I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

Oiaeueieoeueeee oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao Iiae?eey

?auaiei Eaii?ae

Eineiiae/

OAeE 621.891: 669.018.44

I?ioeane eiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? a o?eaic’?aeiaiiyo ? ciinino?ee?noue
aea?ii?oeieo

nieaa?a a aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.02.04 – oa?oy oa ciiooaaiiy a iaoeiao

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oiaeueieoeueeee – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Caii??cueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?,
I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aioeia TH??e
Ieeieaeiae/, Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i?i?aeoi?.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ae?aeee ?inoeneaa
Iao?iae/, Aei?i?iiao?ianueea iaoe?iiaeueia a??ie/a aeaaeai?y, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e oaoiieia?? a??ie/iai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eocueiaiei Aiaoie?e A?eai?iae/,
Oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao Iiae?eey, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ciinino?eeino? ?
iaae?eiino? iaoei, i. Oiaeueieoeueeee;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Etha/aiei Aiaoie?e Iao?iae/, AeI “c-ae
?i. Iaeeoaaa”, ea??aiee Oeaio?aeueii? eaai?aoi???, i. Oa?e?a.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Ee?anueeee i?aeia?iaeiee oi?aa?neoao oeea?eueii?
aa?aoe??, eaoaae?a oaoiieia?? ?aiiioo oa ae?iaieoeoaa e?oaeueieo
aia?ao?a oa aa?aoe?eiiai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 19 “ aeiaoiy 1999?. i 10 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 70.052.02, Oaoiieia?/iee
oi?aa?neoao Iiae?eey, 280016, i. Oiaeueieoeueeee, aoe. ?inoeooonueea,
11.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oaoiieia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo Iiae?eey, 280016, i. Oiaeueieoeueeee, aoe. ?inoeooonueea,
11.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ “ aa?aniy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E?ieoeueeee ss. O.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Eiieo?aioiicaeaoi?noue iaoei caeaaeeoue a?ae ?yaeo
/eiiee?a, na?aae yeeo iaeia c ia?oeo i?noeue caeia? ?ano?n. Aeey
no/anieo aia?aaoe/ieo onoaiiaie ? cie?aia aa?aoe?eieo aeaeaoi?a ?ano?n
aecia/a?oueny aeiaaia?/i?noth iaea?eueoa a?aeiia?aeaeueieo aeaoaeae
aa?y/i? /anoeie oaeeo ye aeenee, ?iai/? ? niieia? eiiaoee oo?a?ie,
oa?i?i neoaeae yeeo aaaaoi a /iio caeaaeeoue a?ae ciino eiioaeoieo
iiaa?oiiue. Oae, iai?eeeaae, ciin aaiaeaaeieo iieeoeue oo?a?ie ia 0,5ii
aeeeeea? iaeaea aeanyoee?aoia i?aeaeuaiiy a?a?aoe?eieo iai?oa o ia??
eiiaoee, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?oeioaaiiy a?ae aoiieaiino? inoaiiuei? ?
a?aeiiae aeaeaoia a oe?eiio. sseui a?aooaaoe, ui o?eueee a iaeiiio
?iai/iio eiean? oo?a?ie e?euee?noue oaeeo eiiaoie iiaea aooe a?eueoa 100
(o caeaaeiino? a?ae eiino?oeoe?? aeaeaoia), oi iiaeeea?noue a?aeiiae
ae?iao i?e ?oeioaaii? eiiaoee cia/ii i?aeaeuo?oueny.

I?ioeane oa?oy ? ciiooaaiiy, a oaeiae ?oeioaaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo i?ioa?e?a
aeaoaeae aa?y/i? /anoeie aacioo?a?iieo onoaiiaie, aecia/athoueny
aeeiai?/iei oa?aeoa?ii iaaaioaaeaiue o eiioaeo?, aiie?ooaeaie aca?iiiai
ia?ai?uaiiy, ui noai?ththoue niaoeeo?/i? oiiae eiioaeoii? aca?iiae??
(oaea? ?c ianooiiei i?ineiacoaaiiyi). I?e oeueiio ia o?eainiieo/aiiy
aieeaathoue aenie? (aei 1000iN) oeeee?/ii i?ieea? oaiia?aoo?e
(oaeaee?noue iaa??aaiiy e ioieiaeaeaiiy iiaea aeinyaaoe a aeayeeo
aeiaaeeao 250 a?aae/c), ooai?thaai? aenieioaiia?aoo?iei aa?aneaiei
aaciaei iioieii, ui neeaaea?oueny c i?iaeoeo?a cai?yiiy iaeeaa. Oaeee
eiiieaen oiia iaaaioaaeaiiy aeeeeea? neeaaeiee ia’?iiee iai?oaeaiee noai
iiaa?oiaaeo i?ioa?e?a iaoa??ae?a ia?, ui eiioaeoothoue. Oeei
iiyniththoueny iaiaaeai? iiaeeeaino? caaaeueieo iieiaeaiue oai??e oa?oy,
a oaeiae a?eueoino? ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue. E??i
oiai, o?aaeeoe?ei? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue caniiaai? ia ?icae?eueiiio
aea/aii? aieeao iaeiiai aai ae?ae iaiaaeaiiai /enea oaeoi??a aac
o?aooaaiiy ?oiuei? aca?iiae??, a oaeiae aac o?aooaaiiy aeeiai?ee nenoaie
a oe?eiio.

