IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss AIOO??OI?O NI?AA OE?A?IE

IAN OE?A?IE

AI?IAEIAA ??EIA TH???AIA

OAeE 351.74.57

INEOIEIA?*IA CAAACIA*AIIss Ae?ssEUeIINO? I?AOe?AIEE?A IAN A OIIAAO
AEssAO NIOe?AEUeII IAAACIA*II? IIAAAe?IEE IAOIAIO

19.00.06 — TH?eaee/ia ineoieia?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ineoieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeuei?e aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie, IAN
Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

aeieoi? ineoieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eaci??aiei Ay/aneaa Iao?iae/,

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe ? iaaeaaia?ee.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

· aeieoi? ineoieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

ae?eniee /eai Aeaaeai?? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe Oe?a?ie

Iaeneiaiei Na?a?e Aeieo?iae/,

?inoeooo ineoieia?? AII Oe?a?ie ?i. A.N. Einothea, aee?aeoi?;

· eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Eiiiiaiei Eaii?ae Ieiiae/,

Aeaaeai?y ioi?oeeiaeueiiai oi?aae?iiy, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
i?aaiciaanoaa, aeaeai th?eaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – ?inoeooo nioe?aeueii? ? iie?oe/ii? ineoieia?? AII
Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny ia 1400 aiae. “13“ eeiiy 1999 ?ieo ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 26.007.01 i?e Iaoe?iiaeuei?e aeaaeai??
aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie (252035, i. Ee?a, Nieii’yinueea ie., 1).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252035, i. Ee?a,
Nieii’yinueea ie., 1.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «11» /a?aiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
N.A. Aoaeee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ianiaeaei? oi?ie aeyao aeoeaiino? a
inoaii? ?iee noaee ia’?eoii ieeueii? oaaae aeine?aeiee?a. ?noi?e/iee
aeina?ae na?ae/eoue, ui c?inoaiiy ianiaeaeii? aeoeaiino? ianaeaiiy ?
iaae?eiei i???ioe?ii iayaiiai nioe?aeueiiai iai?oaeaiiy, eiee ?nio?
eiioe?eo i?ae ?aaeueieie iio?aaaie ethaeae ? iaiiaeeea?noth ?o
caaeiaieaiiy. O oaeeo oiiaao iaa?oue i?aai?ciaaiee ianiaee aenooi aai
iianyeaeaiiee nioe?aeueiee eiioe?eo iiaeooue noai?eoe nooo?ao caa?ico
a?iiaaenuee?e aaciaoe?. Ne?ae caaaeeoe ia oa, ui aeiee aeey nioe?aeueii?
neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i? oa?aeoa?i? iai?oaeai?noue, eiioe?eoi?noue, aeiee
aiia iaai?oa? a ethaeae ii/oooy ai?ao, aacii?aaeiino? oa a?ae/ath, ?nio?
iiaeeea?noue nioe?aeueiiai aeaooo. Oiio aoaeue-ye? oi?ie aeyao
ianiaeaeii? aeoeaiino? ethaeae (iniaeeai oaeiai iaaacia/iiai oaiiiaio,
ye iaoiai) iiaeii? ciaoiaeeoenue o noa?? oaaae oeo, ooi caaacia/o?
?ica’ycaiiy caaaeaiue ?c ioi?iie a?iiaaenueeiai ii?yaeeo. Oea ni?e/eiy?
iaiao?aei?noue oi?ioaaiiy i?aeoe/ieo aeniiae?a uiaei ineoieia?/ieo oiia
aoaeoeaiino? caoiae?a ?c iiia?aaeaeaiiy oa i?eieiaiiy ?icaeoeo
noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo ianiaeaeieo i?ioean?a.

No/aniee iaoeiaee aeina?ae ?c ieoaiue ianiaeaeieo oi?i aeyao aeoeaiino?,
cie?aia iiaaae?iee iaoiaio, aaco?oueny aieiaiei /eiii ia ?iaioao
A. Eaaiia, A. Aoiaeoa, A. Oa?aea, N. N?aaea, O. IaeAeoaaeea. O iao /an
/anoeiai a?aeoai?aii o?aaeeoe?? nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
(ui eaeooue, cie?aia, a?ae A.I. Aaooa??aa), aea/a?oueny oa oe?iei
aeei?enoiao?oueny aeina?ae ca?oa?aeii? ineoieia??: N.J. Smelser,
R.H. Turner, L.M. Killian — coai?aiiy eiiieaenii? oai??? eieaeoeaii?
iiaaae?iee; N. Berkly — eeaneo?eaoe?y oaiiiai?a ianiaeaeii? iiaaae?iee,
aecia/aiiy i?e/ei ?? aeieeiaiiy; S. Milgram, H. Toch — ii??aiyeueiee
aiae?c ?noi?e/ii? ?ie? oa nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ye
i?aai?ciaaieo, oae ? iai?aai?ciaaieo oi?i nioe?aeueii? aeoeaiino?
ethaeae oa ?i.

O a?o/eciyi?e iaooe? aaaeeeao ?ieue aeey ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai o aaeoc?
ianiaeaeieo yaeu a?ae?a?aee aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui cae?enithaaeeny a iaaeao
th?eaee/ii? ineoieia??. I?ioa nueiaiaei? iiaeia aiai?eoe eeoa i?i ie?ai?
naiino?ei? iai?yie aea/aiiy ineoieia?/ieo caeiiii??iinoae aeyao oeo aai
?ioeo oi?i ianiaeaeii? iiaaae?iee, ui a?aeia?aaeai? a ?iaioao
a?o/eciyieo iaoeiaoe?a: aecia/aiiy ineoieia?/ieo oaiiiai?a ? ??ciiaeae?a
iaoiaio — A.I. I?aaea?/iee, N.E. ?iu?i, A.A. Eiyc?a, A.I. Aea?aaiueia;
aiae?c i?e/ei oa aeeiai?ee eiai oi?ioaaiiy e ?icaeoeo — A.?. A?a/ia,
E.?. Eaci??aiei, A.A. Na?ueia?i; oa?aeoa?enoeea iaoai?ci?a aieeao ia
o/aniee?a iai?aai?ciaaiiai ianiaeaeiiai neoi/aiiy — A.O. Ii?oi?a,
A.Ae. Ia?ea?i, A.I. Aiae?a?aa, O.I. Iaeeiaa, A.N. Iieicia, A.I. Eoeeeia;
aecia/aiiy ineoieia?/ieo aniaeo?a cae?eniaiiy ?aaoethth/iai aieeao ia
iiaaae?ieo o/aniee?a iaoiaio — E.E. Iiiia, N.A. Aoaaiiaa,
A.I. ?iaeueyiia oa ?i.

Iaaaaeaiee ia?ae?e na?ae/eoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee eiiieaeniiai
i?aeoiaeo, yeee aeaa ae ciiao nenoaiaoecoaaoe an? no/ani? iai?yie a
iaaeao ?aeeii? ineoieia?/ii? oai??? ianiaeaeieo oi?i aeyao aeoeaiino? ?,
cie?aia, oai??? iaoiaio. Naia ia iniia? oaeiai i?aeoiaeo iiaeeeaa
ae??oaiiy aaaaoueio ieoaiue i?aeoe/iiai ni?yioaaiiy: aecia/aiiy
eiiieaeno ineoieia?/ieo ?iaeeeaoi??a ae?aaiinoeee nioe?aeueii
iaaacia/ii? iiaaae?iee o/aniee?a ianiaeaeiiai neoi/aiiy, ?ice?eooy aeiia
aei i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ineoieia?/ieo yeinoae i?aoe?aiee?a IAN, ?ic?iaea
iaoiaeieia?? ? iaoiaee/iiai ?ino?oiaioa??th ineoieia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee
aei ae?e a oiiaao ?icaeoeo noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo ianiaeaeieo i?ioean?a.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa cae?eniaia a ?aieao aaeocaaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith aeeiiaiiy “?iai/iai ieaio
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aeoe/ieo caoiae?a IAN Oe?a?ie uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy
i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee i?aoe?aiee?a i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie”,
ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o
ni?aa Oe?a?ie (IAANO) ca oaiith “?ic?iaea i?ioan?ia?ai oa
eaae?o?eaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeayeeo eaoaai??e oao?aoe?a IAN Oe?a?ie”.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? caeiiiaeaa/? aeieoiaioe
Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae uiaei ?aoi?ioaaiiy ae?yeueiino? i?aaiioi?iiieo
i?aai?a, (“Eiiieaenia oe?eueiaa i?ia?aia ai?ioueae c? cei/eii?noth ia
1996-2000 ?iee”, Caeii Oe?a?ie “I?i i?e?oe?th”, “Eiiieaenia i?ia?aia
eaae?iaiai caaacia/aiiy iia?aoeaii-neoaeaiai? ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a oa
i?ae?icae?e?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa, aioo??oi?o a?enuee IAN Oe?a?ie ia
1996-2000 ?iee” oa ?i.). O ?iaio? aeei?enoaii i?aoe? i?ia?aeieo
ineoieia?a (A.O. Ii?oi?a, A.Ae. Ia?ea?i,
A.I. Eaci??aiei, N.Ae. Iaeneiaiei oa ?i.), iiiia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
a/aieo c th?eaee/ii? ineoieia?? oa e?ei?iieia?? (A.I. Eoae?yaoeaa,
N.A. Oa?a?oo?i, I.A. Einoeoeueeee, A.A. Aii/a?aiei oa ?i.).

