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Психолого-методичні засади розробки програм підвищення кваліфікації державних службовців (освітня сфера): Автореф. дис… канд. наук з держ. упр / Д.І

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Oe?a?inueea Aeaaeai?y aea?aeaaiiai

oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie

Aeca?i/oe Aeieo?i ?aaiiae/

OAeE 35.088.6: 37.015.3

Ineoieiai-iaoiaee/i? canaaee ?ic?iaee i?ia?ai i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a (ina?oiy noa?a)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 25.00.05 – aaeocaaa oi?aae?iiy: oi?aae?iiy ina?oith

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe c aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii a Oe?a?inuee?e Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eicaeia A?oae?e Aiae??eiae/,

Ee?anueeee Iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee oa ineoieia??.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ianeia Aaeaioei ?aaiiae/,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee; eaiaeeaeao iaoe c aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy

Oeaaieueiee Iao?i Aiaoie?eiae/,

Oe?a?inueea Aeaaeai?y aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia?
Oe?a?ie, aeioeaio eaoaae?e ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y ea??aieo eaae??a ina?oe
I?i?noa?noaa

ina?oe Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a i?ioan?eii? ina?oe, (i. Ee?a).

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “____” ______________ 1999 ?ieo i ____ aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee Ae 26.810.02 a Oe?a?inuee?e Aeaaeai??
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252057,
Ee?a-57, aoe. Aaeaia Iioue?, 20, aoae. 201.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueei?
Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee ____ ____________ 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Iiaianthe A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Anooi. Oni?oe ?icaoaeiae iacaeaaeii?, aeaiie?aoe/ii?, i?aaiai?
aea?aeaae, ?aoi?ioaaiiy noa? ?? iie?oe/iiai, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
aeeooy, noai?aiiy ia?aaeoiia ?ioaa?aoe?? Oe?a?ie a na?oiaa
ni?aoiaa?enoai caeaaeeoue a?ae aaee/acii? e?eueeino? aioo??oi?o oa
ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a. Oa ca aoaeue-yeeo oiia oeae oni?o aoaea caeaaeaoe a
ia?oo /a?ao a?ae eaae?iaiai iioaioe?aeo, a?ae ethaeae, ye? iathoue
?aae?coaaoe an? caaaeaiiy aoae?aieoeoaa oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy iieiaei?
aea?aeaae, oiaoi a?ae aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a. Naia iao??ioeci ?
i?ioan?iiae?ci oeueiai iiaiai aeey Oe?a?ie i?ioa?eo noni?euenoaa noa?
ae??oaeueiei aeey noaiiaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ye ?a?iiaenueei? aea?aeaae.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aaeeea e?euee?noue /eiiee?a
iaoiiaeththoue o?oaeiiu? ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo o eiioaeno? ae?yeueiino?
aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a: ?noi?e/ia niaaeueia (aea?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?y
iniaenoino?), a?aenooi?noue o?aaeeoe?e uiaei i?aeaioiaee i?aoe?aiee?a
aea?aeaaii? neoaeae, aeia?aaeaeath/ee oa?aeoa? iiaea?i?caoe?? noa?iai
aia?aoo oi?aae?iiy ? noai?aiiy caeiiiaeaa/i-ii?iaoeaii? aace uiaei ci?i
iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? ian (?aeaaee aeaiie?aoecio, aeaiie?aoe/ia
?icoi?iiy naino naiaiaee, i?aaa, naino a?iiaaenueeeo iaia’yce?a oiui),
ianoi?iiaai?noue i?aaiaiai, eiinoeoooe?eiiai ieneaiiy, a?aenooi?noue
o?aaeeoe?e ieth?ae?cio, oiea?aioiino?, aeania aaciaa ina?oa, yea
?ai?acaioo? no?oeoo?io caeaoi?iiaai?noue o a?e oaoiie?aoecio oiui.
Ona?aeiieaiiy oeeo oa ?ioeo o?oaeiiu?a noaiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaii? neoaeae
ni?e/eieei iiyao a Caeii? Oe?a?ie “I?i aea?aeaaio neoaeao” (1993)
noaoo? 29 “Iaa/aiiy ? i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeaaieo
neoaeaiaoe?a, aea cacia/aii, ui “aea?aeaaiei neoaeaiaoeyi
noai?ththoueny oiiae aeey iaa/aiiy ? i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? o
a?aeiia?aeieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao (ia oaeoeueoaoao) oa oeyoii
naiiina?oe”. I?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? ia? cae?enithaaoeny iino?eii, ye
i?aaeei, ia ??aeoa iaeiiai ?aco ia i’youe ?ie?a.

Ia oe?e caeiiiaeaa/?e aac? i?ioyaii 1995-1997 ??. cae?eniai? ?aaeuei?
e?iee uiaei noai?aiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie iaa/aiiy aea?aeaaieo
neoaeaiaoe?a: noai?aii Aieiaaea?aeneoaeao Oe?a?ie (1994?.),
caoaa?aeaeaii I?ia?aio eaae?iaiai caaacia/aiiy aea?aeaaii? neoaeae
(1995 ?.), ooai?aii Oe?a?inueeo Aeaaeai?th aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy oa
/ioe?e ?? o?e?aee (1995?.), caniiaaii ?aa?iiaeuei? oeaio?e i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a (1996 ?.), caoaa?aeaeaii
Iieiaeaiiy i?i nenoaio i?aeaioiaee, ia?ai?aeaioiaee oa i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a (1997?.).

?acii c oei, aaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/aiiy aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a
caeeoa?oueny aeooaeueiei ieoaiiyi nueiaiaeaiiy. Aiae?c no/anieo
oaiaeaioe?e a nenoai? aea?aeaaii? neoaeae Oe?a?ie aeicaiey? aeae?eeoe
/eiieee, ui coiiaeththoue iaiao?aei?noue ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie
i?aeaioiaee, ia?ai?aeaioiaee oa i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeaaieo
neoaeaiaoe?a: aaei?i?no?aoeaia ?aoi?ia, i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?e
iaoe?iiaeueiee aeina?ae o oe?e noa?? ae?yeueiino?, e?euee?ni?
iaiaaeaiiy ?nioth/i? nenoaie, iaa?aeiia?aei?noue ci?noo aaciai? aeui?
ina?oe oi?aae?inueeeo eaae??a aeiiaai ae?yeueiino? a aaeoc? “Aea?aeaaia
oi?aae?iiy”.