O na?oia?e i?aeoeoe? i?ine?aeaeo?oueny iai?yiie ?icaeoeo ooieoe?iiaeueii
i???ioiaaieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?oiuei? ei?aeyoe?? c aeaieie,
iaea?aeoaaieie i?e aeine?aeaeaii? ia ?aaeueieo ae?iaao. Oea oe?eeii
caeiiii??ii, ine?eueee i?iaeooaaiiy o?eaiaoce?a ia iniia? cae/aeieo
eiino?oeoe?eieo ??oaiue aac o?aooaaiiy niaoeeo?/iino? oiia ?oiuei?
aenieoaoaoe?? (ianaiia?aae ci?ie iaaaioaaeoaaeueieo ia?aiao??a o /an?)
iae/ano?oa i?ecaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui oae? o?eaic’?aeiaiiy aeyaeythoueny
iaaeinoaoiuei iaae?eieie. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi neacaiiio ? aiae?c
noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo, a?aeiia?aeii aei yeiai /enei a?aeiia aeaeaoi?a
ca?eueoo?oueny c i?aeaeuaiiyi /ano ?oiuei? ?iaioe ia ianoaeeo
aeeiai?/ieo ?aaeeiao. Aei?a/ii a?aecia/eoe, ui aeinoia??i?noue
iaea?aeoaaieo ?acoeueoao?a i?e iaoo?ieo aei?iaoaaiiyo aeoaea iecueea
/a?ac aaeeeee ?iceeae eiio?ieueiaaieo aaee/ei, ui ? iane?aeeii oa?aeoa?o
eiioaeoii? aca?iiae??, yea ci?ith?oueny a /an?. Oeae oa?aeoa? o eiaeii?
ie?aii acyoi? iaoeie (aeaeaoia) ? nai?i ? aoaea caeaaeaoe ye a?ae
eiino?oeoeaieo iniaeeainoae ae?iao, oae ? a?ae oaoiieia?? eiai
aeaioiaeaiiy. Oiio aeieea? iaaaeueia iio?aaa o aecia/aii? oa?aeoa?o
iaaaioaaeaiiy o?eaiaoce?a, ae?aiacii?a iaaaioaaeoaaeueieo ia?aiao??a,
?oiuei? aaiethoe?? a i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe??, oii?yaeeoaaii? ia aac?
noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo oeiiaiai eiiieaeno iaaaioaaeoaaeueieo ?aaeei?a ?
?oiuei? ci?ie ca anoaiiaeaiee ia??iae /ano (aeey aa?aoe?eiiai aeaeaoia
oea aoaea oeiiaee iie?o e?oaea). Aeine?aeeaoe aieea eiaeiiai c
ia?aiao??a iaaaioaaeaiiy ie?aii aai a noeoiiino? ia o?eaioa?aeoa?enoeee
aocea (aeaoae?), iiaeia aecia/eoe aea?aaeaioiee noai aca?iiae?th/eo
iiaa?oiiue ? iio?i iiaeaethaaoe oe? noaie a eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao. Oaea
iiaeaethaaiiy aea? iiaeeea?noue i?aeaeueoe aeinoia??i?noue iaea?aeoaaieo
?acoeueoao?a ? cia/ii nei?ioeoe oa?i?ie aei?iaoaaiue. C ?ioiai aieo
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?cio iioeiaeaeoaaiino? iaoa??ae?a, noai?aiiy
iiaeaeae ciiooaaiiy eiioaeoieo iiaa?oiiue aeaoaeae, ui i?aoeththoue a
aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao, aeicaieythoue oe?eani?yiiaaii noai?thaaoe (aai
aeae?aoe c /enea ?nioth/eo) ciinino?ee? iaoa??aee, ?ic?iaeyoe
eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/i? caoiaee, ni?yiiaai? ia i?aeaeuaiiy
aeiaaia?/iino? aeaoaeae, ui ciioothoueny.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia a?aeiia?aeii aei ieai?a iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
I?i?noa?noaa aa?aoe?eii? i?iieneiaino?, ui aoiaeeee a aea?aeaai?
i?ia?aie i?aeaeuaiiy oaoi?/iiai ??aiy ? eiieo?aioiicaeaoiino?
aa?aoe?eieo aeaeaoi?a, a oaeiae ca?aeii c iaeacii II Oe?a?ie 20-Ae
07.02.96 ?.

Iaoa ? iniiai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iaoa: ae??oaiiy iaoeiai? i?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy aeiaaia?/iino?
o?eaic’?aeiaiue, ui aenieoaoothoueny a oiiaao aeeiai?ee iaaaioaaeaiiy,
aenieeo oeeee?/ii i?ieeaeo oaiia?aoo? ? aaciaeo na?aaeiaeu.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aecia/ai? oae? iniiai? caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiue:

1. Aeeiiaoe aiae?c eiino?oeoeaieo iniaeeainoae o?eaiaoce?a aa?y/i?
/anoeie AOO oa oiia ?oiuei? aenieoaoaoe??.

2. Iaa?oiooaaoe ? ?ic?iaeoe eiiieaen iaoiaeee ? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
onoaoeoaaiiy aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy o?eaioa?aeoa?enoee iaoa??ae?a, ui
i?aoeththoue a aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao.

3. Aecia/eoe iniiai? caeiiii??iino? oa?oy ? ciiooaaiiy aea?ii?oeieo
iaoa??ae?a i?e eiioaeoi?e aca?iiae?? a aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao.

4. ?ic?iaeoe, aeine?aeeoe ? canoinoaaoe o ae?iaieoeoa? AOO
eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/i? caoiaee, ni?yiiaai? ia i?aeaeuaiiy
ciinino?eeino? aeaoaeae.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. C aeei?enoaiiyi niaoe?aeueii
noai?aiiai aaciaeeiai?/iiai noaiaea, ?yaeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo onoaiiaie
? ?ic?iaeaieo iaoiaeee, ui caaacia/othoue o?ce/ia iiaeaethaaiiy oiia
iaaaioaaeaiiy o?eaiaoce?a noaoe?iia?ieo ? aa?aoe?eieo AOO ?
aeicaieythoue aeine?aeaeoaaoe i?ioeane oa?oy ? ciiooaaiiy iaoa??ae?a a
oiiaao aeeiai?ee iaaaioaaeaiiy a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? eiioaeoiiai oeneo,
/anoio, aiie?ooae aca?iiiai ia?ai?uaiiy, oaiia?aoo? ye iino?eieo, oae ?
oeeee?/ii i?ieeaeo, a oaeiae i?e ci?i? ia?a?aoiaaieo ia?aiao??a, ui
i?ia?aiothoueny:

1. Anoaiiaeaii iniiai? caeiiii??iino? oa?oy ? ciiooaaiiy ca oiia
aeeiai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy oa aenieeo oaiia?aoo?. Cie?aia aecia/aii:

— oaiia?aoo?a iiaa?oiiue, ui eiioaeoothoue, aieeaa? ia
o?eaioa?aeoa?enoeee (aaniethoiee ?ici?? ciino, ?ioaineai?noue
ciiooaaiiy, eiao?oe??io oa?oy) iaea?eueo ?noioii ?, ye i?aaeei,
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?o cieaeaiiy. I?e oeueiio ia? i?noea e?eoe/ia
oaiia?aoo?a, aea cieaeaiiy iaea?eueo nooo?aa;

— ii?? ciiooaaiith aea?ii?oeieo aeenia?n?eii-ci?oeiaieo nieaa?a, a
oaeiae oa?aeoa? ci?ie eiao?oe??ioa oa?oy a iniiaiiio aecia/a?oueny
oiiaaie ooai?aiiy ? ?oeioaaiiy caoeniiai iiaa?oiaaiai i?ioa?eo, ui ?
?acoeueoaoii ieenethaaiiy iiaa?oi? c ianooiiei iaoai?/iei ou?eueiaiiyi
i?iaeoeo?a ciiooaaiiy e ieneae?a;

— iniiaiei iaoai?ciii ciiooaaiiy aea?ii?oeieo iaoa??ae?a ? ?oeioaaiiy
eieaeueieo ia’?i?a iiaa?oiaaiai i?ioa?eo a?ae aoiieaiino?, yea
?i?oe?th?oueny ci?iith ii?oieia?? ci?oeithth/i? ?ioa?iaoae?aeii? (
/-oace. Ca oaiia?aoo?, ui ia?aaeuothoue e?eoe/i?, i?aaaethth/ei
iaoai?ciii ? ieenethaaeueiee, yeee noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny c? ca?eueoaiiyi
aiie?ooaee i?ineiacoaaiiy noiieaiiyi iaoa??ae?a oa ?o aaaaoi?aciaei
ia?aianaiiyi iaei??? iiaa?oi? ia ?ioo. Ia?aianai? ia’?ie iaoa??aeo
?oeiothoueny aiane?aeie iaeioeeeeiai? aoiieaiino?. Iiyaa caci?o a
c’?aeiaii? i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?icaeoeo i?ioean?a oaea?o, ui iiaeooue
oe?eeii ii?ooeoe oii?yaeeiaaio iine?aeiai?noue oaeaeeinoae ciino
iaoa??ae?a, ui ia? i?noea i?e aca?iiae?? iiaa?oiiue a oiiaao aac ?ic?eao
eiioaeoo;

— a oiiaao oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy i?aeaeuaiee ciin ?iai/eo iiaa?oiiue
aecia/a?oueny i?io?eaiiyi i?ioyaii iaeiiai oa?iioeeeeo i?ioean?a
ieeneaiiy oa aoiieaiino?.

