.

Психологічні засади формування у студентів педвузу готовності до майбутньої професійної діяльності (на матеріалі музвиховання): Автореф. дис… канд.

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?INOEOOO INEOIEIA?? ?IAI? A.N. EINOTHEA

AII OE?A?IE

O?OU-??INUeEA IEAIA AANEE?AIA

OAeE 159.9:37.015.3:78

INEOIEIA?*I? CANAAeE OI?IOAAIIss O NOOAeAIO?A

IAAeAOCO AIOIAIINO? AeI IAEAOOIUeI? I?IOAN?EII?

Ae?ssEUeIINO?

(ia iaoa??ae? iocaeoiaaiiy)

19.00.07 – iaaeaaia?/ia oa a?eiaa ineoieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ineoieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a –1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a I?eea?iaonueeiio oi?aa?neoao?

?i. A. Noaoaieea, eaoaae?a caaaeueii? ineoieia??

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? ineoieia?/ieo iaoe, ae?eniee /eai AII
Oe?a?ie, i?ioani?  Iaeneiaiei Na?a?e Aeieo?iae/, ?inoeooo ineoieia?? ?i.
A.N.Einothea AII Oe?a?ie, aee?aeoi?;

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe – aeieoi? ineoieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aaee Aai?a?e
Ieaen?eiae/ ?inoeooo ineoieia?? ?i. A.N.Einothea AII Oe?a?ie,
eaai?aoi??y iaoiaeieia?? ? oai??? ineoieia??, caa?aeoaa/;

eaiaeeaeao ineoieia?/ieo iaoe Oaiiaae ?aaiia Ieeiea?aia E?eai??cueeee
aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee ?inoeooo, eaoaae?a ineoieia??, aeeeaaea/.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?. ss.
O?aiea, II Oe?a?ie, i. Ae?iaiae/, eaoaae?a ineoieia??.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny ” 23 ” ” ethoiai ” 1999 ?. ia 11-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.453.11. a ?inoeooo?
ineoieia?? ?i. A.N.Einothea AII Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252033, Ee?a-33,
aoe.Iaiuee?anueea, 2

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo ineoieia??
?i. A.N.Einothea AII Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252033, Ee?a-33,
aoe.Iaiuee?anueea, 2

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “22” ” n?/iy ” 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I. ?. Aeaen??aa

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?iaeaia aioiaiino? o eiioaeno?
i?ioan?eiiai noaiiaeaiiy iniaenoino? – iaeia c iaeaaaeeea?oeo aeey
caaaeueii? ? iaaeaaia?/ii? ineoieia??. Aiaeii/an ia iiaeia
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ?nio? iaeiicia/ia ?icoi?iiy nooiino? ? ooieoe?e
cacia/aiiai iiiyooy, yea iaaoei inoaii?i /anii a eiioeaiooaeueiiio
aia?ao? ineoieia?? a?aeiinii naiino?eiiai ? aaeueie aenieiai iaoeiaiai
noaoono. I?ioa a?aei?iiino? o aecia/aii? iiiyooy aioiaiino?, ui iathoue
i?noea o ??cieo aaoi??a, aeathoue i?aenoaae aiai?eoe i?i noia?a/eea?noue
?nioth/eo oi/ie ci?o, a ca?aene e i?i iaocaiaeaeai?noue i?ioeaaeo?
aeno?aiieyoe?? oeueiai iiiyooy a aenia?eiaioaeueio ieiueio. Cia/aiiy
iiiyooy aioiaiino?, yea iaaoei aeey iaaeaaia?/ii? ineoieia??
nueiaiaeaiiy, ia?aaeian?i aeey iaaeaaia?ee aeui? oeiee, aeiaaa?
ia?ainieneaiiy eiai ci?noo ? ooieoe?e ia iaoiaeieia?/iiio e
aenia?eiaioaeueiiio ??aiyo. Cacia/aia aaciina?aaeiuei noino?oueny e
i?iaeaie i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o niaoe?ae?no?a aei ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?. Aaeaea a ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? aeine?aeaeaiiy oeueiai
iai?yieo aacothoueny ia aea/aii? ? ineoieia?/iiio iaa?oiooaaii? cania?a
iaa/aiiy ? oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie i?aeaioiaee niaoe?ae?no?a a aaeoc?
ioce/ii-aeeiiaanueei? ae?yeueiino?. ?nioth/ee ?ic?ea iniaeeai aino?i
iicia/a?oueny a oea?ei? i?aeaioiaee iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a, i?ecia/aieo
ae??ooaaoe caaaeaiiy ianiaiai ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, aieiaiei /eiii
o/i?anueei? aaia?aoe??.

Iinoaiiaea aeine?aeieoeueei? iaoe naia o oae?e ieiuei? ni?eyoeia
?ica’ycaiith /eiaei? e?eueeino? i?iaeai, ui iaeiie/eeeny nueiaiaei? o
ioce/i?e ineoieia??, a ia?oo /a?ao oeo, ye? aaciina?aaei?i /eiii
ni?yiiaothoueny ?aea?th ?icaoaeiae ina?oe ia canaaeao aoiai?oa?ecaoe?? ?
aoiai?caoe??.

I?aee?anethth/e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/io cia/ou?noue i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy
aioiaiino? iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey aei ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? a
nenoai? aoc?anueeiai iaa/aiiy oa aeoiaaiiy, ne?ae eiinoaooaaoe, ui a
ineoieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo c oe??? i?iaeaiaoeee a?aeo? i?aoeue,
ni?yiiaaieo ia ?ice?eooy ineoieia?/iiai ci?noo iiiyooy aioiaiino?, eiai
no?oeoo?e ? nai???aeiino? c iiaeyaeo ia i?aaeiaoio noa?o ? aeanoeaino?
iniaenoino? iaaeaaiaa ye noa’?eoa ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?.

Ia?ic?iaeai?noue ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo canaae oi?ioaaiiy aioiaiino?
aei ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ia?aoeiaeaea? noai?aiith ?aeeii?
oai??? i?ioeano iaa/aiiy e aeoiaaiiy iaeaooiueiai niaoe?ae?noa a nenoai?
aeui? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe, a a?aeoae iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ? ia i?ioean
i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a a?aeiia?aeii aei no/anieo aeiia noni?eueii?
i?aeoeee. Nioe?aeueia oa ineoieia?/ia cia/ou?noue i?iaeaie coiiaeea
aea?? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy “Ineoieia?/i? canaaee oi?ioaaiiy o nooaeaio?a
iaaeaoco aioiaiino? aei iaeaooiuei? i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?” (ia
iaoa??ae? iocaeoiaaiiy).