I?e cae?aii? aii??e/iiai iaoa??aeo canoiniaoaaeeny iaoiaee: iieooaaiiy,
aan?aea, niinoa?aaeaiiy, aenia?oi? ioe?iee, aiae?c aeieoiaioaoe??,
ia??iaeeee, a?aeaioiiae?a IAN Oe?a?ie, noaiaea?oeciaai? e iiaeeo?eiaai?
iieooaaeueieee, iaoiaeeee ? oanoe: 16-oaeoi?iee iieooaaeueiee
?. Eaooaea, oano ?enoieiai? o?ono?aoe?? N. ?icaioeaaeaa, iaoiaeeee
ae?aaiinoeee i?aeiniaeno?nieo noinoie?a (iiaeeo?eiaaiee aa??aio
O. E???), “Eiino?oeoeai?noue iioeaaoe??” I.I. ?eena?aa oa ?i. Iaea?aeai?
ia?a?ni? aeai? ia?iaeyeeny ca noaiaea?oieie i?ia?aiaie aa??aoe?eii?
noaoenoeee c ia?aooaaiiyi: na?aaei?o cia/aiue oa aeenia?n??, t-e?eoa??th
I. Nouethaeaioa, o-e?eoa??th *. I??niia, ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co ?aia?a
*. Ni??iaia oa ?i.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iai?aai?ciaai? nioe?aeueii iaaacia/i? oi?ie
ianiaeaeii? iiaaae?iee iaoiaio.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — ineoieia?/i? iaoai?cie aeieeiaiiy nioe?aeueii
iaaacia/ieo i?iya?a iiaaae?iee iaoiaio ? oe?eueiaa i?aeaioiaea
i?aoe?aiee?a IAN aei eiiiaoaioieo ae?e aeey ?o iiia?aaeaeaiiy oa
onoiaiiy.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy — ?ic?iaea nenoaie iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo
ineoieia?/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei cae?eniaiiy ni?yiiaaiiai
?aaoethth/iai aieeao ia iiaaae?ieo o/aniee?a iaoiaio aeey iiia?aaeaeaiiy
oa i?eieiaiiy ?icaeoeo iai?iaiiciaaieo ? iaea?iaaieo ianiaeaeieo
i?ioean?a; ii?aoethaaiiy caaaeueii? iaoiaeieia?? e iaoiaee/ieo iniia
oe?eueiaiai oi?ioaaiiy o i?aoe?aiee?a IAN ineoieia?/ii? aioiaiino? aei
?ica’ycaiiy neoaeaiaeo caaaeaiue a oiiaao aeyao nioe?aeueii iaaacia/ieo
oi?i ianiaeaeii? iiaaae?iee.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeoiaey/e c aecia/aii? iaoe, i?aaeiaoo oa
ia’?eoo aeine?aeaeaiiy, aoei iinoaaeaii oae? caaaeaiiy:

1. Iaa?oiooaaoe aecia/aiiy ? eeaneo?eaoe?th ianiaeaeieo oi?i aeyao
aeoeaiino?, ?o nioe?aeueii iaaacia/ieo i?iya?a.

2. I?iaanoe oai?aoe/iee aiae?c no/anieo oyaeaiue uiaei i?iaeaie
ineoieia?/ieo iaoai?ci?a aeieeiaiiy e ?aaoeyoe?? nioe?aeueii iaaacia/ieo
i?iya?a iiaaae?iee iaoiaio.

3. Ocaaaeueieoe iniiai? a?oie /eiiee?a, ui coiiaeththoue i?ioean
oi?ioaaiiy iaoiaio, iiaaae?ieo ethaeae o eiai neeaae?.

4. ?ic?iaeoe ocaaaeueiaio nenoaio nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo ?iaeeeaoi??a
ae?aaiinoeee iaaacia/ieo i?iya?a iiaaae?iee o/aniee?a iaoiaio.

5. Nenoaiaoecoaaoe ineoieia?/i? oiiae aoaeoeaiino? caoiae?a
?aaoethth/iai aieeao ia iiaaae?ieo o/aniee?a iaoiaio c iaoith
iiia?aaeaeaiiy e i?eieiaiiy ?icaeoeo noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo ianiaeaeieo
i?ioean?a.

6. Aecia/eoe oa iaa?oiooaaoe eiiieaen i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ineoieia?/ieo
yeinoae i?aoe?aiee?a IAN, ui iaiao?aeiee aeey eiiiaoaioiiai ?ica’ycaiiy
caaaeaiue ?c ?aae?caoe?? ?aaoethth/iai aieeao ia nioe?aeueii iaaacia/io
iiaaae?ieo o/aniee?a ae?th/iai iaoiaio.

7. Iaa?oiooaaoe ? ?ic?iaeoe i?ia?aio o?ai?iao i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee
??cieo eaoaai??e i?aoe?aiee?a IAN aeey oe?eueiaiai oi?ioaaiiy o ieo
ineoieia?/ii? aioiaiino? aei eiiiaoaioieo ae?e a oiiaao aeyao
nioe?aeueii iaaacia/ii? iiaaae?iee iaoiaio.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny oei, ui:

1. Aecia/aii ci?noiaa iaiiaiaiiy o??? aaeoc? th?eaee/ii? ineoieia??, o
iaaeao yei? aea/athoueny ianiaeaei? oi?ie iiaaae?iee, ?o nioe?aeueii
iaaacia/i? i?iyae.

2. Ae?noaei iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo:  ?ica’ycaiiy o?aaeeoe?eii?
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii? i?iaeaie “ineoieia?y ?iaeea?aea — ineoieia?y
iane” a aniaeo? aecia/aiiy nooi?ith ae?aaeaiino? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
?aaeoe?e oa i?iya?a i?enooi?o o iaoiai? ethaeae, oa?aeoa?o ona?aeiieaiiy
ieie iane?aee?a nai?o ae?e; aecia/aiiy oeiiaeo ? niaoeeo?/ieo
aeanoeainoae ??ciiaeae?a iaoiaio; aeine?aeaeaiiy
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeoeo, eiia??iino?
aeieeiaiiy noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo oi?i aeyao eiaeiiai c ieo.

3. Iiaeaii eiiieaenio oa?aeoa?enoeeo iniiaieo a?oii /eiiee?a, ui
coiiaeththoue oi?ioaaiiy e ?icaeoie iaoiaio, iiaaae?ieo eiai o/aniee?a.
?icaeyiooi iniiai? no?oeoo?i? neeaaeia? e aeeiai?/i? noaie iaoiaio.
Aecia/aii nenoaio ineoieia?/ieo ?iaeeeaoi??a ae?aaiinoeee nioe?aeueii
iaaacia/ii? iiaaae?iee o/aniee?a iai?aai?ciaaiiai ianiaeaeiiai neoi/aiiy
? ?ic?iaeaii iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei cae?eniaiiy
?aaoethth/iai aieeao ia oeth iiaaae?ieo.

4. Cae?eniaii eiiieaeniee aiae?c aeina?aeo ae?e i?aoe?aiee?a IAN o
neooaoe?yo aeyao iai?aai?ciaaieo oi?i ianiaeaeii? iiaaae?iee c iaoith
ocaaaeueiaiiy i?e/ei oa oiia ineoieia?/ii iaeiiiaoaioieo ae?e
i?aaiioi?iioe?a, /?oeiai e iiaiiai aecia/aiiy aeiia aei i?ioan?eii
cia/oueo ineoieia?/ieo yeinoae i?aoe?aiee?a IAN, ui caaacia/othoue
ioi?iio a?iiaaenueeiai ii?yaeeo a oiiaao ?icaeoeo noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo
ianiaeaeieo i?ioean?a.

5. ?ic?iaeaii caaaeueio iaoiaeieia?th ? iaoiaee/i? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy
ineoieia?/ii? aioiaiino? i?aoe?aiee?a IAN aei ae?e a oiiaao aeyao
nioe?aeueii iaaacia/ii? iiaaae?iee iaoiaio.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe?
ineoieia?/ieo e?eoa???a i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee ??cieo eaoaai??e
i?aoe?aiee?a IAN aei ae?e a oiiaao aeyao nioe?aeueii iaaacia/ieo oi?i
ianiaeaeii? iiaaae?iee ? eiiieaenii? i?ia?aie o?ai?iao oaei? i?aeaioiaee
c o?aooaaiiyi niaoe?ae?caoe?? ooieoe?e, ui aeeiiothoueny
i?aaiioi?iioeyie ia i?noe? iiae??.

Cae?eniaii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy oeyoii ?aae?caoe??
iiaeoe?a o?ai?iao ineoieia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee i?aoe?aiee?a IAN aei ae?e a
oiiaao aeyao nioe?aeueii iaaacia/ii? iiaaae?iee iaoiaio ?c neooa/aie
(eo?naioaie) IAANO a iaaeao aeenoeeie?ie “I?ioan?eia ineoieia?/ia
i?aeaioiaea i?aoe?aiee?a i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa” oa c a?eoeyie
i?ae?icae?eo “Aa?eoo”.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoaii i?e i?aeaioiaoe? iaoa??ae?a aeey «TH?eaee/ii?
aioeeeeiiaae??», «Aeueaiio noai c th?eaee/ii? ineoieia??» oa «Neiaieea
oa?i?i?a c th?eaee/ii? ineoieia??»; aeeeaaeaii o aenooiao ia
?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?aeoe/ia ineoieia?y
a i?aaiao aioo??oi?o ni?aa” (i. Ee?a, 1994), iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo ca i?aenoieaie iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo IAANO (i. Ee?a, 1995, 1997),
naeoe?? th?eaee/ii? ineoieia?? IV Anaoe?a?inueeiai c’?caeo Oiaa?enoaa
ineoieia?a (i. Ee?a, 1997). Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaothoueny
i?e aeeeaaeaii? aeenoeeie?i “TH?eaee/ia ineoieia?y” oa «I?ioan?eia
ineoieia?/ia i?aeaioiaea i?aoe?aiee?a i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa».

Ci?no oa ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeia?aaeaii a 6 ioae?eaoe?yo.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, aeiaeaoe?a. Ci?no
?iaioe aeeeaaeaii ia 187 noi??ieao oaenoo, yeee aeiiiaiththoue 11
oaaeeoeue, 11 ?enoie?a, 196 iaca aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e oa i’youe
aeiaeaoe?a ia 34 noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Nioe?aeueii iaaacia/i? oi?ie ianiaeaei? iiaaae?iee
ye i?aaeiao aea/aiiy th?eaee/ii? ineoieia??” aiae?cothoueny oai?aoe/i?
i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy ci?noo aaeoc? ianiaeaeieo yaeu. Cai?iiiiiaaii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey iicia/aiiy aeine?aeaeoaaiiai oaiiiaiieia?/iiai
?yaeo oa?i?i “ianiaeaei? oi?ie aeyao aeoeaiino?”.

Ianiaeaei? oi?ie aeyao aeoeaiino? — oea iiaaae?iea aaeeeeo a?oi ethaeae,
yea aeieea? aiane?aeie aaciina?aaeiuei? aai iiina?aaeeiaaii? ineo?/ii?
aca?iiae?? i?ae ieie ia iniia? caaaeueieo aai noiaeeo ?ioa?an?a, ia?
aiaeia?/i? ciai?oi? i?iyae ? ?aaoeth?oueny nioe?aeueieie ii?iaie eeoa
/anoeiai. Noa’?eoii iai?aai?ciaaieo oa neaaino?oeoo?iaaieo (aai cian?i
ia no?oeoo?iaaieo) ianiaeaeieo oi?i aeyao aeoeaiino? ? iaoiai —
a?aeiinii iao?eaaea a /an? neoi/aiiy aaeeei? e?eueeino? ethaeae, ui
ia?aaoaathoue o aaciina?aaeiueiio eiioaeo? i?ae niaith, noai yeeo
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenieei ??aiai aiioe?eiiai caoaeaeaiiy, a iiaaae?iea
coiiaeaia iiae?aieie niiioeaiiyie, onoaiiaeaie oa aca?iiith
noeioeyoe??th.