2. Anoaiiaeaii aieea ia?aiao??a aaciiia?o?yiiai iioieo ia
o?eaioa?aeoa?enoeee aea?ii?oeieo nieaa?a i?e eiioaeoi?e aca?iiae??.
Iieacaii ?ieue, ui i?aaaeth?, i?e?ioaea?iiai, oaieiaiai ? ei?ic?eiiai
i?ioean?a.

3. ?ic?iaeai? ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeo a?oiiaiai o?aooaaiiy a?aoiaio?a
iaoaiaoe/i? caeaaeiino? aieeao ciai?oi?o ia?aiao??a iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy, a oaeiae iiaeaeue ciiooaaiiy, ui a?aoiao?
o?ceei-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? iiaa?oiaaiai i?ioa?eo iaoa??ae?a.

4. Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo o?eaieia?/ieo ? iaoaeio?ce/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
iiaa?oiiue oa?oy ye o iaoo?ieo, oae ? a eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao
noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? i?eioeeie iiaeaethaaiiy aea?aaeaioieo noai?a
o?eaieia?/ieo ia?, ui aenieoaoothoueny a iniaeeaeo oiiaao, ye?
aeeth/athoue o?eaieia?/i?, e?iaiaoe/i?, iaaaioaaeoaaeuei?, iaoaeio?ce/i?
? o?ceei-iaoai?/i? e?eoa???.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a ? ?oiy
?aae?caoe?y. Oai?aoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny noai?aiiyi
eiiieaeno iaoiaeee ? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai onoaoeoaaiiy, a oaeiae
iaea?aeaiiyi caeiiii??iinoae ciiooaaiiy aea?ii?oeieo iaoa??ae?a a oiiaao
eiioaeooaaiiy i?e oaea??, oaea?? c i?ineiacoaaiiyi, aaciaiai
na?aaeiaeua, i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo? ye iino?eieo, oae ? oeeee?/ii
i?ieeaeo, onoaiiaeaiiyi iaoai?cio ciiooaaiiy a iniaeeaeo oiiaao,
?ic?iaeith iniiaieo i?eioeei?a iiaeaethaaiiy aea?aaeaioieo noai?a
o?eaieia?/ieo c’?aeiaiue. Aeei?enoaiiy io?eiaieo caeiiii??iinoae
aeicaiey? oe?eani?yiiaaii ?ic?iaeyoe ciinino?ee? iaoa??aee ? oaoiieia??,
canoinoaaiiy eio?eo ?noioii i?aeaeuo? ?ano?n ae?ia?a. I?aeoe/ia
oe?ii?noue aecia/a?oueny ianyaii ?ic?iaeaieo ? ai?iaaaeaeaieo o
ae?iaieoeoai eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue.

1. ?ic?iaeaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii o ae?iaieoeoai CIEA «I?ia?an» iaoiae
i?enei?aieo aei?iaoaaiue o?eaic’?aeiaiue cai?noue o?eaaeeo aea?aaeaioieo
aei?iaoaaiue, ui aeicaiey? a 18 – 22 ?ace i?aeaeueoe aeinoia??i?noue
aei?iaoaaiue ? ia ii?yaeie cieceoe ?oith o?eaae?noue.

2. ?ic?iaeaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii ia i?aei?e?inoaao ?400, 410, CIEA
«I?ia?an» ciinino?eeee aaoaeoe/iee nieaa nenoaie 12O18I10O-TiCrB2
(OOI-23) aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy ciioaieo iiaa?oiiue aeaoaeae aa?y/i? /anoeie
aa?aoe?eieo AOAe, ui aeicaieea i?aeaeueoe ciinino?ee?noue a 4 – 4,7 ?ace
o ii??aiyii? c? nieaaii, ui canoiniao?oueny na??eii.

3. ?ic?iaeai? ? i?ieoee ai?iaaoe?th a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao ciinino?ee?
nieaae ia iniia? eiaaeueoo, i?ecia/ai? aeey aaiaeaaeieo iieeoeue ?iai/eo
eiiaoie oo?a?ie (OOI-37, OOI-61), canoinoaaiiy yeeo ca?eueoo?
aeiaaia?/i?noue aeaiaio?a eiiaoie o 4 — 6 ?ac?a (o ii??aiyii? ?c na??eii
aeei?enoiaoaaiei nieaaii AAEE-2).

4. ?ic?iaeai? oa ai?iaaaeaeai? ia i?aei?e?inoaao ?400, 410, AO «Iioi?
N?/», CIEA «I?ia?an» iaoiae ? onoaoeoaaiiy aeey aeni?an-ioe?iee yeino?
a?aeiiaeaiiy ciioaieo iiaa?oiiue.

5. ?ic?iaeaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii iaoiaee/iee iin?aiee ?c a?aeiiaeaiiy ?
neeaaeaiiy ?iai/eo eiiaoie oo?a?ie AOAe.

Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai ?ic?iaie
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe neeaa 28,63 oen. ?oa. o ?ic?aooieo ia iaeei
aeaeaoi (oe?ie 1989 ?.)