Oaia aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoiaeeoue aei eiiieaenii? i?iaeaie
eaai?aoi??? ineoieia?? iaa/aiiy ?inoeoooo ineoieia?? ?i.A.N.Einothea AII
Oe?a?ie “Ineoieia?/i? /eiieee ?icaeaath/iai iaa/aiiy a ??cieo ina?oi?o
nenoaiao”. Iiia? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0196U006951.

Ia’?eoii ine?aeaeaiiy ? i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy aioiaiino? iaeaooiueiai
aeeeaaea/a ioceee aei i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy – ineoieia?/i? caniae oa oiiae oi?ioaaiiy o
iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a i?ioan?eii? aioiaiino? aei ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy – oai?aoe/ia e aii??e/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeae?
aioiaiino? iaeaooiueiai aeeeaaea/a ioceee aei i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?,
?ic?iaea cania?a ? i?eeii?a niaoe?aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy,
ni?yiiaaiiai ia oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii? aioiaiino? aei cae?eniaiiy
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?.

Iniiai? a?iioace aeine?aeaeaiiy. 1. Ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/io ae?yeuei?noue
aeioe?eueii ?icaeyaeaoe ye iniaeeaee aeae iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, ui
neeaaea?oueny c caaaeueieo ? niaoeeo?/ieo eiiiiiaio?a. 2. I?ioean
?ioaa?aoe?? cacia/aieo eiiiiiaio?a coiiaeth?oueny ci?noii cae?enithaaii?
noa’?eoii ae?yeueiino?, a oaeiae oaeei ii?aeiaiiyi ?en iniaenoino?, ye?
a nai?e noeoiiino? iaaeathoue ?e i?ioan?eii? nai???aeiino?. Iniaeeaino?
? ??aaiue i?ioan?eii? aioiaiino? aei ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?
ciaoiaeyoueny a aaciina?aaeiueiio ca’yceo c oa?aeoa?ii ? niaoeeo?eith
cania?a i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueieo aieea?a.

Ia?aa??ea a?iioace aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aeinyaiaiiy eiai iaoe ia?aaeaa/aee
?ica’ycaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue:

1) c’ynoaaoe niaoeeo?eo ci?noiaeo ? aeeiai?/ieo oapaeoapenoee ineo?/ieo
aeanoeainoae, oapaeoapieo aeey ipaaenoaaiee?a ipioan?e
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/iiai ipio?eth;

2) cae?enieoe oaipaoe/iee aiae?c ? noai?eoe ineoieia?/io iiaeaeue
ipioan?eii? aioiaiino? aei ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? oa
aecia/eoe ?? eiie?aoi? neeaaeia?;

3) picpiaeoe nenoaio ineoiae?aaiinoe/ieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy oa
ipioeaaeop iopeiaiiy aii?pe/ieo aeaieo;

4) aipiaoaaoe ipiapaie oipioaaiiy ipioan?eii? aioiaiino? aei
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? a oiiaao iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai
ipioeano o aoc?.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy noaea nenoaia iiynithaaeueieo
ipeioeei?a oaip?? iniaenoino? (A.A.Aiaiue?a, E.?.Aiaeiae/, A.N.Einothe,
N.E.?oa?iooaei, E.A.Oipioiaa), iieiaeaiiy uiaei paae?caoe??
ae?yeuei?niiai i?aeoiaeo a ineoieia?? (E.I.Aaoeueoaiiaa-Neaanueea,
I.E.Ai?eoaanueeee, A.A.Aeaaeaeia, I.A.Ee?e/oe, I.I.Eaiioue?a, A.O.Eiiia,
N.Ae.Iaeneiaiei), iaoeia? oyaeaiiy ipi iniaeno?noue o/eoaey ?
iaaeaaia?/io ae?yeuei?noue (A.I.Aaee, H.A.Eocuei?ia, TH.I.Eoethoe?i,
Ae.O.H?eieaiei, A.I.Neanoueii?i, I.A.*aiae?aa), ipi ipepiaeo ?
caeiiii?piino? oaip/i? ae?yeueiino? (A.I.Iieyei, ss.A.Iiiiiapueia), a
oaeiae iieiaeaiiy ? iniiai? pacoeueoaoe a aaeoc? aeine?aeaeaiiy oaip?? ?
ipaeoeee ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy (E.E.Ai/eapueia, H.I.Aaoeoa?ia,
H.O.Aeoiyeiaa, N.?.Haoiaiei, A.I.Iaaeaeea, A.?.Iaopooei, A.A.?aaei?eia,
I.I.?oaeieoeueea, A.I.Oaieia).

Iaoiaee oa ipaai?caoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oapaeoap ? caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/eee iaiao?aei?noue noaipaiiy nenoaie iaoiae?a ?
ipiapaie ?o canoinoaaiiy, yea aeeth/a? iiooeiai-oaipaoe/iee,
aeine?aeii-aeniapeiaioaeueiee a eiai aap?aioao (eiinoaooth/ee,
oipioth/ee) ? eiiopieueiee (ocaaaeueithth/ee) aoaie. O ipioean?
paae?caoe?? ipiapaie aeeipenoiaoaaeeny iaoiaee niinoapaaeaiiy,
aieaooaaiiy, oanooaaiiy, aan?aea, aiae?c iaaeaaia?/ieo neooaoe?e,
opai?ia.

Iaeapaeai? a pacoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeai? i?aeeyaaee ye?niiio ?
e?euee?niiio aiae?co, ciepaia, eipaeyoe?eiiio. A paieao noaoenoe/iiai
aiae?co aeeipenoiaoaaany t-epeoap?e Nouethaeaioa.

O aeine?aeaeaii?, ui ipiaiaeeeiny ai?iaeiaae 1994-1998 ?ie?a, a?aee
o/anoue 26 nooaeaio?a ioce/iiai a?aeae?eaiiy oa iiiaae 200 nooaeaio?a
1-5 eopn?a p?cieo oaeoeueoao?a I?eea?iaonueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i.A.Noaoaieea.

Haae?ei?noue ? a?pia?aei?noue iopeiaieo pacoeueoao?a oa aeniiae?a
caaacia/ai? aaeaeaaoi?noth canoinoaaiiy ae?aaiinoe/iiai ?inopoiaioap?th,
yeee a?aeiia?aea? epeoap?yi iaae?eiino? e aae?aeiino?; canoinoaaiiyi
no/aniiai aiapaoo iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee; paipacaioaoeai?noth aea?pie
aeine?aeaeoaaieo; iiaeeea?noth eiiopieth, iapaa?pee (aapeo?eaoe??) ?
a?aeoaipaiiy aeniapeiaioaeueii? neooaoe?? ? iaeapaeaieo pacoeueoao?a.

Haoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui ipioean noaiiaeaiiy o
iaeaooiueiai aeeeaaea/a ipioan?eii? aioiaiino? picaeyaea?oueny aiaeii/an
ye ipioean ?ioaapoaaiiy a nopoeoop? ineoieia?/ieo yeinoae iniaenoino?
aacenieo ? niaoe?aeueieo eiiiiiaio?a a ?aei?noue, ui iinoa?
aeaoapi?iaioith oni?oii? paae?caoe?? iath ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?.

Aiapoa aecia/aii ? iienaii yeino?, ye? aeyaeythoue niaoeeo?eo
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ye iepaiiai aeaeo ipioan?eii?
ae?yeueiino?. A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai iaapoioiaaii iiaa oyaeaiiy ipi
ineoieia?/io nopoeoopo ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, ui aea? ciiao
picpiaeoe caniae ?? ae?aaiinoeee ? oipioaaiiy o ipioean? aoc?anueei?
i?aeaioiaee niaoe?ae?no?a ioce/iiai ipio?eth.

Oaipaoe/ia cia/aiiy aeenapoaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o
iiaeaeueoiio picepeoo? iniaeeainoae noaiiaeaiiy ipioan?eii? aioiaiino?
ye niaoeeo?/ii? ?ioaapaeueii? aeanoeaino? iniaenoino?, ui ? iaaiei
aianeii a iiaeaeueoo picpiaeo ineoieia?/ii? eiioeaioe?? aioiaiino? aei
iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? a oe?eiio ? ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ciepaia.
Iaapoioiaaia oaipaoeei-aeniapeiaioaeueia ipioeaaeopa ?? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
yea niepa?oueny ia ipeioeei ia’?aeiaiiy iniaeno?niiai ? ae?yeuei?niiai
i?aeoiae?a. ?icpiaeaia ? aipiaiaaia iiaeaeue ipioan?eii? aioiaiino? aei
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, a oaeiae ?? nopoeoopi? eiiiiiaioe
(niinoa?aaeeea?noue, aiioe?ei?noue, aioeoeeiaoe?y, ioceeaeuei?noue,
epaaoeai?noue, noaaeaiiy, aenipaneai?noue). Aecia/aia ? oaipaoe/ii
iaapoioiaaia nenoaia ineoieia?/ieo ipeioeei?a canoinoaaiiy picpiaeaii?
iiaeae? c iaoith oipioaaiiy o iaeaooi?o a/eoae?a ipioan?eii? aioiaiino?
aei ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? a oiiaao iaa/aeueiiai ipioeano a
ina?oi?o caeeaaeao aeuiai oeio. Iieacaia pieue ? ipaeoe/ia cia/aiiy
oaip/iai opai?iao ye caniao oipioaaiiy o iaeaooiueiai niaoe?ae?noa
ipioan?eii? aioiaiino? aei oni?oiiai cae?eniaiiy ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?.

Iniaenoee aianie. A iioae?eiaaiiio o ni?aaaoi?noa?
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/iiio iin?aieeo ianyaii 101 noi?.,30 noi??iie ci?noo
aeaii? ?iaioe (iaoiaee/ia /anoeia) iaeaaeeoue aaoi?ia? aeena?oaoe??.
Iaoa??aee oa ?aea? ni?aaaoi?a a aeena?oaoe?? ia aeei?enoiaoaaeenue.

Ipaeoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui picpiaeaia
nenoaia cania?a oipioaaiiy aioiaiino? iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey ioceee aei
ipioan?eii? ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? aea? iiaeeea?noue
aipiaaaeeoe ?? a ipaeoeeo iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy a nenoai? aoc?anueei?
ina?oe, aeeipenoaoe pacoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeey oipaae?iiy
iaaeaaia?/iei ipioeanii o aoc?, a oaeiae ineo?/iei picaeoeii noa’?eoa.
Iaeapaeai? aeai? ipi iniaeeaino? noaiiaeaiiy ? aca?iica’yceo nopoeoopieo
eiiiiiaio?a aioiaiino? a caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio aeii?ioth/i? ip??ioaoe??
iniaenoino? (ia’?eoii? /e noa’?eoii?) iiaeooue aooe aeeipenoai? ipe
noaipaii? aeeoapaioe?aeueii-oeiieia?/iiai ?inopoiaioap?oio, nipyiiaaiiai
ia pica’ycaiiy caaea/ ipioan?eii? ae?aaiinoeee, ipioip??ioaoe?? ?
ipioa?aeaipo, a oaeiae ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c aeaipii cania?a
oe?eanipyiiaaiiai iaa/aiiy e aeoiaaiiy ipioan?iiaea c opaooaaiiyi eiai
iaeaooiuei? niaoe?ae?caoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe
aeeipenoai? oaeiae ipe picpiaoe? ipiapai ineoieia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee
niaoe?ae?no?a ioce/iiai ipio?eth a iapaae? napaaeiuei? niaoe?aeueii?
ina?oe.

Ha caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. Aioiai?noue aei ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? iaaoaa?
naiino?eiiai oapaeoapo ca oiiae ooieoe?iioaaiiy ye aca?iiiia’ycaii?
?aeiino? ?? caaaeueieo ? niaoeeo?/ieo eiiiiiaio?a.

2. ?nio? a?aeiinii onoaeaia noeoii?noue aeanoeainoae iniaenoino?,
ye?nia-e?euee?nia ii?aeiaiiy eiopeo noai?th? iepaiee iaoai?ci aioiaiino?
aei ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?.

3. Nenoaiiooaipthth/o ooieoe?th a noaiiaeaii? ? iiaeaeueoiio picaeoeo
aioiaiino? ye a?aeiinii noaeiai ooaipaiiy a nopoeoop? iniaenoino?
aeeeaaea/a ioceee aeeiiothoue oae? iepai? aeanoeaino? ye
niinoa?aaeeea?noue, ioceeaeuei?noue, aiioe?ei?noue, aioeoeeiaoe?y,
aenipaneai?noue, noaaeaiiy ? epaaoeai?noue.

4. Oni?oia cae?eniaiiy iaeaooi?i o/eoaeai ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino? noa? iiaeeeaei ca oiia canoinoaaiiy niaoe?aeueii? ipiapaie
iaa/ath/eo aieea?a, nipyiiaaieo ia oipioaaiiy iaoai?cio aioiaiino? ia
canaaeao ae?yeuei?niiai i?aeoiaeo.