Nioe?aeueii iaaacia/ieie oi?iaie ianiaeaeii? iiaaae?iee cai?iiiiiaaii
aaaaeaoe aeyae iai?aai?ciaaii? ianiaeaeii? aeoeaiino? ??ciiai nooiaiy
noni?eueii? iaaacia/iino?, ui ii?ooothoue a?iiaaenueeee ii?yaeie,
noai?ththoue caa?ico aeey a?iiaaenueei? aaciaee, iiaeooue aooe iia’ycai?
c iaiiei?ith aai i?ioeae??th caeiiiei aeiiaai i?aaenoaaiee?a aeaaee,
iaaoaath/e a ?yae? aeiaaee?a oa?aeoa?o cei/ei?a ? i?aaiii?ooaiue (o oiio
/ene? aaei?i?no?aoeaieo), a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ye? ia?aaeaa/aia
no. 71, 1873, 188, 1881, 189, 1894 EE, no. 185 EAI Oe?a?ie. I?e oeueiio
aaaeeeai aeoeaiooaaoe: ye? iaaacia/i? iane?aeee aeyao ianiaeaeii?
aeoeaiino? ie ia iaee a ia oaac? (caiiae?yiiy o?eanieo ooeiaeaeaiue
i?aoe?aieeia? i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a, iania? aacii?yaeee oiui), o
eiaeiiio aeiaaeeo aeyaey?oueny iiaaae?iea o/aniee?a oiai aai ?ioiai
??ciiaeaeo iaoiaio ia iaaiiio aoai? eiai ?icaeoeo.

Iaoiai ye ca??ia iiiyooy ioiieth? ?yae noiaeeo, aea aeaeaei ia
??aiicia/ieo oi?i iai?aai?ciaaii? ianiaeaeii? iiaaae?iee. O iaaeao
?icae?eo aecia/aii iaea?eueo cia/ou? e?eoa??? eeaneo?eaoe?? iaoiaio —
niiioeaiiy eiai o/aniee?a ? oa?aeoa? ?oiuei? iiaaae?iee; cai?iiiiiaaii
oa?aeoa?enoeeo caaaeueieo ? niaoeeo?/ieo iniaeeainoae eiai ??ciiaeae?a;
aeae?eaii nioe?aeueii iaaacia/i? aoaeoe i?iyao eiaeiiai c ieo
(oaaeeoey 1).

Ocaaaeueiaiiy iiaeyae?a, iaaaaeaieo o no/anieo iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo
(A.O. Ii?oi?a, A.Ae. Ia?ea?i, A.I. Aiae?a?aa, A.I. I?aaea?/iee,
N.E. ?iu?i, E.?. Eaci??aiei, O.I. Iaeeiaa oa ?i.), aiae?c i?aeoeee
ae?yeueiino? i?aoe?aiee?a IAN, ia??iaeeee, a?aeaioiiae?a IAN Oe?a?ie
aeathoue ciiao aecia/eoe oae? a?oie /eiiee?a, ui coiiaeththoue i?ioean
oi?ioaaiiy e ?icaeoeo iaoiaio:

1. Nioe?ieia?/i? aai “ciai?oi?”: aeiaaio?eaae? (nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?,
iie?oe/i? oa ?i. oiiae a noni?euenoa?) ? neooaoeai? (i?ea?ae iiae??,
/an, i?noea, e?euee?noue i?enooi?o oa ?i.).

Oaaeeoey 1 — Nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ia niaoeeo?ea oa nioe?aeueii
iaaacia/i? aoaeoe aeyao iniiaieo ??ciiaeae?a iaoiaio

??ciiaeae

iaoiaioIniiai? nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i?

oa?aeoa?enoeeeNioe?aeueii iaaacia/i? aoaeoeAeiaaeeiaee

O/anieee cacaeaeaa?aeue ia iathoue ni?eueii? iaoe, eiioaeoe i?ae ieie
niiioaii? oa iaaii?yaeeiaai?; oea neoi/aiiy c iecueeei iieacieeii
cao?oiaaiino?Iiaeooue ia’?aeioaaoe a?ae aeanyoe?a aei nioai aiioe?eii
caoaeaeaieo in?a, ui aenooia? iaei??th c ia?aaeoiia ?o iiaeeeai?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? a ae?th/ee iaoiaiAeni?aneaieeAe?aaeai? iieacieee
aiioe?eii? caoaeaeaiino? e iai?oaeaiino?, cao?oiaaiino? oa aeoeaiino?
o/aniee?a; ia oi?io aeyao ?o ii/ooo?a aieeaathoue noa?aioeie, ii?ie e
o?aaeeoe?? iaaiiai nioe?aeueiiai, iaoe?iiaeueiiai, i?ioan?eiiai
na?aaeiaeua Aeoea?co?oueny ae?y nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo iaoai?ci?a
aieeao ia o/aniee?a, ui caeiiii??ii ii?iaeaeo? cia/i?, ?iiae? e?eoe/i?
ci?ie a ineo?/iiio noai? eiaeiiai c ieoEiiaai-oe?iiaeueieeO/aniee?a
ia’?aeio? ni?eueiee ?ioa?an aei yeiainue ianiaiai aeaeiaeua; ?o
iiaaae?iea cia/ii aeoiaeeoue ca iaae? ii?i iianyeaeaiiiai aeeooy; aeey
oaeeo neoi/aiue oa?aeoa?iee i?aeaeuaiee ??aaiue aiioe?eii? caoaeaeaiino?
oa iai?oaeaiino?I?aeaeuaiee oii aiioe?eii? caoaeaeaiino? i?enooi?o,
?ioaineaiee oa?aeoa? ?oi?o ciai?oi?o aeni?aneaieo i?iya?a, noai
aeeiaieueiiai ni’yi?iiy aaaaoueio c ieo, oa?oiiaaiiy iieiae? oa
i?aee?oe?a – ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey iiaeeeai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? neoi/aiiy o
ae?th/ee iaoiaiAe?th/ee,

aenoaoe/ieeNeoi/aiiy c e?eoe/iei ??aiai aiioe?eii? caoaeaeaiino? oa
iaaecae/aeii aenieei iieacieeii ?ioaa?aoe?? o/aniee?a, c aacia?a?aii
c?inoath/ith aeeiai?eith ?oiueiai aieeao iaeei ia iaeiiaiE?eoe/iee
??aaiue aiioe?eii? caoaeaeaiino?, iaaecae/aeiee iieaciee ?ioaa?aoe??
o/aniee?a coiiaeththoue aenieee ??aaiue ?oiuei? iioaioe?eii? aioiaiino?
aei iaaaeieo aeoeaieo ae?e (ca iayaiino? iaaiiai iiooiaoo) Ae?th/ee,

iai?/ieeA?eueo?noue o/aniee?a ioiieaia ii/oooyi no?aoo oa ?icia/o;
iai?/iee noai iiaea ioiieoe neoi/aiiy ianiiae?aaii aai oi?ioaaoeny
iinooiiai; oioiaei?noue ae?e ethaeae a oiiaao iai?ee ia aeeeth/a?
iiaeeeaeo ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo i?iya?aNeoi/aiiy ethaeae, ui i?aaoaathoue o
iai?/iiio noai?, iaaecae/aeii ?ooeeaa, oiio ui ?aeeia i?aaiaiiy
?iaeeaeae?a o eiai neeaae? — oieeiooe ?aaeueii? aai oyaii? iaaaciaee
aoaeue-yeei /eiiiAe?th/ee,

caee?ieoeueeeeNeoi/aiiy c e?eoe/iei ??aiai aiioe?eii? caoaeaeaiino? oa
iai?oaeaiino?; c aenieei nooiaiai ?ioaa?aoe?? i?enooi?o (eiaeiee aa?a
o/anoue o a?aa?aeieoeueeeo ae?yo); c ae?aaeaiith i???ioaoe??th o/aniee?a
ia caaeiaieaiiy aeanieo iio?aaAe??, ni?yiiaai? ia aeinyaiaiiy ei?eneeai?
iaoe – iaeei ?c iai?yi?a iiaeeeai? ?aae?caoe?? aa?aneaieo iai???a
o/aniee?a iaoiaio (noeioeii aeey ieo /anoi noa? i?iaieaoe?eia
?ioi?iaoe?y, yea iaae?eoea cciai?)Ae?th/ee

aa?aneaieeNeoi/aiiy c iaaecae/aeii aenieei iieacieeii aiioe?eii?
caoaeaeaiino?, iai?oaeaiino? oa cao?oiaaiino? o/aniee?a; i?ioean eiai
oi?ioaaiiy, ?icaeoeo iiaeeeaee ca iayaiino? iaaieo oiia; o a?eueoino?
o/aniee?a aenieee ??aaiue aioiaiino? aei aeoeaieo ae?eIaea?eueo
nioe?aeueii iaaacia/iee ??ciiaeae iaoiaio, aa?aneai? ae?? o/aniee?a
yeiai iiaeooue iaoe aeiaaeeiaee oa iaaii?yaeeiaaiee oa?aeoa?, aea
/ano?oa ni?yiiaai? ia aeinyaiaiiy iaaii? iaoe (iai?eeeaae,
ianeeueieoeuee? ae?? noiniaii eiie?aoii? ethaeeie /e a?oie ethaeae)

2. Nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? aai “i?ii?aei?” (nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i?
iaoai?cie i?eeo/aiiy, aiioe?eiiai ca?aaeaiiy, iaa?thaaiiy,
iane?aeoaaiiy, a?oiiai? inaaaeioai?/ino?, a?oiiai? iiaooiino? oa
?aeaioeo?eaoe??, ye? iiina?aaeeiaothoue aieea “ciai?oi?o” /eiiee?a ia
iiaaae?ieo ?iaeea?ae?a ? iinooiiai i?eaiaeyoue aei o?ainoi?iaoe?? a
ineo?/iiio noai? eiaeiiai c ieo).

3. ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-ineoieia?/i? aai “aioo??oi?” (iniaeeaino?, ui
i?aeaeuothoue ni?eeiyoeea?noue aei aieeao a ioi/aii? iiae?aieo aei naaa:
iaaeinoaoiy ieanoe/i?noue i?ioean?a ieneaiiy, i?aeaeuaia aiioe?eia
caoaeeea?noue, ?iioeueneai?noue, iaaeinoaoie nioe?aeueiiai aeina?aeo,
oiui).

