Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

OAeE [339.727:339.924]+330.01

Aaa?eethe Ieaa A?eoi?iae/

I?ssIA ?IICAIIA ?IAANOOAAIIss O

NA?OIAINIIAeA?NUeEEO I?IOeANAO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.01.01 – aeiiii?/ia oai??y

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? i?iaeai ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?
?inoeoooo na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio : aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iai/aiei ?aaai A?eai?iae/,

aeeiiaa/ee aee?aeoi? I?aeia?iaeii? oeiee a?ciano i?e Iaoe?iiaeueiiio
oi?aa?neoao? “Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea Aeaaeai?y»

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe : aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

aeaaeai?e IAI Oe?a?ie

*oia/aiei Ieeiea A?eai?iae/,

?aaeiee I?aceae?? IAI Oe?a?ie

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie

Naa/oe Aieiaeeie? Nao?iiiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iie?oe/ii? aeiiii?? Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Noi?oi Aieiaeeie? Ieaen?eiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii? oai??? Aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? eaaei?
i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa : ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie,

a?aeae?e aoaeoeaiino? ?iaanoeoe?e ?

a?aeoai?aiiy iniiaieo oiiae?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 2 ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo i 1400 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.13 a Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252022, i.Ee?a, aoe.
Aaneeuee?anueea, 90-a, aoae. 704.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252033, i.Ee?a, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58, e?i. 10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 26 ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I. I. Eaiiaiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Na?aae oe?ieiai eiea ieoaiue, ui
?icaeyaeathoueny na?oiaith aeiiii?/iith oai???th, i?iaeaiaoeea
?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue iaeaaeeoue aei
iaea?eueo nooo?aeo. Aiia oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaia a aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo??
ye naiino?eiee ia’?eo ? a ?aieao aea/aiiy aeiaaeueieo i?ioean?a.
Iaiao?aei?noue iiaeaeueoiai oai?aoe/iiai inieneaiiy ?? no/anieo aniaeo?a
coiiaeaia iiyaith iiaeo oaiaeaioe?e a ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe??
ainiiaea?nueeeo i?ioean?a ? iiaeo ia’?eo?a ?iaanooaaiiy – e?a?i
ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee, i?aeaeuaiiyi cia/ouino? e?a?i, ui ?icaeaathoueny,
aea?aeaieia?caoe??th i?aeia?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ?,
a?aeiia?aeii, a?aeiiaith a?ae iiae?eo na?oo ia aea? i?ioeeaaei? nenoaie.

Cia/aiiy oaie aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaii iaiao?aei?noth aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeina?aeo i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa o ca’yceo c eo?nii Oe?a?ie ia
aeoeai?oo ?ioaa?aoe?th a na?oiaee iiae?e i?aoe?, ui cae?enith?oueny ia
aaaaoinoi?iii?e iniia? oa ??cieo ??aiyo: aenii?oo-?iii?oo, ?ooo
aeiaaino?ieiaeo eai?oae?a, oaoiieia??, aaie?anueeeo eai?oae?a oiui;
c’ynoaaiiy ?ie? ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e a i?ioean? o?ainoi?iaoe?? ??
aeiiii?ee oa iaa?oiooaaiiy iai?yi?a iioei?caoe?? ?o aeei?enoaiiy.

Nueiaiaei? aiae?c na?oiaiai ainiiaea?noaa oa iai?io iaiiaeeeaee aac
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiaae?caoe??, iaea?eueo ?noioiei i?iyaii yei? ? oaeaeea
ca?eueoaiiy ianyao i?yiiai ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy. C ii/aoeo 80-o ??.
ui??/i? oaiie eiai c?inoaiiy aaaiii ia?aaeuoaaee oaiie c?inoaiiy
na?oiaiai aaeiaiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoo, noeoiieo iaoe?iiaeueieo
?iaanoeoe?e oa aenii?oo, ui noaei iaeiei c ae??oaeueieo oaeoi??a
iiaeaeueoiai iiaeeaeaiiy i?aeia?iaeiiai iiae?eo i?aoe?, na?oiai?
aeiaae?caoe??, e?aa?ae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee. Iniaeea?noth no/anieo
na?oiainiiaea?nueeeo i?ioean?a ? iineeaiiy ?ooo eai?oae?a (ii??aiyii c
o?aaeeoe?eiith oi?iith – ciai?oiueith oi?a?aeath), caaaeueia i?aeaeuaiiy
?ie? i?yiiai ?iaanooaaiiy, yea aaea aecia/a? ianooaae oi?aiaaeueieo
iioie?a ? aieeaa? ia ?io? oi?ie ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? aca?iiae??. Ca
ianyaaie iinoaaie oiaa??a ? iineoa ia ca?oa?aei? ?eiee i?yi? ?iicaii?
?iaanoeoe?? (I??) ia?aaeueee oi?a?aeth, nai? ?eiee iaaoaathoue a?eueo
aeiaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, ae?yeuei?noue o?ainiaoe?iiaeueieo ei?ii?aoe?e
i?eaiaeeoue aei aca?iic?iuoaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo ae?iaie/eo iioaioe?ae?a
? ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoai ?ioaa?iaaiiai i?aeia?iaeiiai ae?iaieoeoaa
ei?ii?aoe?e, aeeth/ath/e ?o nithce.

Oe? ooiaeaiaioaeuei? no?oeoo?i? ci?ie ii?iaeaeothoue iiaee i?aeo?ae aei
aea/aiiy ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy oa eiai aieeao ia aeiiii?eo e?a?i
aeeaaeaiiy eai?oaeo ? aacoaaiiy, iiaeeaeaiiy aeai- oa aaaaoinoi?iii?o
?iaanoeoe?eieo a?aeiinei. Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy oea ia? aeey e?a?i
ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee c oi/ee ci?o caaacia/aiiy ?ano?n?a ? oaoiieia?e
aeey ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? ? i?aeia?iaeii? eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?.
Ci?ia eiio?ao?aoe?? ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? oa ?iaanoeoe?e i?eaaea aei
oiai, ui eiieo?aioe?y aeaaeae? a?eueoa cae?enith?oueny /a?ac
?iaanoeoe??. Iio?aaothoue a?aooaaiiy inoaii? oaiaeaioe?? a ?aaoethaaii?
?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy, aaia?iaai?, c iaeiiai aieo, aeiaae?caoe??th
na?oiai? aeiiii?ee oa iiaeie iiaeeeainoyie /eiaiiy iaaaoeaiiai aoaeoo ia
aeiiii?eo i?eeiath/eo e?a?i ? ii?iaeueio ae?yeuei?noue iaoe?iiaeueieo
o??i ca ?aooiie aioeeiieo?aioii? i?aeoeee ?iaanoi??a, – c ?ioiai.

Aeooae?co?oueny aca?iiae?y c ?iicaiiei eai?oaeii e?a?i ia?ao?aeii?
aeiiii?ee oa Oe?a?ie. Eieeoi?e iaaiein o ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/i?e no?aoaa??
ia ?icaeoeo ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? iiynith? oai?aoe/io oa i?aeoe/io
i??i?eoaoi?noue inoaiiuei? ii??aiyii c ?ioeie oi?iaie aeiiii?/iiai
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa. Iiaa ?ieue ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e ioneoue aooe
a?aoiaaia i?e ia?aaoaeia? no?oeoo?e aeiiii?ee, ae??oaii? ia?oi/a?aiaeo
caaaeaiue, ia? ni?eyoe aoiaeaeaiith iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai
eiiieaeno a na?oiainiiaea?nueea na?aaeiaeua.

Aea?aeaieia?caoe?y i?aeia?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ni?e/eieea ci?io
i??i?eoao?a o no/anieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo. I?oiaeienaeuei? e?eoeee
i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa oa oai??? “eiiaa?aaioe??” aaeueioaaee
?icaeoie a?o/eciyii? oai??? oa i?aeoeee. Iinooethth/e iaieio/o
ni?ao/anoue o eai?oae?noe/i?e aenieoaoaoe??, a?aeiiao a?ae
nioe?ae?noe/ieo i?eioeei?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy oa iiaeeea?noue ao?aoe
aeiiii?/ii? iacaeaaeiino?, aiie caaaeaee oeiaee ni?a?ia?oieoeoao c
?iicaiiei eai?oaeii. Oiio oaia?, eiee oaea ni?a?ia?oieoeoai noaei
iaa?ae’?iiei eiiiiiaioii ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, aaea iio??aii
ia aeiaiaeeoe eiai cia/ou?noue, a ooeaoe oeyo?a iioeiaeueiiai iia’ycaiiy
iaoai?cio ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, ui oi?io?oueny, c oiiaaie
na?oiaiai ?eieo, i?aai?/iiai ii?aeiaiiy caaaeaiue i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? iaoe?iiaeueiiai ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno c
?ioa?anaie ?iicaiieo ia?oia??a. Iiee ui iaoa e?a?ia neaai aaoaeiaaia a
nenoaio i?aeia?iaeiiai iiae?eo i?aoe?, a ?? aeiaaino?ieia? i??i?eoaoe
?ioaa?aoe?? iaaeinoaoiuei iaa?oioiaai? ? i?aeoe/ii aeeeth/ai? c ?aae?e
ainiiaea?nueei? iie?oeee.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie iieyaa? a iaiao?aeiino? caaaa/aiiy aeiiii?/ii?
oai??? ca ?aooiie ia?aona?aeiieaiiy, aaeaeaaoiiai inieneaiiy oa
a?aeia?aaeaiiy iiaeeo?eaoe?? oiia, oaiaeaioe?e oa ia?aa?oioaaiiy
oaeoi??a, ui aeaoa?i?iothoue i?yia ?iaanooaaiiy ia ??ai? i?aeia?iaeieo
aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei oa oi?ioethaaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei ?o
canoinoaaiiy.

Na?oiaa aeiiii?/ia e?eca, ui ii/aeany ae?oeo 1997 ?., aianea iaai?
ei?aeoeae aei ioe?iee no/anieo na?oiainiiaea?nueeeo i?ioean?a, i?ioa ia
ci?ieea aeii?iaio, ye? ?aaoeththoue i?iaaaeaiiy i?yiiai ?iaanooaaiiy.

Nooi?iue ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. Ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo oa ?aaoethaaiiy ?iicaiiiai
?iaanooaaiiy iino?eii ciaoiaeyoueny a iie? ci?o aaaaoueio aeine?aeiee?a.
I?ioa ?i caaaeii i?eoaiaiiee aiae?c aeineoue aocueeiai eiea aniaeo?a, ui
ia’?eoeaii iiynith?oueny eiiieaeniei oa?aeoa?ii i?iaeaie.

C aeayeeo iniiaieo oai?aoe/ieo oa i?aeoe/ieo ?? iai?yi?a o na?oia?e
aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? ? aaaii? iaoeia? aeinyaiaiiy. ?noioiee aeeaae o
?o ?ic?iaeo c?iaeee niaoe?ae?noe c i?aeia?iaeieo aaethoii-o?iainiaeo oa
e?aaeeoieo ieoaiue – ?.Ae?aa?, Ae.Eaoiai, ?.Iaiaeaee (NOA); i?iaeai
iae?i- oa i?e?iaeiiii?/ieo i?aeoiae?a o aeai?e ieiuei? – E.Eiaec?ia,
O.Icaaa (ssiii?y) /e aiae?co ci?i o ae?iaieoeoa? oa niiaeeaaii? ie?aieo
oiaa??a – ?.Aa?iii, E.Oaeen (NOA); ui i?aoeththoue iaae iiaeeeainoyie
aeueoa?iaoeaiiai aeai?o uiaei cae?eniaiiy ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy –
N.O??o, O.Oi?no (NOA); c’yniaothoue aca?iica’ycie iie?oe/ii?
noaa?eueiino? c aeiiii?/ieie /eiieeaie – Ae.Iae, A.O?ia, A.O?ae,
O.Oiaeaea?, O.Oieeoaiia? (NOA); noa?a ?ioa?an?a yeeo ciaoiaeeoueny o
aea/aii? iiyae iiaeo oi?i i?yieo ?iaanoeoe?e, ui caeaaeaoue a?ae
?ici???a o??ie, noaio aaeocae oa e?a?i aacoaaiiy – I.Eannii, ?.A?aeae?
oa N.ssia (NOA) aai aiae?co iaaeoe?iia?ieo oi?i i?yieo ?iaanoeoe?e a
caeaaeiino? a?ae aeaeo i?iaeoeo?a ? oa?aeoa?enoee ca?oa?aeiiai ?eieo –
A.?aaiai (NOA); ?iaioe oao?aoe?a c ?iicaiiiai aeeaanooaaiiy –
Aeae.Aiaeaeaa?i, ?.Oi?iaaeaia, A.A?eniia (NOA). ?ic?iaeo caaaeueieo
iieiaeaiue aeaii? i?iaeaiaoeee cae?enieee I.Iaeaea?iioo (NOA),
N.Iaia?ae? (?oae?y), N.Eaooo, A.AEaeiai, ?.Naiae?aooi (O?aioe?y) oa
?io?.

I?ioa, ia i?eiaiooth/e iaoeiaiai cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiue aeuacaaaeaieo
aaoi??a, iaiao?aeii iaaieineoe, ui aieiaio ?ieue o c’ynoaaii? i?e/ei
?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy a?ae?a?aee eiioeaioe?? o?ueio oao?aoe?a.
N.Oaeia? (NOA) iiyniea eiai ?aaoethth/ei aieeaii iayaieo (niaoeeo?/ieo)
ia?aaaa o??i. Aeae.Aeaii?ia (NOA), aeeaeoe/ia oai??y yeiai neoao?
iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith iaa?oiooaaiiy oa ?aaoethaaiiy ?iicaiiiai
?iaanooaaiiy caaaeyee iayaiino? o o??ie ia eeoa iiiiiie?noe/ieo ia?aaaa
? iiaeeeainoae aeey ?o ?ioa?iae?caoe??, aea e aea?aeiino? i?enooiino?
o??ie. ?, ia?aoo?, I.Ii?oa? (NOA) ?ic?iaea oai??th eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa
? ia ?? iniia? ?ice?ea iioeaaoe?th ? niaoeeo?eo ?iaanooaaiiy. Ca
oe?ioith i?aeoiae?a, iai?yi?a, caaaeueiei iaoeiaei aei?iaeii oa
e?euee?noth ioae?eaoe?e aaccaia?a/iee i??i?eoao iaeaaeeoue
aia?eeainueeei aeine?aeieeai.

Aiaeii/an aaaaoi aniaeo?a i?iaeaie aeiaie? aeeaiei ?ic?iaeai? a i?aoeyo
?in?enueeeo a/aieo: TH.A.Aaeaeoaay, I.I.Aiaoneaanueeiai, O.??oiai?,
A.I.Ea?aaa?aa, E.O.Eaaaae?ai?, I.?.Oaieieea, TH.N.Oe?y?aa.

??ci? iai?yie ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy aena?oeai? i?ia?aeieie
oe?a?inueeeie a/aieie-aeiiii?noaie – I.A.A?ei?onii, A.I.Aaeoeai,
I.N.Aa?anei/oeii, A.?.Eaanitheii, A.I.Eeeiei, Ae.A.Eoe’yiaiei,
TH.O.Iaeiaiiii, ?.A.Iai/aiei, A.I.Ii?o/ieeii, A.I.?oi’yioeaaei,
A.N.Naa/oeii, A.?.N?aeaiei, A.I.Noi?oiii, A.N.O?e?iaiei, I.A.*oia/aiei,
A.A.*ooii.

I?iaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy iaae/a?iia. Iii?e an?
aeuacacia/ai? caeiaooee, ia ?ic?iaeai? caaaeuei? caeiiii??i? oiiae eiai
cae?eniaiiy ia iniia? nenoaiiiai oa oaeoi?iiai aiae?co, eiiieaeniee
iae?e yeeo iiaea i?eneoaeeoeny a i?aeoeoe? ?o ?aaoethaaiiy ia
aioo??oiueiio oa i?aeia?iaeiiio ??aiyo. Aei ?ioeo ieoaiue iaeaaeaoue:
c’ynoaaiiy ?en, i?eoaiaiieo iiia?aaei?i oa no/aniiio aoaiai ?icaeoeo
?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe?? ainiiaea?nueeeo i?ioean?a ? ianoaaei, ye? iathoue
aooe a?aoiaai? a ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/i?e i?aeoeoe?; i?iaaaeaiiy
ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy a ??cieo a?oiao e?a?i,
iniaeeai a oiiaao nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo e?a?i,
iaa?oiooaaiiy aeiiii?/ii? no?aoaa?? iie?auaiiy
?iaanoeoe?eii-i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai ee?iaoo Oe?a?ie.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?yi? ciai?oiuei?iaanoeoe?ei?
aca?iica’ycee, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny o na?oiainiiaea?nueeeo i?ioeanao ia
iniia? caaaeueieo ? niaoeeo?/ieo caeiiii??iinoae oa oiia cae?eniaiiy.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? no/ani? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo, iaoai?ci,
iaoiaee ?aaoethaaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy o ?icaeiaieo
e?a?iao, e?a?iao, ui ?icaeaathoueny, ? e?a?iao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee.
Oea aeaei iiaeeea?noue ae?eoe aeineoue aaaeeeaeo aeniiae?a uiaei
iie?auaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eii-i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai ee?iaoo Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o aeyaeaii? oa ocaaaeueiaii? oiia ?
oaeoi??a, no/anieo iaoiae?a, iaoai?ci?a oa iiaeaeae ?aaoethaaiiy
?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy, ui neeaeeny a ?acoeueoao? aaiethoe?? ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee ? eiinoeooththoue iie?aeaiaioio nenoaio, iniiaiiieiaeieie
aeaiaioaie yei? ? ?eiie, noa’?eoe oa ia’?eoe ?iaanooaaiiy ? aea?aeaaa.
C?iaeaii ni?iao eiie?aoecaoe?? oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue caaaeueii? oai???
?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy oa oi?ioethaaii? i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei
?o aeei?enoaiiy.