Aipiaaoe?y pacoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? pacoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue oa iaaiaipthaaeenue ia I?aeiapiaei?e
iaoeiai-ipaeoe/i?e eiioapaioe?? “Iaioaeuei?noue. Aeooiai?noue.
Naiipicaeoie iniaenoino?” (Ee?a-Eooeuee, 1994), ia aepoaiio c’?cae?
Oiaapenoaa ineoieia?a Oepa?ie “Ipiaeaie oa iapniaeoeae picaeoeo
ineoieia?? a Oepa?i?” (i.Ee?a,1996), ia Anaoe?a?inueeeo iaoeiaeo ?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo (?aaii-O?aie?anuee,1992-1998).

Oai?aoe/i? i?aeoiaee aei aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai aenia?eiaioaeuei?
?acoeueoaoe iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae? nioe?aeueii? oa
caaaeueii? ineoieia?? I?eea?iaonueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.Noaoaieea, a
oaeiae ia can?aeaiiyo eaai?aoi??? ineoieia?? iaa/aiiy ?inoeoooo
ineoieia?? ?i. A.N.Einothea AII Oe?a?ie.

Aipiaaaeaeaiiy pacoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy a ipaeoeeo. Aaciinapaaei?
aipiaaaeaeaiiy pacoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy a ipaeoeeo cae?enithaaeiny
oeyoii aeeipenoaiiy iaeapaeaieo iaoap?ae?a o eaeoe?eieo eopnao ?c
caaaeueii? ineoieia?? ia ioce/iiio oaeoeueoao? oa ia iaaeaaia?/iiio
oaeoeueoao? c? niaoe?aeueiino? “iaaeaaia?ea ? iaoiaeeea ii/aoeiaiai
iaa/aiiy ? ioceea”. Iaoap?aee aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee iniiaith aeey picpiaee
? ipiaaaeaiiy caiyoue c o/iyie caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e
?aaii-O?aie?anueea.

Ci?no oa pacoeueoaoe piaioe a?aeiapaaeaii o 7 ioae?eaoe?yo.

Nopoeoopa oa ianya piaioe. Aeenapoaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, aeaio
picae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeeipenoaieo aeaeapae, aeiaeaoe?a.
Aeenapoaoe?y i?noeoue 16 oaaeeoeue oa 5 apao?e?a ianyaii 11 noi??iie.
Nienie e?oapaoope iapaoiao? 221 iaeiaioaaiiy. Ci?no piaioe aeeeaaeaii ia
158 noip?ieao.

INHIAHEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaapoioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ipiaeaie, aeae?eaii ia’?eo ?
ipaaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/aii eiai iaoo, noipioeueiaaii a?iioaco oa
caaaeaiiy, picepeoi iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aena?oeaii iaoeiao iiaecio, oaipaoe/ia ? ipaeoe/ia cia/aiiy, iiaeai?
iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, iaaaaeai? aeai? ipi aipiaaoe?th
piaioe, aipiaaaeaeaiiy ?? pacoeueoao?a o ipaeoeeo.

O iapoiio picae?e? – “I?iaeaia aioiaiino? a eiioaeno? aeine?aeaeaiue
ioce/ii? ineoieia??” – cae?enith?oueny iaoeiaee aiae?c iniiaieo
oaipaoe/ieo i?aeoiae?a o aeine?aeaeaiiyo eaoaaip?? aioiaiino? ? ??
niaoeeo?ee, ui aeyaey?oueny a nopoeoop? ipioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? ?
aeanoeainoyo iniaenoino? iaaeaaiaa ioce/iiai ipio?eth.

Aaaaeaiiy a ineoieia?th iiiyooy aioiaiino? iia’ycoaaeiny c
iaiao?aei?noth aecia/aiiy ??aiy iiaeeeainoae ethaeeie aei aoaeoeaiiai
cae?eniaiiy oiai /e ?ioiai aeaeo o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino?. I?e?iaeii, ui
iiaeaeueoa ?ic?iaea ci?noiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee cacia/aiiai iiiyooy
a?aeaoaaeany a ??/eu? i?iaeai, ui neeaaeaee i?aaeiaoiee i?ino?p
ineoieia?? i?aoe? ? ?iaeaia?ii? ineoieia?? (O.?.?aauaiei, ?.A. Ee?iia,
?.I.I?ea?yi, A.I.Iieyei, I.N.Ia?aiaeeoey, A.I.Oaaei?eoei). *?eueia
i?noea i?iaeaia aioiaiino? caeiyea a aaeoc? nii?oeaii? (?.I.?eue?i,
A.Oe.Ioi?) ? iaaee/ii? ineoieia?? (A.TH.Eaaai, A.?.I?aoianueeee,
?.N.*oaoiiaa). Aea iaea?eueo iine?aeiaio ?ic?iaeo iiiyooy aioiaiino?
io?eiaii a aaeoc? iaaeaaia?/ii? ineoieia??, cie?aia a eiioaeno?
?ica’ycaiiy ieoaiue oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioeano aoc?anueei? (I.A.Aaaeoee?ia,
A.I.Ae?iiaa, A.A.E?ooaoeueeee, I.A.Eocuei?ia, TH.I.Eoethoe?i,
Ae.O.I?eieaiei, A.I.Neanoueii?i, O.N.ssoeaiei), aeiaoc?anueei?
(I.Ae.Aaeae, I.I.Ai?iinoae, A.E.?aae/oe), i?neyaoc?anueei? (I.A.Ii?ic,
O.N.Iieyeiaa, O.Ae.Ua?aai) i?aeaioiaee iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a,
i?ioae?aaiinoeee ? i?ioa?aeai?o aei iaaeaaia?/ii? i?ioan?? (E.A.Aa?aiaa,
A.A.Ia?aiae). O a?aeiia?aeiino? c i?eeiyoith caaaeueiith
eeaneo?eaoe??th, aioiai?noue iinoa? a i?aaeiao? aeine?aeaeaiue a aeaio
oi?iao – ye ei?ioei/ania, ui iaoiiaeth?oueny ia?aa?aaie ineo?/ieo noai?a
a iaaieo neooaoe?yo (O.Ae.Ai?aia, I.Ae.Eaa?oia, E.N.Ia?nanyi,
A.I.Iooe?i), ? aeiaaio?eaaea, ui aeaoa?i?io? onoaeai? (oeiia?) oi?ie
iiaaae?iee ca ?aooiie ineo?/ieo ooai?aiue iniaeno?niiai ??aiy
(aeanoeaino? iniaenoino?). Inoaiiy ? neeaaea? ci?no iai?yieo, ui
i?acaioo?oueny iiiyooyi “aioiai?noue iniaenoino? aei iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aoe?”. Iaaaaeaiee i?aeo?ae ciaeoia nai? i?noea ? a aeine?aeieoeuee?e
i?aeoeoe? ioce/ii? ineoieia?? (E.A.Aaeai/eaaaeca, E.E.Ai/ea?ueia,
A.A.Aino??eia, I.I.Aaiae?i, A.I.Eiaai, I.I.Oie?ia oa ?i.).

