eiiao?a aeyaeeenue ia ia iaeaaeiiio
??ai?.

Ea??aieoeoai ?anioae?ee Oaa?eaee, ianaiia?aae aieiaa NIE A. Neooeueeee
oa aieiaa OeAE AE. I?eea?, iaiaaaeenue aeio?eioaaoenue iaeo?ae?oaoo
noiniaii aea?aeaa *aoaa?iiai nithco ? nooo?ai? aeiiiiiae eiiaiaeoth/iio
ca?ieieie neeaie “i?aaeaiieo” ?aaeyinueeeo ?anioae?e A. Aioiiiao ia
iaaeaee. Oaea e?i?y noia?a/eea i?yiei aeac?aeai Eai?ia, Aeaeea?aoe??
OeAE ?aaee oa Ia?iaeiiai Nae?aoa??aoo ?aaeyinueei? Oe?a?ie i?i noai?aiiy
?aeeiiai o?iioo iai?iie ia I?aaei?. Ni?iae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy naiino?eii?
ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee ?anioae?ee Oaa?eaee ia aoee a?aeii? ?aaeia?eiio
?aaeyinueei? ?in??. O e?ioe? aa?aciy 1918 ?. Eai?i oa aeua a?enueeiaa
ea??aieoeoai ?in?? iinoaaeee *i?iiii?nueeiio oeioo aeiiao noai?i
aeio?eioaaoenue iaeo?ae?oaoo, ui iiai?noth ca?aaeiny c iai??aie
ea??aieoeoaa ?N?O ia ao?o/aoeny a aieia? ae?? o I?ai?/iiio
I?e/i?iiii?’?. E?a?ie *aoaa?iiai nithco i?i?aii?oaaee oaeo ?nioaaiiy
ooo/iiai aea?aeaaiiai ooai?aiiy ? ca o/anoth a?enuee OI? oa?eoee a E?ei.
OI? ia aeciaea ?N?O. ?? o?yae ni?iaoaaa i?aeii?yaeeoaaoe *i?iiii?nueeee
oeio, ui noia?a/eei ieaiai i?iaoeueeiai eiiaiaeoaaiiy, yea cioneei
oe?a?inuee? caaiie iieeiooe i?aino??a. E?a?ie Aioaioe, ye? iaiaaaeenue
caa?aaoe No?aeiee o?iio o aoaeue-yeee oi?i?, de fakto aeciaaaee
?anioae?eo Oaa?eaee, i?i ui na?ae/eoue i?iaeiaaeaiiy ?iaioe a
N?ioa?iiie? a?aoeueeiai oa aaeuea?enueeiai a?oea-eiinoeuenoa,
iai?aaeaiiy nthaee aiae?enueei? i?n??.

O ?anioae?oe?, yea ia iaea eiinoeoooe??, i?aii?a, aa?aa, a?iio, aoei
caii/aoeiaaii ?inoeooo a?iiaaeyinoaa. A?i aecia/aa i?aaiaee noai in?a,
ye? ia?aaoaaee ?ai?oa o i?aeaeainoa? ?ioeo aea?aeaa. ?inoeooo
a?iiaaeyinoaa ae?ya aac aeinoaoi?o i?aaiaeo i?aenoaa: caeii i?i
a?iiaaeyinoai ?N?O ia aoa i?eeiyoee.

?N?O i?i?nioaaea i?aoi?a i?nyoey. 18 ea?oiy 1918 ?. i?iaoeueeee 52-e
ei?ion iaieiae?a Ia?aeiiii, a Caii??cueeee ei?ion Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee –
*iiaa?nueeei ia?aoeeeii. Ea??aieoeoai ?aaeia?eiio ?anioae?ee Oaa?eaee
iaiaaaeinue aaaeothaaoenue, aea aoei caoiieaia aioeeiioi?noe/ieie
iianoaioeyie a Aeooo? ? ?icno??eyia. I?ney aeaiaeaiieo ai?a /anoeie
*a?aiii? A?i?? ? caaiie *a?aiii? Aaa?ae?? aaaeothaaeenue ia ei?aaeyo
*i?iiii?nueeiai oeioo a Iiai?in?enuee oa ?io? ii?oe I?ai?/iiai Eaaeaco.
Ca iaeacii Eai?ia aieiaa aneaae?a *i?iiii?nueeiai oeioo aoei caoiieaia
ia ?aeae? Iiai?in?enueea. Eai?inueeee aenia?eiaio uiaei noai?aiiy
ooo/ii? ?anioae?ee a E?eio oa aoyaiaiiy ?? o ai?ii? ae?? i?ney
A?anonueeiai ie?o ne?i/eany a?enueeiaei ? iie?oe/iei e?aoii a?eueoiaee?a
iai?ee?ioe? ea?oiy 1918 ?ieo.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiaii ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aecia/athoueny ieoaiiy, aea/aiiy yeeo, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iiaea ni?eyoe
iiaeaeueoiio aena?oeaiith i?iaeaie.