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a a ?ic?iaeo io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iniiai?
?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe io?eiai? aaoi?ii naiino?eii, cie?aia:
?ic?iaea i?ia?ai ? iaoiaeee aeine?aeaeaiue, aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
onoaoeoaaiiy, caoeuaieo aaoi?nueeeie iina?ae/aiiyie ? iaoaioaie;
iniaenoa o/anoue a aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo; aiae?c ?
ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a, ae?iaie/? aei?iaoaaiiy ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeenue ? aoee iaaiai?ai? ia I?aeia?iaeieo, Ananithcieo,
?anioae?eainueeeo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo ? nai?ia?ao, a naia:
I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Eciininoieeinoue iaoei»
(A?yine, 1994), I?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo «Eciininoieeinoue e
iaaeaaeiinoue iaoei» (Oiaeueieoeeee, 1996, 1997), International
Conference «New Structurual Steels and Alloys» (Zaporohye, 1995),
I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?ia?aneaia oaoi?ea ?
oaoiieia?y iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy ? caa?thaaeueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa» (Ee?a, 1998), I – V Ananithcieo eiioa?aioe?yo «Iiaua
eiino?oeoeeiiiua noaee e nieaau e iaoiaeu eo ia?aaioee aeey iiauoaiey
iaaeaaeiinoe e aeieaiaa/iinoe ecaeaeee» (Caii?iaeuea, 1980, 1983, 1986,
1989, 1992), ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «?acia?iue
aiaeec e noaoenoe/aneea iaoiaeu ?aaoee?iaaiey oaoiieiae/aneeo
i?ioeannia» (Caii?iaeuea, 1981), IX Ananithci?e ia?aae? ii aea?ino?eeei
iie?eooyi (Caii??aeaey, 1979), I?aeia?iaeiiio iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio
nai?ia?? «Aunieea oaoiieiaee a iaoeiino?iaiee) Interpartner–99
(Oa?ueeia, 1999), a oaeiae iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?aaeao EA ii aeaeaoiao
iioi?iaoae?aieo oa iioi?i?aiiioieo i?aei?e?inoa Oe?a?ie (CIEA «I?ia?an»,
AO «Iioi?-N?/», caaiae ?410), ?in?? (EA «Naoo?i», EA «Naetho», caaiae
?400) oa ?io.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii a 29 ae?oeiaaieo
i?aoeyo, cie?aia: a iaei?e iiiia?ao??; o 24 noaooyo (11 iaeiiiniaiaeo);
2-o aaoi?nueeeo iina?ae/aiiyo ia aeiaoiaee; o 2-o iaoaioao.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea iaoiaeieia??, iaoiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiy e ia’?eoa. ?iaioa
i?enay/aia i?iaeai? i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? o?eaic’?aeiaiue, ui
i?aoeththoue a iniaeeaeo oiiaao, oeyoii ?ic?iaee iiaeo iaoa??ae?a ?
oaoiieia?e. Oiio iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiue ia?aaeaa/a?: iiaeaethaaiiy
i?ioean?a eiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? a o?eaic’?aeiaiiyo ca aeiiiiiaith
o?ce/ieo iiaeaeae; aea/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae ciiooaaiiy iaoa??ae?a
aeaoaeae ia? oa?oy ye i?e ?icae?eueiiio, oae ? eiiieaeniiio aieea?
iaaaioaaeoaaeueieo ia?aiao??a, a oaeiae noai ?oi?o o?eeoe?eieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ca aeiiiiiaith noai?aiiai niaoe?aeueiiai onoaoeoaaiiy;
anoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae ci?ie oa?aeoa?enoee iaoa??ae?a o cii?
eiioaeoo, no?oeoo?ieo ? oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue ye o iaoo?ieo aeaoaeyo, oae
? a iiaeaeueieo oiiaao, ?c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiae?a ? cania?a
iaoaeio?ce/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy oaeeo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeeeeeaea iio?aao: aiae?co iniaeeainoae aea/aiiy
o?eaieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aea?ii?oeieo iaoa??ae?a, ui aenieoaoothoueny
a aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao; aecia/aiiy ae?aiacii?a aaee/ei
iaaaioaaeoaaeueieo ia?aiao??a, ui ae?thoue ia ?aaeuei? o?eaiaocee, ?
?ic?iaeo ia oe?e iniia? eiiieaeno aenia?eiaioaeueiiai onoaoeoaaiiy;
aeai?o ? aei?iaee iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue ye?nieo ci?i o iiaa?oiaaiio
i?ioa?eo iaoa??ae?a , ui eiioaeoothoue. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue aoee
o?eaiaocee aa?y/i? /anoeie aacioo?a?iieo onoaiiaie.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, oanoe
?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e c 284
iaeiaioaaiue ? aeiaeaoe?a uiaei i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? ?acoeueoao?a
?iaioe. Iniiaia /anoeia aeena?oaoe?? aeeth/a? 380 noi??iie
ae?oea?nueeiai oaenoo, i?noeoue 173 ?enoiea (113 noi??iie) ? 32
oaaeeoe?.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

O anooi? aecia/aia aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, ui ae??oaia a aeena?oaoe??,
noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa, iaoeiaa iiaecia oa iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aaoi?
aeiineoue ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe i?iaaaeaii:

1. Aiae?c iniaeeainoae aoce?a oa?oy e iioeiaeaeaiiy aeaoaeae AOO a
ca’yceo c? ciinii i?e eiioaeoi?e aca?iiae??.

2. Ioe?ieo ci?ie i?aoeacaeaoiino? ?iai/eo eiiaoie oo?a?ie a caeaaeiino?
a?ae nooiaiy ciino aaiaeaaeieo iieeoeue.

3. Aiae?c iioeiaeaeaiue oeiiaeo c’?aeiaiue a ca’yceo c oaoiieia?/ieie
oaeoi?aie.

4. Aiae?c oa?aeoa?o iioeiaeaeaiue a?ae ciiooaaiiy.

5. Ioe?ieo oiia oi?ioaaiiy iioeiaeaeaiue.

6. Aiae?c noaio aeine?aeaeaiue a iaeano? ciiooaaiiy iaoa??ae?a a
aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao.

7. Aea?? iniiaieo aoai?a aeine?aeaeaiue.

Aiae?c aoce?a oa?oy aa?y/i? /anoeie AOO iieacaa, ui ?oi?ie iniaeeainoyie
? eiino?oeoe?y, e?iaiaoeea aca?iiiai ia?ai?uaiiy eiioaeoieo iiaa?oiiue,
oiiae ?iaioe, ui aeeth/athoue aenie? oeeee?/ii i?ieea? oaiia?aoo?e,
oa?aeoa? i?eeeaaeaiiy ciai?oi?o iaaaioaaeaiue (iayai?noue oaea?o c
ianooiiei i?ineiacoaaiiyi), o?i?/iee aieea aaciaiai na?aaeiaeua. C
aiae?co noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo ii iioeiaeaeoaaiino? aeaoaeae aeieeaa?, ui
a?eueo 60% aeaoaeae ?c caaaeueiiai /enea ciioaieo i?aeeyaathoue ae??
aeeiai?/iiai eiioaeoiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oeeee?/iith
ci?iith iaaaioaaeaiiy (ci?ith?oueny a?ae ioey aei iaeneioio). Aei oaeeo
aeaoaeae a?aeiinyoueny: ei?ione niieiaeo aia?ao?a, aeaiaioe o?enaoe??
eaia?e cai?yiiy, ae?ao?aaie, niieia? eiiaoee (iioeiaeaeothoueny aeaiaioe
ia?aaeiuei? o?enaoe??), ?iai/? eiiaoee oo?a?i (ciioothoueny aaiaeaaei?
iieeoe?) oa ?i.

Aiae?c oa?aeoa?o iioeiaeaeaiue eiioaeoieo iiaa?oiiue (caeaaeeoue a?ae
ii?aeiaiiy ia?aiao??a iaaaioaaeaiiy, o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
iaoa??ae?a, noaio iiaa?oiiue, iayaiino? ie?aie oa ?i.) iieaco?, ui
iioeiaeaeaiiy iiaeooue aeieeaoe aiane?aeie: cieiaiiy oa ieanoe/iiai
a?aeoeniaiiy iaoaeo a ??ci? aiee; noiieaiiy iiaa?oiiue ? ia?aiino
iaoaeo; eiioaeoii? aoiieaiino?; ?ioaineo?eaoe?? ieenethaaeueieo
i?ioean?a; iaeeaaeaiiy ia?a?aoiaaieo i?ioean?a iaeiiai ia ?io?.