Aeey ?aae?caoe?? noi?ioeueiaaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii neiioeaio?oaaoeny ia
oaeeo caaaeaiiyo:

– ?ice?eoe nooue ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e ye aeiiii?/ii? eaoaai???;

– a?aene?aeeoaaoe oa anoaiiaeoe eaocaeueii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee ca’ycie
i?ae ?iicaiieie ?iaanoeoe?yie oa ?ioeie aaciaeie aeiiii?/ieie
ia?aiao?aie;

– noi?ioethaaoe caaaeuei? oiiae oa oaeoi?e cae?eniaiiy ?iicaiiiai
?iaanooaaiiy;

– aeine?aeeoe aaiacen ? iniaeeaino? ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy ia ??cieo
aoaiao aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ia iniia? cai?iiiiiaaii? aeanii?
ia??iaeecaoe?? c iaa?oiooaaiiyi oa?aeoa?ieo ?en aeey eiaeiiai aoaio;

– aeyaeoe niaoeeo?eo no/aniiai aoaio aeiaae?caoe?? ainiiaea?nueeeo
i?ioean?a ? eiai ye?niee oa e?euee?niee aca?iica’ycie c ?iicaiiei
?iaanooaaiiyi;

– i?iaiae?coaaoe inoaii? oaiaeaioe?? na?oiaiai i?yiiai ?iaanooaaiiy,
eiai eiie?aoi? i?iyae a ??cieo a?oiao e?a?i, ?c c’ynoaaiiyi i?e/ei
a?eueoi? aoaeoeaiino? o caeo/aii? I?? iaeieie ? iaoni?oo – ?ioeie;

– aeine?aeeoe o?aaeeoe?ei? oa iia? iaoai?cie no?aooaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?e;

– ?ice?eoe oa eeaneo?eoaaoe iniiai? eiioeaioe?? iioeaaoe?? ?iicaiiiai
?iaanooaaiiy oa iaoiaee eiai ?aaoethaaiiy ia ??aiyo – aioo??oiueiio
(e?a?i aacoaaiiy oa aeeaaeaiiy eai?oaeo) oa ciai?oiueiio
(aeainoi?iiiueiio, ?aa?iiaeueiiio oa caaaeueiina?oiaiio);

– c’ynoaaoe aieiai? aeii?iaioe ?iaanoeoe?eii-i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai
ee?iaoo Oe?a?ie, cie?aia, iaaaoeai? iiiaioe, ui no?eiothoue aioo??oi? oa
?iicaiia ?iaanooaaiiy;

– ioe?ieoe iaaeoiaeaeaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy ciai?oi?o eioo?a;

– iaa?oiooaaoe i??i?eoaoi? aaeoc? oa aeaee ae?iaieoeoaa aeey
ca?oa?aeiiai ?iaanooaaiiy;

– ?ic?iaeoe eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee aaeineiiaeaiiy ?aaoethaaiiy
?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy a Oe?a?i?.

Iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy aaco?oueny ia ae?aeaeoe/iiio iaoiae?
i?ciaiiy oa eiiieaeniiio ? nenoaiiiio aiae?c? aeiiii?/ieo eaoaai??e,
i?ioean?a ? yaeu a ?aieao aeeiai?ee i?aeia?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei.
Aaoi? nie?aany ia caaaeueiiiaoeia? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue – ?noi?eci,
aiae?c ? neioac, aano?aeoe?th, ?iaeoeoe?th oa aeaaeoeoe?th, iaoiaee
eia?/iiai oa ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co, aeyaeaiiy i?yieo oa cai?ioieo
ca’yce?a i?ae nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie yaeuaie, no/ani? iaoiaeieia?/i?
oa oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy a?o/eciyii? oa ca?oa?aeii? aeiiii?/ii? iaoee.
Ie iaiaaaeeny aeio?eioaaoeny caaaeaiiai i?aeoiaeo i?e ioe?ioe? oa
aeei?enoaii? iiia?aaei?o iaoiae?a, caeiaooe?a ? aeniiae?a a?o/eciyieo
a/aieo, aea ?nio? aaaaoi ?aoe?iiaeueieo iiiaio?a, iaoooaaiiy yeeie
ia’?eoeaii i?ecaaaea aei oeaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa ca?aeiaiiy iaoeiaeo
aeinyaiaiue. E??i oiai, aeciath/e aeaye? iaaeie?ee a iaoeia?e
iaoiaeieia?? aeiiii?/ii? oai??? nioe?ae?noe/iiai ia??iaeo, aeena?oaio
ana ae aaaaea?, ui iiaia a?aeiiaa a?ae iinooeao?a ia?enenonueei?
iie?oe/ii? aeiiii?? iana caa?ico caia?a/aiiy cia/ouino? eiino?oeoeaieo
aeaiaio?a caaaeueii? oai??? i?ciaiiy.

Noaoenoe/iith oa ?ioi?iaoe?eiith aacith aeena?oaoe?? neoaoaaee aeai?
io?oe?eii? iaoe?iiaeueii? noaoenoeee, I?i?noa?noaa ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo
ca’yce?a ? oi?a?ae?, I?i?noa?noaa aeiiii?ee, Aea?aeaaiiai eii?oaoo
noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie; noaoenoe/i? aeaeaiiy oa aiae?oe/i? iaeyaee
i?aeia?iaeieo i?aai?caoe?e oa onoaiia – I?aai?caoe?? Ia’?aeiaieo Iaoe?e,
Na?oiaiai aaieo, I?aeia?iaeiiai aaethoiiai oiiaeo, AAOO–NIO. Oe?iei
canoiniaoaaeeny iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee oe?a?inueeeo ? ca?oa?aeieo
oao?aoe?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oa iniaenoee aianie
aaoi?a iieyaa? o eiie?aoecaoe?? oa aaeineiiaeaii? iieiaeaiue caaaeueii?
oai??? ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy. Io?eiai? oae? iniiai? aeniiaee oa
?acoeueoaoe:

– aeiaaaeaii eaaioeo?eiaaiee oa?aeoa? eaoaai??? “?iicaii? ?iaanoeoe??”
ia iniia? aca?iica’yceo c ?yaeii aaciaeo iae?iaeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a ?
ia?aiao??a (aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy, iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee i?ia?an, ii?ooaeueia
?iaanooaaiiy, no?oeoo?a aeiiii?ee, caeiyo?noue, ?aa?iiaeueiee ?icaeoie,
eiieo?aioe?y, aenii?o, ieao?aeiee aaeain, aaethoiee eo?n, i?ioeaioi?
noaaee, ?ioeyoe?y ? o.ae.), anoaiiaeaii iniiai? aniaeoe eiai i?iyao a
iaoe?iiaeueieo oiiaao, ui noai?th? iia? iiaeeeaino? aeey ?aaoethaaiiy
ciai?oi?o iaaeoiaeaeaiue eioo?a. Ia oe?e aea iniia? iaa?oioiaaii
e?eoa??? ioe?iee caaaeueiiai oa ?iaanoeoe?eiiai noaio aeiiii?ee i?e
i?eeiyoo? ?iaanoi?aie ??oaiue uiaei ?iaanooaaiiy, cie?aia: a). oaiie
c?inoaiiy AAI; a). aeeiai?ea aenii?oo oa ?iii?oo; a). ciae naeueaei ?
oaiie c?inoaiiy oi?aiaaeueiiai aaeaino; a). noai ieao?aeiiai aaeaino, a
ia?oo /a?ao, ii iioi/ieo iia?aoe?yo; ae). aaee/eia ? aeeiai?ea aaethoieo
?aca?a?a; a). noeoiia ioe?iea a aeiea?ao na?aaeiuei? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe ?
a?ioiaeo aeioiae?a oiui;

– cai?iiiiiaaia aaoi?nueea eiioeaioe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy iniiaieo
oaiaeaioe?e oa oiia cae?eniaiiy i?yiiai ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy oa
?ice?eoi iia? oaeoi?e, ui aaia?othoue ciai?oi? aeeaaeaiiy eioo?a:
ia?inoaiiy a?aee?eoino? aeiiii?ee; iineeaiiy aioo??oiueio??iiaiai
iai?ioo a ?aieao i?aeia?iaeiiai ae?iaieoeoaa; a?aooaaiiy iaioth/iai a
noni?euenoa? iaioae?oaoo; eiieo?aioe?y; oi?aiaaeueia iie?oeea;
i?aaiaoeci, yeee aeeth/a? a naaa ??aaiue iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aioaaaeueiino?;
i?iaaaeaiiy i?eaaoecaoe??; iayai?noue oaiaee c I?aeia?iaeiei aaethoiei
oiiaeii ? o.ae.;

– aecia/aii niaoeeo?eo no/aniiai aoaio aeiaae?caoe??
na?oiainiiaea?nueeeo i?ioean?a oa ?ieue a iueiio ?iaanooaaiiy ca
?aooiie: a). ye?nii iiaeo aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae o?ainiaoe?iiaeueieie
ei?ii?aoe?yie ? aea?aeaaaie; a). aeoea?caoe?? aieeao i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? ia?oeo ia ou?eueiaiiy aca?iicaeaaeiino? na?oo; a).
iaa?oiooaaiiy iieiaeaiiy noiniaii iiai?, aeii?ioth/i? ?ie? ?iicaiieo
?iaanoeoe?e a na?oia?e aeiiii?oe? oa ia?aoai?aiiy ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? o
i?aeii?yaeeiaaio oi?io i?aeia?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei; a).
iiaeeo?eaoe?? eiieo?aioe??, yea aaea cae?enith?oueny ? /a?ac i?yi?
?iaanoeoe??;

– i?iaaaeaia ia??iaeecaoe?y aoai?a i?yiiai ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy ia
i?aenoaa? aaciaeo ?iaiaioieo ?en aeey eiaeiiai c ieo, ui ni?eyei
io?eiaiith ciaiue i?i eiai niaoeeo?eo oa no/ani? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo (a
o./. aeoea?caoe?y i?aeia?iaeieo ceeoo?a ? iiaeeiaiue, ci?ie a no?oeoo??
aeaniino? OIE, aa?iii?caoe?y a?aeiia?aeiino? iaoe?iiaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa oa e?eoa???a aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa
?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueiei e?eoa??yi), yeeie ne?ae ea?oaaoeny i?e ?ic?iaoe?
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? no?aoaa??;

– ?icaeiooi oai??th ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo a aniaeo? ocaaaeueiaiiy
aieiaieo oaiaeaioe?e ooieoe?iioaaiiy, ?aoi?ioaaiiy oa e?aa?ae?caoe??
aeiiii?ee ia iinonioe?ae?noe/i?e noaae??, ca?aeii yei? aei aieiaieo c
ieo iaeaaeaoue: 1). niaae ae?iaieoeoaa; 2). neanoaaiiy oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai
ieaioaaiiy oa ia?aoe?iiaeueieo ae?iaie/eo ca’yce?a; 3). iaae?iiy
oeaio?ae?ciaaieo eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue, iniaeeai o aaaee?e i?iieneiaino?;
4). aeai?e?oa?ecaoe?y aeiiii?ee; 5). nei?i/aiiy o?aaeeoe?eieo
?aa?iiaeueieo ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a oa ?oiy ia?ai???ioaoe?y ia
?icaeioo? e?a?ie; 6). ca?eueoaiiy ?iii?oo oa cieaeaiiy
eiieo?aioicaeaoiino? oaoi?/ii oa aeiiii?/ii canoa??ei? i?iaeoeoe??
aaaaoueio a?o/eciyieo aaeocae. Aeae?eai? ni?euei? ?ene ?aoi?ioaaiiy
ainiiaea?nueeeo eiiieaen?a: 1). iae?iaeiiii?/ia noaa?e?caoe?y; 2).
aeoeaiee ?oo a a?e ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee (e?aa?ae?caoe?y oe?i oa oi?a?ae?,
noai?aiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa a noa?? i?aaa aeaniino?, iiiaeaoeoaaiiy,
aaie?anueei? nenoaie, i?iaaaeaiiy i?eaaoecaoe?? oa aeiiii?/ii?
?ano?oeoo?ecaoe??, oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo ?inoeooo?a: oiiaeiaeo a??ae,
a?ioiai-e?aaeeoieo ?ino?oiaio?a, aioeiiiiiieueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa,
caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i aaie?oonoai); 3). noaa?e?caoe?y aeiiii?ee; 4).
ci?oeiaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaethoe c aeinyaiaiiyi aioo??oiuei?
eiiaa?oiaaiino?; 5). e?aa?ae?caoe?y ?aaoethaaiiy i?yieo ?iicaiieo
?iaanoeoe?e (onoiaiiy caeiiiaeaa/eo ia?aiii aeey ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a,
e?ea?aeaoe?y aeiia aei e?oeaicoaaiiy, aaaaeaiiy caioi/oaaeueieo
noeioe?a, iaaeaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eieo aa?aio?e, a?aee?eooy ?ai?oa
caai?iiaieo aaeocae, e?aa?ae?caoe?y caiaeueii? aeaniino?, aeica?e ia
o/anoue o i?eaaoecaoe??);

– aeyaeaii cia/aiiy i?yieo ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e ia ii/aoeiaeo oa
iiaeaeueoeo aoaiao nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? i?e ia?aoiae? a?ae
oeaio?ae?ciaaii ieaiiai? aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee oa aeiaaaeaii, ui: a).
aiie ia iiaeooue aenooiaoe ye ?ino?oiaio iiaeieaiiy (eiiiainaoe??)
aioo??oi?o aeiiii?/ieo aaae ? cai?uaiiy aioo??oiueiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai eiiieaeno; a). ia aeiaaaeaii ?o ae??oaeueio cia/ou?noue:
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoii iae?iaeiiii?/ii? noaa?e?caoe?? oa
iie?auaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe??, a ia ?o i?e/eiith; a). ia
ieo ia iiaeia aeoeaiooaaoe oaaao ye ia ia?a?niiio aieiaiiio aaaeae?
aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy; a). a?eueo ?aae?noe/iith ? ?aae?caoe?y no?aoaa??
ia?aaaaeiiai iii?o ia ?ioaineo?eaoe?th aioo??oi?o ?iaanoeoe?eieo
i?ioean?a, aeey /iai ne?ae caaacia/eoe: aeoea?caoe?th ?iaanooaaiiy a
iniiaiee eai?oae; i?aeaeuaiiy ieoiii? aaae aioo??oi?o caiuaaeaeaiue o
AAI; ia?iuoaaiiy aenii?oo;

– nenoaiaoeciaai? aieiai? oai??? ?aaoethaaiiy ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy
oa ie?aneai? i?aeoe/i? iiaeeeaino? ?oiueiai canoinoaaiiy i?e ?ic?iaoe?
eiie?aoieo iaoai?ci?a caeo/aiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e a ??ci? e?a?ie, a
o./. Oe?a?io, cie?aia: a). eiioeaioe?? N.Oaeia?a oa ?? iieiaeaiue, ui
ciooothoue aaeaaaoeny aei “caoeniiai” ?iaanooaaiiy – aeey caa?aaeaiiy
o?aaeeoe?eieo ?eie?a, cie?aia, o e?a?iao NIAe, i?iieeiaiiy ia iia? oa
i?iaaaeaiiy caaaeaii? aaiiie?oeee; a). oai??? “aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo”
i?iaeoeoo ?.Aa?iiia – i?e eiiia?iaai?e aca?iiae?? c? niiaeeaa/aie
oe?a?inueei? i?iaeoeoe??, iniaeeai i?aoethth/eo o iaaeao ?aeeieo
ae?iaie/eo oeeee?a; a). aeeaeoe/ii? oai??? Aeae.Aeaii?iaa i?e iae?eo oa
caaacia/aii? ia?aaaa o??ie i?e ?ici?uaii? i?aeia?iaeiiai ae?iaieoeoaa –
aeey aaaeaiiy aoaeoeaieo aca?iica’yce?a c ?iicaiieie ?iaanoi?aie oa
?aaoethaaiiy ?o ae?yeueiino?; a). iiaeyae?a I.Ii?oa?a uiaei
iaiao?aeiino? iae?eo noaio eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua; ae). oai??e
aeeaanooaaiiy eai?oaeo, ui iiyniththoue aaiacen ? iaoai?ci cacia/aiiai
yaeua;

– ?ice?eoa nenoaia ?aaoethaaiiy i?yieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?ioean?a a
oiiaao aeiaae?caoe?? ca ?aooiie ioe?iee iaoiae?a no/anii? ?aaeaiaioaoe??
ae?yeueiino? ?iaanoi??a ia aioo??oiueiio (e?a?i aacoaaiiy ? i?eeiath/eo
e?a?i) oa ciai?oiueiio (aeainoi?iii?o oaiae, ?aa?iiaeueiiio oa
caaaeueiina?oiaiio) ??aiyo, ui ia?aaeaa/a? aeei?enoaiiy nenoaiiiai
i?aeoiaeo i?e a?aei?aoethaaii? caaaeueiiai ?aaeeio ae?yeueiino?
?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a oa ciaioaiiy ?o iaaaoeaiiai aieeao ia aeiiii?eo
i?eeiath/eo e?a?i;