Iniiai? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaathoue o oiio, ui
a i?ioean? ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii?, ai?iii? e?ece i?ney
aeiaoiaaiai ia?aai?ioo 1917 ?ieo i?ioenoiyiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ? ?aaeyinueei? aeueoa?iaoea
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy iaae?a? aei?noieeo oi?i, aeeeaa?oueny o a?enueeiaa
noia?ieoeoai ? a?iiaaeyinueeo a?eio. Ooai?aiiy ?aaeyinueei?
Nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?anioae?ee Oaa?eaee aoei eeoa iaeiei c oaeoe/ieo oiae?a
a?eueoiaeoeueeiai o?yaeo ?in?? ia oeyoo anoaiiaeaiiy aeeeoaoo?e
i?ieaoa??aoo iaaani? 1918 ?ieo. Iiaeaeueo? ni?iae ooai?aiiy ??cieo oi?i
aea?aeaaiino? ia i?aino?ia? caeaaeii a?ae a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ieo
neooaoe?e oaeiae ia iaee oni?oo. sse na?ae/eoue ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae,
i?iaieioaiiy naiino?eii? aea?aeaae aai aaoiiii?? a E?eio ca?aaeiny c
caaino?aiiyi nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo, iie?oe/ieo noia?a/iinoae.

O ia??iaee cieaeaiiy aino?ioe oeeo i?ioe??/ ieoaiiy noiniaii
aea?aeaaiino? o oi?i? aaoiiii?? i?aino?iaa i?aeoe/ii ia aenoaaeiny.

Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaai? ianooii? ?iaioe:

1. Niaaoneay ?anioaeeea Oaa?eaeu: Aaaioth?a aieueoaaenoneiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa /Iiae ?aae. E.A. Caeoeaaa. –
Neioa?iiieue: Oaa?eaea, 1999. -208n.

2. A?eueoiaeoeueea “?anioae?eainueea” a?a a E?eio ia ii/aoeo 1918 ?ieo
ye ?acoeueoao a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae ca ?iia?nueeee
*i?iiii?nueeee oeio //A?niee Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa.
– 1999. — ?1. – N. 82-91.

3. Noaeiaa nenoaia ?aaeyinueei? Nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?anioae?ee Oaa?eaee
//A?niee Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa – 1999. — ?5. – N. 114-118.

4. Aei ieoaiiy i?i /a?aiiee oa?i? o ?anioae?oe? Oaa?eaea //A?niee
Caii??cueeiai th?eaee/iiai ?inoeoooo. – 1998. — ?3. – N. 266-277.

5. Ninoaa e ooieoeee aunoeo i?aaiia aeanoe ?anioaeeee Oaa?eaeu (ia?o –
ai?aeue 1918 aiaea) //A?niee Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa. – 1997. —
?2. Aeiaeaoie. – N. 103-108.

6. Aeayoaeueiinoue ia?eiiaoia ?anioaeeee Oaa?eaeu //A?niee Oi?aa?neoaoo
aioo??oi?o ni?aa. – 1997. — ?2. Aeiaeaoie. – N. 108-114.

7. Iniaaiiinoe i?aaiia aeanoe e?uineeo niaaoneeo ?anioaeee 1918-1919 aa.
//?aaiethoeey e a?aaeaeaineay aieia 1917-1920 aiaeia: Iiaia iniuneaiea:
Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee. – Neioa?iiieue, 1995. – N.
34-36.

8. I?iaeaie e?uineie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe (1918-1919 aa.) // I?iaeaiu
iieeoe/aneie enoi?ee E?uia: Eoiae e ia?niaeoeau: Iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneay
eiioa?aioeey: Iaoa?eaeu. – Neioa?iiieue, 1996. – N. 34-37.

9. Oe?a?ia oa ieoaiiy i?i e?einueeo aea?aeaai?noue 1918-1919 ??. //
A?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?: I?iaeaie ?noi??? oa
eoeueoo?e: Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. – Iaeana,
1996. – *. ?. – N. 69-70.