Oa?aeoa?i? iioeiaeaeaiiy, ui niinoa??aathoueny a ie?aieo aeaoaeyo
aa?y/i? /anoeie AOO, ye iieaco? aiae?c oiiia?ao?? ciioaieo iiaa?oiiue,
caaaeaee iathoue i?noea a aaiaeaaeieo iieeoeyo ?iai/eo eiiaoie oo?a?ie.
Inoaii? ia aeiaaeeiai, ine?eueee oe? aeaiaioe caciathoue aanue niaeo?
iaaaioaaeaiiy, /anoio ? oaiia?aoo?, o oie /an ye ie?ai? aeaoae?
ciaoiaeyoueny a a?eueo aocueeeo ae?aiaciiao iaaaioaaeaiiy. I?aeaeuaiee
ciin eiioaeoieo iiaa?oiiue aaiaeaaeieo iieeoeue eiiaoie iiaea i?ecaanoe
aei ao?aoe ii/aoeiaiai iaoyao (oiaoi iiyae caci?o), a ioaea, aei
i?aeaeuaiiy a?a?aoe?eieo iai?oa o e?eoe/ieo ia?a??cao eiiaoie, ui, a
e?ioeaaiio ?aooieo, iiaea i?ecaanoe aei ?oeioaaiiy a?ae aoiieaiino?
inoaii?o ? a?aeiiae aeaeaoia a oe?eiio. Oiio ye iniiaiee ia’?eo
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aea?ai? aaiaeaaei? iieeoe? eiiaoie oo?a?ie.

C aiae?co oeiiaeo c’?aeiaiue aeoiaeeoue, ui aeaoae? o?eaic’?aeiaiue, ye?
ciioothoueny a aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao, aeaioiaeai? c iaoa??ae?a: AEN6O,
AEN6E, AEN26 – 34%; OI77OTH? – 25%; OI62IAETH – 10%; AAE98 – 8%;
OI80O6TH – 8%; ?io? iaoa??aee – 15%. Ie??i oiai, a ?aiiioiiio ? /anoeiai
a iniiaiiio ae?iaieoeoa? aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino?
aeei?enoiaothoueny nieaae AAEE2, nieaae oeio OOI, aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy
ciioaieo iiaa?oiiue – ACE, O30I50TH5O2 oa ?i. Ne?ae aecia/eoe, ui
i?aea?? iaoa??ae?a aeeiio?oueny (ca ??aeeei aeeeth/aiiyi) ia?o ca ana c
iaoith caaacia/aiiy i?oeiino? eiino?oeoe??. Aeei?enoaiiy ae iie?eoo?a
(ae?ooaaiiy, aethiin?e?oe?thaaiiy, eaooi?thaaiiy, iaieaaie aeey
a?aeiiaeaiiy iiaa?oiiue ciiooaaiiy, iaiaeie ieanoei) aeeiiothoueny c
oi/ee ci?o i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? i?e oa?o? eiacaiiy, ui ia
caaeiaieueiy? iio?aaai caaacia/aiiy iaiao?aeieo oa?aeoa?enoee
i?aoeacaeaoiino? i?e aeeiai?/ieo eiioaeoieo iaaaioaaeaiiyo a oiiaao
oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy.

Aiae?c oiia oi?ioaaiiy iioeiaeaeaiue aeaoaeae aa?y/i? /anoeie AOO, ui
aenieoaoothoueny a aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao, aeeiiaiee a iniiaiiio ia
i?eeeaae? aaiaeaaeieo iieeoeue ?iai/eo eiiaoie oo?a?ie aeaeaoi?a
??ciiiai?oieo eiino?oeoe?e, aeicaieea ioe?ieoe ae?aiaciie ia?aiao??a
iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a iaaeao: ieoiia iaaaioaaeaiiy a
eiioaeo? – 10 – 70 IIa, aiie?ooaea aca?iieo ia?ai?uaiue – 0,005 – 0,2ii,
oaiia?aoo?a – aei 1000iN. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co aoee
iieeaaeai? a ?ic?iaeo aenia?eiaioaeueiiai onoaoeoaaiiy aeey aei?iaoaaiue
o?eaieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaoa??ae?a, ui i?aoeththoue a aeno?aiaeueieo
oiiaao.

Ine?eueee a e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?aeao iaeaea a?aenooi? a?aeiiino? a
iaeano? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a eiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? oa ciiooaaiiy
iaoa??ae?a ca aeno?aiaeueieo oiia, a yeeo ae ia?ane?aeoaaeenue o? ae
oe?e?, ui ? a oe?e ?iaio?, oi a aeena?oaoe?? iaaaaeaii noeneee
e?oa?aoo?iee iaeyae, iaeiae iaaiai?aiiy e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae c ie?aieo
ieoaiue aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aea?oueny o a?aeiia?aeieo ?? ?icae?eao.
Aiane?aeie aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo ne?ae cacia/eoe a?oioiai?noue
aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao ciai?oi?o ia?aiao??a iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
ciinino?ee?noue iaoa??ae?a. Ieoaiiyi aieeao aeeiai?/ieo ?aaeei?a ?iaioe
ia i?ioeane oa?oy ? ciiooaaiiy, ia aeiaaia?/i?noue aeaoaeae iaoei
i?enay/ai? ?iaioe A.ss. Aeya’?aa, N.A. Aaioeaey, I.E. Aieaaa, A.A.
A?eoea, A.A. Caii?iaeoey, A.A. Eaia?/oea, A.I. Eicianueeiai, A.Ae.
?aaeie?iiaa, N.A. Na?ainaia, A.A. *oaeaeiaa, A.A. Oaaae?, Ae.I. Aiaeo??,
?. Oioa?oaoca, E. Oiee?aeay e ?i. I?ioa aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia
aeathoue a?aeiia?ae? ia aaaaoi ieoaiue i?aeoeee eiino?othaaiiy,
aenieoaoaoe?? ? a?aeiiaeaiiy o?eaiaoce?a AOO, ine?eueee iathoue
a?aeiioaiiy, a iniiaiiio, aei eiino?oeoe?eieo noaeae ? nieaa?a, ui
aenieoaoothoueny a oiiaao ii?iaeueieo oaiia?aoo?.

Ciinino?ee?noue iaoa??ae?a i?e i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?ao
aeine?aeaeoaaeany A.I. Naiaiiaei, TH.A. Oea/aieii, A.A. Oaaaeath, A.A.
Ea?anueiaei, E.A. *aoeiyiii, E.A. Iinianueeei, E.A. Iaoa?niiii, Aeae.
Aeanaioii, A. Aoaeii, I. Iaa?nii oa ?i. Aiaeii/an, o ?iaioao oeeo
aaoi??a aeine?aeaeothoueny i?ioeane oa?oy oa ciiooaaiiy a oiiaao
iaeiiiai?aaeaiiai oa?oy eiacaiiy, aai ?aaa?neaiiai oa?oy (aac ?ic?eao
eiioaeoo) ? ia a?aoiao?oueny aeeiai?/iee oa?aeoa? eiioaeoiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy, yeee i?eeeaaea?oueny ii?iaeueii aei iiaa?oi? oa?oy. I?ae
oei, ?ic?ea eiioaeoo i?ecaiaeeoue aei iiyae cia/ieo oaea?ieo
iaaaioaaeaiue, ui ia iiaea ia a?aeaeoenue ia i?ioeanao oa?oy oa
ciiooaaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy i?iaaaeaieo ?ai?oa aeine?aeaeaiue
aeei?enoai? aeey ii??aiyiiy c ?acoeueoaoaie, io?eiaieie aaoi?ii o a?eueo
aei?noeeo oiiaao iaaaioaaeaiiy.