– anoaiiaeaii, ui o?ainiaoe?iiae?caoe?y na?oiai? aeiiii?ee,
e?aa?ae?caoe?y ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?aaeei?a oa iiaeeaeaiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo
?ioaa?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a ni?e/eieee iaiao?aei?noue ?aaoethaaiiy
iiaaae?iee ?iaanoi??a ia i?aeia?iaeiiio ??ai?, a oaeiae ca’ycie i?ae
oi?a?aeath oa ?iaanoeoe?yie aeinya oaeiai ??aiy, ui ?o aaoiiiiia
?aaoethaaiiy ao?a/a? nain. Oea iaoiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue: 1). a?aooaaiiy
o i?aeia?iaeieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo oaiaeao iiaeeeainoae ni?aaaaeeeai?
?ioaa?aoe?? e?a?i, ui ?icaeaathoueny, oa e?a?i c ia?ao?aeiith
aeiiii?eith o na?oiaa ainiiaea?noai, noeioethaaiiy a ieo a?eueoiai
ianyao iaaeoiaeaeaiue, ?aoaeuei?oiai a?aoiaoaaiiy ?ioa?an?a
?aoeei??io?a; 2). noai?aiiy oiia, ca yeeo e?aa?ae?caoe?y ia caoeiaeeoue
iaoe?iiaeuei?e aaciaoe?; 3). iinooiiaiai oa iine?aeiaiiai i?iaaaeaiiy
e?aa?ae?caoe?? ye ia i?aeia?iaeiiio, oae ? iaoe?iiaeueiiio ??aiyo c
caaacia/aiiyi oaeeo oiia, uia ia aoei i?ae??aaii i?aaa ? iiceoe??
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?iaanoi??a (?ic?iaee ?? aoai?a, eiie?aoieo cania?a oa
aaaeae?a aeey ??cieo e?a?i, a?aooaaiiy o i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaia??ieo
?ino?oiaioao ?o niaoeeo?ee oa ??ai?a ?icaeoeo); 4). eiio?iethaaiiy
aioeeiieo?aioii? i?aeoeee, ia?aaeaaaiiy oaoiieia?? oa o?enaoe?y
ciaia’ycaiue ?iaanoi??a, ye? a iei?oi?o oiiaao iaaoaathoue eeth/iaiai
cia/aiiy; 5). o?nia ei?aniiiaeoaaiiy i?iaeai eiieo?aioe?? c iie?oeeith o
oi?aiaaeuei?e oa ?iaanoeoe?ei?e noa?ao ? ?aaoethaaiiyi aioo??oiuei?
aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, caaaeyee /iio i?eioeeie caaacia/aiiy aeinooio
ia ?eiie ? eiieo?aioe??, ui ai?iaaaeaeothoueny ca aeiiiiiaith iaei???
a?oie caoiae?a, ia i?ae?eaaoeiooueny ?ioeie; 6). na?eiciiai o?aooaaiiy
ianoaaei i?enoinoaaiiy aei oiia eiieo?aioe??, iniaeeai aeey a?o/eciyieo
o??i, ye? ?ai?oa ei?enooaaeeny caoenoii;

– ia iniia? eiiieaeniiai oa nenoaiiiai i?aeoiae?a i?iaiae?ciaaii
no/aniee noai ?iaanoeoe?eii-i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai ee?iaoo Oe?a?ie oa
aia?oa aeine?aeaeai? aieiai? niiniae a?aeieeao eai?oaeo c ia?;
?ic?iaeaii iiaee eiioeaiooaeueiee i?aeo?ae oa noi?ioeueiaai? i?iiiceoe??
uiaei eiiieaenii? iioei?caoe?? nenoaie oa iaoiae?a ?aaoethaaiiy
?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy a o./. ia iniia? iaiao?aeiino? aeoeaiooaaiiy
oaaae a aeiiii?/i?e no?aoaa?? ia aeoea?caoe?? aioo??oiueiai ?iaanooaaiiy
oa aaeineiiaeaii? oaeeo aeanyoe /eiiee?a: 1). caeiiiaeaa/i? aace; 2).
iaaeaiiy i?euea; 3). ?icaeoeo i?iieneiai-o?iainiaeo a?oi; 4).
ooieoe?iioaaiiy oiiaeiaiai ?eieo; 5). ae?yeueiino? aaie?a; 6).
cae?eniaiiy i?eaaoecaoe??; 7). i?iaaaeaiiy eiiaa?n??; 8). naeaeoeaii?
iie?oeee noiniaii ?aa?ii?a, aaeocae oa aeae?a ae?iaieoeoaa aeey
?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy; 9). aca?iia?aeiinei c i?aeia?iaeieie
o?iainiaeie i?aai?caoe?yie; 10). iae?eo ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iiai oaeoi?a.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio,
ui ?yae ?? iieiaeaiue a aeeaaeii o ?ic?iaeo oai??? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee oa
i?aeia?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei. ?o aoei ai?iaaaeaeaii i?e aeeiiaii?
ieaiiai? oaie a?aeae?eo i?iaeai ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?
?inoeoooo na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie
1.93/06.97 “I?iaeaie aaaaoinoi?iiiueiai ?aaoethaaiiy i?aeia?iaeii?
oi?a?ae?” (1997–1998 ??.) (iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0197O015225) ca
iai?yiaie “?iaanoeoe?ei? caoiaee, ui a?aeiinyoueny aei oi?a?ae? (nenoaia
TRIM)”, “Caoiaee i?ioe iaiaaeoaaeueii? ae?eiai? i?aeoeee”, “?icaeoie
?iaanoeoe?eiiai ?aaeeio ?a?iiaenueeiai Nithco”, a oaeiae aea?aeaaieo
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?ia?ai 08.05.03/032-93 Ae “O/anoue ?iicaiiiai
eai?oaeo a iiaea?i?caoe?? ? ia?iuoaaii? ae?iaie/iai oa aenii?oiiai
iioaioe?aeo Oe?a?ie” oa 07.02.00/56-E95 “?aaoethaaiiy aenii?oii?
ae?yeueiino? a oiiaao ?ioaineaieo ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue”.

Ia iaoeia? aeiiia?ae?, iaienai? a ?acoeueoao? cai?o ia?aeiiiai
iaoa??aeo uiaei ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy a ?anioae?oe? E?ei ? ?in?enuee?e
Oaaea?aoe?? (o ni?ai?aoe? c A.N.A?aaao), iaae?eoee iiceoeai? a?aeaoee c
I?i?noa?noaa noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie ca i?aeienii ia/aeueieea oi?aae?iiy
noaoenoeee ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a A.A.?iae?iiiaa ? 01/2-05/43
a?ae 19 ea?oiy 1994 ?. oa c I?i?noa?noaa ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a
Oe?a?ie ca i?aeienii canooiieea i?i?no?a A.?.Aii/a?oea ?08-29/471 a?ae
15 a?oaeiy 1994 ?. i?i aeei?enoaiiy a i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? cacia/aieo
i?i?noa?noa. Ae?oaee a?aeaoe noino?oueny e ?ioeo aeaio iaoeiaeo
aeiiia?aeae: “Inoaii? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo na?oiaiai ?eieo eai?oae?a” oa
“Iaoai?ci ? iai?yie no/aniiai ca?oa?aeiiai ?iaanooaaiiy”.

Ia iiiia?ao?th “Ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae caeo/aiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e”,
ui iioae?eiaaia o ni?ai?aoe? c N.A.N?aeaiei oa A.N.A?aaao, io?eiai?
na?aeioeoaa i?i aeei?enoaiiy a i?aeoe/i?e ?iaio? Eii?n?? o caei?aeiiieo
ni?aaao ? ca’yceao c NIAe Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie ca i?aeienii
canooiieea Aieiae Eii?n?? ?.A.Ia?iaciaa ? 06-14/11-385 a?ae 22 /a?aiy
1995 ?. ? I?i?noa?noaa caei?aeiiieo ni?aa Oe?a?ie ca i?aeienii
canooiieea i?i?no?a A.Ae.Oaiaeia?y ? 17/30-248 a?ae 23 /a?aiy 1995 ?.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy inoaii?o oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo na?oiaiai
?eieo eai?oae?a, iaoai?cio, oi?i ? iai?yie?a no/aniiai ca?oa?aeiiai
?iaanooaaiiy, aeei?enoai? a iioae?eiaai?e iiiia?ao?? “A?ae e?ece aei
?inoo” (o ni?ai?aoe? c A.I.Aaeoeai, A.?.Eaanitheii, N.?.Ee?a?aei ?
O.I.Noaiaieiaith) – Ee?a: I?aeia?iaeiee oeaio? ia?niaeoeaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue; ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie, 1994), a eiie?aoi?
i?iiiceoe?? ia ?? iniia? ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iaoeia?e aeiiia?ae?
“I?iiiceoe?? aei Eiioeaioe?? aeiaaino?ieiai? i?iieneiai? iie?oeee oa
aeiiii?/iiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa Oe?a?ie”, iai?aaeai? I?i?noa?noao
aeiiii?ee oa Aaei?i?no?aoe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie. Aeaia ianoaaeia
i?aeoaa?aeaeaia eenoii c ?inoeoooo aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie ? 122-13/706
a?ae 15 eenoiiaaea 1995 ?. ca i?aeienii canooiieea aee?aeoi?a ?inoeoooo,
/eaia-ei?aniiiaeaioa IAI Oe?a?ie I.N.Aa?anei/oea.

Iaoeia? aeniiaee oa iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeathoue
iiaeeea?noue ye?nii iiai? ioe?iee ?yaeo no/anieo oaiaeaioe?e na?oiaiai
?icaeoeo ? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e iiaeaeueo?e ?ic?iaoe? oa
ei?eaoaaii? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie, iioei?caoe??
?aaoethaaiiy caeo/aiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e.
I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c ?iaanoeoe?eii-i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai ee?iaoo Oe?a?ie
ai?iaaaeaeaii o i?aeoe/ieo ?ic?iaeao Oeaio?o ?icaeoeo ? ?aeiino?oeoe??
aeiiii?ee i?e Eaa?iao? I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie. Iaa?oioiaai? i?iiiceoe??, ui
noinothoueny iie?ioaiiy caeiiiaeaa/i? aace caeo/aiiy ?iicaiieo
?iaanoeoe?e a Oe?a?io oa aeine?aeaeaiiy oi?i a?aeieeao eai?oaeo c ia?,
iiaeai? a Eaa?iao I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, ui cao?eniaaii a eeno? ? 137 a?ae
25 aa?aniy 1996 ?. ca i?aeienii aee?aeoi?a Oeaio?o, aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani?a A.N.Iaeaeueiiiaa. Iaoeiaa aeiiia?aeue “Iai?yie
aaeineiiaeaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eii-i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai ee?iaoo Oe?a?ie” oa ??
iieiaeaiiy, ui noinothoueny ?icoe?aiiy iiaeeeainoae aeeaa?neo?eaoe??
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a ? ei?aeoe?? aca?iia?aeiinei c
i?aeia?iaeieie o?iainiaeie ?inoeoooe?yie (Na?oiaei aaieii, I?aeia?iaeiei
aaethoiei oiiaeii oiui) a Oe?a?i?, aeeth/aiiy ?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo aei
no?oeoo?e iaoe?iiaeueieo i??i?eoao?a, o/ano? ?aa?ii?a oa a?o/eciyieo
aaeocae ae?iaieoeoaa o na?oiaiio iiae?e? i?aoe? aeei?enoiaothoueny o
i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? Eii?oaoo o caei?aeiiieo ni?aaao ? ca’yceao c
NIAe Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, ui cana?ae/aii eenoii ?06-14/12-184 a?ae
11 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?. ca i?aeienii Canooiieea Aieiae Eii?oaoo,
ia?iaeiiai aeaiooaoa Oe?a?ie, eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaioa
I.A.Iooeaea.

Aeniiaee oa iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe ao?eai? ? o aeeeaaeaoeueeiio i?ioean?.
Oea noino?oueny i?ai?eioo iaoeiai? aeiiia?ae? “No?aoaa?y ?icaeoeo
i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa oa ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e a Oe?a?i?”
(Ee?a, 1993), iaienaiiai o ni?aaaoi?noa? c ?.A.Iai/aiei oa N.A.N?aeaiei,
yeee canoiniaaii i?e /eoaii? eaeoe?e oa i?iaaaeaii? nai?ia?nueeeo
caiyoue a ?inoeooo? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei i?e Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?
?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeaii eenoii ca i?aeienaie caa?aeoaa/a
eaoaae?ith oi?aae?iiy ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieie ca’yceaie ? ia?eaoeiao,
aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?a A.?.E?aaeeniaa oa caa?aeoaa/a
eaoaae?ith i?aeia?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani?a A.N.O?e?iaiea ?25 a?ae 27 ea?oiy 1993 ?. ?io?
?acoeueoaoe aoee aeei?enoai? o aeeeaaeaii? eo?no “I?aeia?iaei?
aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie” ia aeiiii?/iiio a?aeae?eaii? Neia’yinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeaii eenoii
?66-01-234 ca i?aeienii ?aeoi?a ?inoeoooo, aeieoi?a o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani?a I.E.Ia/aieiaea a?ae 29 a?oaeiy 1997 ?.; ?ic?iaeai?e
i?ia?ai? eo?no “I?aeia?iaeia ?iaanoeoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue” oa eiai
aeeeaaeaii? aeena?oaioii a ?inoeooo? ioi?oeeiaeueiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo oa
a?ciano (i. Ee?a), ui cana?ae/aii eenoii ?aeoi?a ?inoeoooo, aeieoi?a
aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?a I.O.Oei/oea ?72 a?ae 28 aeiaoiy 1998 ?. Aiie
iiaeooue aooe a?aoiaai? i?e i?aeaioiaoe? ?ioeo niaoeeo?n?a, iin?aiee?a ?
iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Eiioeaioe?y, iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia can?aeaiiyo A/aii?
?aaee (29 aeiaoiy 1996 ?.) ? a?aeae?eo i?iaeai ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii?
ae?yeueiino? ?inoeoooo na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei IAI
Oe?a?ie (24 a?oaeiy 1996 ?. ? 18 /a?aiy 1998 ?.) ? eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii?
oai??? aeiiii?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea (29 a?oaeiy 1998 ?.).

Aniaeoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui noinothoueny i??i?eoao?a ? iai?yi?a
aaeineiiaeaiiy ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy a Oe?a?i?, aoee aeeeaaeai? ia
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “?aoi?ioaaiiy
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? noa?e Oe?a?ie” (i. Ee?a, 19–20 aeiaoiy 1995 ?.).
I?iaeai? aca?iica’yceo ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy c ?icaeoeii aenii?oo
Oe?a?ie i?enay/aii aenooi ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ia ae?yeuei?noue Oe?a?ie: i?iaeaie oa ia?niaeoeae”,
i?aai?ciaai?e I?i?noa?noaii ciai?oi?o aeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a ? oi?a?ae? oa
Oe?a?inueeith Aeaaeai??th ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? ICACoi?ao (i. Ee?a, 7–8
/a?aiy 1996 ?.). Aiae?c na?oiaeo oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo ?aaoethaaiiy
?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy, iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeeeainoae ?o a?aooaaiiy a
Oe?a?i? oa oeyoe aaeineiiaeaiiy ?? ?iaanoeoe?eii-i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai
ee?iaoo ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a aeiiia?ae? ia Aeiiii?/iiio e?oaeiio
noie? ?119 “?iaanoeoe?ei? i?ioeane a Oe?a?i?” a I?aaenoaaieoeoa?
Na?oiaiai aaieo a Oe?a?i? (i. Ee?a, 11 eeiiy 1996 ?.). Ciai?oi? /eiieee
iioei?caoe?? ?iaanoeoe?eii-i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai ee?iaoo Oe?a?ie (ia
i?eeeaae? aaeineiiaeaiiy aca?iia?aeiinei c i?aeia?iaeieie o?iainiaeie
?inoeoooe?yie oa a?aooaaiiy ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iiai oaeoi?a)
i?iaiae?ciaaii o aenooi? ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe??
“Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i? i?iaeaie ?iaanoeoe?eii? oa ?iiiaaoe?eii? iie?oeee
aea?aeaae”, i?iaaaeaii? aeiiii?/iei oaeoeueoaoii Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea oa ?inoeoooii aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie
(i. Ee?a, 5–6 /a?aiy 1997 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iaea?eueo ?noioi? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ci?no
aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii o 27 iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo ianyaii 34,6 ae?oe.
a?e.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae c 427
iaeiaioaaiue. Ianya aeena?oaoe?? iae?/o? 405 noi??iie oaenoo,
aeeth/ath/e 12 aeiaeaoe?a ia 15 noi??ieao.

Caaaeueiee iai?yi oa eia?ea aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/eee oaeo no?oeoo?o
aeena?oaoe??.