10. Noaeaaiay nenoaia ?anioaeeee Oaa?eaeu //350-??//y a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?: Ieioea ? no/ania: Anaoe?a?inueea iaoeiaa
eiioa?aioe?y: Aeiiia?ae? ? iia?aeiieaiiy. – N?ioa?iiieue, 1998 –
N. 17-20.

11. E aii?ino i e?aniii oa??i?a a ?anioaeeea Oaa?eaeu //350-??//y
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?: Ieioea ? no/ania:
Anaoe?a?inueea iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y: Aeiiia?ae? ? iia?aeiieaiiy. –
N?ioa?iiieue, 1998 – N. 25-28.

Aeoaei TH.A. ?aaeyinueea Nioe?ae?noe/ia ?anioae?ea Oaa?eaee:
?noi?eei-i?aaia? aniaeoe. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y aea?aeaae ? i?aaa;
?noi??y iie?oe/ieo ? i?aaiaeo a/aiue. – Oi?aa?neoao aioo??oi?o ni?aa,
Oa?e?a, 1999.

O ?iaio? ia iniia? oai?aoe/ii? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie aea?aeaaii? aaoiiii??
noaiii ia 1918 ?. aeine?aeaeaii i?e/eie ooai?aiiy ?aaeyinueei?
Nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?anioae?ee Oaa?eaee (?N?O), ?? i?aaiaee noaoon.
Aecia/aii, ui ieai noai?aiiy ?N?O ia aoa iia’ycaiee c naiiaecia/aiiyi
E?eio, a noaa iane?aeeii ai?iii-iie?oe/ieo caaeoi?a Iie?oath?i OeE
?EI(a) ia /ie? c Eai?iei. Iaa?oioiaaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui
aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaa i?aai?caoe?y ?N?O aoaeoaaeany ca aiaeia??th aei
?aaeyinueei? ?in??, a ?? iie?oe/iee ?aaeei iaaeeaeaany aei
oioae?oa?iiai. Ioe?iee aioo??oiuei? iie?oeee ?N?O ye oni?oii?, ui
aeaaaeeny ?aaeyinueeeie ?noi?eeaie a iaaeaaiueiio ieioeiio,
aaci?aenoaai?. Naiino?eii? ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee ?N?O ia i?iaiaeeea, ia
iaea nai?? Eiinoeoooe??, ?inoeooo a?iiaaeyinoaa caeiiiaeaa/i ia aoa
ioi?ieaiee. O aeena?oaoe?? c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i iaaei?aaaeai?noue
noai?aiiy ?N?O.

Eeth/ia? neiaa ? ae?ace: oaaea?aoe?y, aaoiiii?y, aeeeoaoo?a
i?ieaoa??aoo, ?aaeyinueea Nioe?ae?noe/ia ?anioae?ea Oaa?eaee, aea?aeaaia
ooai?aiiy, oi?oa?ia aea?aeaaa, oioae?oa?iee ?aaeei, *i?iiii?nueeee oeio,
a?eueoiaeee, e?a? ana?e.

Aeoaei TH.A. Niaaoneay Nioeeaeenoe/aneay ?anioaeeea Oaa?eaeu:
Enoi?eei-i?aaiaua aniaeou. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.01 — oai?ey e enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa;
enoi?ey iieeoe/aneeo e i?aaiauo o/aiee. – Oieaa?neoao aioo?aiieo aeae,
Oa?ueeia, 1999.

A ?aaioa ia iniiaa oai?aoe/aneie ?ac?aaioee i?iaeaiu ainoaea?noaaiiie
aaoiiiiee ii ninoiyieth ia 1918 a. enneaaeothony i?e/eiu nicaeaiey
Niaaoneie Nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?anioaeeee Oaa?eaeu (NN?O), aa i?aaiaie
noaoon. Ioia/aaony, /oi Eaiei, aieueoaaeee n/eoaee iaeaieaa i?eaieaiui
aeey auiieiaiey ooieoeee “aeeeoaoo?u i?ieaoa?eaoa” oieoa?iia
ainoaea?noai. Iinea ?aniaaea ?inneeneie eiia?ee aeaeaeaiea aa
iaoeeiiaeueiuo ie?aei ca naiiii?aaeaeaiea ia iicaieeei ?NAe?I(a)
eaii?e?iaaoue eaeath oaaea?aoeaiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa. I?eaey
e aeanoe, ?NAe?I(a) iauyaeea ?inneth oaaea?aoeeae. Iiyaeaiea aooa?iuo e
aaoiiiiiuo ?anioaeee a 1918 a. ia auei neaaenoaeai ?aaeecaoeee
aieueoaaenoneie i?ia?aiiu ii iaoeeiiaeueiiio aii?ino. Oicyenoaaiiua,
auoiaua, eoeueoo?iua, iaoeeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe oa??eoi?ee, ia eioi?uo
iie nicaeaaaeenue, o/eouaaeenue ia anaaaea.