Iine?aeiai?noue aoai?a iaoeiaiai iiooeo caeiiii??iinoae ciiooaaiiy
?iai/eo iiaa?oiiue aeaoaeae aa?y/i? /anoeie AOO ? ?ic?iaee caoiae?a
uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy ?oiuei? aeiaaia?/iino? aeaoae?ciaai? ia ?en. 1.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee ieoaiiyi iaoiaee/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue. Aecia/aii, ui aea?? iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiue iio?aao?
o?aooaaiiy niaoeeo?ee iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui iieyaa? a oeeee?/iiio
iaaaioaaeaii?, e?iaiaoeoe? ?ooo (oaea? ?c ianooiiei i?ineiacoaaiiyi),
ia??iaee/iiio oaieiaiio aieea?, ei?ic?eii-a?ic?eiiio aieea?
aenieioaeaee?niiai aaciaiai iioieo, ui neeaaea?oueny c i?iaeoeo?a
cai?yiiy iaeeaa. Ni?eueia ae?y iaaaioaaeoaaeueieo oaeoi??a ?i?oe?th? a
iiaa?oiaaiio i?ioa?eo aeaoi?iaoe?ei? i?ioeane, ui ni?eythoue ci?i?
no?oeoo?iiai, oaciaiai ? iai?oaeaiiai noai?a, ?ioaineo?eaoe??
aeeooc?eieo ? ieenethaaeueieo i?ioean?a, ye? iathoue ?noioiee aieea ia
ciiooaaiiy aeaoaeae.

Aea?? oeo aai ?ioeo caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino?
aeaoaeae, iio?aao? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aei ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaieo
caaea/. Oae, iai?eeeaae, ?ic?iaea aai aeia?? iaoa??ae?a (iie?eoo?a) aeey
?iai/eo iiaa?oiiue o?eaiaoce?a aeeeoo? iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee
iaoai?ci?a ciiooaaiiy, ui aacothoueny ia iniiaieo caeiiii??iinoyo
ciiooaaiiy iiaa?oi? a oeeo oiiaao, aeine?aeaeaiiyo aeaoi?iaoe?eieo,
o?i?/ieo, oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a o cii? eiioaeoo, aeyaeaiiy aianeo
eiaeiiai c oaeoi??a, ui aeeeeeathoue iioeiaeaeoaai?noue iaoa??aeo
iiaa?oiiue oa?oy. Aea?? ?aoe?iiaeueii? eiino?oeoe?? aocea aai
iioei?caoe?y iaaaioaaeoaaeueieo ?aaeei?a iio?aao? aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao
ciai?oi?o iaoai?/ieo ? oaieiaeo ia?aiao??a ia ?ici?? ? oa?aeoa? ciino
?iai/eo iiaa?oiiue. ?, ia?aoo?, – ia?aa??eo aoaeoeaiino? oiai aai ?ioiai
oaoi?/iiai ??oaiiy iiaeia cae?enieoe aai ia ?aaeuei?e iaoei?, ui
iio?aao? aeoaea aaeeeeo aeo?ao, aai ia noaiae?, ui aaeaeaaoii iiaeaeth?
oiiae ?iaioe aocea oa?oy. A inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo iiaeiii noaaeoeny
ieoaiiy i?i nooi?iue iaae?eiino? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, ui
caaacia/o?oueny iiaeeea?noth aei??o ia?aiao??a ciino i?ea?iaeo ?
iiaeae?, a oaeiae ?aeaioe/i?noth oiiia?ao?? ciioaieo iiaa?oiiue.

?aae?caoe?y oaeiai i?aeoiaeo cae?enith?oueny o?ce/iei iiaeaethaaiiyi
i?ioean?a eiioaeoii? aca?iiae??, ui i?io?eathoue o ia?ao oa?oy,
iaaaioaaeaieo ci?iieie oaiia?aoo?iei ? neeiaei iieyie, ca aeiiiiiaith
eiiieaeno aenia?eiaioaeueieo onoaiiaie. ?ic?iaeaiee eiiieaen
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai onoaoeoaaiiy aeeth/a?:

— aaciaeeiai?/iee noaiae AeEI-1 (?en. 2), ui aeicaiey? iiaeaethaaoe
e?iaiaoeeo ia?ai?uaiue, oaieiaee ? iai?oaeaiee noai ?aaeueiiai
o?eaiaocea, aea? iiaeeea?noue aeine?aeaeoaaoe e?iaoeeo iioeiaeaeoaaiino?
iiaa?oiaaiai i?ioa?eo aac ciyooy c?ace?a c onoaiiaee. Neoaeeoue aeey
ii?iaoaaiiy eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/ieo cania?a i?aeaeuaiiy
ciinino?eeino? aeaoaeae, a oaeiae cae?eniaiiy aeni?an-iaoiaeo ioe?iee
i?aoeacaeaoiino? iie?eoo?a;

— onoaiiaeo aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ciiooaaiiy i?e aeeiai?/iiio eiioaeoiiio
iaaaioaaeaii? AeEI-2 (?en. 3), ui aeicaiey? aeine?aeaeoaaoe ?icae?eueiee
aieea ia?aiao??a iaaaioaaeaiiy (aiie?ooaee, iaaaioaaeaiiy, /anoioe,
oaiia?aoo?e, aaciaiai na?aaeiaeua) ia o?eaieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
iaoa??ae?a, a oaeiae i?iaiaeeoe aei?iaoaaiiy i?e i?ia?aiiaai?e ci?i?
?aaeei?a iaaaioaaeaiiy;

— onoaiiaeo aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ciiooaaiiy i?e ii?iaeueiiio i?eeeaaeaii?
iaaaioaaeaiiy aei c?ace?a («/enoee» oaea?) ye i?e ii?iaeueieo, oae ?
i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?ao (?en. 4).

Aiane?aeie niaoeeo?ee aenia?eiaioaeueiiai onoaoeoaaiiy ?ic?iaeai?
iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy iaaaioaaeoaaeueieo ia?aiao??a aeey eiaeii? c
onoaiiaie.

I?e aei?iaoaaiiyo ia?aaeaa/aany eiio?ieue ia?aiao??a, ye? aecia/athoue
i?io?eaiiy i?ioean?a ?oeioaaiiy iiaa?oiaaiai i?ioa?eo (neea oa?oy,
iaaaioaaeaiiy a eiioaeo?, /anoioa e aiie?ooaea eieeaaiue, /enei oeeee?a
iaaaioaaeaiiy, oaiia?aoo?a, oaeaee?noue iioieo aaciiia?o?yiiai
na?aaeiaeua). E?euee?nii iioeiaeaeoaai?noue ioe?ithaaeany aaee/eiith
ia’?io ciioaiiai iaoa??aeo, a oaeiae iaeneiaeueiith aeeaeiith
iioeiaeaeoaaiino? ?c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeo i?io?eia?aooaaiiy.