ANOOI

?icae?e 1. IAOIAeIEIA?*I? INIIAE AeINE?AeAEAIIss ?IICAIIEO ?IAANOEOe?E

1.1. ?iicaii? ?iaanoeoe?? ye aeiiii?/ia eaoaai??y

1.2. Aca?iica’ycie ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e oa ?ioeo aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a

1.3. Caaaeuei? oiiae oa oaeoi?e cae?eniaiiy ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy

1.4. Aaiacen ? iniaeeaino? ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy ia ??cieo aoaiao
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo

?icae?e 2. ?IICAII? ?IAANOEOe?? A NENOAI? NO*ANIIAI NA?OIAIAI
AINIIAeA?NOAA

2.1. Niaoeeo?ea no/aniiai aoaio ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe?? ainiiaea?nueeeo
i?ioean?a

2.2. Iia?oi? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo na?oiaiai i?yiiai ?iaanooaaiiy

2.3. ?iicaiia ?iaanooaaiiy ? no?oeoo?ia o?ainoi?iaoe?y o e?a?iao
ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee

2.4. Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy o ??cieo a?oiao e?a?i

?icae?e 3. INIIAI? IAI?ssIE ?AAOETHAAIIss ?IICAIIEO ?IAANOEOe?E

3.1. Eiioeaioe?? ?aaoethaaiiy ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy

3.2. Iaoiaee noeioethaaiiy oa iaiaaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? ?iicaiieo

?iaanoi??a ia ??ai? e?a?i aeeaaeaiiy eai?oaeo oa aacoaaiiy

3.3. I?aeia?iaeiee ??aaiue ?aaoethaaiiy. I?iaeaie ?icaeoeo eiieo?aioiiai
na?aaeiaeua

3.4. Iaoai?ci iaaeaiiy aa?aio?e ?iicaiiei ?iaanoi?ai

?icae?e 4. NO?AOAA?ss CAEO*AIIss ? NENOAIA ?AAOETHAAIIss ?IICAIIIAI
EAI?OAEO A AEIIII?Oe? OE?A?IE

4.1. ?iaanoeoe?eii-i?aei?e?iieoeueeee ee?iao Oe?a?ie

4.2. Aiae?c iaaeoiaeaeaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e

4.3. I??i?eoaoi? aaeoc? oa aeaee ae?iaieoeoaa aeey ca?oa?aeiiai
?iaanooaaiiy

4.4. Iai?yie aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie ?aaoethaaiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e a
Oe?a?i?

AENIIAEE

NIENIE E?OA?AOO?E

AeIAeAOEE

INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss OA AENIIAEE AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aii c’ynoaaiith aca?iica’yce?a i?yiiai ?iicaiiiai
?iaanooaaiiy c ?yaeii aaciaeo aeiiii?/ieo eaoaai??e oa i?ioean?a,
aeyaeaiith ?oo?eieo oiia oa iioeaaoe??, i?inoaaeaiith aaiethoe?? oa
cae?eniaiith ia??iaeecaoe??; aeyaeaiith a?aei?iiinoae i?ae aioo??oi?ie
oa ciai?oi?ie aeeaaeaiiyie eioo?a; iiceoeaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa iaaaoeaieo
iane?aee?a ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy ia aeiiii?eo e?a?i ?aoeei??io?a ?
aacoaaiiy; aea/aiith iiaeo oaeoi??a (?ioa?iae?caoe??, i?aaiaoecio,
iaioae?oaoo, iaiao?aeiino? a?aooaaiiy aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? iaioae?oao?a o
i?iaaaeaii? ?iaanooaaiiy ? o.ae.); iiaeeaeaiith ci?noo I?? ia eeoa c
iiceoe?? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai, a e ?noi?e/iiai ? ineoieia?/iiai
oaiiiaia; iaa?oiooaaiith aeayeeo e?eoa???a ioe?iee caaaeueiiai oa
?iaanoeoe?eiiai noaio aeiiii?ee.

Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ?iicaii? ?iaanoeoe?? iaeaaeaoue aei ia’?eoeaieo
aeiiii?/ieo eaoaai??e, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue iiaeeaeaiiy
?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe?? ainiiaea?nueeiai aeeooy. Aiie a?aeaeaathoue
noa’?eoeai? i?aaiaiiy i?aei?e?ioe?a aei ao?eaiiy nai?o ?ioa?an?a,
aiaeii/an i?aaii??iee ?o ?icaeyae ye iaoiaeo aeiiii?/ii? no?aoaa??.
Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, ?iia??ii noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ?iicaiia ?iaanooaaiiy
iiina?aaeeiaaia iayaieie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie oiiaaie oa caniaaie
?aae?caoe?? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee.

A oiae? iiaeaeueoiai ae?aeaeoe/iiai ?icaeyaeo iieacaii, ui ?iicaii?
?iaanoeoe?? yaeythoue niaith iicanenoaiio eaoaai??th ?
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny a?aenooi?noth i?eioeeiiai? ??cieoe? i?ae
aioo??oiueith oa ciai?oiueith oi?iaie eiai i?iyao. I?ioa ?oi?
ioioiaeiaiiy iai?aaii??ia. Aiie, a?aeiia?aeii, neeaaeathoue ao?eaooe
ia?aeiieo ? aoi?eiieo ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei. Eiie?aoecaoe?? oeueiai
neoao? aniaeo nooi th?eaee/iiai ieaio, ca yeei ?iicaii? ?iaanoeoe??
noaiiaeyoue iaeiia? oe?iiino?, ye? aaea aoee aeiiouai? a e?a?io
aeeaaeaiiy eai?oaeo ca?aeii ?? /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa. A iniia?
?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy ia?aaoaa? noeoii?noue a?aeiinei i?ae
aeiiii?/ieie noa’?eoaie, ?icoaoiaaieo ii iaeaeaa aiee ei?aeiio, c
i?eaiaeo ?aae?caoe?? aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a, ye? iia’ycothoue ?o oa
ie?ai? iaoe?iiaeuei? ainiiaea?noaa.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeiaaaeaii, ui ?iaanooaaiiy (a o./. ?iicaiia) ?
eaaioeo?eiaaiith eaoaai???th, yea aea? iiaeeea?noue oi/a a i?eaeeciiai
ae?aaeaiiy, ii??aiyiiy oa ioe?iee ye?nieo ? e?euee?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee
i?ioeano aeeaaeaiiy eioo?a, aeyaeaiiy iiceoeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ?
iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a. Aeine?aeaeaii e?euee?niee oa ye?niee
aca?iica’ycie ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e c oaeeie aaaeeeaeie aeiiii?/ieie
i?ioeanaie oa ia?aiao?aie, ye aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy, no?oeoo?a aeiiii?ee,
eiieo?aioe?y, caeiyo?noue, aenii?o, ieao?aeiee aaeain, aaethoiee eo?n,
i?ioeaioi? noaaee, ?ioeyoe?y oiui.

Noi?ioeueiaaii caaaeuei? oiiae oa oaeoi?e cae?eniaiiy ?iicaiiiai
?iaanooaaiiy: ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a o na?oiaiio ianooaa? ? ia?inoaiiy
a?aee?eoino? aeiiii?e e?a?i aeey ca?oa?aeieo ?iaanoi??a, aeiiii?/ia
noaa?euei?noue, aeei?enoaiiy ?ioa?iae?caoe??, i?iaaaeaiiy aioo??oiueiai
?iaanooaaiiy ? i?eaaoecaoe??, aeaaaeaia iaoi?iaeueio caeaaei?noue, ca
yei? ?iaanoeoe?? a oo /e ?ioo aea?aeaao ii/eiathoue iaaeoiaeeoe i?ney
i?aeienaiiy oaiaee c I?aeia?iaeiei aaethoiei oiiaeii oa iiia?aaei?i
no?aooaaiiyi.

Iiiyooy ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy aeeth/a? a naaa ci?no, iaoai?ci ?ooo
(aca?iiae?th oaeoi??a, ui eiai iaoiiaeththoue), e?euee?ni? oa ye?ni?
iieacieee aeeiai?ee, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io ?acoeueoaoeai?noue oa iaoo
cae?eniaiiy. I?ioa, ine?eueee aiii oaeiae a?aeia?aaea? (oa?aeoa?eco?)
i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a noa?? noni?eueii-ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei,
noa? iaiao?aeiei eiai ?icaeyae ia o?eueee ye aeiiii?/iiai, a e
nioe?aeueiiai, ?noi?e/iiai, a iiaeaeiee ? ineoieia?/iiai oaiiiaia.
Iniaeeai iaaieioaia iaiao?aei?noue iaii?eueiiai a?aooaaiiy oa
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? iaioae?oaoo ianaeaiiy/?iaanoi??a e?a?i aacoaaiiy ?
?aoeei??io?a. Aeaia ianoaaeia iaeaea ia caaaeo?oueny i?e aeine?aeaeaii?
oaeoi??a ?iaanooaaiiy, noaiiaeoue oai?aoe/iee ? i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an ?
oiio aaaaeaia aei ?o eiea. Oae, oa?aeoa?iith ?enith no?aoaa?? yiiinueeeo
?iaanoi??a ? i???ioaoe?y ia o?eaaeee oa?i?i ae?yeueiino? oa aeei?enoaiiy
aeiaaino?ieiaeo e?aaeeo?a; i?e ?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa ?i i?eoaiaiia ia
iino?eia noaaeaiiy ca eioe?oaaiiyi aeoe?e ia oiiaeia?e a??ae?, a
eiioeaio?aoe?y coneeue ia ae??oaii? no?aoaa?/ieo caaaeaiue. Ia a?aei?io
a?ae ieo, aia?eeainuee? iaiaaeaea?e ia?aaoaathoue o o?ni?e caeaaeiino?
a?ae ?ici???a aeea?aeaiaeo ? ciooai? cina?aaeaeoaaoe oaaao ia
caaacia/aii? iaeneiaeueiiai iioi/iiai i?eaooeo.

Oea noino?oueny ? iaioae?oaoo i?eeiath/i? e?a?ie. Aeoea?caoe?y
yiiinueeiai ?iaanooaaiiy a oeoiieaainueeiio ?aa?ii? (ia?o ca ana a
I?aaeaii?e Ei?a?, N?iaaio??, Iaeaec?? ? Oa?eaiae?) iia’ycaia ia eeoa c
iayai?noth a ieo aeia?a iaa/aii? oa aeenoeeie?iiaaii? ?iai/i? neee, a e
eaaeei ni?eeiyooyi iath yiiinueeiai iaiaaeaeiaioo. Niaoeeo?ea ?iicaiiiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa oa ?iaanooaaiiy a Ao?eoe? iio?aao? a?aooaaiiy i?noeaaeo
i?aaiaiue aei eiai iiia?aaeiueiai e?aaeeooaaiiy aac aeinoaoi?o
o?iainiaeo aa?aio?e.

Aeine?aeaeaii oaeoi? ?aioaaaeueiino? i?e ?iaanooaaii? o no/anieo
oiiaao. Ca?ac aeioiaee a?ae ?iaanooaaiiy o e?a?iao, ui ?icaeaathoueny,
ia 10–12% ia?aaeuothoue ?o o ?icaeiaieo, cie?aia, i?eaooie a?ae
aeeaaeaieo eioo?a c aieo NOA aei naie iae?icaeiai?oeo e?a?i o 1992–1994
??. neeaaeaa o na?aaeiueiio 8%, a aei ainueie iaea?eueoeo e?a?i, ui
?icaeaathoueny, – 21%. Aiaeia?/i? i?eaooee a?ae ?iaanooaaiiy c e?a?i
I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? Ac?? oa Oeoiieaainueeiai ?aa?iio aeinyaathoue 12,1%
ii??aiyii c 9,4% ?c Cao?aeii? ?a?iie.

AEiaeia ae?iaie/a a?aeiioaiiy aai eaoaai??y ia c’yaeythoueny aiaeii/an
a ?icaeiaiiio aeaeyae?. Aiie iaia’yceiai i?ioiaeyoue aoai noaiiaeaiiy –
a?ae ia?a?nieo, naieo i?inoeo oi?i i?iyao, aei ?icaeiooiai noaio.
Aeie?aieaii oa ioa?aeoa?eciaaii /ioe?e aieiai? aoaie ?icaeoeo ?iicaiiiai
?iaanooaaiiy:

I. Ia??iae aei ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie.

??. Ae?oaa iieiaeia 40-o – ii/aoie 50-o ??.

???. Ii/aoie 50-o – e?iaoeue 70-o ??.

?V. Ii/aoie 80-o ??. – ii iao /an.

Ia??iaeecaoe?y iaoiiaeaia ye?nieie c?ooaiiyie a eiaeiiio c ieo.

Aei ?iaiaioieo ?en /aoaa?oiai, no/aniiai, aoaio ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy
iaeaaeaoue: ci?ie a no?oeoo?? aeaniino? OIE; iiaeaeueoa ia?inoaiiy
i?aeia?iaeiiai ae?iaieoeoaa; iiaeeo?eaoe?y eiieo?aioe?? oa
?ioa?iae?caoe??; aeoea?caoe?y i?aeia?iaeieo ceeoo?a ? iiaeeiaiue; iiyaa
iiaeo ?iaanoi??a ? ?aoeei??io?a eai?oaeo oa ?aa?iiaeueia
aeeaa?neo?eaoe?y ?iaanooaaiiy; ia?aaaaeaiiy o aeeaaeaii? eioo?a c aieo
onoaeaieo ?iaanoi??a ii??aiyii c iiaeie a caaaeuei?e no?oeoo??.

Aeoeaioiaaii oaaao ia oaiiiai? oa i?e/eiao iiaeeaeaiiy /enaeueiino?
?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueieo ceeoo?a ? iiaeeiaiue, ye? noaiiaeyoue iaeei/aieiaiee
c ?iciianthaeaeaieo iai?yi?a ei?ii?aoeaii? no?aoaa?? aeey canioaaiiy
ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae ca ei?aeiiii, caoenoo, eiinie?aeaoe?? oa
i?aeaeuaiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? o??i, aeeaa?neo?eaoe??
?iaanoeoe?eiiai ?eceeo, aeei?enoaiiy aeina?aeo oa ca’yce?a ia?oia?a,
neia?a?cio.

A no?oeoo?? ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy iaooeeueii i?aeaeuo?oueny ieoiia
aaaa e?a?i, ui ?icaeaathoueny, – c 24% a na?aaeei? 80-o ??. aei 32% o
1995 ?. ? 37% o 1996 ?. A ia?oo /a?ao oea noino?oueny Eeoath, iiaeo
?iaeono??aeueieo e?a?i (Aiieiia, ?iaeiiac?y, Iaeaec?y, I?aaeaiia Ei?ay,
N?iaaio?, Oaeaaiue, Oa?eaiae, O?e?ii?ie) oa e?a?i Eaoeinueei? Aia?eee
(A?aaioeia, A?acee?y, Iaeneea, Aaianoaea, Eieoia?y, Ia?o, *?e?).

Aei iiaeo yaeu iaeaaeeoue ? iiyaa iiaeo ia’?eo?a ?iaanooaaiiy – e?a?i
ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee oa canoinoaaiiy eieae?caoe?? oa
ioeueoeeoeueoo?ecio.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? i?aee?aneaii, ui iiaeeaeaiiy aca?iicaeaaeiino? ?
oe?e?niino? na?oo iaooeeueii ci?ith? no?oeoo?o i?aeia?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei iaoiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue eii?aeeiaoe?? oa ?aaoethaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?/ieo iie?oee. Aca?iicaeaaei?noue oaia? ciaoiaeeoue
i?iya ia o?eueee a ca?eueoaii? ieoiii? aaae oiaa??a, eai?oae?a, iineoa,
?iai/i? neee, ui iaa?oathoueny iica iaoe?iiaeueieie ?aieaie ?
oa?aeoa?ecothoue aeeiai?caoe?th ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe?? na?oiaiai
ainiiaea?nueeiai aeeooy. Iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aiia ciooo? eiaeio
e?a?io /e a?oio e?a?i iino?eii ni?aa?aeiineoe nai? ae?? c ?o iiaeaeueoei
a?iioaoe/iei aieeaii ia ?io? aea?aeaae ? a e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo – ia
naieo ?i?oe?aoi??a oeeo ae?e ? niiioea? inoaii?o a?aeiia?aeiei /eiii
ei?eaoaaoe naith iie?oeeo.

I?? iaaoaathoue eaoae?coth/iai cia/aiiy a ?ioaa?aoe?? ana a?eueoi?
e?eueeino? e?a?i oa i?aei?e?inoa aei ?noioii aeiaae?ciaaii? aeiiii?ee.
*a?ac aeiaaeueiee oa?aeoa? i?aeia?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei iia?
na?oiainiiaea?nuee? oiiae aenoaathoue iia? aeiiae ia eeoa aei naiiai
iaoai?cio ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/iiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa, a e aei caaaeueiiai
iaoai?cio ?aoe?iiaeueii? o/ano? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa eiaeii? e?a?ie
o anana?oiueiio iiae?e? i?aoe?. A?eueoa oiai, oeae iaoai?ci o e?ioeaaiio
i?aenoieo iieeeeaiee aaeaiooaaoe aei naaa iai?yie aaeineiiaeaiiy
aioo??oiueiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ainiiaea?nueeiai iaoai?cio, a?aoiaoaaoe
?ioa?iaoe?iiaeuei? oaeoi?e oa e?eoa??? aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo.

C on?o na?oiaeo ?eie?a naia ?iaanoeoe?eiee ia? iaeaeeiai?/i?o?
oa?aeoa?enoeee. Ca iaoeie ?ic?aooieaie, a 1980–1995 ??. I?? c?inoaee o
3,1 ?aca oaeaeoa ii??aiyii c? na?oiaith oi?a?aeath ? a 28 ?ac?a – c
ianyaii na?oiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa. O 1996 ?. aiie c?inee ia 10%, a ianya
na?oiai? oi?a?ae? – ia 5% (? ia 7% a 1997 ?. ii??aiyii c 1996 ?.).