I?ae noeoiiei aieeaii cacia/aieo /eiiee?a ineo?/iee noai eiaeiiai
i?enooiueiai ?iaeea?aea cacia? ?noioieo ci?i, ui, ye i?aaeei, ia
ona?aeiieththoueny ? iathoue caeiiii??iee oa?aeoa?: i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
iaa?thaaiino?, ciaioaiiy nooiaiy e?eoe/iiai noaaeaiiy aei naaa, aei
ioi/oth/eo; cieaeaiiy caeaoiino? aei ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ii?aoethaaiiy
?ioi?iaoe??;  i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aiioe?eii? caoaeaeaiino? oa
iai?oaeaiino?; i?eai?/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo niinia?a ?aaoeyoe?? iiaaae?iee
oa ii/oooy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca nai? a/eiee; ii/oooy aeanii? neee,
iiaooiino? oa aiii?iiino? nai?o ae?e.

Nooi?iue ae?aaeaiino? ci?i iiaea aooe ??ciiiai?oiei: a?ae iacae/aeiino?
aiioe?eieo i?iya?a aei iiaii? ao?aoe ni?iiiaeiino? naiieiio?ieth, ui
caeaaeeoue a?ae ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-ineoieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae eiie?aoii?
ethaeeie, aea cia/ii a?eueoith i??ith — a?ae ni?yioaaiiy iiaaae?iee
iaoiaio, e?eueeino? eiai o/aniee?a, ?o neeaaeo, aoaio ?icaeoeo iiae?e.

O iaaeao ?icae?eo aecia/aii iniiai? no?oeoo?i? neeaaeia? oa aeeiai?/i?
noaie aa?aneaiiai iaoiaio:

— eiai nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iee neeaae (e?aea?e oa aeoeai? o/anieee —
iniae, ui iathoue ia iao? i?aeaiooaaoe oiiae aai acyoe o/anoue o
i?ioecaeiiieo ae?yo; i?aeao?thaa/? — iniae, ui caa?oathoueny aei
o/aniee?a iaoiaio c aaneaie e caeeeeaie aeey oi?ioaaiiy iaaieo iiceoe?e,
onoaiiaie, aeoea?caoe?? e i?aeo?eiaiiy aiioe?eieo noai?a; “ni?a/oaath/?”
— iniae, ui a?ae/oaathoue ?ioa?an aei oiai, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny, aea
ia?a?nii ia iathoue iai??o a?aoe o/anoue a aeoeaieo ae?yo;
“niinoa??aa/?” — iniae, ui iieieeeny ia i?noe? iiae?? aeiaaeeiai, i?ioa
nai?th i?enooi?noth ca?eueoothoue /enaeuei?noue iaoiaio);

— ineoieia?/i? iniaeeaino? iiaaae?iee e?aea??a, oiiae aeoeaiino? anueiai
“yae?a” iaoiaio; ineoieia?/ia niaoeeo?ea ? niiniae aieeao e?aea?a,
aeoeaieo o/aniee?a ia ?ioeo ethaeae, ui i?enooi? a neoi/aii?;

— caeiiii??iino?, ineoieia?/i? ooieoe?? oa oiiae i?ioeano oee?eoeyoe??
noeo?eii? ?ioi?iaoe?? a oi?i? /ooie na?aae ethaeae o neeaae? iaoiaio;

— aoaie oi?ioaaiiy e ?icaeoeo aa?aneaiiai neoi/aiiy (ii/aoeiaee — ia?
i?noea iiae?y (i?ea?ae) /e eiioe?eo, yeee nai?/anii ia e?ea?aeo?oueny,
iinooiiai c?inoa? aiioe?eia iai?oaeai?noue ethaeae, aeae?ey?oueny
e?aea?, “yae?i” iaoiaio, oi?io?oueny aa?aneaia onoaiiaea; ia?ao?aeiee —
aeooae?caoe?y oiia aeey ?aae?caoe?? aa?aneaii? onoaiiaee o/aniee?a:
iino?eia e i?ia?anoth/a ca?eueoaiiy in?a o neeaae? neoi/aiiy, iaaienia
caaino?aiiy ianoaiiaee aeoeaieie o/anieeaie ? “i?aeao?thaa/aie”,
aaceiio?ieuei?noue ni?eeoaaiiy, iioe?aiiy /ooie ? i?iaieaoe?eieo
iia?aeiieaiue, “e?eoe/ia eiioeaio?aoe?y” o iaoiai? iaa??aiiaaaeaieo
in?a, “?iaeoeoi??a” aiioe?eiiai iai?oaeaiiy; aeoeaiee — cae?eniaiiy
ni?eueieo aa?aneaieo ae?e, ye i?aaeei, i?ney aeiaeaoeiaeo noeioe?a,
iai?eeeaae, i?ney i?iaieaoe?eieo caeeee?a /e aeiia; caeeth/iee –
naiie?ea?aeaoe?y iaoiaio aai eiai ?icina?aaeaeaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith
niaoe?aeueieo caoiae?a).

Aecia/ai? a ?icae?e? /eiieee oi?ioaaiiy e ?icaeoeo iaoiaio, niaoeeo?/i?
iniaeeaino? eiai ??ciiaeae?a, ?o no?oeoo?i? neeaaeia? oa iniiai?
aeeiai?/i? noaie cai?iiiiiaaii ?icaeyaeaoe ye aeaiaioe nenoaie
ineoieia?/ieo ?iaeeeaoi??a ae?aaiinoeee nioe?aeueii iaaacia/ii?
iiaaae?iee o/aniee?a iaoiaio. Eiiiaoaioia oa nai?/ania aeae?eaiiy
i?aoe?aieeaie IAN eiiieaeno oaeeo ?iaeeeaoi??a o iaaeao eiie?aoii?
neooaoe?? caaacia/o?:

— aaeaeaaoi?noue ioe?iee iayaiino? oa nooi?ith ae?aaeaiino? nioe?aeueii
iaaacia/ieo iciae iiaaae?iee o/aniee?a oiai aai ?ioiai ??ciiaeaeo
iaoiaio;

— iaa?oioiaai?noue i?iaiic?a iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo iiae?e;

— aoaeoeai?noue aeai?o caoiae?a ni?yiiaaiiai ?aaoethth/iai aieeao ye ia
iiaaae?ieo iaoiaio caaaeii, oae ? ie?aieo eiai o/aniee?a;

— aecia/aiiy oa o?aooaaiiy ineoieia?/ieo oiia aoaeoeaiino? eiaeiiai
caoiaeo.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Ineoieia?/i? i?iaeaie i?aai?caoe?? ni?yiiaaiiai
?aaoethth/iai aieeao ia nioe?aeueii iaaacia/io iiaaae?ieo iaoiaio” ia
iniia? aiae?co ocaaaeueiaieo o niaoe?aeuei?e e?oa?aoo?? (E.E. Iiiia,
A.A. Eiyc?a, N.N. Noaoaieoei, A.A. Na?ueia?i, ?.A. Aieiaaiia,
A.I. Aea?a?iueia, A.?. A?a/ia, E.?. Eaci??aiei, E.I. Eiiiiaiei oa ?i.)
caaaeaiue e ooieoe?e, ui ?aae?ciaothoue i?ae?icae?ee IAN i?e
caaacia/aii? ioi?iie a?iiaaenueeiai ii?yaeeo, aecia/aii eiiieaen
caoiae?a ?c iiia?aaeaeaiiy oa i?eieiaiiy ?icaeoeo noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo
ianiaeaeieo i?ioean?a. Inoaii?e iiaeaii o?ueiia iniiaieie a?oiaie
(?enoiie 1).

O iaaeao ?icae?eo ia iniia? eiiieaeno ineoieia?/ieo ?iaeeeaoi??a
ae?aaiinoeee nioe?aeueii iaaacia/ii? iiaaae?iee o/aniee?a iaoiaio
?ic?iaeaii nenoaio ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei oiia aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy
caoiae?a ?aaoethth/iai aieeao ia oeth iiaaae?ieo (ocaaaeueiaiiy
ineoieia?/ieo oiia aoaeoeaiino? aaciina?aaei?o caoiae?a i?noeoue
oaaeeoey 2).

O ?iaio? iiaeaii iioieia?th aeina?aeo ae?e i?aaenoaaiee?a i?aai?a
ioi?iie i?aaiii?yaeeo a neooaoe?yo aeyao iaaacia/ii? iiaaae?iee iaoiaio.
Oea aeaei ciiao aecia/eoe iaea?eueo oeiia? iaeiiiaoaioi? ae??
i?aoe?aiee?a IAN a oiiaao ?icaeoeo noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo ianiaeaeieo
i?ioean?a: aacae?yeuei?noue ia ii/aoeiaeo aoaiao oi?ioaaiiy
iaoiaio; iaa?aeiia?aei?noue oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue, aeai?o caoiae?a,
no?aoaa?? e oaeoeee ?o ?aae?caoe?? ia’?eoeaiei oa?aeoa?enoeeai iaaii?
neooaoe??; a?aenooi?noue ni?ia onoaiiaeoe eiioaeo ?c o/anieeaie iaoiaio
aai ?o iaaoaeoeai?noue; ianai?/ani?noue ??oaiue, cae?eniaiiy caoiae?a
?aaoethth/iai aieeao ia iiaaae?ieo i?enooi?o o neoi/aii? ethaeae oa ?i.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

?en.1. Eeaneo?eaoe?y caoiae?a ?c iiia?aaeaeaiiy oa i?eieiaiiy

?icaeoeo noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo ianiaeaeieo i?ioean?a

I?iaeiaaeaiiy oaae.2

Oaaeeoey 2 — Ineoieia?/i? oiiae aoaeoeaiino? aaciina?aaei?o caoiae?a
?aaoethth/iai aieeao ia iaaacia/io iiaaae?ieo o/aniee?a iaoiaio

Caoiaee aieeaoNiiniae ?aae?caoe??Ineoieia?/i? oiiae aoaeoeaiino?Onoiaiiy
i?e/eie oi?ioaaiiy iaoiaio- onoiaiiy ia’?eoa caaaeueii? oaaae,
iaeo?ae?caoe?y aai iineaaeaiiy ae?? aeaea?aea caaaeueiiai caoaeaeaiiy

— ?ica’ycaiiy eiioe?eoo-i?e/eie neoi/aiiy aai aaeeaaiiy aeey oeueiai
ia?aeiieo caoiae?a