?aei?noue iiaeyae?a aeine?aeiee?a c ieoaiiy caaaeueii? eeaneo?eaoe??
aioiaiino? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny, iaeiae, aeineoue na?eicieie
?ica?aeiinoyie a ?icoi?ii? no?oeoo?e aioiaiino?, ui nooo?ai oneeaaeith?
ocaaaeueiaiiy ?nioth/iai aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoa??aeo, eiai aaeaeaaoio
oai?aoe/io ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeo?aeiei iiiaioii aeacaieo
?ica?aeiinoae iinoa? a?aenooi?noue oai?aoe/iiai i?aea?oioy aeey
aeae?eaiiy eiiiiiaioiiai neeaaeo aioiaiino?, ui ni?e/eiy? oi?ioethaaiiy
aeao?i?oe?e, iaiaaeaieo ?aieaie ie?aii ocyoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oea, a
naith /apao, ipecaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui iioeaii ia?aiiy aeine?aeieeaie
oai?aoe/ii? iiceoe?? aenooia? ia no?eueee “ia?aeiia aano?aeoe?y”
(E.N.Aeaionueeee), ne?eueee noa’?eoeaia i?eaaaeea?noue o??? /e ?ioi?
aaoi?nueei? ?ic?iaee no?oeoo?e aioiaiino? (ca I.O.Eocuei?iith,
A.E.Ia?eiaith, O.I.Aiiiaie?iei, A.A.E?ooaoeueeei, ?.A.Ee?iiaei ? oaea
?i.). Eia?/iei iane?aeeii iaaii? aeia?eueiino? o aeaip? oiai /e ?ioiai
eiiiiiaioo no?oeoo?e aioiaiino? aei iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ?
iaaecia/ai?noue e?eoa???a, ui eeaaeooueny a iniiao ioe?iee ??aiy
noi?iiaaiino? aioiaiino?, a oaeiae aaaaoiiai?oi?noue ?iaeeeaoi??a
aioiaiino?, ui aeaeathoueny ca ?? nenoaiiooai?thth/ee oaeoi?. C?icoi?ei,
ui aaaaoicia/i?noue ? ?icieea/ano?noue o oi?ioethaaii? ci?noo noaaeoue
cia/i? ia?aoeiaee aeey aeei?enoaiiy eiai a yeino? oai?aoe/iiai ?
canoiniaiiai ?ino?oiaioo.

Ni?iae iiaeieaiiy noaio, yeee aeiee /a?ac aeaoae?caoe?th aeiia, ui
noaaeyoueny ia?aae aeeiiaaoeai eiie?aoiei aeaeii i?ioan?eii?
ae?yeueiino?, neeaee ci?no ie?aiiai iai?yieo. Iiooe a?eueo iaae?eieo
e?eoa???a aioiaiino? a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo ni?yiiao?oueny ?aea?th noai?aiiy
ii?iaoeaieo ia?aiao??a c iiaeaeueoith ?ic?iaeith ia ?o aac?
ineoieia?/ii? iiaeae? (aoaeiia) i?ioan?iiaea (?.I.?aaiiaa,
?.N.*oaoiiaa). I?iaeoeoeaia canoinoaaiiy aeaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei
aecia/aiiy aioiaiino? ethaeeie aei ae?yeueiino? oaoi?/iiai i?io?eth
aeyaey?, iaeiae, naith iaiaaeai?noue a ?ac? aeno?aiieyoe?? eiai ia noa?o
iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, aea iiiyooy ii?iaoeao ia? aeineoue
a?aeiiniee oa?aeoa?. C ae?oaiai aieo, ye neooii caoaaaeo?oueny a
e?oa?aoo??, iiooe e?eoa???a a?aeiia?aeiino?-iaa?aeiia?aeiino? aeiiaai
ae?yeueiino? ineo?/ieo iiaeeeainoae noa’?eoa caaa?oo?oueny
a?aeie?aieaiiyi aeooaeueieo, a?aeiia?aeieo aeai?e ae?yeueiino?
aeanoeainoae, oei naiei iica oaaaith caeeoathoueny iiaeeeaino? i?ciaiiy
ethaeeie ye nenoaiii? oe?e?niino? ?? aeooaeueieo ? iioaioe?eieo
cae?aiinoae.