?oo?eiith neeith a na?oiaiio ianyc? aoee ?icaeioo? e?a?ie, ye?
?iaanooaaee 294,7 ie?ae. aeie., ca ?o ?aooiie a?aeaoeany ia 84,4%
aeoea?caoe?y iaaeoiaeaeaiue o 1996 ?., ianaiia?aae, NOA (84,6 ie?ae.
aeie.), Aaeeeia?eoai?? (30,1 ie?ae.), O?aioe?? (20,8) oa
Aaeuea??/Ethenaiao?ao (13,9 ie?ae. aeie.). Iaeaea an? aiie aiaeii/an ?
iaee?oii?oeie na?oiaeie ?iaanoi?aie. C’yniaai? i?e/eie ao?oeeaiai
ia?iuoaaiiy I??, i?eaaaeeaino? ?a?iiaenueeiai Nithco ? iniaeeai
Aaeeeia?eoai?? aeey ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a, iii??i?noue ianya?a o
ssiii?th, ?o i?aeaeuaiiy o e?a?ie, ui ?icaeaathoueny, iniaeeai ?aa?iie
I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? Ac?? oa Eaoeinueei? Aia?eee, ? noaaiaoe?? aei Ao?eee.

Ocaaaeueiaii aieiai? oaiaeaioe?? ?aoi?ioaaiiy oa e?aa?ae?caoe??
aeiiii?ee, ?ieue ? ni?yiiaai?noue ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy aei
iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo e?a?i, iieacaii eiai aca?iica’ycie c aaciaeie
iae?iaeiiii?/ieie ia?aiao?aie – c?inoaiiyi AAI, ?ioeyoe??th, noaiii
ieao?aeiiai aaeaino oiui, – a oaeiae aieiai? oi?ie iaaeoiaeaeaiiy eioo?a
– /a?ac ni?euei? i?aei?e?inoaa ? i?eaaoecaoe?th. I?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui
?iicaiia ?iaanooaaiiy a ?aa?ii? nea?iao?oueny aaea aeine?aeaeaieie
caaaeueieie oiiaaie. Iaaieioaii, ui i?aeianaiiy aenii?oo ca ?aooiie
o/ano? ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a o i?iaaaeaii? i?eaaoecaoe?? i?iaeaiaoe/ia ?
iiaeia ni?iaiicoaaoe, ui cao?aei? ?iaanoi?e ia aeeaaeaoeiooue eiooe a
aenii?oia ia?ai?io?ethaaiiy /a?ac ?iia??io ia?niaeoeao iiyae iiaeo
eiieo?aio?a (ye oea iaei i?noea i?e ?iaanooaaii? o I?aaeaiio Ei?ath oa
?io? e?a?ie I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? Ac??).

I?aeoeea e?a?i No?aeii? ?a?iie, ye? ia?aaeeaathoue i?aeianaiiy, ia
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? ae??oaeueii? cia/ouino? I??. ?o i?eoie ii/aany eeoa i?ney
iie?auaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe??, a ia noaa ?? i?e/eiith, ui
aeiaaa? iaiao?aei?noue eiioeaio?aoe?? coneeue ia aeoea?caoe??
aioo??oiueiai ?iaanooaaiiy.

Aeine?aeaeaii i?e/eie a?eueoi? aoaeoeaiino? a ni?aa? caeo/aiiy oa
aeei?enoaiiy I?? o I?aaeaiii-No?aei?e Ac?? (INA) ii??aiyii c
Eaoeinueeith Aia?eeith. Ia?oiio ?aa?iio aoee i?eoaiaiieie noaa?eueia
iie?oe/ia neooaoe?y, eia?/i?oa iae?iaeiiii?/ia iie?oeea, /?oea
ie?aneaiiy i??i?eoao?a aeiiii?/ii? aeeiai?ee, iacia/i? niiae?aaiiy ia
i?eieea ei?ioeino?ieiaiai eai?oaeo oa oe?eani?yiiaaia aenii?oia
i???ioaoe?y c i?aeeeth/aiiyi aei ?? ?aae?caoe?? ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e.
Aeiiiaithth/e iaoe?iiaeuei? caiuaaeaeaiiy, ca?oa?aei? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy
noaiiaeee aaaeeeaee eiiiiiaio naia ?iaanooaaiiy, a oie /an ye a
Eaoeinuee?e Aia?eoe? aiie eiioeaio?oaaeeny o noa?? niiaeeaaiiy,
noeioethaaee ?? ?icaeoie oa i?aeo?eioaaee niiaeeaaoeueeee aoi. ?aa?ii
INA oaeiae aeaiiino?oaaa ca?oa?aeiei ?iaanoi?ai oa aenii?oa?ai cia/ii
iaio? oaiie ?ioeyoe?? (0,6% i?ioe 7,4%), a oaeiae oaeaeeo aeeiai?eo
aenii?oo ? eiai a?eueoo cia/ou?noue o AAI (a?aeiia?aeii, 35,8% i?ioe
23,3%), a ioaea – neeuei?oo ia?niaeoeaio caeaoi?noue ii ianeoaiaoaaiith
ciai?oi?o ciaia’ycaiue.

I?eioeeiiai aaaeeeaei ? aeniiaie, ui aeina?ae e?a?i INA oa Eaoeinueei?
Aia?eee icia/a? iaiao?aei?noue ocaiaeaeaiino? i?ae I?? oa oi?a?aeath.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aena?oeaii aaiethoe?th eiioeaioe?e iioeaaoe?? oa
?ice?eoi iaoiaee ?aaoethaaiiy ?iicaiieo/ca?oa?aeieo aeeaaeaiue. C?iaeaii
eeaneo?eaoe?th oai??e: 1. aea iniiaio ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue ci?ie iai?iieo
eo?n?a aaetho (?.Ae?aa?), i?aeia?iaeieo o?iainiai-e?aaeeoieo a?aeiinei
(Ae.Eaoiai) aai ??ai?a oa?eoieo noaaie (?.Iaiaeaee); 2. a iniia? yeeo
ciaoiaeyoueny iae?i- oa i?e?iaeiiii?/i? i?aeoiaee oa iiaeeo?eaoe?y
ii??aiyeueieo ia?aaaa ??cieo e?a?i (E.Eiaec?ia – O.Icaaa, A.Oi?ooe –
I.Oaeiaa?aa?) /e aiae?c ci?i o ae?iaieoeoa? oa niiaeeaaii? ie?aieo
oiaa??a (?.Aa?iii); 3. ui a?aeaiaeyoue aieiaio ?ieue niaoeeo?/iei
ia?aaaaai o??i, ye? iaoiiaeththoue ?ioa?iae?caoe?th ?eie?a ?
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th i?iaeoeo?a o na?oia?e oi?a?ae? (N.Oaeia?, I.Iaa?,
*.E?iaeeaa?aa?, ?.Eaeac); 4. ye? iiyniththoue i?ioean ??oaiue uiaei
i?yiiai ?iaanooaaiiy ia iniia? oi?iaeueiiai aiae?co iiaeeeainoae
aeueoa?iaoeaiiai aeai?o (O.Oi?no, N.O??o); 5. ui ia’?aeiothoue o nia?
??ci? aeaiaioe iiia?aaei?o eiioeaioe?e – aeeaeoe/ia oai??y
Aeae.Aeaii?iaa; 6. a iniiao yeeo iieeaaeai? iayai?noue oa noai
eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa (I.Ii?oa?); 7. aeeaanooaaiiy eai?oaeo
(Aeae.Aiaeaeaa?i, ?.Oi?iaaeai, A.A?enii).

A?aei?/a?oueny cia/iee i?ia?an o aeine?aeaeaiiyo – c /anii aiie noaee
a?oioiai?oeie ca ?aooiie aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? iieaciee?a oa canoinoaaiiy
ei?aeyoeaiiai aiae?co ?oiueiai aca?iica’yceo.

I?iaiae?ciaaii aaeocaa? oa ?aa?iiaeuei? i??i?eoaoe, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny a
iniia? caeo/aiiy ?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo o ??cieo e?a?iao, oa iaoiaee
?aaeaiaioaoe?? oa i?aeaeuaiiy ?acoeueoaoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? ?iicaiieo
?iaanoi??a: ?aaoethaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?e oa o/anoue o aeaniino?; aeiiae aei
?acoeueoao?a ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?; ?aaoethaaiiy ?aiao??aoe??
i?eaooeo, aeea?aeaiae?a oa ?ioeo aeioiae?a; nenoaia ?iaanoeoe?eieo
i?euea; nenoaia ?iaanoeoe?eieo aa?aio?e; ?ioi?iaoe?eia caaacia/aiiy.

?aaoethaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?e oa o/anoue o aeaniino? a?aeaoaa?oueny ca
?aooiie: a). ?aca?aoaaiiy ca iaoe?iiaeueiei eai?oaeii iaaieo aaeocae ?
aeae?a ae?iaieoeoaa – aeey caa?aaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee – ?
noino?oueny caai?iie ia o/anoue ?iicaiiei ?iaanoi?ai o aeoe?iia?iiio
eai?oae? aecia/aieo naeoi??a, cie?aia, oaeaeiioi?eaoe?e a Aano???,
A?aoe??, ??eaiae??, ?neaiae??, ?oae??, Eeoa?, Ii?ooaae??, Oo?oe??,
Oaaeoea???, Oaaoe??; a). iaiaaaiiy ca?eueoaiiy o?yaeii e?a?ie aeeaaeaiiy
eai?oaeo ?? ieoiii? aaae a iia?aoe?yo ca?oa?aeiiai i?aei?e?ioey. Aiii
coiiaeaii oei, ui, c iaeiiai aieo, o/anoue o aeaniino? iaaea?
iiaeeeaino? iineeaiiy eiio?ieth ca aeoeaaie ?iaanoi??a, a i?noeaa?
ia?oia?e io?eiothoue aeinooi aei ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i eiai ae?yeuei?noue ?
iiaeooue ni?eyoe ?ic?iaoe? eiino?oeoeai?oeo ?aeae uiaei ?aaoethaaiiy
ae?yeueiino? ?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo, c ae?oaiai. Iieacaii ana iaioo
aoaeoeai?noue ae?yiiy aeaiiai eiiiiiaioa ?aaoethaaiiy ia ?iicaiieo
?iaanoi??a o ca’yceo c iie?auaiiyi iiaeeeainoae aeinooio inoaii?o aei
ca?oa?aeieo ?eie?a, oaoiieia?e oa eiio?iethaaiiy ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino?
aac aieiae?iiy eiio?ieueiei iaeaoii aeoe?e.

?aaoethaaiiy ?aiao??aoe?? i?eaooeo, aeea?aeaiae?a oa ?ioeo aeioiae?a
i?iaiaeeoueny ye c eiio?iethth/eie, oae ? caioi/oaaeueieie iai??aie. O
ia?oiio aeiaaeeo – c iaoith o?enaoe?? iia?aoe?e ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a
/a?ac oe?iei ?iciianthaeaeaio i?aeoeeo ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a,
ciaioaiiy a?aeeeao eai?oaeo oa aeeaanooaaiiy. Aei oeueiai o a?eueoino?
e?a?i, ui ?icaeaathoueny, ?nio? aeoae?noe/ia noaaeaiiy: iii?e
ona?aeiieaiiy ?noioi?oi? i?eaaaeeaino? iie?oeee a?eueii? ?aiao??aoe??
i?eaooe?a aeey ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a ii??aiyii c iaiaaeaiiyie, aiie, ye ?
?ai?oa, iaaeoi noo?aiaai? ?? a?iioaoe/ieie iaaaoeaieie iane?aeeaie
(iia??oaiiyi ieao?aeieo aaeain?a oiui), /a?ac ui aaeathoueny aei
?aaoethaaiiy ia?aeac?a eioo?a ca ei?aeii (iaena?eici?oeie iaiaaeoaa/aie
a 1995 ?. aoee ?iaeiiac?y, I?aa??y, Oaeaaiue, O??i?aeaae ? Oiaaai].
Aiaeii/an aiie iaiaaathoueny eiiiainoaaoe oea iaaeaiiyi ??ciiiai?oieo
?iaanoeoe?eieo i?euea.

Ae?iaie/? iieacieee ae?yeueiino? ?iicaiii? o??ie ?aaeaiaioothoueny ?
caoiaeaie, iia’ycaieie c ?aaeeiii ?iaioe (aeiia aeei?enoaiiy i?noeaaeo
eiiiiiaio?a; ia?aaeaaaiiy oaoiieia??; iia’ycoaaiiy aenii?oieo eaio c
ianyaii i?iaeaae?a ia aioo??oiueiio ?eieo) oa iaiaaeaiiyie: /enaeueiino?
ca?oa?aeiiai ia?niiaeo, aeeth/ath/e iaiaaeaiiy o iaaeaii? a?c;
aea?aeaaieo caeoiie (aeeeth/aiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a c /enea
aea?aeaaieo iinoa/aeueiee?a); ?iii?oo ?iaanoeoe?eieo oiaa??a; aeinooio
aei i?noeaaeo ?ano?n?a, oaeoi??a ae?iaieoeoaa ? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?e;
aeei?enoaii? iiai? oaoiieia??; aeiaaino?ieiai? i?aiaee caie? oa
ia?ooiiino?; ia ia?ai?uaiiy iia?aoe?e a iaaeao e?a?ie; ia
aeeaa?neo?eaoe?th iia?aoe?e/ae?yeueiino?; i?e io?eiaii? i?noeaaeo
e?aaeeo?a oa ?ioi?iaoe??; ?aiao??aoe?? eai?oaeo ? i?eaooeo (aaaaeaiiy
aeiaeaoeiaeo iiaeaoe?a aai ieaoaae?a); ?ici?uaii? ?aeeaie. I?aee?aneaii,
ui oi/a aeiiae aei ae?iaie/eo iieaciee?a ? ae??aei aaaeaeai aeiiii?/ii?
iie?oeee aeey i?eeiath/eo e?a?i, c ?ioiai aieo, ?o iiaeia eaae?o?eoaaoe
? ye iaoiae ao?o/aiiy o ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieo.

Eeaneo?eiaaii nenoaio ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?euea ia aeaa aeaee ?aaeei?a:
cae/aei? (ni?yiiaai? ia iie?auaiiy iae?i- oa i?e?iaeiiii?/ii? neooaoe??)
oa niaoe?aeuei? (a naith /a?ao, ?o ?icae?eaii ia oaeoi?i? (ca?eueiaiiy
a?ae iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, aa?aiooaaiiy iicee, i?enei?aiiy aii?oecaoe?eieo
a?ae?aooaaiue, /anoeiaa iiaa?iaiiy iiaeaoe?a (a o./. ca ?aooiie iaaeaiiy
iiaeaoeiaiai e?aaeeoo ? iiaeaoeiai? cieaeee), a?aeaaaeaiiy a i?aiaeo
caie? ia i?eueaiaeo oiiaao, noaneaeoaaiiy i?aei?e?inoa, ui aeeiiothoue
iaai? aeiiae – noai?ththoue iia? ?iai/? i?noey, noeioeththoue
i?aeaioiaeo eaae??a) ? oiaa?i? (caoeno ae?iaiee?a a?ae eiieo?aioe?? ca
aeiiiiiaith oa?eoieo ? iaoa?eoieo ?iii?oieo aa?’???a; ?o /anoi
canoiniaothoue aeey caeo/aiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e, ui iathoue
?io?aaa?oiaaiee iai?yiie, ia a?aei?io a?ae oaeoi?ieo i?euea, ye?,
iaaiaee, ni?yiiaai? ia noeioethaaiiy ae?yeueiino? aenii?oii???ioiaaieo
i?aei?e?inoa).

Aei na?eicieo /eiiee?a noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaiai iiaeaoeiaiai ?aaeeio aeey
?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a iaeaaeeoue iicaaaeaiiy a?ae iiaea?eiiai
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy. Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy a?ae?a?a? ?iaanoeoe?eiee e?aaeeo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aaoethaaiiy ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy aeooaeueia ia eeoa
ia ??ai? e?a?ie aeeaaeaiiy eai?oaeo, a e e?a?ie aacoaaiiy. ?icaeioo?
e?a?ie caaaeaee i?aeo?eioaaee ca?oa?aeia ni?yioaaiiy eioo?a, yeui aiii
ia noia?a/eei iaoe?iiaeueiei i??i?eoaoai oa ni?eyei ?icaeoeo; a
i?ioeeaaeiiio aeiaaeeo canoiniaoaaany aaethoiee eiio?ieue aai
eiio?iethaaeiny ia?ai?uaiiy eai?oaeo oeyoii e?oeaicoaaiiy aai
iaiaaeaiue. A?eueo?noue c ieo caioi/o? ca?oa?aeia ?iaanooaaiiy ia iniia?
?aae?caoe?? niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaieo i?ia?ai ni?eyiiy. O iie?oeoe?
ni?eyiiy ca?oa?aeiiio ?iaanooaaiith aeae?eaii oae? aeaiaioe oa iaoiaee:
1. iaaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? oa oaoi?/ii? aeiiiiiae; 2. i?yia o?iainiaa
i?aeo?eiea oa iiaeaoeia? aaaeae?; 3. no?aooaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?e.

Iineeaiiy o?ainiaoe?iiae?caoe?? na?oiai? aeiiii?ee oa ?ioaa?aoe?eieo
i?ioean?a /eiyoue aieea ia no?aoaa?th, c iaeiiai aieo, ?iicaiieo
eiiiai?e, c ae?oaiai – i?eeiath/eo e?a?i, niiioeath/e ?o aei ?ic?iaee
iaoai?cio aaeaioaoe?? aei iiaeo oiia – ia i?aeia?iaeiiio ??ai?. I?e/iio
oea noino?oueny ia o?eueee i?yiiai ?iaanooaaiiy, a e eiieo?aioe??.