Ieai nicaeaiey NN?O ia aue naycai n naiiii?aaeaeaieai E?uia, ii yaeeny
neaaenoaeai aiaiii-iieeoe/aneeo caiuneia Iieeoath?i OeE ?EI(a) ai aeaaa
n Eaieiui n oeaeueth eniieueciaaiey iiaie ?anioaeeee e *a?iiii?neiai
oeioa a eioa?anao nicaeaiey “aaeeiiai o?iioa aii?oaeaiiie ai?ueau ia
THaa”. Iauyaeaiea *a?iiii?neiai oeioa i?eiaaeeaaeauei NN?O iicaieyei
Niaaoneie ?innee nio?aieoue aeaeeiinoue no?iaiai auiieiaiey oneiaee
A?anoneiai ie?iiai aeiaiai?a, a oaeoe/anee eniieueciaaoue oeio a aieia
i?ioea no?ai *aoaa?iiai nithca.

A enneaaeiaaiee aeoeaioe?oaony aieiaiea ia oii, /oi
ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaay i?aaiecaoeey NN?O no?ieeanue ii aiaeiaee n
Niaaoneie ?inneae. N iiiaioa onoaiiaeaiey Niaaoneie aeanoe a E?uio a
na?aaeeia yiaa?y 1918 aiaea e aei i?iaicaeaoaiey ?anioaeeee ?aaeiiu,
Niaaou, aoaa?ineee nuacae Niaaoia e ?aaeiiia eniieueciaaee
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaua aeou, i?eiyoua Ana?inneeneeie nuacaeaie Niaaoia,
OeEE e Niaia?eiiii Niaaoneie ?innee. Iniiaie ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai
iaania/aiey NN?O yaeyeenue aeae?aou II e III Ana?inneeneeo nuacaeia
Niaaoia, AOeEE e Niaia?eiia ?NON?, eino?oeoeee e aee?aeoeau
ana?inneeneeo ia?eiiaoia. A E?uio i?eieiaeenue oaeaea nianoaaiiua
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaua aeou, iia?aaeaaoea aeae?aou oeaio?aeueiie aeanoe. Ii
ia?a ineaaeaiey nayce n Iineaie, a nayce ni anooieaieai
aano?i-aa?iaineeo aiene a Oe?aeio, noaiaiue naiinoiyoaeueiinoe
Niaia?eiia Oaa?eaeu e aai ia?eiiaoia aic?anoaea, ii ?oeiaiaenoai NIE
NN?O i?iaeieaeaei auiieiyoue eino?oeoeee ?inneeneiai aieueoaaenoneiai
oeaio?a. ?anioaeeea yaeyeanue iaeaaeoeiiui ainoaea?noaaiiui
ia?aciaaieai, auea i?iaicaeaoaia ia nuacaeii Niaaoia E?uia, a OeEE
Niaaoia Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee. Oeaio?aeueiua e ianoiua niaaoneea i?aaiu
ninoiyee ec aieueoaaeeia e eaauo yna?ia. Eiiioienoe/aneia /eneaiiia
i?aainoiaenoai a ieo iicaieyei ?oeiaiaeyuei ?aaioieeai inouanoaeyoue
aeeeoaoo?o i?ieaoa?eaoa. Oeaio?aeueiue eniieieoaeueiue eiieoao eeoue
eiieoe?iaae ?ieue aunoaai i?aaia. *aoeiai ?aca?aie/aiey iieiiii/ee
iaaeaeo OeEE e NIE, ia?eiiaoaie, iaaeaeo oeaio?aeueiuie i?aaiaie e
ianoiuie Niaaoaie ia nouanoaiaaei.

Ianoiua i?aaiu aeanoe NN?O ninoiyee ec Niaaoia e ?aaeiiia.
Aieueoaaenoei-eaaiyna?ianeea Niaaou a NN?O nicaeaaaeenue aac
niaethaeaiey aeaiie?aoe/aneeo i?eioeeiia auai?ia. Ia ianoao inoaeenue
iieiiii/iuie ?aaeiiu, nicaeaiiua ai a?aiy caoaaoa aeanoe aieueoaaeeaie e
eaauie yna?aie.