Ca oeeo oiia aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeue-yeeo aniaeo?a i?aeaioiaee,
ia?ai?aeaioiaee oa i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a ?
aeooaeueiei aeey “aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy” ye aaeoc? i?ioan?eii?
ae?yeueiino?. O naith /a?ao, iaaaaeaiee eiiieaen aeooaeueieo i?iaeai
iiaea aooe ae??oaiee eeoa oeyoii ia’?aeiaiiy coneeue iaoeiaoe?a,
iaoeiai-iaa/aeueieo oa aea?aeaaieo onoaiia, ui iaoiiaeth?oueny
ianooaai?noth oeeo i?iaeai.

?acii c oei, nenoaia i?aeaioiaee, ia?ai?aeaioiaee oa i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a ia? /?oei icia/ai? o?e
neeaaeia?: io?eiaiiy i?ioan?? oa niaoe?aeueiino? (i?aeaioiaea), ci?ia
i?ioan?? oa niaoe?aeueiino? (ia?ai?aeaioiaea) oa aaeineiiaeaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?eieo iciae oao?aoey, yeee i?aoeth? o aea?aeaai?e neoaea?
(i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??). Eiaeia neeaaeiaa – oea iaaiee iai?yiie
ae?yeueiino? a nenoai? “Aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy”. ?acoeueoaoe oeeo
iai?yie?a eii?aeeiothoueny o /an? oa i?inoi?? a?aeiia?aeieie
aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie, aea aiie naiiaeinoaoi? aeey eiie?aoiiai
iai?yieo. Ioaea, i?iaeaie, ye? oa?aeoa?i? aeey an??? nenoaie,
ei?aniiiaeothoueny eiaei?e ?? neeaaeia?e ? ?o aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
aeooaeueieie aeey eiaeiiai ?c iai?yie?a.

Oa na?aae iniiaieo neeaaeiaeo nenoaie iaa/aiiy aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a
nooo?ai ae??ciy?oueny oaeee iai?yiie ae?yeueiino? o aaeoc? “aea?aeaaia
oi?aae?iiy” ye i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a. Aei
iniaeeainoae oeueiai iai?yieo iiaeia a?aeianoe: iia?aoeai?noue oa
ianooaai?noue aieeao ia eaae?iaee iioaioe?ae aea?aeaaii? neoaeae;
?aa?iiaeueii-aaeocaaa ?icaaeoaeai?noue; iinaaeiai-?aiaiaa
??ciiiai?oi?noue noa’?eo?a iaa/aiiy; i?aaeiaoii-ooieoe?iiaeueia
?icia?ooy i?ia?ai iaa/aiiy; ??ciiiai?oi?noue i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i,
iaoiae?a oiui. Ana oea aea? iiaeeea?noue a?aeianoe oeae iai?yiie
ae?yeueiino? a nenoai? iaa/aiiy aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a aei
i??i?eoaoiiai uiaei iaiao?aeiino? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeooaeueieo i?iaeai,
ye iio?aeieo i?iaeai on??? nenoaie iaa/aiiy aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui ca inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy aeine?aeaeaiith i?iaeai
iaa/aiiy aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a i?eae?ey?oueny iaeaaeia oaaaa, ye
a?o/eciyieo oae ? ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo (A. Aaa?’yiia, I.Aeueaa?o, I.
Ai?iiueei, E. Aai??, AE. C?eea?, A. Eiycaa, A.Eiea, E. Eii?a, A.
E?aa/aiei, E.E?aa/oe, A. E?aiaiue, N.E?enthe, O. Eoioe, O. Eae?eia, A.
Eoaiaee, A.Eoii, A. Iaeai?iaea, I.Ianeii, I. Iaceiei, I. Ieaeiee, A.
Ioiaa?a, I. Iaieainueeee, N. I’Aeiiiae, I. I?iaea?a, E. I?ieiiaiei, A.
?aeo, A.Oaiea, O. Oaaeio??, A.ssoeoaa oa ?io?), iaaia e?euee?noue
aeooaeueieo aeey iaoee oa i?aeoeee aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?iaeai
aena?oeaii iaaeinoaoiuei. Iai?eeeaae, oea noino?oueny i?noey ? ?ie?
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? a nenoai? ina?oe acaaae? ? a aea?aeaai?e
neoaea?, cie?aia; nooiino? iiiyooy i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a; i?aeoiae?a aei aecia/aiiy ci?noo iaa/aiiy;
iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae oi?ioaaiiy i?ia?ai i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a oa ?o iaoiaee/ii? ?aae?caoe?? oiui.

Ocaaaeueithth/e iaaaaeaia oa caaaeath/e ia oa, ui aecia/aiiy ci?noo
iaa/aiiy aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a ? caaaeueiith i?iaeaiith nenoaie
i?aeaioiaee, ia?ai?aeaioiaee oa i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a, iiaeia ae?eoe aeniiaeo i?i ?nioaaiiy aeooaeueiiai
caieoo uiaei iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy oaeiai i?aeoiaeo aei oi?ioaaiiy
ci?noo i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? o aaeoc? “Aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy”, yeee
ae ia’?eoeaii a?aeiia?aeaa ia o?eueee iio?aaai noa’?eo?a oi?aae?inueei?
ae?yeueiino?, aea ? neoaoaaa i?aeaeuaiith ?o eaae?o?eaoe?? iacaeaaeii
a?ae iiia?aaeiuei? i?ioan??, niaoe?aeueiino? aai niaoe?ae?caoe??.