Ia aeainoi?iiiueiio ??ai? oea ciaeoei ao?eaiiy o aeainoi?iii?o
?iaanoeoe?eieo oaiaeao, a ?aieao yeeo cao?eniaaii onoiaiiy iiaea?eiiai
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, caaacia/aiiy ni?aaaaeeeaiai ?iciiae?eo iiaeaoeiaeo
aeioiae?a i?ae e?a?iaie aacoaaiiy ? ?aoeei??ioaie. Ia 1 n?/iy 1997 ?.
162 e?a?iaie i?aeienaii 1300 oaiae, i?ioieie?a oa aeainoi?iii?o
iiaeaoeiaeo aeieoiaio?a.

?aa?iiaeueiee ??aaiue eii?aeeiaoe?? caaaeii ae??oo? ye ieoaiiy
aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee ii a?aeiioaiith aei I?? – oi?i e?aa?ae?caoe??,
caoenoo, niinia?a ?ica’ycaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eieo noia?a/iinoae, oae ? iaai?
i?aaeea iiaaae?iee naieo ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a – a?aeiiaa a?ae
iaiaaeoaaeueii? ae?eiai? i?aeoeee, iacaeiiieo ieaoaae?a, o?ainoa?oiiai
oe?iiooai?aiiy; ciaia’yco? ?o iaaeaaaoe ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i ae?yeuei?noue;
?aaeaiaioo? oeeaaeaiiy o?oaeiaeo oaiae, ae?eia? noinoiee, caoeno
aeiae?eey. Aei ieo, cie?aia, iaeaaeaoue “Caaaeueiee eiaeaen ?aaoethaaiiy
?ooo ca?oa?aeieo eai?oae?a, eoioaaiiy-i?iaeaaeo e?oeaic?e, oi?aiaaeueieo
ia?ie ? io?eiaiiy ?iyeo? e?a?i Aiaenueeiai noa?aa?iiaeueiiai
?ioaa?aoe?eiiai oa?oiiaaiiy” (1991 ?.) oa “Aeiaia?? i?i aca?iiiaaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?aaeeio ? ?aaeeio iaea?eueoiai ni?eyiiy a ?aieao
I?ai?/iiaia?eeainueei? ciie a?eueii? oi?a?ae? i?ae Eaiaaeith, Iaeneeith
? NOA” (1992 ?.).

Ana ae, iii?e ao?oeeao e?aa?ae?caoe?th ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? oa
?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, ca?oa?aei? ?iaanoi?e ua noeeathoueny c
aaaaoueia ia?aoeiaeaie. C iaoith ?o onoiaiiy aeoea?coaaeany ?ic?iaea
caaaeueiiai ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ?aaeeio. A ?iaio? aeae?eaii iniaeeai
aaaeeeaee iiiaio: ieoaiiy i?inoaaiiy ia ?eiie oa ?iaanoeoe?ei?, ye?
?ai?oa ia?aaoaaee o nooi iaoe?iiaeuei?e eiiiaoaioe??, aaiethoe?iiothoue
a?ae aeainoi?iiiueiai aei aaaaoinoi?iiiueiai cae?eniaiiy: a?ae ?ic?iaee
aeieoiaio?a, ye? iathoue iaiaia’yceiaee oa?aeoa? – aei iaia’yceiaiai, c
?icoe?aiiyi aaia?ao?/iiai canoinoaaiiy ?ino?oiaio?a ?aaoethaaiiy –
iaeaeuiai ??aiy eii?aeeiaoe?? I??. Ooo ae??oothoueny ieoaiiy
niaoeeo?/iiai oa?aeoa?o, ui noinothoueny ie?aieo naeoi??a aeiiii?ee
(iineoae, no?aooaaiiy, ?ioaeaeooaeueia aeani?noue) aai ae eiie?aoieo
i?iaeai ae?yeueiino? OIE (e?eoa??? ioe?iee ooieoe?iioaaiiy, ?ica’ycaiiy
ni??ieo ieoaiue, caaacia/aiiy caeiyoino? ? aeio?eiaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai
o?oaeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, noeioethaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?e, iaiaaeoaaeueia
ae?eiaa i?aeoeea, iie?oeea eiieo?aioe??, caoeno niiaeeaa/?a). Iei?
iaeeiie?aoi?oeie ? iaeaaaeeea?oeie ? ooaaeai? a ?acoeueoao?
O?oaaaenueeiai ?aoiaeo ia?aaiai??a AAOO–AOI Caaaeueia oaiaea ii oi?a?ae?
iineoaaie, na??y oaiae TRIPS – i?aa ?ioaeaeooaeueii? aeaniino?, ui
iia’ycai? c oi?a?aeath, i TRIM – ?iaanoeoe?ei? caoiaee, ui iia’ycai? c
oi?a?aeath, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?eiee Nienie aeae?a iaiaaeoaaeueii? ae?eiai?
i?aeoeee (1994 ?.). O?eaa? ?ic?iaea Aaaaoinoi?iiiuei? ?iaanoeoe?eii?
oaiaee a ?aieao IAN?.

E?aa?ae?caoe?y ?aaeeio I??, onoaath/e oi?iaeuei? ia?aoeiaee, iieaaoo?
ao?ae ia iaoe?iiaeuei? ?eiee oa iiaeaeiee caaino?th? oai eiieo?aioe?th.
Aiane?aeie niaoeeo?/iiai oa?aeoa?o aeoea?a OIE, ?o o?ainiaoe?iiaeueieo
i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo? ? oei a?eueoa aaaiieo eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa, ca
yeeie aiie ia??aeei ia?aaeuothoue iaoe?iiaeuei? eiiiai??, I?? caeaoi?
iineeeoe nooi?iue eiioeaio?aoe?? ?eieo, a OIE – aaeaaaoeny aei
iaiaaeoaaeueii? aai aioeeiieo?aioii? i?aeoeee. I?aee?aneaii, ui ?ic?iaea
i?iaeai eiieo?aioe?? ioneoue o?nii ei?aniiiaeoaaoe c iie?oeeith o
oi?aiaaeuei?e oa ?iaanoeoe?ei?e noa?ao ? ?aaoethaaiiyi aioo??oiuei?
aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Caaaeyee oeueiio i?eioeeie caaacia/aiiy
aeinooio ia ?eiie ? eiieo?aioe??, ui ai?iaaaeaeothoueny ca aeiiiiiaith
iaei??? a?oie caoiae?a, ia i?ae?eaathoueny ?ioeie.

Nooi?iue ?ioaineaiino? ciai?oiuei?iaanoeoe?eieo a?aeiinei ia?aaoaa? o
o?niiio aca?iica’yceo c iayai?noth aa?aio?e aacia?aoeiaeiiai i?iaaaeaiiy
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? oa io?eiaiiy i?eaooe?a a?ae ia?.
Iaaeaiiy iiae?aieo aa?aio?e oe?iei i?aeoeeo?oueny o na?oia?e i?aeoeoe?.
A ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaii ?o iaoai?ci ia o?ueio ??aiyo: ?. e?a?ie
aacoaaiiy; ??. i?eeiath/i? e?a?ie; ???. i?aeia?iaeiiio.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeno?aiieueiaaii aieiai? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee
iiia?aaeiueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?iaaaeaii eiiieaeniee aiae?c
?iaanoeoe?eii-i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai ee?iaoo Oe?a?ie, yeee
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeai?aneai?noth ? ia a?aeiia?aea? noaiaea?oai ye
?eieiai?, oae ? oeaio?ae?ciaaii ieaiiai? aeiiii?ee. Ia nueiaiaei?oi?e
aeaiue aiia aieiae?? iaaiith i??ith eeoa 7 c aeie?aieaieo 36 /eiiee?a,
ui caaacia/othoue ni?eyoeea?noue ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ee?iaoo.

Iaa?oioiaaii /ioe?e aaciaeo oaeoi?e, ui aeaoa?i?iothoue iaiaaeai?noue
ianooaa?a ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy ia Oe?a?i?: iie?oe/iee; aeiiii?/iee;
i?aaiaee; i?aai?caoe?eiee. I?iaiae?ciaaia aaiethoe?y, iaiine?aeiai?noue
? noia?a/eea?noue caeiiiaeaanoaa, ye? eaoae?cothoueny ?nioaaiiyi
a?ii?caeei? ii?iaoeaii? aace.

Oe?a?ia ia noai?eea iie?oe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo oa i?aai?caoe?eieo oiia aeey
caeo/aiiy na?eicieo oa aoaeoeaieo ciai?oi?o eioo?a o iio??aieo ianyaao ?
iane?aeeaie oeueiai ? iaaecae/aeii iaeee i?eoie ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e oa
ia?inoaiiy aeeaanooaaiiy aeeaaeaiiai eai?oaeo. ?ice?eoi iniiai? eaiaee
oa niiniae a?aeieeao eai?oae?a c Oe?a?ie ? c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui
aiane?aeie oeueiai oa ciai?oiuei? caai?aiaaiino? ia iiaeia ?ic?aoiaoaaoe
ia io?eiaiiy cia/ieo e?aaeeo?a oa i?eaaoieo ?iaanoeoe?e.

I?iaaaeaii aiae?c iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa, a ?acoeueoao? yeiai iieacaii, ui
na?aae ?nioth/eo i?yieo ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a ia?aaaaeathoue ae??ai?
o??ie, ye? ooeathoue oaeaeeiai i?eaooeo, a ae?yeuei?noue ni?eueieo
i?aei?e?inoa caeaa?eueoiai eiioeaio?o?oueny ia iina?aaeieoeuee?e, a ia
ae?iaie/?e ae?yeueiino?.

O?aooaaiiy iio?aa ? iiaeeeainoae Oe?a?ie aeicaieeei aeae?eeoe
i??i?eoaoi? iai?yie o caeo/aii? ciai?oi?o eioo?a. Aei ia?oi/a?aiaeo
caaaeaiue aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee iaeaaeeoue ? iaaoooy oaoiieia?/iiai
aeeiai?cio, a?ae /iai caeaaeaoeia no?oeoo?ia ia?aaoaeiaa aeiiii?ee.

Ia eiioeaiooaeuei?e iniia? iaa?oioiaaii aieiai? caoiaee, ye? ni?eythoue
iie?auaiith ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ee?iaoo Oe?a?ie, iaaaaeai? ia noi?.8. Aaaaoi
a /iio aiie noinothoueny noai?aiiy a?aeeaaiaeaeaii?
caeiiiaeaa/i-?aaoethth/i? ?io?ano?oeoo?e.

Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy ia? i?iaeaia iaaeaiiy i?euea. I?eueae ie?aiei
i?aei?e?inoaai i?ecaiaeyoue aei ao?aoe iiaeaoeiaith nenoaiith Oe?a?ie
i?ici?ino?, ??aiino?, aeiiii?/ii? ?aoe?iiaeueiino? oa iaeo?aeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o, ui aaaea aei ia?aein?a o aeiiii?oe? ? oiaiiaeeeaeth?
i?eeiyooy a??ieo iae?iaeiiii?/ieo ??oaiue c aieo o?yaeo. Aiaeii/an
aaaaea?oueny ia?aae/aniei ?o iiaia aioethaaiiy. Aeioe?eueia ?o a?eueoa
a?aeiia?aei?noue aeie? aeaniino?, ?ici??o eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue, /enoiio
i?eaooeo, ??ciei niaoe?aeueiei i?ia?aiai oa nioe?aeueiiio caoenoo
ianaeaiiy. I??i?eoao ioneoue iaaeaaaoeny niaoe?ae?ciaaiiio ae?iaieoeoao
iaoei?iii? aai aeao?oeeoii? i?iaeoeoe??, iaiao?aeia aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y
iiaeaoeiaeo i?euea ca e?eoa??yie aaeocaaiai aeeaaeaiiy eai?oaeo,
oa?i?i?a oa ianya?a ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e, nooiaiy aeei?enoaiiy oiaa??a
? iineoa a?o/eciyiiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

Aa?oi caaaa/eoe ? iiaeeea?noue caeoiee i?aei?e?inoaa ?iicaiiei
?iaanoi?ii c iaoith iiaeaeueoiai cae?eooy. Caiia?aoe oeueiio iiaea
iiaoaiia i?eaaoecaoe?y, a i?e ?ic?iaoe? ?iaanoeoe?eii? i?ia?aie, ye
neeaaeiai? /anoeie aeiaiai?o eoi?ae?-i?iaeaaeo, iiia?aaei? iaoiiaeaiiy
oaeeo /eiiee?a, ye: aeae, ianyae oa oa?i?ie cae?eniaiiy ia?aeiii?
?iaanoeoe??; aeiiao uiaei caa?aaeaiiy aai cacaeaeaa?aeue aecia/aiiai
iiaeaeueoiai i?io?eth ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa; o?enaoe?y ieoaiue
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo i?aoe?aiee?a c iaaeaiiyi ?i iaaieo aa?aio?e a ?ac?
i?iaeaaeo eiio?ieueiiai iaeaoo aeoe?e; eiio?ieue ca ?aae?caoe??th
?iaanoeoe?eii? i?ia?aie c iiaeeea?noth canoinoaaiiy oo?aoieo naieoe?e;
?iia??i? aeiaeaoeia? oiiae, iia’ycai? c? caa?aaeaiiyi ?iai/eo i?noeue,
ioi?iiith iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

Ie??i noaa?eueiiai a eiiieaen? caeiiiaeaanoaa aeey ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a
aaaeeeaa iayai?noue ?ioaineaiiai i?ioeano aioo??oiueiai ?iaanooaaiiy.
Aiie ia aeeaaeaoeiooue eiooe a oe?a?inueeo aeiiii?eo, yeui
ona?aeiieyoue, ui anoia?a/ on?i o?yaeiaei aa?aio?yi aioo??oi? ?iaanoi?e
a?aeaeathoue ia?aaaao ?ioei oi?iai ae?yeueiino?, a ia
eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiiyi. I?e caeo/aii? aioo??oi?o ?iaanoeoe?e, oi/a oea ?
aeeneon?eia i?iaeaia, iiaeeeaa iia?e?caoe?y eioo?a “o?iueiaiai”
eai?oaeo. Noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaiai ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ee?iaoo ciaoiaeeoueny a
i?aai?/iiio ca’yceo c oi?ioaaiiyi oiia aeey cae?eniaiiy ianaeaiiyi
caiuaaeaeaiue ? i?ioeae?? ciaoe?iaiith inoaii?o.

Iio??aia aeeaa?neo?eaoe?y oi?i ?iaanoeoe?e – e?ceiao, iaaeaiiy
eiioean?e oiui. Iaei??th c oi?i caeo/aiiy ciai?oi?o e?aaeeoieo ?ano?n?a
iiaea a noaoe nenoaia o?ai/aec?iao.

Oaaaa ioneoue aooe i?eae?eaia eiiaa?n??, ?ic?iaoe? ?? eiioeaioe?? oa
?aaoethth/eo caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a. Aei ?? ?aae?caoe?? ei?enii
i?aeeeth/eoe ciai?oiueiiie?oe/i? no?oeoo?e, nea?iaoth/enue i?e caeo/aii?
?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo noi?ioeueiaaieie ai?iiith aeieo?eiith, i?ia?aiith
ica?i?iiy, i?iaaaeaiith eeaneo?eaoe??th i?aei?e?inoa, ye? i?aeeyaathoue
eiiaa?n??, ?? oeio – iiaii?, /anoeiai? oiui – oa ?ic?iaeaieie caoiaeaie
ii caoenoo oe?a?inueeeo oaoiieia?e ? aaoi?nueeeo i?aa.

Aiane?aeie ?iciaaeo N?N? aoei ao?a/aii ?yae ?eie?a ? iei?oi? noaiiaeua
aeooae?coaaei i?iaeaio caa?aaeaiiy iiceoe?e ia ieo. Ni?eyoe oeueiio
iiaea c?inoaiiy, /e oi/a a i?aeo?eiaiiy iaaieo ianya?a ca?oa?aeiiai
?iaanooaaiiy, a oaeiae iiaa?iaiiy ia o?aaeeoe?ei? ?eiee caooo
i?iaeoeoe?? oe?a?inueeeo ae?iaiee?a.

No?aoaa?y iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie iaaaeueii iio?aao?
iaa?aeeeaaeii? oa iaia’yceiai? ei?aeoe?? a?aeiinei c ?yaeii
i?aeia?iaeieo o?iainiaeo i?aai?caoe?e, cie?aia, Na?oiaei aaieii oa
I?aeia?iaeiei aaethoiei oiiaeii. O aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaii iai?eeiyooy
eo?no, ui eiai iiaoaeiaaii ia ?o iinooeao?, ca?aeii yeiai aea?aeaa?
a?aeaiaeeoueny ?ieue ianeaiiai niinoa??aa/a ca i?ioeanaie ?icaeoeo
?eieo; ui iiaeaeue ?icaeoeo, yea iaa’yco?oueny ieie, ia a?aeiia?aea?
?ioa?anai Oe?a?ie oa oe?aeeea?noue aeiiae uiaei iiaii? e?aa?ae?caoe??
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?.

I?aei?e?iieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue aeiaaa? ?aoaeueiiai a?aooaaiiy
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo neooaoe?e. I?e oeeaaeaii? oaiaee c aoaeue-yeith
e?a?iith ne?ae ciaoe ?? iaioae?oao ? eiioaeno a?aeiinei c ?ioeie
aea?aeaaaie oa i?iaiae?coaaoe ?o a?iioaoe/io aeeiai?eo. Oea iieiaeaiiy
a?aoiaioiaaii eiie?aoieie oaeoaie: ?nioaaiiyi oaiaeaioe?? i?ioenoiyiiy
i?ae ?a?iiith oa Aia?eeith, c iaeiiai aieo, oa ?neainueeeie aea?aeaaaie
– c ae?oaiai; iaiao?aei?noth aaia?ao?/ii? aeeaa?neo?eaoe??
ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueieo oa ?iaanoeoe?eieo ca’yce?a o ieai? ciaioaiiy
?iii?oii? caeaaeiino?; i?eeiyooy aeaaaeaieo ??oaiue i?e o/ano? o
?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeoao o Caeaaeacc? oa ?ioeo ?aa?iiao. Iaeiae aaaeeeai
? ia aiaaeaoe a e?aeiiu?, ye i?e a?aeiia? a?ae ?aae?caoe?? Aooa?nueeiai
i?iaeoo (aa?acaiue 1998 ?.).

A aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy eiiieaeno
i?aai?caoe?eieo, i?aaiaeo, aeiiii?/ieo, aaei?i?no?aoeaieo caoiae?a,
ni?yiiaaieo ia iie?auaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ee?iaoo Oe?a?ie.

OAI?AOEEI-IAOIAeIEIA?*I? OA I?AEOE*I? AENIIAEE

1. I?? – eaaioeo?eiaaia aeiiii?/ia eaoaai??y, ca aeei?enoaiiy yei?
iiaeeea? ii??aiyiiy oa ioe?iea ye?nieo ? e?euee?nieo iane?aee?a i?ioeano
?iaanooaaiiy ? ?aaoethaaiiy ??aiy iaaeoiaeaeaiue, a?aooaaiiy
?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueieo e?eoa???a o ainiiaea?nuee?e ae?yeueiino?.

2. Aei aieiaieo caaaeueieo /eiiee?a i?iaaaeaiiy ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy
iaeaaeaoue ia?inoaiiy a?aee?eoino? aeiiii?e ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? e?a?i
aeey ca?oa?aeieo ?iaanoi??a; iayai?noue iie?oe/ii? oa iae?iaeiiii?/ii?
noaa?eueiino? a i?eeiath/?e e?a?i?; noai?aiiy i?aeia?iaeiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa; aeei?enoaiiy ?ioa?iae?caoe??; i?aaiaoe/i?noue, ca yei?
ia?oi/a?aiai a?aoiaothoueny i?eaooeia?noue ?, cie?aia, aaethoiee eo?n,
iaioae?oao e?a?i aacoaaiiy oa ?aoeei??io?a; ia?inoaiiy o/ano? i?yieo oa
ii?ooaeueieo ?iaanoi??a o i?eaaoecaoe??; iayai?noue oaiaee c
I?aeia?iaeiei aaethoiei oiiaeii a ?ie? nai???aeiiai aa?aioa caaacia/aiiy
ciai?oi?o iaaeoiaeaeaiue.

3. Niaoeeo?ea i?yiiai aeeaaeaiiy eioo?a ia no/aniiio aoai? iia’ycaia c
oei, ui aiii noaei i?ia?aeiei iaoiaeii i?eaaoii? i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? ca ?aooiie aeoea?caoe?? i?aeia?iaeiiai ae?iaieoeoaa,
iiaeeo?eaoe?? eiieo?aioe?? oa ?ioa?iae?caoe??. Eiieo?aioe?y
a?aeaoaa?oueny aaea ia eeoa /a?ac aenii?o, a e ?iicaii? ?iaanoeoe??,
/ano?oa anueiai ia iniia? aeiaaeueii? no?aoaa?? neia?ico oi?a?ae? oa
?icina?aaeaeaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa c eii?aeeiaoe??th inoaiiueiai. I?yia
?iaanooaaiiy ia?aoai?eeiny c aeiiii?aeii? oi?ie ai?ioueae ca iia? noa?e
aieeao a aeii?ioth/o oi?io ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, a
ciai?oiy oi?a?aey, iaaiaee, – c aeii?ioth/i? oi?ie i?aeia?iaeieo
aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei – o i?aeii?yaeeiaaio.

4. Aei iaenooo?a?oeo ?en aeiaae?caoe?? iaeaaeeoue iineeaiiy c?inoaiiy
?ie? oa cia/aiiy i?aeia?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo e?eoa???a o aioo??oi?e
nenoai? aeiiii?/ieo ioe?iie ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ie?aieo e?a?i,
a ioaea – iaaia caeeaeaiiy aioo??oi?o ? i?aeia?iaeieo oiia
ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo. Aeaia ianoaaeia aeno?aiieth?oueny ia
cae?eniaiiy ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy, yea ia? ?noioi? a?aei?iiino? o
??cieo ?aa?iiao.

5. Aeina?ae e?a?i I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? Ac?? oa Eaoeinueei? Aia?eee
icia/a? aaaeeea?noue ocaiaeaeaiino? i?ae I?? oa oi?a?aeath. Aeey
eaoeiiaia?eeainueei? “iiaeae?” caeo/aiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e
oa?aeoa?ia iaaia “eiiiainaoi?ia” ?ieue, eiee ca ?o aeiiiiiaith o?yaee
e?a?i ?aa?iio iaiaaathoueny eiiiainoaaoe caaaeueio neaae?noue
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, oiae? ye a e?a?iao INA
?iicaiia ?iaanooaaiiy aeiiiaith? ? i?aeneeth? ?ioaineaiee aioo??oi?e
?iaanoeoe?eiee i?ioean. I?aeoeea iaaeoiaeaeaiiy I?? o e?a?ie Eaoeinueei?
Aia?eee aeiaiaeeoue, ui ia?aia ieie iiaeaeue, ye ? o e?a?iao ia?ao?aeii?
aeiiii?ee, ia aea? aa?aio?e noaa?eueiino? i?eieeao ?iicaiieo
?iaanoeoe?e, i?e/iio naia aioo??oi? ?iaanoeoe?ei? aaaee aenooiathoue ooo
iaeiei c i?ia?aeieo /eiiee?a ianoaa?eueiino?.

6. I?e oeeaaeaii? i?aeia?iaeieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo oaiae ianaiia?aae ne?ae
iaoe ia oaac? aeaa iiiaioe: ii-ia?oa, yeei /eiii aiie iiaeooue
aeiiiiiaoe ni?aaaaeeea?e ?ioaa?aoe?? e?a?i, ui ?icaeaathoueny, oa e?a?i
ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee o na?oiaa ainiiaea?noai oeyoii noeioethaaiiy
a?eueoiai ianyao iaaeoiaeaeaiue I?? ?, ii-ae?oaa, iaenei?coaaoe
iiceoeaiee oa i?i?i?coaaoe aoaeue-yeee iaaaoeaiee aoaeo a?ae oeueiai.
Aaaeeeaa ooo ? a?aooaaiiy ia eeoa e?euee?nieo, a e ye?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee
?iaanoeoe?e, ui aaicyoueny.

7. ?aaoethaaiiy eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue, ui ni?eythoue ?icaeoeo, iiaeiii
aacoaaoeny ia o?ainia?aioieo i?aaeeao, ye? caaacia/othoue
caaeainiaai?noue aeaiae ? ciaia’ycaiue noi??i-o/anieoeue. A?aooaaiiy
?ioa?an?a iaio ?icaeiooeo e?a?i iiaeeeaa oeyoii canoinoaaiiy caoenieo
canoa?aaeaiue, anoaiiaeaiiy ia?ao?aeieo ia??iae?a ? aeeth/aiiy
niaoe?aeueieo iieiaeaiue, ye? caaacia/othoue iinooiiao ?ioaa?aoe?th o
na?oiao aeiiii?eo.

8. Iaaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?aaeeio, c iaeiiai aieo, ioneoue ioiiethaaoe
aa?c ?iaanoeoe?e oa ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?ney aaico. I?eeiath/? e?a?ie
iiaeii? iaoe iiaeeea?noue aio/eiai i?iaaaeaiiy nai?? iie?oeee ?
?iciianthaeaeoaaoe caoeni? aa?aio?? eeoa ia o? ?iaanoeoe??, ui aaea
aaacai?.

9. A aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie c’yaeeeny iciaee ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe??, aei
yeeo a?aeiinyoueny e ?iicaii? ?iaanoeoe??. I?ioa ?o ia ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe
ye e?eoa??e c??eino? ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, iniaeeai ca aeei?enoaiiy ye
?ino?oiaioo, ui cai?ith?, a ia aeiiiaith? iia?e?caoe?th aioo??oi?o
?ano?n?a.

10. Ianoaa?eueiee aeiiii?/iee noai ? iaa?aei?aoeueiaai?noue i?aaiai?
noa?e – iniiai? ia?aoeiaee aeey caeo/aiiy ?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo ? iathoue
no?eeo oaiaeaioe?th aei caa?aaeaiiy, a iiaeaeiee – ? a?aeoai?aiiy, ui ia
aea? i?aenoaa ?ic?aoiaoaaoe ia iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ia o?eueee ianooaaieo, a e
iaiao?aeieo ianya?a ciai?oi?o eioo?a.

11. Iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e iiee ui cia/iith i??ith
iia’ycaii c ?iaeono???th caooo ?iii?oieo oiaa??a ? ciaoiaeeoue i?iya o
c?inoaii? e?eueeino? iaaacei?a, neeaae?a, i?aaenoaaieoeoa o??i,
?anoi?ai?a, aioae?a, eaceii oiui. ?iicaii? oa ni?euei? i?aei?e?inoaa
ae?thoue ia?o ca ana o noa?ao aea iiaeeeaa oaeaeea io?eiaiiy i?eaooe?a,
a ia i??i?eoaoieo aeey Oe?a?ie. Aei?aaeaiith noaiiaeua caeaoia ni?eyoe
iioei?caoe?y ?o aeei?enoaiiy ia iniia? i?aaeeueiiai aecia/aiiy
i??i?eoaoieo aaeocae oa aeae?a ae?iaieoeoaa oa iie?auaiiy nenoaie
?aaoethaaiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e.

12. I??i?eoaoi? iai?yie caeo/aiiy ?iaanoeoe?e aeey Oe?a?ie aeeth/athoue
a naaa: aenieioaoiieia?/i? iaoei?ii? aaeoc?: e?oaei- oa
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, ii?ioeiao iaoaeo?a?th, iaaeoaa?ae? iaoa??aee,
ea?ai?eo, aeaeo?icaa?thaaeueia ae?iaieoeoai; aia?aicaa??aath/? oa
aaeni?aoth/? oaoiieia??; iaooiaaciaee eiiieaen; aa?ii?iieneiaee
eiiieaen; iaoaioii-e?oeaic?eio oi?a?aeth, “iio-oao”, ?iaeei??eia, noa?o
iineoa, iniaeeai oo?eci; aeiaoai? oa iaoaeo?a?ei? aaeoc?: eieuei?ia?
iaoaee, o?ai, aoa?eey, noaeue oa i?ieao; ae?iaieoeoai oiaa??a ia?iaeiiai
niiaeeaaiiy; eiiaa?n?th; iacaaa?oaia aoae?aieoeoai; iaaeeeoeia?
iiooaeiino? a ?yae? naeoi??a (/i?ia iaoaeo?a?y, ae?iaieoeoai oeoe?o oa
oeaiaioo, noaeiiaoaeoaaiiy oiui); iaeee a?cian; ?io?ano?oeoo?o.
Aaaeeeaei naaiaioii aeiiii?ee, eoaee iiaeia caeo/aoe ?iicaiiee eai?oae,
? a?enueeiai-i?iieneiaee eiiieaen, ?nio? aaeeeee iioaioe?ae aeey
aeaioiaeaiiy iiaeo aeae?a ica?i?iue.

13. ?ic?aoiaoaaoe ia cia/io ia?niaeoeaio o?iainiai-?iaanoeoe?eio
aeiiiiiao Caoiaeo iai?aaii??ii. I?iaeaie iiaeaeueoiai
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?i? aeiaaaeaoueny ae??ooaaoe ia
iniia? iaoe?iiaeueieo coneeue ? ?ano?n?a, aeey /iai iaiao?aeia
aeoea?caoe?y aeaniiai ?iaanoeoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo. Aei oiai ae iei?oiy
na?oiaa o?iainiaa e?eca ni?e/eieoue iia??oaiiy oiia aeey ciai?oiueiai
e?aaeeooaaiiy, nei?i/aiiy eiai oa?i?i?a, i?aeaeuaiiy aaie?anueeiai
a?aenioea oa aei?noe?o? no?iee iiaa?iaiiy ciai?oi?o ciaia’ycaiue.
Iaa??ii caeeaaeaoe a aeiiii?/io iie?oeeo i???ioaoe?th ia ciai?oi?
aeaea?aea o?iainoaaiiy, iio??aia caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy, a
oiiaao niaaeo ae?iaieoeoaa ?iaanoeoe?? ia iaaeoiaeeoeiooue. ?iicaii?
?iaanoi?e c’yaeyoueny, eiee ae?yoeiooue a?o/eciyi?. Caeeoa?oueny ?aeeiee
oeyo: aeania oiaa?ia ae?iaieoeoai ia iniia? aenieeo oaoiieia?e, nai?o
aaaaoeo i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a.

?iicaii? ?iaanoeoe?? iio??ai? ia ca?aaee naiiai oaeoo i?enooiino?
?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo, a aeey iiaeaaaeaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa ? caaacia/aiiy ia
oe?e iniia? aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy. Aiie iiaeooue ?icaeyaeaoeny eeoa ye
aeiaeaoeiaa aeaea?aei, yea ca oiia oaiiaeeaiai noaaeaiiy aei i?eeiyoeo o
na?o? i?aaee oa caeii?a i?eiana iaaio ?aaeueio a?aeaea/o. Ia iiaeia
noaoe ? ia oeyo eii?thaaiiy cao?aeieo iiaeaeae. Na?oiaee aeina?ae aeaco?
ia iaiao?aei?noue iii?o ia aeanio niaoeeo?eo, ?noi?e/i?, iaoe?iiaeuei?
oa eoeueoo?i? o?aaeeoe??, a?aooaaiiy oiia oa i?aaee iiaaae?iee
oeea?e?ciaaiiai ?eieo.

INIIAI? IOAE?EAOe?? II OAI? AeENA?OAOe??

Iiiia?ao??:

Aaa?eethe I.A. ?iicaii? ?iaanoeoe??. – Ee?a: ?inoeooo na?oiai? aeiiii?ee
? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie, 1998. – 202 n.

(?aoeaic??: 1. ?oi’yioeaa A.I. Iiaa aeaeaiiy c i?iaeai no/aniiai
?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy // Oe?a?inueeee i?iieneiaaoeue. – 1998. – ?8. –
N.19; 2. A?ei?on I.A. ?iicaii? ?iaanoeoe?? // O?iaine Oe?a?ie. – 1998. –
?10. – N.128–129; 3. Eaanithe A.?. Aeooaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iicaiiiai
?iaanooaaiiy // Aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie. – 1998. – ?10. – N.92–93).

Aaa?eethe I.A., ?oiyioeaa A.I. Aeiiii?/ia ?ioaa?aoe?y a no/aniiio na?o?.
– Ee?a: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1991. – 128 n.

Aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e/ei iacae?eniaiiino? eiioeaioe?e
ia’?aeiaiiai ?eieo ?AA, ?icaeoeo cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei? ?ioaa?aoe??,
ae?eiaiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa No?ae – Cao?ae, ?aca?a?a ni?eueieo
i?aei?e?inoa, ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?eueieo aeiiii?/ieo cii, ciai?oiuei?
caai?aiaaiino?.

?icae?ee o iiiia?ao?yo:

Aaa?eethe I.A. Aicaeaenoaea eioaa?aoeeiiiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa a iaeanoe
eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee ia niaa?oainoaiaaiea oa??eoi?eaeueii-io?aneaaie
no?oeoo?u i?iecaiaenoaa // ?aaeiiaeueiua aniaeou nio?oaeie/anoaa NNN? ni
no?aiaie NYA. – E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1988. – N.141–152.

Aaa?eethe I.A. I?yiua nayce a eiaanoeoeeiiiie noa?a // I?yiua nayce a
yeiiiie/aneii nio?oaeie/anoaa no?ai-/eaiia NYA. – Eeaa: Iaoeiaa aeoiea,
1990. – N.133–145.

Aaa?eethe I.A. Inoaii? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo na?oiaiai ?eieo eai?oae?a //
A?ae e?ece aei ?inoo / Aa?oeue A., Eaanithe A., Ee?a?a N. oa ?i. – Ee?a:
I?aeia?iaeiee oeaio? ia?niaeoeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue; ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee
Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie, 1994. – N.39–49.

Aaa?eethe I.A. “Iaoai?ci, oi?ie ? iai?yiee no/aniiai ca?oa?aeiiai
?iaanooaaiiy” // A?ae e?ece aei ?inoo / Aa?oeue A., Eaanithe A., Ee?a?a
N. oa ?i. – Ee?a: I?aeia?iaeiee oeaio? ia?niaeoeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue;
?inoeooo aeiiii?ee Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie, 1994. –
N.49–61.

Aaa?eethe I.A. I?ai?/ia Aia?eea // Aaa?eethe I.A., N?aeaiei N.A., A?aaao
A.N. Ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae caeo/aiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e. – Ee?a:
?inoeooo na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei AI Oe?a?ie, 1995.
– N.50–52.

Aaa?eethe I.A. Eaoeinueea Aia?eea // Aaa?eethe I.A., N?aeaiei N.A.,
A?aaao A.N. Ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae caeo/aiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e. –
Ee?a: ?inoeooo na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei AI Oe?a?ie,
1995. – N.52–66.

Aaa?eethe I.A. ?in?y // Aaa?eethe I.A., N?aeaiei N.A., A?aaao A.N.
Ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae caeo/aiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e. – Ee?a: ?inoeooo
na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei AI Oe?a?ie, 1995. –
N.82–104.