Iieacaii, ui a caaaeueiiio ianyc? aeine?aeaeaiue ioce/ii-ineoieia?/iiai,
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/iiai ni?yioaaiiy oaaaa aeine?aeiee?a cina?aaeaeo?oueny
ia?aaaaeiei /eiii ia aea/aii? noaio ? a?eiaeo iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo
ioce/ieo ?ioa?an?a ? iio?aa (A.A.Eeoaeiaiei, N.I.I?e?othe,
A.?.Iaeaia?/oe, O.I.Ieani?ia, A.I.Nioi?, A.N.Oeoea?iai),
ioce/ii-ooaeiaeiueiai niaeo (A.A.Iicaio), ioce/ii-neooiaeo oyaeaiue
(E.A.A?/aaei?eiaa, A.A.E?anio?ia, O.?.Iaaeaaeaeeinueea), caaaeueiiai
??aiy ioce/iiai ?icaeoeo, cie?aia i?aee?oe?a (A.?.?ai?iaa, E.A.Eiaaeue,
I.A.I?oaee?/aiei, A.ss.?inoianueeee, E.I. Oeaeaoiaa), aioiaiino? aei
ioce/ii-aeeiiaanueei? ae?yeueiino? (E.A.Aaeai/eaaaeca, E.E.Ai/ea?ueia,
?.N.Aoe???a, TH.N.Oaaei?ia, A.A.Oeaaa?aee?), a oie /an ye i?iaeaia
aioiaiino? aei ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? caeeoa?oueny
ia?a?iaeueiith oaiith. Aeii?ioth/ith a eie? i?iaeaiaoeee ioce/ii?
ineoieia?? ? iaaeaaia?ee aeyaey?oueny i?iaeaia aea/aiiy i?e?iaee,
no?oeoo?e, aeaoa?i?iaio ? caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeoeo ioceeaeueiino?.
Eiinoaoo?oueny, ui ieoaiiy i?i ?ieue ioceeaeueiino? a aeaoa?i?iaoe??
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? caeeoa?oueny a?aee?eoei. ?acii c oei,
ye na?ae/eoue aiae?c oeueiai ieoaiiy, niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y
a?aeoiaeo a?ae aocueeiai ?icoi?iiy ioceeaeueiino? ye iaaii? noeoiiino?
naini?ieo ioceeaeueieo cae?aiinoae (caoei-aenioiiai neooo, eaaeiaiai
/oooy ? /oooy ioce/iiai ?eoio) aei inieneaiiy oe??? aeanoeaino? a
eiioaeno? caaaeueii? caeiiii??iino? ineo?/iiai ?icaeoeo ethaeeie, ??
aeooaeueieo ? iioaioe?eieo iiaeeeainoae (Ae.E.E??ia?nueea, N.?.Iaoiaiei,
A.I.Iaaeaeea, I.I.?oaeieoeueea). A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai cacia? naiai
ia?ainieneaiiy ? no?oeoo?a ioceeaeueiino?, a naia – c aieo ?icoi?iiy
inoaiiuei? ye eiiieaeno caaaeueieo ? niaoe?aeueieo cae?aiinoae, ui
neeaaeathoue ?o nai???aeiee aca?iica’ycie (N.?.Iaoiaiei). Cacia/a?oueny,
ui ioceeaeuei?noue ye iiaiiinoaeaia ye?noue, ocaaaeueithth/a oai?/a
cae?ai?noue aeyaey? nai? iniaeeaino? a caeaaeiino? a?ae iiaeaeueiino?
cae?enithaaii? noa’?eoii ae?yeueiino? (A.E.Aionae?ia?). A caeiieaii? aei
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? i?iaeaia iie?iiaeaeueiino? (“aeaa
oaoe a iaeiiio”, ca aeneiaeaiiyi A.I.Iaaeaeee) iaaoaa? naiai
aaciina?aaeiueiai aeaeyaeo ye i?iaeaia aecia/aiiiy oiia ? iniaeeainoae
?icaeoeo i?ioeano ?ioaa?aoe?? ie?aieo eiiiiiaio?a (cae?aiinoae) a iiao
ye?noue.

A ?iaio? eiinoaoo?oueny, ui ni?iae iioe?aiiy ia noa?o
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? i?eioeei?a ? i?eeii?a
caaaeueiiineoieia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o ia eaeooue aeae? caaaeueieo
eiinoaoaoe?e. Ioaea, iaaecia/ai?noue ineoieia?/iiai noaoono iiiyooy
aioiaiino? a eiioaeno? ioce/ii? ineoieia?? aenoaa? i?iaeaio ?ic?iaee
iaoiaeieia?? aeine?aeaeaiiy ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ye
ie?aiiai ? niaoeeo?/iiai i?ioeano iaaeaaia?/ii? aca?iiae?? a iaaaeueio
iio?aao /ano. A ?iaio? i?iiiio?oueny aecia/aiiy aioiaiino? aei
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ye a?aeiinii onoaeaii? ? nai???aeii?
no?oeoo?ii-aeeiai?/ii? ?aeiino? caaaeueieo ? niaoe?aeueieo cae?aiinoae
iaaeaaiaa, ui iaoiiaeth? aeinyaiaiiy iei aaeaeaaoii? oe?eyi ae?yeueiino?
yeino? ?acoeueoaoo.

Aepoaee picae?e – “Aeniapeiaioaeuei? caniae aeine?aeaeaiiy ipioeano
picaeoeo ? oipioaaiiy aioiaiino? aei ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?”- i?enay/aiee iaa?oiooaaiith i?ia?aie ? iaoiaee/ieo
i?eeii?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, a oaeiae aiae?co aeaieo, io?eiaieo ia aoai?
eiinoaooth/iai ? oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo.

Iniiaia caaaeaiiy eiinoaooth/iai aoaio aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaaei a aeiai??
? iaa?oiooaaii? iaae?eieo ? aae?aeieo iieaciee?a ??aiy noi?iiaaiino? o
iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey ioceee aioiaiino? aei ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?. ?ica’ycaiiy oeueiai caaaeaiiy aeinyaaeiny oeyoii
aenia?oiiai ioe?ithaaiiy, a oaeiae ca aeiiiiiaith ?ioa?- oa
?io?aa?oiiaiai aiae?co ? ocaaaeueiaiiy ye?nieo ? e?euee?nieo
oa?aeoa?enoee an?o io?eiaieo iieaciee?a.

Caaaeueia i?ioeaaeo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeaeany c aeaio
aoai?a-iiia?aaeiueiai ? iniiaiiai. Iaoa iiia?aaeiueiai aoaio iieyaaea a
noai?aii? ?iai/i? iiaeae? no?oeoo?e aioiaiino? aei ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?, a oaeiae a aeiai?? aaeaeaaoii? oe?e no?oeoo?? nenoaie
iaoiaee/ieo cania?a. Aecia/aiiy iieaciee?a aioiaiino? cae?enithaaeiny
oeyoii ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe?? aeaieo aenia?oiiai iieooaaiiy, a
yeiio acyee o/anoue aeeeaaea/? na?aaei?o niaoe?aeueieo ? aeueo
iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaae?a, a oaeiae a?oia aenia?o?a Iaoe?iiaeueii?
ioce/ii? aeaaeai??.

A ?acoeueoao? aiae?co io?eiaieo a?aeiia?aeae caeeoeeiny 12 iieaciee?a,
ye? ? aecia/eee iiaeaeueoo eia?eo i?aai?caoe?? iniiaii? na???
aeine?aeaeaiiy. O a?aeiia?aeiino? aei ci?noo anoaiiaeaieo ia?aiao??a
aioiaiino?, ?ino?oiaioaeueia /anoeia neeaaea?oueny c ianooiii?
iine?aeiaiino? iaoiae?a: noaaeaiiy aei ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino? (iiaeeo?eiaaiee iaie aa??aio iieooaaeueieea
A.?.Iao?o-o?ia), aeno?a-?io?iaa?n?? (oi?ia A caieoaeueieea Aecaiea),
iniaeno?nii? o?eaiaeiino? (aa??aio oeaee Ni?eaa?aa?a), aiioe?eii?
iano?eeino? (ineo?/ii? iai?oae), iniaeeainoae oaiia?aiaioo (ca
iaoiaeeeith A.I.?onaeiaa), caeaoiino? aei aiiao?? (iieooaaeueiee
?.I.THnoiiaa), eiioi?eaaaeueiino? (caieoaeueiee A.O.?yoianueeiai),
aiioe?eii? no?eeino? (iaoiaeeea I.ss.*aaee?ia), ia?aaeeiioea?oii?
o?eaiaeiino? (iiaeeo?eiaaiee iaie iieooaaeueiee TH.Oai?ia),
niinoa?aaeeeaino?, e?aaoeaiino? ? ioceeaeueiino? (ca iaoiaeeeith
N.?.Iaoiaiei).