An? oe? i??eoaaiiy uiaei aeooaeueiino? i?iaeaie, ?? iaaeinoaoiuei?
oai?aoe/ii? oa iaoiaee/ii? ?ic?iaeaiino?, iio?aa i?aeoeee oi?aae?iiy ?
iaoiiaeee aea?? oa oi?ioethaaiiy oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy –
“Ineoieiai-iaoiaee/i? canaaee ?ic?iaee i?ia?ai i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a (ina?oiy noa?a)”.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeiny a iaaeao oa a ?one? ieaio
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie, aoiaeeoue aei Eiiieaeniiai iaoeiaiai i?iaeoo
“?ic?iaea iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a c
iai?yio “Aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy”, aea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai uiaei
aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie oa ?? eaae?iaiai caaacia/aiiy, cie?aia,
Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i aea?aeaaio neoaeao”, Oeac?a I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie:
“I?i nenoaio i?aeaioiaee, ia?ai?aeaioiaee oa i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a”, “I?i caoaa?aeaeaiiy i?ia?ai eaae?iaiai
caaacia/aiiy aea?aeaaii? neoaeae oa i?ia?aie ?iaioe c ea??aieeaie
aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia ? i?aai?caoe?e”, “I?i Aea?aeaaio
eii?n?th c i?iaaaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie” oiui.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy – ?ic?iaeoe, oai?aoe/ii ? iaoiaee/ii
iaa?oiooaaoe oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe ?acoeueoaoeai?noue
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei aecia/aiiy ci?noo i?ia?ai
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe aoee aecia/ai? ? ae??oai? ianooii? caaaeaiiy:

– anoaiiaeoe nooi?noue i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeaaieo
neoaeaiaoe?a a ???a?o?/i?e nenoai? aeae?a ina?oe o eiioaeno?
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy.

– ooi/ieoe iiiyo?eii-oa?i?iieia?/iee aia?ao, oa?aeoa?iee aeey nenoaie
i?aeaioiaee, ia?ai?aeaioiaee oa i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a.

– aecia/eoe eiiieaenio iaoiaeeeo nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo aniaeo?a
ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a ina?oiuei? noa?e.

– aeyaeoe i?ia?aei? oaiaeaioe?? uiaei i?iyao aeaiaio?a
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii? eiiiaoaioiino? o ae?yeueiino?
aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a.

– iaa?oiooaaoe iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai ci?noo i?ia?ai
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a ina?oiuei? noa?e.

– ?ic?iaeoe i?ia?aio eo?no i?aeaeuaiiy nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii?
eiiiaoaioiino? aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a ina?oiuei? noa?e oa cae?enieoe eiai
ai?iaaoe?th.

A?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy aaco?oueny ia i?eiouaii?, ui i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a, ye iaeei ?c aaaeeeaeo ?o
ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaia’yce?a, nooo?ai aeooae?co?oueny, ia’?eoea?co?oueny
? aoaea iniaeno?nii i?eeiyoiei, yeui ci?no i?ia?aie aoaea oi?ioaaoeny
?c caeo/aiiyi aei ?? ?ic?iaee iaeaooi?o neooa/?a oeyoii aeeth/aiiy ?o
aei nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaaieo aeaiaio?a
eiiiaoaioiino?, nooi?noue yeeo ? ia? neeaaeaoe iniiai? eiiiiiaioe
ci?noo i?ia?aie i?aeaeuaiiy ?o eaae?o?eaoe??.

Oai?aoe/iith iniiaith i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaoeia? oa
iaoiaee/i? i?aoe? i?ia?aeieo a/aieo ? i?aeoee?a o noa?? aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy acaaae? oa oi?aae?iiy ina?oith, cie?aia, ?o e?eoe/ia
inieneaiiy o eiioaeno? i?iaeaie, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny. Iaoiaeieia?/iith
iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy neoaoaaa eiiieaenii-nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei
aiae?co yaeu ? i?ioean?a a nenoai? i?aeaioiaee, ia?ai?aeaioiaee oa
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a oa oae? caaaeuei? iaoiaee
ye aiae?c, neioac, ii??aiyiiy, ocaaaeueiaiiy ? eiie?aoecaoe?y.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeey ?aae?caoe?? iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy oa eiai
caaaeaiue oaeiae aeei?enoiaoaaany eiiieaen iaoiae?a: aiae?c oa
ocaaaeueiaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo aeaea?ae ?ioi?iaoe?? c i?iaeaie
(caeiiiaeaa/? oa ii?iaoeai? aeoe, iiiia?ao??, iaoeia? oa iaoiaee/i?
noaoo?, aeieoiaioaoe?y oiui); niinoa?aaeaiiy, aan?aee; oanoe oa
iieooaaeueieee (cie?aia ca iaoiaeeeaie ?. Aeaeea oa Aeae. Iiooii “Oeie
oi?aae?iiy”, I.Aoaeeiea oa Ae. O?ain?na “Iaiaaeaiiy iaiaaeaea?a”, Aeae.
?iooa?a “??aaiue noa’?eoeaiiai eiio?ieth”, E. Oiiana “Iiaaae?iea o
eiioe?eo?” oa A. Niaeea ? I. Eo/a?a “Iniaeno?nia ni?yiiaai?noue”);
aenia?oi? ioe?iee, eiioaio-aiae?co noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy (eiiei?aeaoe?y, ?aiaiaa ei?aeyoe?y *. Ni??iaia oiui).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeiny i?ioyaii 1995-1998 ??. ia aac? iaeanieo
oi?aae?iue ina?oith (?aaii-O?aie?anueea, E??iaia?aaenueea, Aieeinueea,
Iaeanueea, Oiaeueieoeueea iaeano?), ?aa?iiaeueiiai oeaio?o i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? oa ?inoeoooo i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe iaaeaaia?/ieo
i?aoe?aiee?a (?aaii-O?aie?anuee).