Aaa?eethe I.A. Oe?a?ia // Aaa?eethe I.A., N?aeaiei N.A., A?aaao A.N.
Ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae caeo/aiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e. – Ee?a: ?inoeooo
na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei AI Oe?a?ie, 1995. –
N.104–118.

Noaiaiaiei A.I., Aaa?eethe I.A. Iniaeeaino? i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i? // Ia?ao?aeia oe?a?inueea aeiiii?ea: noai ?
ia?niaeoeae / Ca ?aae. aeie. aeii. iaoe, i?io. A.O?e?iaiea, aeie. aeii.,
i?io. A.Aaiaea?e (NOA). – E.: Aeaaeai?y, 1996. – N.85–97.

Aaoi? cae?eniea aiae?c caeiiiaeaa/i? aace Oe?a?ie oa iaa?oiooaaa iaoiaee
a?aeieeao eai?oae?a c ia?.

Iaoeia? aeaeaiiy ?inoeoooo na?oiai? aeiiii?ee

? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie:

Aaa?eethe I.A. ?iaanoeoe?eii-i?aei?e?iieoeueeee ee?iao Oe?a?ie //
Iai/aiei ?.A. Aaa?eethe I.A., N?aeaiei N.A. No?aoaa?y ?icaeoeo
i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa oa ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e a Oe?a?i?. –
Ee?a: ?inoeooo na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei AI Oe?a?ie,
1993. – N.5–14.

Aaa?eethe I.A. Iiaeeeaino? oa oeyoe caeo/aiiy ?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo //
Iai/aiei ?.A. Aaa?eethe I.A., N?aeaiei N.A. No?aoaa?y ?icaeoeo
i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa oa ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e a Oe?a?i?. –
Ee?a: ?inoeooo na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei AI Oe?a?ie,
1993. –N.27–36.

Aaa?eethe I.A. NOA // Iai/aiei ?.A., Aaa?eethe I.A., A?aaao A.N. Iaeee
a?cian o NOA, Eaiaae? oa e?a?iao Cao?aeii? ?a?iie. – Ee?a: ?inoeooo
na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei AI Oe?a?ie, 1993. – N.7–17.

Aaa?eethe I.A. Eaiaaea // Iai/aiei ?.A., Aaa?eethe I.A., A?aaao A.N.
Iaeee a?cian o NOA, Eaiaae? oa e?a?iao Cao?aeii? ?a?iie. – Ee?a:
?inoeooo na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei AI Oe?a?ie, 1993.
– N.17–26.

Aaa?eethe I.A. Iaeee a?cian ia Oe?a?i?: noai ? iiaeeeaino? caiice/aiiy
ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo // Iai/aiei ?.A., Aaa?eethe I.A., A?aaao A.N.
Iaeee a?cian o NOA, Eaiaae? oa e?a?iao Cao?aeii? ?a?iie. – Ee?a:
?inoeooo na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei AI Oe?a?ie, 1993.
– N.34–44.

Aaa?eethe I.A. I?aaeaiia Ei?ay // Iai/aiei ?.A., Aaa?eethe I.A., A?aaao
A.N. Iaeee a?cian o NOA, Eaiaae? oa e?a?iao Cao?aeii? ?a?iie. – Ee?a:
?inoeooo na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei AI Oe?a?ie, 1993.
– N.44–50.

Noaoo? a aeo?iaeao:

Aaa?eethe I.A., AEoiaeaai O. ?ieue niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee a ?acaeoee
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee II? // Aii?inu iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee. – ? 187. –
1987. – N.124–127.

Aaa?eethe I.A. Aca?iicaeaaei?noue e?a?i no?aeii?a?iiaenueeiai ?aa?iio
oa oeyoe ?? ?aoe?iiae?caoe?? // Ieoaiiy iie?oe/ii? aeiiii??. – 1992. –
?217. – N.13–16.

Aaa?eethe I.A. ?iicaii? ?iaanoeoe?? oa oaoiieia?/iee aeeiai?ci //
Oaoiieia?/iee aeeiai?ci Oe?a?ie: iioaioe?ae, oaeoi?e, ia?niaeoeae. –
Ee?a: ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee AI Oe?a?ie, 1993. – N.38–45.

N?aeaiei A., Aaa?eethe I., A?aaao A.N., Aiaa/aae/ I. ?iicaii?
?iaanoeoe?? a no?aoaa?yo no?oeoo?ieo ?aoi?i ? aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy //
Iie?oe/ia aeoiea. – 1997. – ?1. – N.49–61.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a: ?icae?e 1. Caaaeuei? oaiaeaioe?? ?iicaiiiai
?iaanooaaiiy; ?icae?e 3. ?ieue ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e o
eaoeiiaia?eeainueeeo iiaeaeyo ?icaeoeo; ?icae?e 5. E?a?ie
Oeaio?aeueii-No?aeii? ?a?iie: ?ieue I?? o noai?aii? aoaeoeaii? ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee.

Aaa?eethe I.A. Aeii?iaioe ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ee?iaoo Oe?a?ie //
Oe?a?inueeee i?iieneiaaoeue. – 1997. – N?/aiue. – N.8–9.

Aaa?eethe I.A. I??i?eoaoe oa iai?yiee aaeineiiaeaiiy ?iicaiiiai
?iaanooaaiiy a Oe?a?i? // A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. I?aeia?iaei?
a?aeiineie. – 1997. – N. 84–86.

Aaa?eethe I.A. Iioaioe?aeuei? iiaeeeaino? aeey ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a //
Iii?oi?eia aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. – 1997. – ? 6. – N.20–22.

Aaa?eethe I.A. I??i?eoaoi? aaeoc? oa aeaee ae?iaieoeoaa aeey ?iicaiiiai
?iaanooaaiiy a Oe?a?i? // O?iaine Oe?a?ie. – 1997. – ?6. – N.56–61.

Aaa?eethe I.A. Oiiae cae?eniaiiy ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy // Aeiiii?ea
Oe?a?ie. – 1997. – ?8. – N.9–16.

Aaa?eethe I.A. ?iicaiia ?iaanooaaiiy ? no?oeoo?ia o?ainoi?iaoe?y a
e?a?iao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee // O?iaine Oe?a?ie. – 1998. – ?7. –
N.54–66.

Aiioaoe?y

Aaa?eethe I.A. I?yia ?iicaiia ?iaanooaaiiy o na?oiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?ioeanao. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.01.01 – aeiiii?/ia oai??y. Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith i?yiiai ?iicaiiiai
?iaanooaaiiy a no/anieo na?oiainiiaea?nueeeo i?ioeanao. C’yniaai?
caaaeuei? oiiae oa oaeoi?e eiai cae?eniaiiy, iaa?oioiaaii aoaie oa
anoaiiaeaii aca?iica’ycie c ?ioeie aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie oa
ia?aiao?aie. Aeine?aeaeai? iia?oi? oaiaeaioe?? aeeiai?ee na?oiaiai
i?yiiai aeeaaeaiiy eioo?a a oiiaao aeiaae?caoe?? ainiiaea?nueeeo
i?ioean?a o ??cieo a?oiao e?a?i, a o./. ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee, oa
iaoiae?a eiai ?aaoethaaiiy ia ??cieo ??aiyo: e?a?i aacoaaiiy ?
i?eeiath/eo, ?aa?iiaeueiiio oa caaaeueiina?oiaiio. Noi?ioeueiaai?
eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy
?iaanoeoe?eii-i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai ee?iaoo Oe?a?ie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?yia ?iicaiia ?iaanooaaiiy, i?aeia?iaei? aeeaaeaiiy
eioo?a, e?a?ie aacoaaiiy, i?eeiath/? e?a?ie, e?a?ie ia?ao?aeii?
aeiiii?ee, ?iaanoeoe?eii-i?aei?e?iieoeueeee ee?iao, aeiaae?caoe?y.

Aiiioaoeey

Aaa?eethe I.A. I?yiia eiino?aiiia eiaanoe?iaaiea a ie?ioicyenoaaiiuo
i?ioeannao. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.01.01 – yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey. Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao
eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth i?yiiai eiino?aiiiai
eiaanoe?iaaiey a nia?aiaiiuo ie?ioicyenoaaiiuo i?ioeannao.
Noi?ioee?iaaiu iauea oneiaey e oaeoi?u aai inouanoaeaiey, iainiiaaiu
yoaiu, onoaiiaeaia acaeiinaycue n ae?oaeie yeiiiie/aneeie i?ioeannaie e
ia?aiao?aie (yeiiiie/aneee ?ino, iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann,
ii?ooaeueiia eiaanoe?iaaiea, no?oeoo?a yeiiiieee, caiyoinoue,
?aaeiiaeueiia ?acaeoea, eiieo?aioeey, yenii?o, ieaoaaeiue aaeain,
aaethoiue eo?n, i?ioeaioiua noaaee, eioeyoeey e o.ae). Iainiiaaiu
e?eoa?ee ioeaiee iauaai ninoiyiey yeiiiieee i?e i?eiyoee eiaanoi?aie
?aoaiee ioiineoaeueii eiaanoe?iaaiey, a /anoiinoe: oaiiu ?inoa AAI;
aeeiaieea yenii?oa e eiii?oa; ciae naeueaei e oaiiu ?inoa oi?aiaiai
aaeaina; ninoiyiea ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina; aaee/eia e aeeiaieea aaethoieo
?aca?aia; niaieoiiay ioeaiea a aeieea?ao n?aaeiae ca?aaioiie ieaou e
aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeia.

I?iaaaeaia ia?eiaeecaoeey yoaiia i?yiiai eiino?aiiiai eiaanoe?iaaiey ia
iniiaa eiiaiaioiuo /a?o eaaeaeiai c ieo, /oi niinianoaiaaei iieo/aieth
ciaiee i aai niaoeeoeea e nia?aiaiiuo oaiaeaioeeyo ?acaeoey (a o./.
aeoeaecaoeee iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo neeyiee e iiaeiuaiee, iiaeeoeeaoeee
eiieo?aioeee e eioa?iaeecaoeee, aa?iiiecaoeee niioaaonoaey
iaoeeiiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e e?eoa?eaa yooaeoeaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiui e?eoa?eyi), eioi?uie neaaeoao
?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny i?e ?ac?aaioea aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie no?aoaaee.

Ii?aaeaeaiu oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou nia?aiaiiiai yoaia aeiaaeecaoeee
ie?ioicyenoaaiiuo i?ioeania e ?iee a iai i?yiiai eiaanoe?iaaiey ca n/ao
ea/anoaaiii iiauo acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiuie
ei?ii?aoeeyie e ainoaea?noaaie, iiaie aeiieie?othuae ?iee eiino?aiiuo
eiaanoeoeee a ie?iaie yeiiiieea e i?aa?auaiey aiaoiae oi?aiaee a
iiae/eiaiioth oi?io iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee,
iiaeeoeeaoeee eiieo?aioeee, eioi?ay oaea inouanoaeyaony e /a?ac i?yiua
eiaanoeoeee. Enneaaeiaaiu iiaaeoea oaiaeaioeee aeeiaieee ie?iaiai
i?yiiai aeiaeaiey n?aaenoa a oneiaeyo aeiaaeecaoeee oicyenoaaiiuo
i?ioeannia a ?aciuo a?oiiao no?ai. Auyniaiu i?e/eiu aieueoae oniaoiinoe
a i?eaea/aiee eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee ?aaeiiii THai-Ainoi/iie Acee ii
n?aaiaieth n Eaoeineie Aia?eeie a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ca n/ao noaaeeueiie
iieeoe/aneie neooaoeee, aieaa eiae/iie iae?iyeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee,
/aoeiai i/a?/aiey i?ei?eoaoia yeiiiie/aneie aeeiaieee,
oeaeaono?aieaiiiie yenii?oiie i?eioaoeee. Naeaeai i?eioeeieaeueii
aaaeiue auaiae, /oi iiuo ?acaeoey oeacaiiuo ?aaeiiia naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe niaeaniaaiiinoe iaaeaeo i?yiuie eiino?aiiuie
eiaanoeoeeyie e oi?aiaeae.

Auyaeaii cia/aiea i?yiuo eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee ia ia/aeueiuo e
aeaeueiaeoeo yoaiao nenoaiiie o?ainoi?iaoeee iinonioeeaeenoe/aneeo no?ai
Oeaio?aeueiie e Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu e aeieacaii, /oi iie ia iiaoo
aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa ?aoathuaai eino?oiaioa i?aiaeieaiey (eiiiainaoeee)
aioo?aiieo i?iaeai: i?eoie yaeyaony neaaenoaeai iae?iyeiiiie/aneie
noaaeeecaoeee, iaaeaee aa i?e/eiie. Ia ieo iaeuecy aeoeaioe?iaaoue
aieiaiea a ea/anoaa ia?ae/iiai aeaaiiai ?u/aaa yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa,
aieaa ?aaeenoe/ia ?aaeecaoeey no?aoaaee i?aeiouanoaaiiie iii?u ia
eioaineoeeaoeeth aioo?aiieo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia, aeey /aai
neaaeoao iaania/eoue: aeoeaecaoeeth eiaanoe?iaaiey a iniiaiie eaieoae;
iiauoaiea oaeaeueiiai aana aioo?aiieo naa?aaeaiee a AAI, oaaee/iea
yenii?oa.

?ane?uoa nenoaia ?aaoee?iaaiey i?yiuo eiaanoeoeeiiuo i?ioeannia a
oneiaeyo aeiaaeecaoeee ca n/ao ioeaiee iaoiaeia nia?aiaiiie
?aaeaiaoaoeee aeayoaeueiinoe eiaanoi?ia ia aioo?aiiai (no?ai aace?iaaiey
e i?eieiathueo no?ai) e aiaoiai (aeaonoi?iiieo niaeaoaiee, ?aaeiiaeueiii
e ie?iaii) o?iaiyo. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi o?ainiaoeeiiaeecaoeey ie?iaie
yeiiiieee, eeaa?aeecaoeey eiaanoeoeeiiiuo ?aaeeiia e oaeoaeaiea
eioaa?aoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia aaia?e?iaaee iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?aaeaiaioaoeee
iiaaaeaiey eiaanoi?ia ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii o?iaia, a oaeaea naycue
iaaeaeo oi?aiaeae e eiaanoeoeeyie aeinoeaea oaeie noaiaie, /oi eo
aaoiiiiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea oa?yao niune. Enoiaey ec yoiai, a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo niaeaoaieyo iaiaoiaeei o/ao
aiciiaeiinoae: ni?aaaaeeeaie eioaa?aoeee ?acaeaathueony no?ai e no?ai
ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieee a ie?iaia oicyenoai e noeioee?iaaiey a ieo
aieueoaai iauaia iinooieaiee ecaia; nicaeaiey oneiaee, i?e eioi?uo
eeaa?aeecaoeey ia niiaeao iaianoe oua?a iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe;
eiio?iee?iaaiey aioeeiieo?aioiie i?aeoeee; oaniiai ei??aniiiaee?iaaiey
i?iaeai eiieo?aioeee iieeoeea a oi?aiaie e eiaanoeoeeiiiie noa?ao e
?aaoee?iaaieth aioo?aiiae yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ia iniiaa eiiieaeniiai iiaeoiaea ?ane?uoi nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea
eiaanoeoeeiiii-i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai eeeiaoa Oe?aeiu, aia?aua
ennneaaeiaaiu aeaaiua oi?iu ooa/ee eaieoaea ec iaa. I?iaiaeece?iaaii
iinooiaiea e eniieueciaaiea eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee, ii?aaeaeaiu
i?ei?eoaoiua iai?aaeaiey aeey ieo. A?aoiaioe?iaaii iieiaeaiea, /oi
?ann/eouaaoue ia ianooaaioth oeiainiai-eiaanoeoeeiiioth iiiiuue ?acaeouo
no?ai iai?aaiia?ii: eiino?aiiua eiaanoi?u iiyayony eeoue n ia/aeii
?aaeueiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iaoeeiiaeueiuo e i?iaeaiu aeaeueiaeoaai
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/ineiai ?acaeoey Oe?aeia i?eaeaony ?aoaoue naieie
neeaie. Noi?ioee?iaaiu eiioeaiooeueiua i?aaeeiaeaiey ii
niaa?oainoaiaaieth nenoaiu e iaoiaeia ?aaoee?iaaiey eiino?aiiiai
eiaanoe?iaaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?yiia eiino?aiiia eiaanoe?iaaiea, iaaeaeoia?iaeiua
aeiaeaiey n?aaenoa, no?aiu aace?iaaiey, i?eieiathuea no?aiu, no?aiu
ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieee, eiaanoeoeeiiii-i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee eeeiao,
aeiaaeecaoeey.

Annotation

Gavriliuck O.V. Foreign Direct Investment in World Economic Processes.–
Manuscript.

A Doctor of Sciences in Economics Dissertation, specialized field
08.01.01 – Economic Theory. Kiev Taras Shevchenko University, Kiev,
1999.

The dissertation is devoted to investigation of foreign direct
investment in modern world economic processes. Main conditions and
factors of realization of foreign investment are revealed and proved
their stages likewise reviewed interrelationship with other economic
processes and categories. The author grounds latest tendencies of their
dynamics under the conditions of globalization of economic processes in
various groups of countries including countries of transition and their
regulation on different levels – at home and host countries, regional
and worldwide. The conceptual approaches to improvement of investment
and entrepreneurial climate of Ukraine are formulated.

Key words: foreign direct investment, international investment, home
countries, host countries, countries of transition, investment and
entrepreneurial climate, globalization.

PAGE

PAGE 4

Похожие записи