— eieae?coaaiiy aeaea?aea iaaaciaee, i?eieiaiiy eiai oe?aeeeaiai aieeao
ia ethaeae — a/ania (iiia?aaei?) io?eiaiiy a??ia?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i:
ni?aaaei? i?e/eie oa i?eaiaee neoi/aiiy; e?euee?noue eiai o/aniee?a;
?oi? oe?e?, iai??e, noai; nioe?aeuei? e nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee neeaaeo; iniaeeaino? oa?eoi???, aea ?ici?uo?oueny iaoiai

— caaacia/aiiy iino?eiiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ca iiaaae?ieith o/aniee?a
iaoiaioIaiaaeaiiy e?eueeino? i?enooi?o o iaoiai?- a/ania ia?ae?eooy
i?aeoiae?a a ?aeii cina?aaeaeaiiy iaoiaio

— ia?aaaaeaiiy o/aniee?a o i?noea c iaiaaeaiei aeinooiii

— aeiione i?aai?caoi??a oa aeoeaieo o/aniee?a aei i?noey neoi/aiiy c
ianooiiei ia?ae?eooyi i?aeoiae?a aeey ia?aoiaeeo- a?aeiia?aei?noue
?aae?caoe?? caoiaeo ii/aoeiaei aoaiai oi?ioaaiiy e ?icaeoeo iaoiaio
(yeiiiaa a?eueo ?aii?e /an canoinoaaiiy caoiaeo)

— iayai?noue o i?aoe?aiee?a IAN noi?iiaaii? nenoaie oyaeaiue i?i
ineoieia?/i? caeiiii??iino? oa noni?eueii iaaacia/i? aoaeoe oi?ioaaiiy e
?icaeoeo iai?aai?ciaaieo ianiaeaeieo neoi/aiueAaciina?aaei? caa?oaiiy
aei o/aniee?a iaoiaio- aeei?enoaiiy i?ioaiiy-caeeeeo caeeoeoe i?noea
iiae?? ?c aeac?aeith oeyo?a a?aeoiaeo

— ia’?eoeaia oa a??ia?aeia ?ioi?ioaaiiy i?enooi?o i?i i?e/eie neoi/aiiy,
i?i caoiaee, yeeo aoei aaeeoi

— ?ic’yniaiiy o/anieeai iiaeaeueoeo iaaacia/ieo iane?aee?a,
iiia?aaeaeaiiy i?i a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue eiaeiiai- cae?eniaiiy ia
ii/aoeiaeo aoaiao oi?ioaaiiy iaoiaio

— caaacia/aiiy i?aoe?aieeaie IAN iino?eiiai niinoa?aaeaiiy e eiio?ieth
ca neooaoe??th

— eiiiaoaioiee aea?? iniae, ui caa?oa?oueny aei i?enooi?o o iaoiai?

— iiaoaeiaa ci?noo caa?oaiiy ia iniia? cania?a aieeao noaanoeaiiai oeio
Aeei?enoaiiy cania?a ia?i???ioaoe?? oa ?iciiae?eo oaaae o/aniee?a
iaoiaio- aeei?enoaiiy i?aeneethaa/?a aeey
o?aineyoe?? oi?iai?, ?eoi?/ii? iii-ioceee aai i?aai?caoe?y aenooi?a
naiiae?yeueieo eieaeoea?a

— ?iciianthaeaeaiiy a iaoiai? “caa?iceeaeo” /ooie

— noai?aiiy ?ioaineaiiai “ooiiaiai aoaeoo” ca aeiiiiiaith i?ae?o/ieo
cania?a- caaacia/aiiy iino?eiiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ca iiaaae?ieith
o/aniee?a neoi/aiiy

— ?aae?caoe?y ia?aaaaeii ia ae?oaiio aoai? oi?ioaaiiy e ?icaeoeo iaoiaio

— ?ioaineai?noue, ni?yiiaai?noue aieeao

— ci?noiaa aiioe?ei?noue, a?aeiinia a??ia?aei?noue /ooie

— aaoi?eoaoi?noue aeaea?aea ?ioi?iaoe?? A?aee?eoa niinoa?aaeaiiy oa
o?enoaaiiy ae?e i?enooi?o o iaoiai?- a?aee?eoa aeei?enoaiiy oioi-,
e?ii-, a?aeaiaia?aoo?e

— iniaenoa caa?iaiiy aei aeoeaieo o/aniee?a

— aeieoiaiooaaiiy iniaiaeo aeaieo i?enooi?o, ci?noo
aenooi?a- ?aae?caoe?y ia ii/aoeiaeo aoaiao oi?ioaaiiy e ?icaeoeo iaoiaio

— caeo/aiiy aei cae?eniaiiy in?a, ui i?aoeththoue ia aeai?e ae?eueieoe?
(i?aaenoaaiee?a i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee, ni?a?ia?oiee?a i?e?oe??),
aeia?a a?aeiieo oa aaoi?eoaoieo aeey a?eueoino? i?enooi?oIaeo?ae?caoe?y
aeoeaiino? o/aniee?a, ye? neeaaeathoue “yae?i” iaoiaio- cao?eiaiiy,
aeeo/aiiy, ?cieyoe?y aeoeaieo o/aniee?a

— ?iaioa c oi?ciaiiy eiaeiiai c ieo

— iniaenoa caa?iaiiy aei aeoeaieo o/aniee?a

— ia?aaiai?ia ae?yeuei?noue

— eiio?i?iiaaaiaea na?aae i?enooi?o — caaacia/aiiy iino?eiiai
niinoa?aaeaiiy ca neooaoe??th, aaeaeaaoia ioe?iea ?? niaoeeo?ee

— ?aae?caoe?y o?eueee ia ii/aoeiaeo aoaiao oi?ioaaiiy iaoiaio

— iayai?noue i?aeo?eiee c aieo i?enooi?o

— niaoe?aeueia i?aeaioiaea in?a, ye? cae?eniththoue icia/ai?
caoiaeeAeei?enoaiiy i?aoe?aieeaie IAN “aoaeoo i?enoo-iino?” ia i?noe?
iiae??i?enooi?noue ia i?noe? iiae?? cia/ieo nee i?aaenoaaiee?a i?aai?a
ioi?iie i?aaiii?yaeeo o iiaiiio nii?yaeaeaii?, aeaiiino?aoe?y ieie
eiiiaoaioiino?, oiaaiaiino? i?e ?aae?caoe?? neoaeaiaeo
caaaeaiueiayai?noue o eiaeiiai i?aoe?aieea IAN iiia?aaeiuei noi?iiaaii?
ineoieia?/ii? aioiaiino?, /?oea ciaiiy nai?o ooieoe?iiaeueieo
iaia’yce?a, ?icoi?iiy cia/aiiy iaeac?a ? caaaeaiue, oiaaiai?noue o ?o
aeioe?eueiino??icn?thaaiiy

iaoiaio- ?icn?eaiiy neoi/aiiy ia ie?ai? /anoeie, cae?eniaiiy
ea??aieoeoaa ieie

— canoinoaaiiy niaoecania?a- ?aae?caoe?y iai?ee?ioe? ae?oaiai aai ia
o?aoueiio aoaiao ?icaeoeo iaoiaio

— iia?aoeai?noue, i?aai?ciaai?noue, ??oo/?noue, ocaiaeaeai?noue ae?e
i?aoe?aiee?a IAN

Caaaeath/e ia iiaoi?thaaiee oa?aeoa? ianoaaei, ye? noi?iaiaeaeothoue
cacia/ai? iaeiiiaoaioi? ae?? i?aoe?aiee?a IAN, ?o i?e/eie cai?iiiiiaaii
ia’?aeiaoe o oae? iniiai? a?oie:

1. I?e/eie, ui ii?iaeaeai?: iaaeinoaoi?noth iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaiiai
i?iaiicoaaiiy iie?oe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo, e?ei?iiaaiieo i?ioean?a o e?a?i?;
ianeaiith, ae/?eoaaeueiith iie?oeeith i?aaenoaaiee?a i?aai?a aeaaee i?e
oneeaaeiaii? iia?aoeaii? ianoaiiaee oa ?i.

2. I?e/eie, coiiaeai? i?i?aooieaie oa iaaeie?eaie ?aae?caoe?? nenoaie
iiia?aaeiuei? ?iaioe i?e i?iaaaeaii? noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo, nii?oeaieo,
aeaeiaeuieo oa ?i. ianiaeo caoiae?a.

3. I?e/eie, coiiaeai? aeeiai?/iith ae??th /eiieea iaaecia/aiino?
(a?aenooi?noue a??ia?aeii? oa iiaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i i?noea i?iaaaeaiiy
ianiaiai caoiaeo, /an, e?euee?noue ethaeae, niaoeeo?eo neeaaeo oa ?i.).

4. I?e/eie, iia’ycai? c iaaeinoai?i ianyaii ciaiue i?i caeiiii??iino?
oi?ioaaiiy, iiaeeeaino? o?ainoi?iaoe??, nioe?aeueii iaaacia/i? aoaeoe
aeyao eiaeiiai ??ciiaeaeo iaoiaio; iniaeeaino? iiaaae?iee o/aniee?a
neoi/aiiy; ineoieia?/i? oiiae aoaeoeaiino? caoiae?a ?aaoethth/iai aieeao
ia iiaaae?ieo i?enooi?o o iaoiai? oa ?i.

5. I?e/eie, iia’ycai? c iaaeinoaoi?i ??aiai noi?iiaaiino? oi?iue
ni?eeiaiiy oa aiae?co eeth/iaeo oa?aeoa?enoee iaaii? neooaoe??,
i?eeiyooy ocaiaeaeaieo ??oaiue a oiiaao aeao?oeeoo /ano, anoaiiaeaiiy
ineoieia?/iiai eiioaeoo c a?oiith ethaeae, ?aae?caoe?? aaeaeaaoii?
?ieueiai? iiaaae?iee oa ?i.

6. I?e/eie, coiiaeai? iaa?aeiia?aei?noth ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-ineoieia?/ieo
iniaeeainoae i?aoe?aiee?a aeiiaai neooaoe?? (oiane?aeie ia aeineoue
aoaeoeaiiai i?ioan?eiiai a?aeai?o, i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee,
iaii?aoeueiaaiino? nenoaie ae?aaiinoeee, i?io?eaeoeee i?ioan?eii?
aeaoi?iaoe?? i?aaiioi?iioe?a).