Ia ??cieo aoaiao aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei ioiieaii iiiaae 150 noa’?eo?a
oi?aae?inueei? aeyeueiino? (4-6 eaoaai??? aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a
noa?e oi?aae?iiy ina?oith).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy caiaeeoueny
aei ianooiiiai:

– aeiaaaeaii, ui i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? ? oeiii iaeiiai c aeae?a
ina?oe

– i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe;

– ?ic?iaeaii i?aai?caoe?eii-ineoieia?/io no?oeoo?o ?iaeea?aeoaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? oa ooieoe?iiaeueii-ineoieia?/io iiaeaeue oi?aae?inueei?
ae?yeueiino?, ye? aeicaieeee ae?eoe ?icoi?iiy nooiino? eiiiaoaioiino?
ye iaaiiai i?aaeiaoii-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai aniaeoo ?ioaeaeoo, ye
ae?yeuei?niiai i?iyao ??aiy i?ioan?eii? ina?oe aea?aeaaiiai
neoaeaiaoey;

– ooi/iaii iiiyo?eii-oa?i?iieia?/iee aia?ao, oa?aeoa?iee aeey ??cieo
oei?a i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe – “i?aeaioiaea”, “ia?ai?aeaioiaea”,
“i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??”, “eaae?o?eaoe?y”, “eiiiaoaioi?noue
aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey”. Cie?aia, i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
?icaeyaea?oueny ye i?ioean ? ?acoeueoao ?icaeoeo eiiiaoaioiino?
aea?aeneoaeaiaoey c aecia/aiiyi nooi?nieo iciae oaeeo iiiyoue ye
i?ioean, ?acoeueoao, ?icaeoie;

– aeyaeaii i?ia?aei? oaiaeaioe?? ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaii? eiiieaenii?
iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei i?iyao aeaiaio?a
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii? eiiiaoaioiino? o ae?yeueiino?
aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a (?iciiae?e i?ia?aeieo noee?a oi?aae?iiy, aieea
a?eiaeo iniaeeainoae, ineoieia?/i? iniaeeaino?) oa aecia/aiiy
aeooaeueieo aeey eiie?aoii? a?oie, aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii? ca i?ia?aeieie
noeeyie oa a?eiaeie iciaeaie, oai i?ia?aie i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?ee:??;

– cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?iaee ci?noo i?ia?aie i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a, ye ?ino?oiaioaeueio iiaeeo?eaoe?th
iaoiaeo aiae?co iio?aa o iaa/aii?, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue: iioei?coaaoe
i?ia?aio ca e?eoa??yie aeooaeueiino? oa i?i?i?caoe?? ?? ianyao;
aeei?enoaoe iniiai? canaaee aiae?aaia?ee (cie?aia, oeeee Ae. Eieueaa)
ia o?eueee aeey i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a, a e aeey
?ic?iaee i?ia?ai i?aeaeuaiiy ?o eaae?o?eaoe??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a:

– iaa?oiooaaii? ?aaeueieo iiaeeeainoae ?aae?caoe?? ?ic?iaeaieo
iaoiaee/ieo i?aeoiae?a aei oi?ioaaiiy i?ia?ai i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a, ui caiaeeoueny aei: ?ino?oiaioaeueii?
iiaeeo?eaoe?? aiae?co iio?aa o iaa/aii? ia iniia?
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a;
i?ia?aie eo?no “Ineoieia?y aoaeoeaiiai noeeth oi?aae?iiy” aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a ina?oiuei? noa?e;

– ai?iaaaeaeaii? eiiieaenii? iaoiaeeee nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue iio?aa o iaa/aii? aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a;

– ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy aeooaeueieo oai i?ia?aie i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? c a?aooaaiiyi i??i?eoao?a o noeeyo oi?aae?iiy ina?oe.

Oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy oa i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/i?e ?iaio?
?aaii-O?aie?anueeiai ?inoeoooo i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe iaaeaaia?/ieo
i?aoe?aiee?a oa ?aa?iiaeueiiai oeaio?o i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a – oea iniiai? ?aea? ? ?ic?iaee, ye? aeeiiaii
a iaaeao aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, aena?oeaii o iiaeaiiio
?oeiien? ? ioae?eaoe?yo, oa ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue iaoeiao iiaecio,
oai?aoeei-iaoiaee/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a
(oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy iniiaieo ?aeae, nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iee
i?aeo?ae, iaoiaeeea oa ?acoeueoaoe nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ?o ia?iaea oa ocaaaeueiaiiy, cai?iiiiiaaia i?ia?aia
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? oiui). ?aea? noaoae, ui aeeiiaii o ni?ai?aoe?
c aeieoi?ii iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?ii Eicaeiaei A?oae??i
Aiae??eiae/ai, yeui ? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny a ?iaio?, oi eeoa
iiina?aaeeiaaii (iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie), ine?eueee aiie, ye i?aaeei, ia
noinoaaeeny i?aaeiaoa oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe
iaaiai?thaaeeny ia Anaoe?a?inueeeo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo:
“Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? oa iaoiaee/i? i?iaeaie ?icaeaaeueiiai iaa/aiiy”
(?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1998); “Oi?aae?iiy iaoe?iiaeueiith ina?oith a
oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?” (Ee?a, 1998);
“Oi?aa?neoaonueea iaaeaaia?/ia ina?oa ye oeyo aoiai?caoe??
noni?euenoaa” (Ee?a, 1999); “Oai??y ? i?aeoeea aea?aeaaioai?aiiy a
Oe?a?i?: ?noi??y oa no/ani?noue” (Euea?a, 1999), eieaa?yo oa ia?aaeao a
I?i?noa?noa? ina?oe Oe?a?ie, nai?ia?ao ia/aeueiee?a iaeanieo oi?aae?iue
oa ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ina?oe oa a i?ioean? ?ic?iaee.

Ioae?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaae?oeiaaii 10 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, ?c yeeo 6 o oaoiaeo
iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo, caoaa?aeaeaieo AAE Oe?a?ie, 8 i?aoeue –
iaeiiin?ai?. Caaaeueiee ianya iaae?oeiaaieo i?aoeue – 2,9 ae?oeiaaieo
a?eooa.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
aeaio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (221
iaeiaioaaiiy). ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 174 noi??ieao, i?noeoue 29
?enoie?a, 12 aeiaeaoe?a oa a ieo 27 oaaeeoeue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

O “Anooi?” iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue aeena?oaoe?eii? oaie,
iaiao?aei?noue ?? aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo, a?iioaco
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa eiai iniiai? caaaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi ?o iaoiaeieia?/io oa
iaoiaee/io iniiao, iiaeaii iaoeiao iiaecio oa iaaaaeaii i?aeoe/io
cia/ou?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

?icae?e 1. “I?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? a nenoai? aea?aeaaii? neoaeae
Oe?a?ie” neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a. Iine?aeiaii
aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?noea ? ?ieue i?aeaioiaee, ia?ai?aeaioiaee oa
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? o eiioaeno? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy,
nooi?noue i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? oa nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iee
i?aeo?ae aei aecia/aiiy ci?noo i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeaaieo
neoaeaiaoe?a. Iine?aeiaii aeiaiaeeoueny, ui naia i?aeaeuaiith
eaae?o?eaoe?? a?aeaiaeeoueny i?ia?aeia i?noea a nenoai? oi?ioaaiiy
oi?aae?inueeeo eaae??a aea?aeaae.

Aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy ?icaeyaea?oueny ye ni?euei? coneeey i?aai?ciaaii?
a?oie ethaeae a noa?? aea?aeaaii? ae?yeueiino?, ui ioiieth? o?e a?eee
aeaaee ? ?o ca’ycee, oa a?ae?a?a? i?ia?aeio ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? oa
?aae?caoe?? aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee, ?, ye /anoeia iie?oe/iiai i?ioeano,
nooo?ai a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae oi?aae?iiy a noa?? a?ciano. Iniaeeaino?
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy (?icia?ooy i?aaeiao?a ae?e noa’?eo?a
ae?yeueiino? oa ?o iie?ooieoe?iiaeuei?noue) oi?iothoue iaai? aeiiae aei
eaae?iaiai iioaioe?aeo aea?aeaaii? neoaeae, ye? iiaeiia caaeia?eueieoe
nenoaia i?aeaioiaee, ia?ai?aeaioiaee oa i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a ? yea oa?aeoa?ia aeey aea?aeaaii? neoaeae
aoaeue-yei? e?a?ie na?oo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?noey ? ?ie? nenoaie i?aeaioiaee, ia?ai?aeaioiaee oa
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a o eiioaeno? aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy ye aeaeo ae?yeueiino? a na?o? acaaae? oa a Oe?a?i?, cie?aia,
aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe ianooiia: ?nio? aeaa i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy
i?aaeiaoo aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy (?a?iiaenueeee oa aia?eeainueeee) oa
o?e oaiaeaioe?? uiaei aaciai? ina?oe aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a (aoiai?oa?ia,
i?e?iaeie/a oa i?aaiaa); ?inoeoothaaiiy aea?aeaaii? neoaeae a Oe?a?i?,
ye ie?aiiai aeaeo ae?yeueiino?, ni?e/eieei iiyao nenoaie iaa/aiiy
aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a, a iaiao?aei?noue i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
a?aeianaii aei ?o iniiaieo neoaeaiaeo iaia’yce?a ia caeiiiaeaa/iio
??ai?; noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie i?aeaioiaee, ia?ai?aeaioiaee oa i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a a Oe?a?i? cae?enithaaeiny i?aeoe/ii “c
ioey” oa ca ei?ioeee oa?i?i oey nenoaia noai?aia ? ae??, a iaeneiaeueia
?ioaineai?noue ?ic?iaee ii?iaoeaii? aace i?eiaaea? ia 1994-1995 ??.; o
eiioaeno? ?icoi?iiy ?iaeiaiai iiiyooy “ina?oa” ye i?ioeano ?
?acoeueoaoo oe?eani?yiiaaiiai oi?ioaaiiy eoeueoo?e ethaeeie,
aeioe?eueii ?icaeyaeaoe “i?aeaioiaeo”, “ia?ai?aeaioiaeo” oa “i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe??” ye oeie iaeiiai c aeae?a ina?oe – i?neyaeeieiiii?
ina?oe; iiiyooy “i?ioan?y” ia? ona?aeiiethaaoeny ye ?iaeiaa, a
“niaoe?aeuei?noue” oa “eaae?o?eaoe?y” ye aeaeia?, i?e oeueiio
“eaae?o?eaoe?y” oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeaiia iniiaieie ia?aiao?aie –
niaoe?aeuei?noue oa nooi?iue (??aaiue) aioiaiino? aei ae?yeueiino?;
aeey i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe oa?aeoa?iei ? oa, ui “i?aeaioiaea”
?icoi??oueny ye ci?ia i?ioan?? (niaoe?aeuei?noue oa eaae?o?eaoe?y),
“ia?ai?aeaioiaea” iia’yco?oueny ?c ci?iith niaoe?aeueiino? oa
eaae?o?eaoe??, a “i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??” aeioe?eueii ni?eeiaoe, ye
yaeua, ui iia’yco?oueny ?c /anoeiaeie ci?iaie aai a /anoei?
niaoe?aeueiino?, aai ??aiy aioiaiino? aei ae?yeueiino?, aai a ?o
ii?aeiaii?; ?niothoue iaai? /eiieee, ui ia’?eoea?cothoue iaiao?aei?noue
?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie i?aeaioiaee oi?aae?inueeeo eaae??a aeey
aea?aeaaii? neoaeae (e?euee?ni?, ye?nii-ci?noia? oa no?oeoo?i?), a
iaeaeooaeuei?oeie ? i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeiai oeio i?neyaeeieiiii?
ina?oe ye i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a.