O aeine?aeaeaii? a?aee o/anoue nooaeaioe ia?oeo eo?n?a ioce/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo ? ioce/iiai a?aeae?eaiiy iaaeaaia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
(aenia?eiaioaeueia a?oia) oa o?eieia?/iiai ? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/iiai
oaeoeueoao?a (eiio?ieueia a?oia) I?eea?iaonueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i.A.Noaoaieea. Eiio?ieueia a?oia aeei?enoiaoaaeany aeey aeyaeaiiy
i?ioan?eii? niaoeeo?ee,ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co oa aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino?
aieeao iaa/aeueieo ai?aa, ye? i?iaiaeeeenue c aenia?eiaioaeueiith
a?oiith aeey ?icaeoeo iaaieo ineo?/ieo ooieoe?e.Aenia?eiaio i?iaiaeeany
ai?iaeiaae 1994-1998 iaa/aeueieo ?ie?a.

I?iaaaeaiee ?ioa?a?oiiaee aiae?c ia aeyaea noaoenoe/ii cia/oueo
a?aei?iiinoae ca a?eueo?noth aeine?aeaeaieo iieaciee?a. Aeiyoie
noaiiaeyoue ?yae iieaciee?a ca oeaeaie oaiia?aiaioo ? aiieoe?eii?
iano?eeino?. A ii??aiyii? c ipaaenoaaieeaie eiiopieueieo apoi ioceeaioe,
ciepaia, aeyaeythoue cia/ii aeuee ??aaiue aiioe?eiino? a noa??
nioe?aeueieo noinoie?a ? ieae/ee – a i?aaeiaoi?e. ?acii c oei, ca
iieacieeii caaaeueii? a?a?/iino? aiie iinooiathoueny i?aeaeine?aeiei
iaio eiiopieueieo aea?pie. Ioceeaioe aeyaeythoue oaeiae a?eueoo
caeaoi?noue oaeaeoa ia?aeeth/aoeny c iaeiiai aeaeo ae?yeueiino? ia ?ioee
(ieanoe/i?noue), a?eueo aenieo aeoeai?noue o aca?iiae?yo ?c nioe?aeueiei
ioi/aiiyi, aiaeii/an ? a?eueoo /ooeea?noue aei iaoni?oo ? ioe?iie c aieo
ioi/oth/eo. Haaeniea a?a?/i?noue, ui ii?aeio?oueny c iaaenieei ??aiai
aiioe?eii? iano?eeino? ? aeineoue aenieeie iieacieeaie “aeeeaaeaoeueei?”
o?eaiaeiino? aeaco?, ia iao iiaeyae, ia iaaeinoaoi?e ??aaiue
noi?iiaaiino? o i?aaenoaaiee?a ioce/ii? i?ioan?? iaoai?cio
naii?aaoeyoe??.

Ui noino?oueny aiae?co ?io?aa?oiiai? eapoeie ?iciiae?eo aeine?aeaeoaaieo
iieaciee?a, eiinoaoo?oueny, ui a apoi? ioceeaio?a ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue
?iciiae?ey?oueny a iaaeao ii?iaoeaiiai ae?aiaciio eieeaaiue. Ieae/eie
aeyaeeeny eeoa iieacieee niinoa?aaeeeaino?, e?aaoeaiino? ?
ioceeaeueiino?. Anoaiiaeaia oaeiae ?iaeea?aeoaeueia niaoeeo?ea
?iciiae?eo iieaciee?a ni?yiiaaiino? oaiia?aiaioo. Aeyaeeiny, cie?aia, ui
o i’yoe aeine?aeaeoaaieo ia? i?noea aeii?ioaaiiy ia’?eoii? i???ioaoe??.

A ?iaio? aeiaiaeeoueny, ui aeecuee?noue ineoieia?/ieo i?io?e?a
i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo niaoe?ae?caoe?e ia noia?a/eoue aeo?aei?e oac?
uiaei iayaiino? i?ae ieie iaaieo a?aei?iiinoae, ui iiaeooue aooe aeciai?
ye oae?, ui iaeaaeaoue aei a?oie eiie?aoii i?ioan?eii aaaeeeaeo
aeanoeainoae ioceeaioa-iaaeaaiaa. Io?eiai? aeai? na?ae/aoue ?aaeoa i?i
ni?euei?noue aeiia ? oiia, ui noaaeyoueny a iaa/aeueiiio caeeaae? aei
caaaeueiiiaaeaaia?/ieo yeinoae iniaenoino? iaeaooiueiai niaoe?ae?noa
iaaeaaia?/iiai i?io?eth. O ca’yceo c oeei io?eiai? ia aeaiiio aoai?
aeai?, noiniaii ??aiy ?icaeoeo aeine?aeaeoaaieo yeinoae, aei?a/ii
a?aeianoe aei eeano oaeeo, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue ??aaiue iioaioe?eii?
iiaeeeaino?, oiaoi oaei?, ca yeith ooieoe?iioaaiiy iayaieo o noa’?eoa
niaoe?aeueieo aeanoeainoae noa? iiaeeeaei ca oiia i?aai?caoe??
ae?yeueiino?, ui ia?aaiaeeoue eaoaioiee ??aaiue ?o ?icaeoeo a
aeooaeueiee.