I?iaiae?coaaaoe i?e/eie iaeiioe?ai?oeo iaeiiiaoaioieo, iiieeeiaeo ae?e
i?aoe?aiee?a IAN, a oaeiae ineoieia?/i? aoaeoe ?o i?iyao a neooaoe??
oi?ioaaiiy e ?icaeoeo noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo ianiaeaeieo i?ioean?a,
iiaeia aecia/eoe iniiaiee ineoieia?/iee iaoai?ci aeieeiaiiy iiieeie:
a?aenooi?noue o i?aaenoaaiee?a i?aai?a ioi?iie i?aaiii?yaeeo aaeaeaaoii
noi?iiaaii? ineoieia?/ii? aioiaiino? aei ae?e o oaeeo oiiaao.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Ineoieia?/ia i?aeaioiaea i?aoe?aiee?a IAN aei
i?ioan?eieo ae?e a oiiaao aeyao nioe?aeueii iaaacia/ieo oi?i ianiaeaeii?
iiaaae?iee” aecia/aii ?? iniiai? ci?noia? iai?yie, caaea/? oa i?eioeeie.
Cie?aia i?aee?aneaii, ui ineoieia?/ia i?aeaioiaea i?aoe?aiee?a IAN, ui
caaacia/othoue ioi?iio a?iiaaenueeiai ii?yaeeo i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy
ianiaeo caoiae?a, ie??i caaaeueii? i?ia?aie i?aeaioiaee ni?a?ia?oiee?a,
iiaeiia aeeth/aoe niaoe?aeueio /anoeio. Inoaiiy neeaaea?oueny c oaeeo
iai?yi?a:

— oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie ciaiue i?i i?e/eie oa oiiae aeyao eiaeiiai c
??ciiaeae?a iaoiaio, caeiiii??iino? ?o ?icaeoeo, o?ainoi?iaoe?? a
noni?eueii iaaacia/i? oi?ie, iniaeeaino? ae?? nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo
iaoai?ci?a aieeao ia o/aniee?a, iniiai? no?oeoo?i? neeaaeia? oa
aeeiai?/i? noaie;

— oi?ioaaiiy ai?iue ? iaae/ie i?iaaaeaiiy aaeaeaaoiiai neooaoe?? cai?o
oa ioe?iee cia/oui? ?ioi?iaoe??, iaa?oioiaaiiai i?iaiicoaaiiy iiaeeeaeo
aa??aio?a ?icaeoeo iiae?e, iia?aoeaiiai i?eeiaiiy ??oaiue uiaei aeai?o
aoaeoeaieo caoiae?a aieeao ia iiaaae?ieo o/aniee?a iaaiiai neoi/aiiy;

— a?aei?aoethaaiiy ai?iue ? iaae/ie, iia’ycaieo ?c ?aae?caoe??th
aea?aiiai aa??aioo ae?e (?icaeoie ? aaeineiiaeaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo
iaae/ie, oi?iue ?aae?caoe?? ocaiaeaeaieo ae?e, iaae/ie ae?e a oiiaao
aeao?oeeoo /ano, oi?iue ? iaae/ie naiieiio?ieth oa naiiiia?e?caoe??,
oiui).

O iaaeao ?icae?eo cae?eniaii iaa?oiooaaiiy eiiieaeno ?ino?oiaioaeueieo
i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ineoieia?/ieo yeinoae, ui ? iaeiei c aieiaieo
no?oeoo?ieo eiiiiiaio?a i?ioan?eii? aioiaiino? i?aoe?aiee?a IAN aei
?ica’ycaiiy caaaeaiue c ioi?iie i?aaiii?yaeeo a oiiaao aeyao iaaacia/ii?
iiaaae?iee iaoiaio. Oi?ioaaiiy, ?icaeoie ? aaeineiiaeaiiy oeeo yeinoae
neeaaea? ci?no i?ioeano ineoieia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee i?aaiioi?iioe?a aei
ae?e a oaeeo oiiaao. Eiiieaen ?ino?oiaioaeueieo yeinoae iiaeaii
/ioe?ueia iniiaieie aeieaie: eiai?oeaiee, naii?aaoeyoe??,
eiioi?eaoeaiee, iia?aoe?iiaeueiee Aecia/aiiy iiaeaieo aeie?a cae?eniaii
ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy e?euee?nieo noaoenoe/ii cia/eieo iieaciee?a, ui
aoee io?eiai? a oiae? ?aae?caoe?? ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe
Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie ca oaiith “?ic?iaea
i?ioan?ia?ai oa eaae?o?eaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeayeeo eaoaai??e
oao?aoe?a IAN Oe?a?ie» ?acoeueoaoe yei? aeiiia?aeaeeny ea??aieoeoao IAN
Oe?a?ie (aeo. ? OA482 a?ae 15.03.96 ?., aeo. ? 222i a?ae 29.07.97 ?.) oa
ae?noaee iiceoeaio ioe?ieo.

.

O aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaii i?ia?aio o?ai?iao i?ioan?eii? ineoieia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee i?aoe?aiee?a IAN aei ae?e a oiiaao aeyao nioe?aeueii
iaaacia/ii? iiaaae?iee iaoiaio, ui aeeth/a? e?eueea ci?noiaeo aoai?a:

1. Ciaeiinoai (?aoeaen?y) c “ss” — io?eiaiiy o/anieeaie a?oie iiai?
?ioi?iaoe?? i?i naaa, ui ?iaeoue iiaeeeaei ?icoe?aiiy iaae
naiiona?aeiieaiiy, aea? ciiao aeyaeoe noa’?eoeai? aee?eaeaiiy ia?aco
“ss”, niiioea? aei ia?ainienethaaiiy oyaeaiue i?i naaa, ? iniiaith
ci?uaiiy “oieono eiio?ieth” ia aioo??oi? iaoai?cie naii?aaoeyoe??.

2. “ss”a cia/oueo nioe?aeueieo neooaoe?yo — canai?iiy o/anieeaie
o?ai?iao ineoieia?/ii eiiiaoaioieo iiaeaeae iiaaae?iee i?e aeeiiaii?
ieie oeo /e ?ioeo cae/ieo nioe?aeueieo ?ieae o cia/oueo neooaoe?yo.

3. Ciaeiinoai c ineoieia?/ieie aniaeoaie neooaoe?? aeyao iaoiaio —
oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie oyaeaiue noiniaii eeaneo?eaoe?? ianiaeaeieo oi?i
iiaaae?iee, ineoieia?/ii? niaoeeo?ee i?iyao oiai aai ?ioiai ??ciiaeaeo
iaoiaio, caeiiii??ieo ci?i o ineo?/iiio noai? eiaeiiai eiai o/anieea,
oeyo?a iiaeeeai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? iaoiaio a nioe?aeueii iaaacia/i? oi?ie
oa ?i.

4. Ciaeiinoai c ineoieia?/ieie aniaeoaie oi?aae?iiy iaaacia/iith
iiaaae?ieith iaoiaio — ?ic?iaea ineoieia?/iiai aeai?eoio ae?e a
cacia/aieo oiiaao (eiiiaoaioia ae?aaiinoeea eeth/iai? ?ioi?iaoe?? —
aiae?c oa ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y iniiaieo iieaciee?a neooaoe?? — i?iaiicoaaiiy
iiaeeeaeo aa??aio?a ?icaeoeo iiae?e oa ioe?iea eiia??iino? i?iaiico —
aea?? caoiae?a ?aaoethth/iai aieeao ia iiaaae?ieo o/aniee?a iaoiaio —
?aae?caoe?y aea?aii? iiaeae? ae?e).

5. “ss” a i?ioan?eii cia/ou?e neooaoe?? — oi?ioaaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueii?
aeeiai?/ii? iiaeae? aeeth/aii? ae?yeueiino? a neooaoe?th aeyao
iaaacia/ii? iiaaae?iee iaoiaio.

6. “Ie” ye eieaeoeaiee noa’?eo i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? — oi?ioaaiiy
aeeiai?/ii? iiaeae? eieaeoeaii? (eiiaiaeii?) ae?yeueiino? o/aniee?a
a?oie ?c ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioan?eieo caaaeaiue.

Aei nenoaie iniiaieo ai?aa o?ai?iao cai?iiiiiaaii aeeth/eoe e?eueea a?oi
(?enoiie 2).

C iaoith ia?aa??ee aoaeoeaiino? cai?iiiiiaaieo iaa/aeueii-oi?ioth/eo
oaoiieia?e aoei i?iaaaeaii aii??e/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?ioeaaeo?a yeiai
aeeth/aea /ioe?e noaae??: 1) ineoiae?aaiinoe/ia ianoaaeaiiy eo?naio?a
ia?oeo eo?n?a aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe IAN Oe?a?ie c iaoith onoiaiiy
aeao?oeeoo ia’?eoeaii? ineoieia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey iaa?oioiaaiiai
i?aeai?o o?ai?iaiaeo i?ioeaaeo?, aaeaeaaoieo ii/aoeiaiio aoaiia?
cae?eniaiiy i?ioan?eii? ineoieia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee i?aoe?aiee?a IAN;
2) iiia?aaeiy ae?aaiinoeea 76 aeioneieo eo?n?a ? 66 ?yaeiaeo a?eoe?a
“Aa?eooa” c iaoith io?eiaiiy e?euee?nieo aeaieo aeey oe?eueiaiai
eiiieaeooaaiiy o?ai?iaiaeo a?oi, ia?aa??ee ?aeaaaioiino? cai?iiiiiaaieo
i?ioeaaeo?, oaeineiiaeaiiy niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ni?yiiaaiino? i?ia?aie,
oi?ioaaiiy eiiaiae oe?eueiaiai i?ecia/aiiy; 3) aea??eiaa ?aae?caoe?y
oe?eueiaeo i?ioeaaeo? o?ai?iao ineoieia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee ??cieo
eaoaai??e i?aoe?aiee?a IAN aei ae?e a oiiaao aeyao nioe?aeueii
iaaacia/ieo oi?i ianiaeaeii? iiaaae?iee ca?aeii c cai?iiiiiaaiith iaie
i?ia?aiith; 4) iiaoi?ia ae?aaiinoeea i?aaenoaaiee?a iaio aeacaieo a?oi c
iaoith ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a aei ? i?ney cae?eniaiiy
oe?eueiaiai oi?ioth/iai aieeao aeey aecia/aiiy iayaiino? aai
a?aenooiino? c?ooaiue o ineoiae?aaiinoe/ieo iieacieeao aei?iaoaaieo.

Iaea?aeai? ia ia?o?e noaae?? ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue i?i iaaaeueio
iaiao?aei?noue ?aae?caoe?? ie?aieo iiaeoe?a o?ai?iao i?ioan?eii?
ineoieia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee eo?naio?a aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe IAN Oe?a?ie
ua ia ia?oiio eo?n? iaa/aiiy, ui aeanoue ciiao ia o?eueee ?icii/aoe
oe?eueiaa oi?ioaaiiy ineoieia?/ii? aioiaiino? aei ae?e o i?ioan?eii
cia/oueo neooaoe?yo, o oiio /ene? aei ?aae?caoe?? caaaeaiue c ioi?iie
a?iiaaenueeiai ii?yaeeo, aea e cia/ii iieaaoeoue i?ioean ii/aoeiai?
i?ioan?eii? aaeaioaoe??, i?enei?eoue nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/io
aaeaioaoe?th eiaeiiai a iaa/aeuei?e a?oi?.