Aeey c’ynoaaiiy nooiino? “i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??” aeine?aeaeaii eiai
?icoi?iiy ye ia ii?iaoeaiiio ??ai? oae ? aeine?aeieeaie. C’yniaaii, ui
ua ia ae?iaeaii noaeiai oyaeaiiy i?i nooi?noue oeueiai yaeua (iiiaeaiiy
oa ?icaeoie oi?iue oa ciaiue, i?aeaioiaea aei iiai? ?iaioe, iaoiae
i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe, a?aeiiaeaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? oiui). Eiaeia ?c
aeine?aeaeaieo icia/aiue, ii nai?io, i?aaeeueii aena?oeth?,
a?aeia?aaea? ie?ai? aniaeoe oeueiai yaeua, ui ? na?ae/aiiyi eiai
aaaaoii??iino?. O ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaii ?icaeyaeaoe i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? ye oei i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe, a iniia? yeiai – i?ioean ?
?acoeueoao ?icaeoeo eiiiaoaioiino? aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?yeuei?niiai i?iyao ??aiy i?ioan?eii? ina?oe ia iniia?
cai?iiiiiaaii? i?aai?caoe?eii-ineoieia?/ii? no?oeoo?e ?iaeea?aeoaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? oa ooieoe?iiaeueii-ineoieia?/ii? iiaeae? oi?aae?inueei?
ae?yeueiino? o eiiieaen? c aiae?cii nooiino? iiiyoue “eiiiaoaioi?noue”,
?ioaeaeo”, “caeaoi?noue”, “?icaeoie” oiui aeicaieeee ae?eoe ?icoi?iiy
nooiino? eiiiaoaioiino? ye iaaiiai i?aaeiaoii-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai aniaeoo
?ioaeaeoo, ye ae?yeuei?niiai i?iyao ??aiy i?ioan?eii? ina?oe
aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeeaeiith, e?eoe/i?noth,
aio/e?noth, oe?ioith ?icoio, oaeaee?noth, i?ea?iaeuei?noth oa
aeiieoeea?noth i?e ae??oaii? i?ioan?eieo caaaeaiue. Ca oeeo oiia
eiiiaoaioi?noue aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey ona?aeiieth?oueny ye eiai
caeaoi?noue aeioe?eueii ae?yoe aeey ?acoeueoaoeaiiai oa aoaeoeaiiai
?ica’ycaiiy neooaoe?e, ui iinoathoue a i?ioean? aeeiiaiiy neoaeaiaeo
iaia’yce?a, ca oiia, ui caeaoi?noue ?icoi??oueny ye noi?iiaaia a
i?ioean? ina?oe aeanoea?noue ?iaeea?aea, yea aecia/a? eiai aeoeaio
aeooae?ciaaio ni?iiiaei?noue ?aae?coaaoe ae?yeuei?noue iaaiiai oeio ?
coiiaeth?oueny cae?aiinoyie, ciaiiyie, iaae/eaie, oi?iiyie, canai?ieie
oaoiieia?yie ?iaioe oa ineo?/ieie aeanoeainoyie iniaenoino? aea?aeaaiiai
neoaeaiaoey. Ocaaaeueiaiiy i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeaei
iiaeeea?noue cai?iiiioaaoe ianooiia aecia/aiiy: i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? – oea i?ioean ? ?acoeueoao ?icaeoeo aeae?a oa (aai) oei?a
eiiiaoaioiino? aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a ca oiia, ui: i?ioean –
oe?eani?yiiaaiee, aio/eee aeoeaiee ? ea?iaaiee; ?acoeueoao –
caeaoi?noue aoaeoeaii ?ica’ycoaaoe neooaoe?th, ui iinoathoue i?e
aeeiiaii? neoaeaiaeo iaia’yce?a; ?icaeoie – iaia?a?aia ci?ia noaio
ina?/aiino? aea?aeneoaeaiaoey, ui ia? iiceoeaio oaiaeaioe?th,
oi?aaey?oueny, ei?aao?oueny ? caaacia/o?oueny iaa/aiiyi oi?aae?inueeeo
eaae??a ca a?aeiia?aeieie i?ia?aiaie i?aeaeuaiiy ?o eaae?o?eaoe??.

Aeey aecia/aiiy oeyo?a ?ic?iaee i?ia?ai i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
aeine?aeaeothoueny no/ani? i?aeoiaee aei ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie.
Aeiaaaeaii, ui aeey aeinyaiaiiy iniiaieo caaaeaiue i?aeaeuaiiy
eiiiaoaioiino? aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a iaiao?aeieie ? iaeaaaeeea?oeie ? aeaa
aoaie: aecia/aiiy ci?noo ? eiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy a i?ia?ai?, ye aeae?
aeieoiaioo, ui aecia/a? oe?e? oa ci?no ?icaeoeo eiiiaoaioiino?;
ieaioaaiiy ye niin?a a?aeia?aaeaiiy eii?aeeiaoe?? coneeue noa’?eo?a
ae?yeueiino? o iaa/aeueiiio caeeaae?, ui ni?yiiao?oueny ia aeinyaiaiiy
ni?eueieo oe?eae i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? (/an, i?ino??, iaoiaee,
i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie oiui). I?iiiio?oueny caaaeueia aecia/aiiy
iniiaiiai aeieoiaioo aeey i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a:
i?ia?aia ?icaeoeo eiiiaoaioiino? (…) aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey.
Ia?aaaae oeueiai aecia/aiiy – eiaeia neiai ia? ye nieneiaa oae ?
ooieoe?iiaeueia iaaaioaaeaiiy (i?ia?aia – aeae aeieoiaioo ca
a?aeiia?aeiith oi?iith, no?oeoo?ith; eiiiaoaioi?noue – nooi?noue
oeueiai oeio i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe; aea?aeneoaeaiaaoeue – noa’?eo
iaa/aiiy; ?icaeoie – oe?eueiaa onoaiiaea ia canoinoaaiiy oaeeo oi?i ?
iaoiae?a, ye? ni?iiiaei? noi?ioaaoe a?aeiia?aei? caeaoiino?).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe ?icia?ooy aeoiie ? i?aeoiae?a aei
i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy ci?noo i?ia?aie (eiioaenooaeueiee aiae?c,
eiinoeueoaoe?? ?c caiiaieeaie, aenia?oia ioe?iea ? iiaaaeaiiy
aeeeaaea/?a, “caei?iaee aeocae” oiui), aei i??i?eoaoieo aniaeo?a ?o
ci?noiaino? (oa?eoi??aeueiee aai aaeocaaee aniaeo,
i?aaeiaoii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee oiui), aei oaeoi??a aieeao (aaciaa ina?oa,
iinaaea, ?aia, iaiao?aei?noue oi?ioaaiiy aeooaeueieo ineo?/ieo
aeanoeainoae oiui), ui aeaei iiaeeea?noue ae?eoe aeniiaeo: ?nioth/?
i?aeoiaee aei oi?ioaaiiy i?ia?ai i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?e i?aeoe/ii
aeeeth/athoue ?c oeueiai i?ioeano noa’?eo?a iaa/aiiy, ui noia?a/eoue
iniiaiei i?eioeeiai aiae?aaia?ee. ?acii c oeei aeyaeaia oaiaeaioe?y
uiaei aeei?enoaiiy nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a aeey aeai?o iai?yie?a ? ci?noo
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a (iaoiaeieia?y AeAEUeO?,
iaoiae aiae?co iio?aa, aieaooaaiiy, iaoiaeeea ?. Eaooaeea oiui). Aiae?c
aeyaeaieo oaiaeaioe?e aeicaieea anoaiiaeoe, ui ii?o/ c ?o aeinoaoi?ie
iioaioe?eieie iiaeeeainoyie, ia? i?noea iaiaaeaiee e ai?ciaee/iee
oa?aeoa? ?o aeei?enoaiiy, ui iiynith?oueny ye a?aenooi?noth
a?aeiia?aeii? oe?eueiai? ianoaiiae, oae ?c ia?ic?iaeai?noth aaeaeaaoieo
iaoiaeieia?/ieo oa iaoiaee/ieo canaae.