Ioaea, io?eiai? ia eiinoaooth/iio aoai? ?acoeueoaoe aeaee i?aenoaae
c?iaeoe i?eiouaiiy i?i oa, ui caaaeaiiy ia?aoai?aiiy iioaioe?eieo
iiaeeeainoae noa’?eoa a aeooaeuei? iiaea aooe ?ica’ycaia a ?ac?
noai?aiiy niaoe?aeueieo oiia iaa/aiiy. I?aai?caoe?y oeeo oiia ? cania?a
iioei?caoe??, ni?yiiaaieo ia ?icaeoie i?ioan?eii? aioiaiino? aei
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, ? neeaea ci?no oi?ioth/i? /anoeie
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O neeaaeaii? i?ia?aie oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo, a?aoiaoaaeinue
iieiaeaiiy, ui aaeaeaaoiith oi?iith, yea a?aeiia?aea? cacia/aiei
aeiiaai, ia? neoaoaaoe nenoaia o?ai?iaiaeo caaaeaiue, ni?yiiaaieo ia
?icaeoie oaeeo no?eaeiaaeo aeanoeainoae iniaenoino? iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey
– ioceeaioa ye niinoa?aaeeea?noue, aiioe?ei?noue, e?aaoeai?noue,
ioceeaeuei?noue ? aeni?aneai?noue. Aenia?eiaio i?iaiaeeany c oei aea
neeaaeii aeine?aeaeoaaieo, ui a?aee o/anoue a eiinoaooth/?e /anoei?;
eiio?ieueia a?oia neeaaeaeany c nooaeaio?a o?eieia?/iiai ?
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/iiai oaeoeueoao?a. Caaaeueia o?eaae?noue
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaa/aiiy noaiiaeea 2,5 ?iee. I?ia?aia iaa/aiiy
i?iaiaeeeany o /ioe?e aoaie.

Ia ia?oiio aoai?, ui iaa ia iao? oi?ioaaiiy o aeine?aeaeoaaieo
niinoa?aaeeeaino?, aeei?enoiaoaaeeny i?eeiie, ni?yiiaai? ia ?icaeoie o
iaeaooiueiai iaaeaaiaa cae?aiinoae aei ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ineo?/ieo noai?a
aeepeaaioa ? o/iy ia i?aenoaa? aeni?aneaieo iciae iaee//y. E?eoa???i
noi?iiaaiino? niinoa?aaeeeaino? neoaoaaa ci?no ? ni?yiiaai?noue
oa?aeoa?enoee, ui neeaaeaeeny i?aeaeine?aeieie ia o/i?a i?ae /an
i?ioiaeaeaiiy ieie iaaeipaeoeee.

Ae?oaee aoai iaa iaoith oi?ioaaiiy o i?aeaeine?aeieo aiioe?eii?
/oeiino?, a oaeiae ioce/ii-iiaeaii?ai? cae?aiino?. Oanoiaei iaoa??aeii
neoaoaaea na??y caaaeaiue, ?ic?iaeaieo A.?.Iao?oo?iei c iaoith
ae?aaiinoeee caeaoiino? aei ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? aiioe?eii-ia?aciiai ci?noo
ioce/ieo oai??a ??ciiiai?oii? aiioe?eii? iiaeaeueiino?, a oaeiae iecea
aiaeia?/ieo caaaeaiue, ui i?acaiooaaeeny i?aeaeine?aeiei o iaoiio
aeaniiio aeeiiaii? (oi?oai?aii). Iieacieeii aeinyaiooiai ??aiy
“ni?a/oaath/iai ?icoi?iiy” (I.I.sseianii) neoaoaaee ienueiia?
oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ineooaieo i?aeaeine?aeieie oai??a, ye? aeae?
c?noaaeyeeny c “aoaeiiieie”.

Ia o?aoueiio aoai?, ui neeaaeaany c /ioe?ueio na??e, i?aeaeine?aei?
iaieiae?aaee i?eeiiaie oai?/i? aca?iiae?? c ioce/iei oai?ii, oa
a?aei?aoeueiaoaaee ?o a oiiaao iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?, ui ia?aaeaa/aea
aeeiiaiiy ieie caaaeaiue ia aeia?? iaeiae?? a?aeiia?aeii aei ineo?/iiai
noaio iniae, cia?aaeaii? ia na?oeei?, a?aeoai?aiiy ia ioce/iiio
?ino?oiaio? (oi?oai?aii) caieno a?aaeaiue, cao?eniaaieo iaeiei ?c
neooa/?a, a?aeiiaeaiiy a i?ioean? aeeiiaiiy aeiouaiiai c iaeiae?? oaeoo
(iaoiaeeea Ae.E.E??ia?nueei?), i?iaiicoaaiiy eiia??ii? iiaaae?iee o/iy
ca o??? /e ?ioi? neooaoe?? ia?aa?ao iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano. Iaoa
cacia/aieo caaaeaiue iieyaaea o oi?ioaaii? ?ii?ia?caoe?eieo cae?aiinoae,
caeaoiino? aei noai?aiiy iiaeae? oe?eiai, ui noa? iiaeeeaei ca oiiae
noi?iiaaiino? o noa’?eoa ioce/ii? ?ioo?oe??, cae?aiino? aei
aioeoeeiaoe??, ?, ia a inoaiith /a?ao, aeeiiaanueei? oaoi?ee.

Iniiaia iaoa /aoaa?oiai aoaio iieyaaea o oi?ioaaii? a iaeaooi?o
iaaeaaia?a ?ii?aneaii? cae?aiino?, a oaeiae cae?aiino? aei
naii?aaoeyoe??. Aeinyaiaiiy aeacaii? iaoe a?aeaoaaeiny ca ?aooiie iecee
i?eeii?a oaoi?ee aaoio?ai?iao, a oaeiae a?aeiia?aeieo oaoi?e “aiae?
eaiaa?aeae” (A.Iec), i?eeii?a iiaeaethaaiiy, ?inoeaioaaiiy ? oaea ?ioa.

Ia caeeth/iiio, i’yoiio aoai?, i?iaiaeeany i?aenoieiaee aiae?c c
aeei?enoaiiyi eiio?ieueieo oano?a. E?eoa???, ye? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny ia
aeaiiio aoai?, aoee aiaeia?/i? aei oeo, ui iaee i?noea ia aoai?
eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?aaenoaaieee aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie ca a?eueo?noth
e?euee?nii-ye?nieo iieaciee?a ??aiy noi?iiaaiino? aioiaiino? cia/ii
ia?aaaaeathoue i?aaenoaaiee?a eiio?ieueii? a?oie, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
aoaeoeai?noue canoiniaaii? nenoaie o?ai?iaiaeo ai?aa ? aeioe?euei?noue
?? aeei?enoaiiy a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean? aoc?anueei? i?aeaioiaee
niaoe?ae?no?a ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/iiai i?io?eth.

I?aeaeine?aei? aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie aeyaeee, ciepaia, nooo?ai aeuee
??aaiue niinoa?aaeeeaino? aei oeo iciae ineo?/ii? aeoeaiino? o/iy, ui
aeeeeeaee o ieo ?ai?oa iaea?eueoo neeaaei?noue (aiioe?eii-aieueia?,
aeni?aneai?, aeanoeaino? oaiia?aiaioo); na?ae/aiiyi oeueiai ? ?
noaoenoe/ii cia/ou? a?aei?iiino? i?ae a?oiaie (p

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