C?noaaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a, iaea?aeaieo “aei” ? “i?ney” aea??eiai?
?aae?caoe?? oe?eueiaeo iiaeoe?a o?ai?iao ineoieia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee
aeyaeaii /?oeo oaiaeaioe?th aei aa?iii?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai
iiaaae?ieiaiai iaoa?io acaaae? ?, cie?aia, ca?eueoaiiy eiai
a?aeiia?aeiino? aeiiaai, ui aenoaathoueny neooaoe??th aeyao nioe?aeueii
iaaacia/ii? iiaaae?iee iaoiaio. Iayai?noue ae?aaeaieo ci?i o “i?io?e?
iniaenoino?” oiane?aeie ?aae?caoe?? oe?eueiaiai oi?ioth/iai aieeao
na?ae/eoue i?i ae?eia?noue oa aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaeaii? i?ia?aie
o?ai?iao i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee i?aoe?aiee?a IAN c iaoith oi?ioaaiiy
ineoieia?/ii? aioiaiino? aei ?ica’ycaiiy neoaeaiaeo caaaeaiue.

?en. 2. Iniiai? a?oie ai?aa o?ai?iao ineoieia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee
i?aoe?aiee?a IAN aei ae?e a oiiaao aeyao iaaacia/ii? iiaaae?iee iaoiaio

Ae?aaeai?noue aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai oa?aeoa?o iniaeno?nieo ci?i o eiaei?e
c a?oi i?ney ?aae?caoe?? oe?eueiaiai oi?ioth/iai aieeao i?aeoaa?aeaeo?
aaeaeaaoi?noue cai?iiiiiaaiiai iaie aea??eiaiai aeei?enoaiiy o?ai?iaiaeo
i?ioeaaeo?, i???ioiaaieo ia ci?noiao niaoeeo?eo i?aeaioiaee ??cieo
eaoaai??e i?aoe?aiee?a IAN (caeaaeii a?ae aeyaeaiiai ii/aoeiaiai ??aiy
ineoieia?/ii? aioiaiino? ? niaoe?ae?caoe?? i?ioan?eieo ooieoe?e, ui
aeeiiothoueny ieie ia i?noe? eiie?aoii? iiae??).

O aeniiaeao a?aeia?aaeaii i?aenoiee i?iaaaeaiiai oai?aoe/iiai e
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?acoeueoaoe yeiai a?aeiia?aeathoue
iinoaaeai?e iao? e aenoiooei caaaeaiiyi, aecia/ai? ia?niaeoeae
iiaeaeueoi? ?iaioe. Ocaaaeueiaiiy aeaieo aeena?oaoe?? aeaei iiaeeea?noue
c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee:

1. O oai??? oa i?aeoeoe? th?eaee/ii? ineoieia?? ?nio? iaa?oioiaaia
iio?aaa aea/aiiy i?iaeaie ineoieia?/ieo iaoai?ci?a aeieeiaiiy e
?aaoeyoe?? nioe?aeueii iaaacia/ieo i?iya?a iiaaae?iee iaoiaio.

2. ?c iiaeyaeo ?ica’ycaiiy caaaeaiue c ioi?iie a?iiaaenueeiai ii?yaeeo
aeaea?oueny cia/ouei, ui iiaaae?iea ie?aii? ethaeeie o neeaae?
ianiaeaeiiai neoi/aiiy, ia i?noeoue aaciina?aaeiuei? caa?ice. Aaaeeeaee
naia oaeo eiioeaio?aoe?? aaeeei? e?eueeino? aiioe?eii caoaeaeaieo
ethaeae a iaiaaeaiiio i?inoi??, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei aeoea?caoe??
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo iaoai?ci?a aieeao ia i?enooi?o. Inoaii?
iaieio/a coiiaeth? caeiiii??i? ci?ie o ineo?/iiio noai? eiaeiiai c ieo,
nooo?ai o?ainoi?io? ?oith iiaaae?ieo ? iiaea ni?e/eieoe ?icaeoie
noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo ianiaeaeieo i?ioean?a.

3. Aeieeiaiiy nioe?aeueii iaaacia/ieo iane?aee?a iaea?eueo ?iia??ia i?e
iayaiino? oiai /e ?ioiai ??ciiaeaeo ae?th/iai (o ia?oo /a?ao
aa?aneaiiai) iaoiaio, ine?eueee naia a oaeeo ianoaaeiao iiaeeeaee
?icaeoie iaea?iaaieo ianiaeaeieo i?ioean?a. Iaeiae ne?ae caaaeaoe ia
niaoeeo?/i? aeanoeaino? aeiaaeeiaiai, aeni?aneaiiai, eiiaaioe?iiaeueiiai
neoi/aiiy ? iaa?oue ioae?ee, ye? ca iayaiino? iaaieo oiia iiaeooue
coiiaeoe aeeiai?/io o?ainoi?iaoe?th eiaeii? c iacaaieo oi?i aeyao
ianiaeaeii? aeoeaiino? o ??ciiaeae ae?th/iai iaoiaio, ni?iaieoaaoe
ii?ooaiiy i?aaiii?yaeeo.

4. Iacaeaaeii a?ae oiai, nii/aoeo iayaiee aa?aneaiee iaoiai /e oa aai
?ioa neoi/aiiy iinooiiai aai ?aioiai o?ainoi?io?oueny o iueiai,
aeyaeythoueny ? ae?thoue ?aeei? nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? caeiiii??iino?
oa iaoai?cie, o?aooaaiiy yeeo iaia’yceiaa i?e aeai?? no?aoaa?? e oaeoeee
ae?e i?aoe?aiee?a IAN. Naia oiio aiie iiaeii? noaoe neeaaeiaith
i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee i?aaiioi?iioe?a, yea ia? ia iao? oi?ioaaiiy ia
o?eueee i?aaiai?, aiaiaai?, oaeoeei-niaoe?aeueii?, o?ce/ii?, aea
iaia’yceiai — ineoieia?/ii? aioiaiino? aei ae?e a oiiaao aeyao
nioe?aeueii iaaacia/ieo oi?i ianiaeaeii? iiaaae?iee.

5. *eiieee, ui coiiaeththoue i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy iaoiaio ? iiaaae?ieo
i?enooi?o o iueiio ethaeae, neeaaeathoue o?e iniiai? a?oie:
nioe?ieia?/i?, nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i?, ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-ineoieia?/i?.
I?ae noeoiiei aieeaii cacia/aieo /eiiee?a ineo?/iee noai eiaeiiai
?iaeea?aea o neeaae? iaoiaio cacia? caeiiii??ieo ci?i, eiai aeoiee e
ii/oooy ii/eiathoue cia/ii a?ae??ciyoeny a?ae cae/ieo o neooaoe?yo
iianyeaeaiiiai aeeooy. Nooi?iue ae?aaeaiino? ci?i iiaea aooe
??ciiiai?oiei: a?ae iacae/aeiino? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aiioe?eieo i?iya?a
aei iiaii? ao?aoe ni?iiiaeiino? naiieiio?ieth.

6. *eiieee oi?ioaaiiy e ?icaeoeo iaoiaio, niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? eiai
??ciiaeae?a, ?o no?oeoo?i? neeaaeia? oa iniiai? aeeiai?/i? noaie — oea
aeaiaioe nenoaie ineoieia?/ieo ?iaeeeaoi??a ae?aaiinoeee nioe?aeueii
iaaacia/ii? iiaaae?iee iaoiaio. Eiiiaoaioia oa nai?/ania aeae?eaiiy
eiiieaeno ?iaeeeaoi??a i?ae /an eiie?aoieo iiae?e caaacia/o?:
aaeaeaaoi?noue ioe?iee iayaiino? iaaacia/ieo iciae neooaoe??;
iaa?oioiaai?noue i?iaiic?a iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo iiae?e; aoaeoeai?noue
aeai?o oa cae?eniaiiy caoiae?a ?aaoethth/iai aieeao ye ia iiaaae?ieo
iaoiaio caaaeii, oae ? ia iiaaae?ieo eiai ie?aieo o/aniee?a; aecia/aiiy
ineoieia?/ieo oiia aoaeoeaiino? eiaeiiai caoiaeo.

7. Ia iniia? ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co aeina?aeo i?ioan?eieo ae?e
i?aoe?aiee?a IAN a oiiaao aeyao nioe?aeueii iaaacia/ieo oi?i ianiaeaeii?
iiaaae?iee aecia/aii iniiaiee ineoieia?/iee iaoai?ci aeieeiaiiy
iaea?eueo ?iciianthaeaeaieo iaeiiiaoaioieo, iiieeeiaeo ae?e —
a?aenooi?noue o i?aaiioi?iioe?a aaeaeaaoii noi?iiaaii? ineoieia?/ii?
aioiaiino? aei ?ica’ycaiiy neoaeaiaeo caaaeaiue o oaeeo neooaoe?yo.

8. Iaeiei ?c aieiaieo no?oeoo?ieo eiiiiiaio?a i?ioan?eii? aioiaiino?
i?aoe?aiee?a IAN aei ?ica’ycaiiy caaaeaiue c ioi?iie a?iiaaenueeiai
ii?yaeeo a oiiaao aeyao nioe?aeueii iaaacia/ii? iiaaae?iee iaoiaio ?
eiiieaen ?ino?oiaioaeueieo i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ineoieia?/ieo yeinoae, ui
aeeth/a? oae? iniiai? aeiee: eiai?oeaiee, naii?aaoeyoe??, eiioi?eaoeaiee
oa iia?aoe?iiaeueiee. Oi?ioaaiiy, ?icaeoie ? aaeineiiaeaiiy oeeo yeinoae
— iniiaiee ci?no ineoieia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee i?aaiioi?iioe?a aei
eiiiaoaioieo ae?e ?c iiia?aaeaeaiiy ?icaeoeo noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo
ianiaeaeieo i?ioean?a.