?icae?e 2 “Ineoieiai-iaoiaee/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ye iniiaa oi?ioaaiiy
ci?noo i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a” neeaaea?oueny ?c
o?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a, a yeeo iine?aeiaii aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?iaeaie
?ic?iaee eiiieaenii? iaoiaeeee nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
iio?aa o iaa/aii? aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a, ineoieia?/i? iniaeeaino?
i??i?eoaoieo noee?a oa iaiaaeaiue a oi?aae?ii? aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a
ina?oiuei? noa?e oa ?ic?iaey?oueny ci?no eo?no i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? ia iniia? nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
ae?yeueiino? aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a.

Iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee eiiieaenii? iaoiaeeee nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a ni?e/eiaia
uiiaeiaioa aeaiia oaeoi?aie. Ii-ia?oa, ye c’ynoaaeiny, ca no?oeoo?ith
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiaeii aiae?co iio?aa o iaa/aii? aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a
(iai?yiee, ia?aiao?e, ooieoe??, iieacieee) – oea nioe?ieia?/i?
iieooaaiiy o oi?i? cae?eoeo ieoaiue, aeey yeeo iaiao?aei? aeiaeaoeia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei aae?aeiino?, iaae?eiino? oa aeinoia??iino? oeeo
iaoiaeee, ine?eueee, ye iieacaii o ?iaio?, ia ?acoeueoaoe oeeo
iieooaaiue neeueiee aieea iiaeooue iaoe oae? ineo?/i? aeanoeaino?
iieooaaieo ye ??aaiue naiiioe?iee, aeiiaaaiue, o?eaiaei?noue,
ni?yiiaai?noue oiui. Ii-ae?oaa, ii?aoethaaiiy aeecueei noa
ineoiae?aaiinoe/ieo iaoiaeee aeiaaei, ui aiie ia iiaeooue
aaciina?aaeiuei aooe aeei?enoai? aeey caaaeaiue aecia/aiiy ci?noo
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a, ine?eueee ia ?nio? noaei?
aeoiee uiaei i??i?eoaoieo ? aeooaeueieo aeae?a eiiiaoaioiino?
oi?aae?inueeeo eaae??a. Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy oeeo i?iaeai aoei ocaaaeueiaii
aeoiee uiaei aeooaeueieo yeinoae aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a aeecueei ni?iea
aeine?aeiee?a, ye? ?ai?acaioothoue ??ci? oeiee aea?aeoi?aae?iiy
(Oe?a?ia, ?in?y, NOA, Aaeeeia?eoai?y, O?I, O?aioe?y, ?niai?y). Aeyaeaii:
aaeeeee nooi?iue aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiino? yeinoae ca ??cieie iciaeaie
(oe?iiino?, aieiai? yeino?, eiiieaen ai?iue, noa?a eiiiaoaioiino?,
noeoii?noue caeaoiinoae); a iaeiiio ?yaeo ciaoiaeyoueny ye
o?ainneooaoeai? oae ? neooaoeai? yeino?, i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?
aeanoeaino?, aei??thaaiiy yeeo ia? iaae?eio ?ino?oiaioaeueio
i?aeaioiaeo.

Aeey oii?yaeeoaaiiy caaaeueiiai oyaeaiiy uiaei i?ia?aeieo yeinoae
aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a iaoiaeii eiioaioaiae?co aeyaeaii, ui 39% iiiyoue
canoiniaothoueny eeoa iaeiei c aaoi??a. ?io? oa?i?ie iathoue
/anoioi?noue i?iyao a?ae 6% aei 20%. Oea aeaei iiaeeea?noue aeae?eeoe
i?ia?aei? aeaiaioe eiiiaoaioiino? ia?niiaeo aea?aeneoaeae (ca ioe?ieith
ni?iea aenia?o?aaeine?aeiee?a), na?aae yeeo naiiea?iaai?noue, i?eeiyooy
??oaiiy, e?eoe/iee aiae?c, a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue oiui. Anueiai aeae?eaii
i’yoiaaeoeyoue nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo aeaiaio?a eiiiaoaioiino?
aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a. C iaoith iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeaieo
aeooaeueieo aeae?a eiiiaoaioiino? cae?eniaii iieiiiiiaioiee aiae?c
iaoiaeee Aoaeeiea-O?ain?na oa Aeaeea-Iiooii. Aenia?oia ioe?iea
?acoeueoao?a oeueiai aiae?co aeiaaea, ui ia?aiao?e, ye? ioe?iththoueny
ca aeiiiiiaith oeeo iaoiaeee ia 87% aei??ththoue aeaiaioe
eiiiaoaioiino? aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a, ye? aeyaeaii iaoiaeii
eiioaio-aiae?co. Aei??thaaiiy ?ioeo aeooaeueieo aeaiaio?a eiiiaoaioiino?
aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a cai?iiiiiaaii cae?enieoe ca aeiiiiiaith ?ioeo
iaoiaeee: aoeea i?aai?caoe??, ni?yiiaai?noue iniaenoino? (A. Niaee, I.
Eo/a?); ??aaiue noa’?eoeaiiai eiio?ieth (Aeae. ?iooa?); iiaaae?iea o
eiioe?eo? (E. Oiian). Eiiieaeni?noue cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee iieyaa? a
oiio, ui noeoii?noue ?? neeaaeiaeo aeicaiey? c iiaiith a?aeiia?aei?noth
ci?noo ia?aiao?a, ui aei??th?oueny, nooiino? iaoiaeeee, yea
aeei?enoiao?oueny, ioe?ieoe ??aaiue noi?iiaaiino? oiai /e ?ioiai
aeaiaioo nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii? eiiiaoaioiino? a eiie?aoiiai
neoaeaiaoey ? ia oe?e iniia? ?ic?iaeoe ci?no i?aeaeuaiiy eiai
eaae?o?eaoe?? /a?ac caaaa/aiiy eiie?aoiiai aeaeo eiiiaoaioiino?.