Iaoa??aeaie aeey aeine?aeaeaiue neoaeeee aea?ii?oei? iaoa??aee ia
i?eaeaa?e iniia?, ci?oeiai? ?ioa?iaoae?aeiith oacith Ni3(Al, Ti): AEN6E,
OI77OTH?, AEN26, AEN6O-AE, OI62IAETH, AAEE-2, a oaeiae ?yae ciinino?eeeo
iie?eoo?a, ui iaiinyoueny ia eiioaeoi? iiaa?oi? iaieaaeaiiyi, iaiaeeith
ieanoei, aeaeo?i?ne?iaei eaaoaaiiyi, aeeooc?eiei iane/aiiyi ?c
ianooiiith iaoai?/iith ? oa?i?/iith ia?iaeith. Aea?? iaoa??ae?a
iaoiiaeaiee /anoioith canoinoaaiiy ?o o o?eaic’?aeiaiiyo aa?y/i? /anoeie
aacioo?a?iieo aia?aaoe/ieo onoaiiaie ?, cie?aia, aa?aoe?eieo aeaeaoi?a.
Eiioaeo cae?enithaaany ca oi?iith ieiueia – ieiueia, iaoa??aee c?ace?a
iaeiieiaii?. C?aceaie aeey aei?iaoaaiue neoaeeee iaoo?i? aeaoae? (?iai/?
eiiaoee oo?a?ie), a oaeiae O-ia?acii? oi?ie c?acee, i?e aeai?? yeeo
ea?oaaeeny i?aaiaiiyi iaeneiaeueii iaaeeceoe oiiae aei?iaoaaiue aei
aenieoaoaoe?eieo ?, ii iiaeeeaino?, aeeeth/eoe aieea ianooaaiiai
oaeoi?a. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiue a oiiaao «/enoiai» oaea?o aeei?enoiaoaaeeny
eiioni? c?acee.

Aea?? ?aaeei?a aei?iaoaaiue cae?enithaaany a?aeiia?aeii aei oeio caaea/
ae??ooaaieo i?e aeine?aeaeaiiyo:

— caaea/a iioeiaeueiiai eiino?othaaiiy o?eaic’?aeiaiue ?c iiaeyaeo
caaacia/aiiy iaeneiaeueii? ciinino?eeino?;

— aecia/aiiy iii?o ciiooaaiith ??ciiiai?oieo iaoa??ae?a ? iie?eoo?a,
i?ecia/aieo aeey ?iaioe a eiie?aoiiio o?eaic’?aeiaii?;

— aeine?aeaeaiiy nooiaiy aieeao ?aaeueieo ?aaeei?a aenieoaoaoe?? aeey
iiaoaeiae iiaeae? ciiooaaiiy i?e i?ia?aiiaai?e ci?i? ?aaeei?a
iaaaioaaeaiiy;

— aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aaciaiai na?aaeiaeua, ui neeaaea?oueny c
i?iaeoeo?a cai?yiiy iaeeaa, ia ciinino?ee?noue iaoa??ae?a;

— aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ia ciinino?ee?noue iaoa??ae?a noaoe/ieo ?
ia?ai?iieo (aeeiai?/ieo) ye iaoai?/ieo, oae ? oaieiaeo iaaaioaaeaiue.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy o?eaieia?/ieo i?ioean?a ?c iaoith aecia/aiiy iniiaieo
caeiiii??iinoae iio?aao? eiiieaenii? ioe?iee oa?aeoa?enoee iiaa?oiaaeo
i?ioa?e?a, ?oiuei? no?oeoo?e ? iai?oaeaiiai noaio. Aea/aiiy no?oeoo?e
iiaa?oiaaeo i?ioa?e?a aeaoaeae ? c?ace?a ia?aaeaa/a? oioia?aooaaiiy
i?noeue ooeiaeaeaiiy, iaoaeino?oeoo?iee, aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/iee,
?aioaaiino?oeoo?iee ? ?aioaaiiniaeo?aeueiee i?e?iaiae?c (?NIA). O
i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiue aecia/aeany i?e?ioaa?ae?noue iiaa?oiiue oa?oy,
aeyaeyeeny oa?aeoa?i? ci?ie, ui a?aeaoaathoueny i?e aeeiai?/iiio
eiioaeoiiio iaaaioaaeaii?: iaeiie/aiiy iioeiaeaeoaaiino? a iiaa?oiaaeo
i?ioa?eao, ieenethaaiiy ? ?oeioaaiiy iiaa?oiiue, aeae?eaiiy ?
eiaaoeyoe?y ?ioa?iaoae?aeieo oac ? o.ae.

Aea/aiiy i?e?ino?oeoo?e iiaa?oiiue eiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? i?iaiaeeeiny ca
aeiiiiiaith na?oeiaeo iioe/ieo i?e?ineii?a oeio IAN. Iaoaeino?oeoo?iee
aiae?c iiaa?oi? oa?oy cae?enithaaany ia i?e?ineiiao IEI-8, IEI-10. Aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icoiaeaeaiue i?ae oacaie canoiniaoaaany ?ano?iaee
i?e?ineii JSM-43. Aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?o ?oeioaaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo
i?ioa?e?a i?iaiaeeeiny ia i?ina?o/anoiio aeaeo?iiiiio i?e?ineii?
OYIA-100E, a oaeiae aeaeo?iiiiio ?ano?iaiio i?e?ineii? JSM T-300.
Oaciaee neeaae ?iai/eo iiaa?oiiue ioe?ithaaany iaoiaeii
?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai oaciaiai aiae?co ia aeeo?aeoiiao?ao Ae?II-1,
?aioaai?anueeiio aeeo?aeoiiao?? IIHZC-4A/2. ?aeaioeo?eaoe?th oac, ui
ci?oeiththoue, i?iaiaeeee ca aeiiiiiaith ?aioaaiiniaeo?aeueiiai
i?e?iaiae?co (?NIA) ia i?e?iaiae?caoi?? IA?-3. Oei ea?a?ae?a, i?e/eie
?oiuei? ianoaa?eueiino?, a oaeiae i?e?iaea no?oeoo?ieo ci?i iao?eoe? a
i?eiiaa?oiaa?e cii? aeayeeo nieaa?a aecia/aeeny ?aioaaiiniaeo?aeueiei
i?e?iaiae?cii ia i?eeaae? «Namana MS46». sse?ni? ci?ie no?oeoo?e a cii?
eiioaeoo ioe?ithaaeeny ca aeiiiiiaith ?ano?iaiai aeaeo?iiiiai i?e?ineiia
«StereoskanS4» ?c i?enoaaeith ?NIA.