9. ?c iaoith oe?eueiaiai oi?ioaaiiy cacia/aiiai eiiieaeno
?ino?oiaioaeueieo yeinoae ?ic?iaeaii e ai?iaiaaii i?ia?aio o?ai?iao
i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee i?aoe?aiee?a IAN, ui ni?yiiaaia ia oe?eueiaa
oi?ioaaiiy ineoieia?/ii? aioiaiino? aei ?ica’ycaiiy neoaeaiaeo caaaeaiue
a oioaao aeyao nioe?aeueii iaaacia/ii? iiaaae?iee iaoiaio. Iaea?aeai?
iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe uiaei ae?eiaino? oa aoaeoeaiino? cai?iiiiiaaieo
iaa/aeueii-oi?ioth/eo oaoiieia?e. Aii??e/ii iaa?oioiaaii aea??eia?noue
aeei?enoaiiy oe?eueiaeo o?ai?iaiaeo i?ioeaaeo?, i???ioiaaieo ia ci?noiao
niaoeeo?eo i?aeaioiaee ??cieo eaoaai??e i?aoe?aiee?a IAN caeaaeii a?ae
ii/aoeiaiai ??aiy aioiaiino? ? niaoe?ae?caoe?? ooieoe?e, ui
aeeiiothoueny ieie aaciina?aaeiuei a neooaoe?? aeyao iaaacia/ii?
iiaaae?iee iaoiaio. 

10. Eieii ieoaiue, ui ?icaeyaeaeeny a iao?e ?iaio?, iiaeeeaino?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie ineoieia?/ieo iaoai?ci?a aeieeiaiiy e ?aaoeyoe??
nioe?aeueii iaaacia/ieo i?iya?a iiaaae?iee iaoiaio ia ae/a?iothoueny.
Ieaio?oueny i?iaeiaaeaiiy ?iaioe o oeueiio iai?yio c iaoith iiaeeaeaiiy
oai?aoe/ieo oyaeaiue ? aaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?? iaa/aeueii-oi?ioth/iai
aieeao, i?ecia/aiiai aeey cae?eniaiiy i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a, ui caeaoi?
?aae?ciaoaaoe ineoieia?/ia caaacia/aiiy ae?yeueiino? i?aoe?aiee?a IAN o
eiie?aoieo oiiaao aeyao nioe?aeueii iaaacia/ieo oi?i ianiaeaeii?
iiaaae?iee.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii a ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

1. Aeaye? nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? oaiiiaie iaoiaio // Iaoa??aee
?anioae. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. “I?aeoe/ia ineoieia?y a i?aaiao aioo??oi?o
ni?aa”. — E.: Aeae-ai Ee?anueeiai ?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie. —
1995. — N. 56-60.

2. Nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ia niaoeeo?ea neooaoe?? oi?ioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo
iaoiaio // A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.
Nioe?ieia?y. Ineoieia?y. Iaaeaaia?ea. — Aei. 3. — E.: Aeae-ai
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. — 1997. — N. 27-35.

3. TH?eaee/ia ineoieia?y (aeueaii noai c eiiaioa?yie): Iaa/. iin?aiee. —
E.: Aeae-ai IAANO. — 1997. — N. 33-37, 40-56.

4. Neiaiee oa?i?i?a c th?eaee/ii? ineoieia?? // I?ae. ?aae.
ss.TH. Eiiae?aoue?aa. — E.: Aeae-ai IAANO. — 1997. — N. 50-62, 67-83.

5. Aeaoi?iaoe?y i?ioan?eia // TH?eaee/ia aioeeeeiiaae?y. – E.: Aeae-ai
“Oe?a?inueea aioeeeeiiaae?y” ?i. I.I. Aaaeaia, 1999. – O.2. – N.22.

6.  Caaaeaiiy oa iniiai? iai?yie i?ioan?eii? ineoieia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee
i?aoe?aiee?a IAN aei ae?e a oiiaao iaoiaio // A?niee Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. Nioe?ieia?y. Ineoieia?y.
Iaaeaaia?ea. — Aei. 7. — E.: Aeae-ai Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. — 1999. —
N.35-47.

Ai?iaeiaa ?.TH. Ineoieia?/ia caaacia/aiiy ae?yeueiino? i?aoe?aiee?a IAN
a oiiaao aeyao nioe?aeueii iaaacia/ii? iiaaae?iee iaoiaio. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ineoieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 19.00.06 — th?eaee/ia ineoieia?y. —
Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? aiae?cothoueny ineoieia?/i? iaoai?cie
aeieeiaiiy e ?aaoeyoe?? nioe?aeueii iaaacia/ieo i?iya?a iiaaae?iee
iaoiaio. Iiaeaii ocaaaeueiaio nenoaio ineoieia?/ieo ?iaeeeaoi??a ?o
ae?aaiinoeee, ui ? iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaee iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo
ineoieia?/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei oiia aoaeoeaiino? caoiae?a ?c
iiia?aaeaeaiiy oa i?eieiaiiy ?icaeoeo noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo ianiaeaeieo
i?ioean?a. Aecia/aii oa iaa?oioiaaii eiiieaen ?ino?oiaioaeueieo
i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ineoieia?/ieo yeinoae i?aoe?aiee?a IAN, iaiao?aeieo
aeey eiiiaoaioiiai ?ica’ycaiiy neoaeaiaeo caaaeaiue ?c caaacia/aiiy
ioi?iie i?aaiii?yaeeo a oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy e ?icaeoeo ae?th/iai
(ianaiia?aae aa?aneaiiai) iaoiaio. I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a iaa?oiooaaii?, ?ic?iaoe? e
ai?iaaoe?? o?ai?iao i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee ??cieo eaoaai??e
i?aoe?aiee?a IAN, ui ni?yiiaaiee ia oe?eueiaa oi?ioaaiiy ?oiuei?
ineoieia?/ii? aioiaiino? aei ae?e a oiiaao aeyao nioe?aeueii iaaacia/ieo
oi?i ianiaeaeii? iiaaae?iee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: nioe?aeueii iaaacia/i? oi?ie ianiaeaeii? iiaaae?iee,
ae?th/ee iaoiai, aa?aneaiee iaoiai, nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? ?iaeeeaoi?e
ae?aaiinoeee iiaaae?iee iaoiaio, ineoieia?/i? oiiae aoaeoeaiino?
?aaoethth/iai aieeao ia nioe?aeueii iaaacia/i? i?iyae iiaaae?iee
iaoiaio, ineoieia?/ia aioiai?noue i?aoe?aiee?a IAN aei ae?e a oiiaao
aeyao nioe?aeueii iaaacia/ieo oi?i ianiaeaeii? iiaaae?iee.

Ai?iaueaaa E.TH. Ineoieiae/aneia iaania/aiea aeayoaeueiinoe ?aaioieeia
IAAe a oneiaeyo i?iyaeaiey nioeeaeueii iianiiai iiaaaeaiey oieiu. —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa ineoieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 19.00.06 — th?eaee/aneay ineoieiaey. —
Iaoeeiiaeueiay aeaaeaiey aioo?aiieo aeae Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiii enneaaeiaaiee aiaeece?othony ineoieiae/aneea
iaoaieciu aicieeiiaaiey e ?aaoeyoeee nioeeaeueii iianiuo i?iyaeaiee
iiaaaeaiey oieiu. A ?aaioa i?aaenoaaeaia iaiauaiiay nenoaia
nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneeo eiaeeeaoi?ia eo aeeaaiinoeee, eioi?ay
iineoaeeea iniiaie aeey ?ac?aaioee iao/ii iainiiaaiiuo ineoieiae/aneeo
?aeiiaiaeaoeee ioiineoaeueii oneiaee yooaeoeaiinoe ia? ii
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieth e i?ana/aieth ?acaeoey iauanoaaiii iianiuo
ianniaeaeiuo i?ioeannia. I?aaeeiaeai e iainiiaai eiiieaen
eino?oiaioaeueiuo i?ioanneiiaeueii cia/eiuo ineoieiae/aneeo ea/anoa
?aaioieeia IAAe, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey eiiiaoaioiiai ?aoaiey caaea/ ii
iaania/aieth io?aiu i?aaiii?yaeea a oneiaeyo oi?ie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey
aeaenoaothuae (i?aaeaea anaai aa?anneaiie) oieiu. I?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea
iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia enneaaeiaaiey ninoieo a iainiiaaiee, ?ac?aaioea
e ai?iaaoeee o?aieiaa i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee ?acee/iuo eaoaai?ee
?aaioieeia IAAe aeey oeaeaaiai oi?ie?iaaiey o ieo ineoieiae/aneie
aioiaiinoe e aeaenoaeyi a neooaoeeyo i?iyaeaiey nioeeaeueii iianiuo oi?i
ianniaeaeiiai iiaaaeaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: nioeeaeueii iianiua oi?iu ianniaeaeiiai iiaaaeaiey,
aeaenoaothuay oieia, aa?anneaiay oieia, nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneea
eiaeeeaoi?u aeeaaiinoeee iiaaaeaiey oieiu, ineoieiae/aneea oneiaey
yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaoee?othuaai aicaeaenoaey ia nioeeaeueii iianiia
iiaaaeaiea oieiu, ineoieiae/aneay aioiaiinoue ?aaioieeia IAAe e
aeaenoaeyi a neooaoeeyo i?iyaeaiey nioeeaeueii iianiuo oi?i
ianniaeaeiiai iiaaaeaiey.

Vorobyova I.U. Psychological support of activity of law enforcement
bodies personnel in the conditions of socially dangerous crowd behavior.
— Manuscript.

Thesis for candidate degree in Psychological Science by speciality
19.00.06 – juridical psychology. — National Academy of Internal Affairs
of Ukraine, Kiev, 1999.

The thesis analyses psychological mechanisms of origin and regulation of
socially dangerous crowd phenomena. It represents a generalized system
of socio-psychological indicators for their diagnosis, which serves as a
basis for development of scientifically founded psychological
recommendations as to conditions when the personnel of the law
enforcement bodies effectively realizes the measures for prevention and
stopping the development of socially dangerous mass-like processes. The
study proposes and substantiates the complex of instrumental
professionally significant qualities of law enforcement bodies personnel
which are necessary for competent fulfilment of law and order
preservation tasks in the conditions when there forms and develops an
active (first of all aggressive) crowd. The practical significance of
results obtained consists in substantiating, development and testing a
training for professional preparation of various categories of law
enforcement bodies personnel, so as to purposefully form in them a
psychological readiness to act in situations when socially dangerous
forms of mass-like behavior are manifested.

Key words: socially dangerous forms of mass-like behavior, acting crowd,
aggressive crowd, socio-psychological indicators for crowd behavior
diagnosis, psychological conditions for effective realization of
regulating influence on socially dangerous crowd actions, psychological
readiness of personnel for actions in the situations when socially
dangerous forms of mass-like behavior are manifested.

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