Ae??a?noue ?ic?iaeaii? eiiieaenii? iaoiaeeee ia?aa??yeany a i?ioean?
aeine?aeaeaiue i??i?eoaoieo noee?a oa iaiaaeaiue a oi?aae?ii?
aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a ina?oiuei? noa?e (4-6 eaoaai???) a aeae?eueeio
?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie (?aaii-O?aie?anueea, Iaeanueea, E??iaia?aaenueea,
Oiaeueieoeueea, Aieeinueea iaeano?). Ia ??cieo aoaiao aeine?aeaeaiiy
aea??ea neeaaeaea iiiaae 150 ?aniiiaeaio?a. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeiny
c a?aooaaiiyi oaeeo ia?aiao??a: noaoue (ae?ii/a noaoue – 32%), ina?oa
(93% – aeua ina?oa), noaae ?iaioe a caeeaaeao ina?oe (2-37 ?iee),
aeina?ae oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? (2-40 ?iee), a?eia? iniaeeaino?
(ca ia??iaeecaoe??th A. A??eniia – 1-a a?oia – na?aaeiy c??e?noue (35-45
?ie?a), 2-a a?oia – i?ciy c??e?noue (45-60 ?ie?a).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aea??ee aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe ianooiia: ?iciiae?e ca
i?ia?aeieie noeeyie oi?aae?iiy (Aeaee-Iiooii) a iaaeao 12-30%, ae?ii/a
noaoue a?aeaea? ia?aaaao noeeth Ae (9.9) – 34%, a /ieia?/a – noeeth A
(1.1) – 26%. Ia ia?aaaae nooo?ai aieeaa? a?eiaa a?oia. iai?eeeaae, a
iaaeao noeeth A (1.1) – 70% ?aniiiaeaio?a – i?aaenoaaieee 2-i? a?eiai?
a?oie, a aeey noeeth Ae (9.9) – 59% – i?aaenoaaieee 1-i? a?eiai? a?oie.
Uiaei ia?aaaa a oi?aae?ii? (O?ain?n-Aoaeeie), oi ia?aooiee ?aiaiaeo
eiao?oe??io?a ei?aeyoe?? (*. Ni??iai) aeiaaee, ui a?eia? iniaeeaino?
i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaathoue ia ia?aaaae (r3/1 = 0,94; r3/2 = 0,94; r1/2 =
0,8). Oe?ii?ni? i???ioaoe?? ciaoiaeyoueny a iaaeao na?aaeiueiai
aoe/iiai ??aiy (16-25 aae?a) ? aeiaeai ?c ia?aiao??a iaia? nooo?aiai
aieeao.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeiae aeiaaee, ui: a) caaaeueia aea??ea
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenoa?iaeueiei ??aiai noa’?eoeaiiai eiio?ieth ca
an?ia 7-ia oeaeaie (iai?eeeaae, ?c = 4 noaie, a ?ii?i = 5,5 noai?a); a)
na?aae ni?yiiaaiinoae aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a ia? ia?aaaae ae?eiaa (25
aae?a), aeae? – ia aca?iiae?th (20 aae?a) “ia naaa” – (17 aae?a); a)
an? no?aoaa?? iiaaae?iee a eiioe?eoieo neooaoe?yo ciaoiaeyoueny a
iaaeao iioeiaeueii?.

Iiaeaeueo? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe oaeoi?e ?ioaineaiiai
aieeao ia aea?? ia?aaaa a oi?aae?ii?. Oae, ei?aeyoe?eiee a?ao
?aiaeiaaieo ?yae?a iaiaaeaiue a oi?aae?ii? aeey a?aeiia?aeiiai noeeth
aeia?a, ui ia eiioaoe??ioe ei?aeyoe?e nooo?aee aieea iathoue naia
?iciiae?ee ?aniiiaeaio?a ii a?eiaeo a?oiao oa noeeyo oi?aae?iiy (iae?
cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a aeiaaee i?i a?aenooi?noue aca?iieo aieea?a oeeo
i?aea?oi ?aniiiaeaio?a ia ?o inoaoi/iee aea?? uiaei ia?aaaa a
oi?aae?ii?. Iai?eeeaae, r1 = 0,31, a r2 = 0,33. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeaee i?aenoaae aeey iiaeaeueoiai iiooeo ci?noo i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a aaea c a?aooaaiiyi aeeoa?aioe?aoe??
noaaeaiiy i?aea?oi aea??ee aei oeo /e ?ioeo ia?aaaa a oi?aae?ii?.

Aeey ?ic?iaee ci?noo i?ia?ai i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a ia iniia? nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue a
aeena?oaoe?? aeiaaaeaii: iaiao?aei?noue ? iiaeeea?noue ca?eueoaiiy
iioeaaoe?? iaa/aiiy (ae?yeuei?niee i?aeo?ae, i?eioeeie aiae?aaia?ee oa
oeeee Eieueaa); ci?no aeooaeueieo nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo aeae?a
eiiiaoaioiino? aeinoaoiueith i??ith ?ai?acaioo?oueny ci?noii iaoiaeee
Aeaeea-Iiooii oa Aoaeeiea-O?ain?na ? iiaea neeaaeaoe nooi?noue
a?aeiia?aeieo i?ia?ai; nooo?aee aieea ia aea?? aeooaeueieo aeaiaio?a
eiiiaoaioiino? ye neeaaeiaeo ci?noo i?ia?ai ia? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y a?oie
ii noeeyo oi?aae?iiy oa a?eiaeo a?oiao. Aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii
iayai?noue o?ueio noaeeo oaiaeaioe?e o aecia/aii? aeooaeueieo oai
aeaiaio?a eiiiaoaioiino?, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny a?aeiia?aeieie
eiao?oe??ioaie aeooaeueiino? a ae?aiacii? 2,67 1,0;

E2 = tga2 = 1,0; E3 = tga2

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