Iieeoe/aneee ?aaeei NN?O ii?aaeaeyeny eae oioaeeoa?iue, oioy a iae
nouanoaiaaea aeaooia?oeeiay nenoaia, ionoonoaiaaea iiiiiieey ia
n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, nio?aiyeanue iaeioi?ay eaaaeueiay
aiciiaeiinoue aeey aeayoaeueiinoe iiiiceoeee. Oaeay oa?aeoa?enoeea
iniiaaia ia ocinoe nioeeaeueiie aacu ?aaeeia, ionoonoaee
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aa?aioee io iiaoi?aiey oa??i?a, nii?iaiaeaeaaoaai
onoaiiaeaiea Niaaoneie aeanoe a E?uio. A ia?eiae nouanoaiaaiey NN?O
?ai?annee i?iaiaeeeenue aiaiiuie oi?ie?iaaieyie, eioi?ui auei
i?aaeinoaaeaii i?aai i?iecaiaeeoue iaunee e a?anou. OeEE e Niaia?eii
NN?O ia i?aiyonoaiaaee a yoii io?yaeai e?aniie aaa?aeee, /anoyi E?aniie
A?iee, ianoiui Niaaoai.

A ?aaioa ioia/aaony, /oi ioeaiee aioo?aiiae iieeoeee NN?O eae oniaoiie,
aeaaaaiua niaaoneeie enoi?eeaie a iaaeaaiai i?ioeii, aaciniiaaoaeueiu.
Ana oaae Niaia?eiia a iaeanoe yeiiiie/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo
i?aia?aciaaiee ieeaeeo i?aeoe/aneeo iineaaenoaee ia eiaee. Ca ei?ioeee
n?ie naiaai nouanoaiaaiey i?aaeoaeuenoai NN?O oece/anee ia iiaei oniaoue
i?iaanoe i?eienuaaaioth aio ?aaioo. Iauay i?aaiecaoeey aai
aeayoaeueiinoe ia ioee/aeanue aunieie i?aaiecaoeeae. NN?O ia eiaea naiae
Eiinoeoooeee, einoeooo a?aaeaeainoaa caeiiiaeaoaeueii ioi?ieai ia aue.

A aeenna?oaoeee naeaeai auaiae i iaii?aaaeaiiinoe nicaeaiey NN?O,
iineieueeo aa iniiaiay aiaiii-iieeoe/aneay oeaeue ia auea aeinoeaiooa, a
aioo?aiiyy iieeoeea i?eaaea e iaino?aieth yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena e
niinianoaiaaea ?inoo nioeeaeueiie iai?yaeaiiinoe a iauanoaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa e au?aaeaiey: oaaea?aoeey, aaoiiiiey, aeeeoaoo?a
i?ieaoa?eaoa, Niaaoneay Nioeeaeenoe/aneay ?anioaeeea Oaa?eaeu,
ainoaea?noaaiiia ia?aciaaiea, oieoa?iia ainoaea?noai, oioaeeoa?iue
?aaeei, *a?iiii?neee oeio, aieueoaaeee, eaaua yna?u.

Dubko U.V. The Soviet Socialist Republic of Tavrida: historical and
legal aspects. — Manuscript.

The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate
of jurisprudence from a speciality 12.00.01 — theory and history of the
state and rights; a history of the political and legal doctrines. —
University of Internal Affaires, Kharkov, 1999.

In this job on the basis of theoretical development of problem of a
state autonomy the condition on 1918 are investigated the reasons of
creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Tavrida (SSRT), its legal
status. It is marked, that the plan of creation of SSRT was not
connected with self-determination of Crimea, but became a consequence of
military and political plans of Political bureau of CC of RCP (b) which
was led by Lenin. The State legal organization of SSRT was constructed
by analogy to Soviet Russia. Its political regime is determined as
totalitarian. The estimations of internal politics of SSRT as
successful, that were given by the Soviet historians in the recent past,
was groundless. SSRT did not spend the independent external politics,
had no Constitution, the institute of citizenship was not made out
legislatively. In the dissertation was made the conclusion about the
usefulness of the creation of SSRT.

Key words and expressions: federation, autonomy, dictatorship of
proletariat, Soviet Socialist Republic of Tavrida, state foundation,
unitary state, totalitarian regime, Black Sea fleet, bolsheviks, left
SRs.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 14.04.99. Iai?? ionaoiee. Oi?iao 60o84/16. Oiia.
ae?oe. a?e. 1,0. Iae.-aeae. a?e. 1,15. Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Caiiae. ?

Ae?eueieoey iia?aoeaiiai ae?oeo Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa.

310080, i.Oa?e?a, i?-o 50-??//y N?N?, 27.

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