I?e iaea?aeaii? e?euee?nieo caeaaeiinoae, c iaeyaeo ia noaoenoe/iee
oa?aeoa? ia?aiao??a, ui ?a?no?othoueny, o ?iaio? canoiniaai? iaoiaee
ieaiiaaiiai aenia?eiaioo ? ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeothoueny i?ioeane ciiooaaiiy i?e
aeeiai?/ieo ?aaeeiao iaaaioaaeaiiy. Ia aeinoaoiuei aaeee?e aea??oe?
(a?eueo 90 eiiieaeo?a eiiaoie aeaeaoi?a) i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?ioean?a ciiooaaiiy aaiaeaaeieo iieeoeue, o ?acoeueoao? /iai
anoaiiaeaii, ui: e?i?eiee ciin eiiaoie ii ?iai/iio eieano ia?
ia??aiii??iee oa?aeoa? (?en. 5), eiee aaniethoia aaee/eia ciino
eieeaa?oueny a iaaeao a?ae 0,1 aei 1,5 ii; ?c ca?eueoaiiyi /ano
aenieoaoaoe?? e?i?eiee ciin ci?ith? na?e oa?aeoa? a?ae iiiioiiii
c?inoath/iai (ia?ia?oie ieae/a 1000 aiaeei) aei ??ceiai ca?eueoaiiy
aiane?aeie aaiethoe?? iaaaioaaeoaaeueieo ia?aiao??a (aiie?ooaea,
iaaaioaaeaiiy a eiioaeo?) o a?e ?oiueiai ca?eueoaiiy; niinoa??aathoueny
o?e oa?aeoa?ieo oeie ciioaieo iiaa?oiiue o cii? eiioaeoo (a?aeiia?aeii
aei oa?aeoa?o c’?aeiaiiy iaoya, caci?, «ioeueiaee» caci?), ye?
iaoiiaeai? ye oaoiieia??th neeaaeaiiy aeaoaeae, oae ? ciinii inoaii?o o
i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe??; o caeaaeiino? a?ae ia?ia?oeo ia? i?noea
ia??iaee/ia ci?ia oa?aeoa?enoee yeino? iiaa?oiaaiai i?ioa?eo
(i?e?ioaa?aeino?, aeaoi?iaoe?eii? no?oeoo?e, ( /-oace, ia?aiao?a ?ao?oee
iniiaiiai oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio). O caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo i?ioean eiioaeoii?
aca?iiae?? iaoo?ieo aeaoaeae neeaaea?oueny c ?yaeo neeaaeiaeo (aeea.
noaio ?en. 6). Iaea?eueo ?noioiee aianie o caaaeueiee ciin iiaeooue
aiineoe i?ioeane aca?iiae?? aac ?ic?eao eiioaeoo, i?e oaea?? e oaea?? c
ianooiiei i?ineiacoaaiiyi.

Aei?iaoaaiiyie ciinino?eeino? iaoa??ae?a a oiiaao aac ?ic?eao eiioaeoo
anoaiiaeaii, ui: oa?aeoa? caeaaeiinoae aieeao ia?aiao??a iaaaioaaeaiiy
ia ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy iiae?aiee io?eiaiei ?ai?oa i?e
aeine?aeaeaiiyo a oiiaao o?aoo?ia-ei??ic??, oi/a cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa
?ioaineaiino? ciiooaaiiy a?ae??ciythoueny ca aaniethoiith aaee/eiith;
/enei oeeee?a iaaaioaaeaiiy aei iiyae ??aiiaaaeii? oi?noeino? caeaaeeoue
a?ae ieanoe/iino? iaoa??aeo ? oaiia?aoo?e, ?c i?aeaeuaiiyi eio?eo oea
/enei cieaeo?oueny ? ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao (0,08 – 0,1)·106; ciia
oaiia?aoo?, i?e yeeo a?aeaoaa?oueny cieaeaiiy eiao?oe??ioa ?ioaineaiino?
ciiooaaiiy aeey nieaao OI77OTH? ae?aaeaia yaii (ia a?aei?io a?ae nieaa?a
AEN6O ? AAEE-2), neeaaea? ?ici?? ii?yaeeo 450 – 500iN ? aecia/a?oueny
ieenethaaeueiith ni?iiiaei?noth iaoa??ae?a.

A oiiaao ?c ?ic?eaii eiioaeoo aac oaiaaioe?aeueiiai ci?uaiiy
aeine?aeaeaii aieea e?eueeino? oaea??a oa aia?a?? oaea?o ia
?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy. Iieacaii, ui c i?aeaeuaiiyi e?eueeino?
oaea??a inoaiiy a?aeiinii oaeaeei niaaea? ? aeinyaa? i?aeoe/ii noaeiai
cia/aiiy i?e 15 – 20•103 oeeee?a. O ii??aiyii? c ii/aoeiaith
?ioaineai?noth ciiooaaiiy oeae niaae nyaa? 1,7 – 2 ?ace. I?aeaeuaiiy
oaiia?aoo?e aei?iaoaaiue aei 600iN ciaioo? e?eoe/io e?euee?noue oaea??a
ia 1/3 ? cieaeo? ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy aei?iaoaaieo nieaa?a a 3 –
3,5 ?ace. C? c?inoaiiyi aia?a?? oaea?o oea cieaeaiiy ia? oaiaeaioe?th
aei ciaioaiiy. Iiaa?oiaaee ieneaeiee i?ioa?ie, ui ooai?th?oueny c
i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e, a?a? aeai?noo ?ieue: c iaeiiai aieo
?ioaineo?eaoe?y c?inoaiiy ieneaeiiai i?ioa?eo aeeeeea? eiai
?icae??aiaiiy ? naiia?aeoa?oaaiiy, ca?eueooth/e oei naiei ?ioaineai?noue
ciiooaaiiy, ? c ?ioiai aieo – iiaa?oiaaee ieneaeiee i?ioa?ie,
aieiae?th/e ni?iiiaei?noth, ui aeaiio??o?, neoaeeoue o ?ie? aa?’??a aeey
ia?aaea/? aia?a??, yea aeo?a/a?oueny ia aeaoi?ioaaiiy iniiaiiai
iaoa??aeo, aiane?aeie /iai niia?eueiththoueny yaeua aoiieaiino? a
iueiio. Oii?yaeeiaaia iine?aeiai?noue ?ioaineaiinoae ciiooaaiiy nieaa?a
AEN6O ? AAEE-2 i?e ia?aoiae? a?ae oa?oy a oiiaao aac ?ic?eao eiioaeoo
aei aca?iiae?? i?e oaea?? oe?eeii ii?ooo?oueny (?en. 7), ui ? iane?aeeii
?oeioaaiiy i?e oaea?? iaaeeeoeiai? e?eoei? oace oeio I6N, iayai?noue
yei? a nieaa? AAEE-2 o 6-10 ?ac?a a?eueoa, i?ae o AEN6O.

A oiiaao oaea?o c ianooiiei i?ineiacoaaiiyi ia? i?noea aaaaoiinueiaee
iai?oaeaiee noai ?c ia?aaaaeaiiyi noeneo iaae ?icoyaii (?en. 8), a ia
iaeiiinueiaee noai oeio ?icoya-noene, ye i?e aoiieaiino?, ui ni?ey?
ca?eueoaiith ?ioaineaiino? ciiooaaiiy ca ?aooiie a?eueoi? noia?ii?
iai?oae, i?ae o aeiaaeeo iaeiiinueiaiai iai?oaeaiiai noaia. E??i oiai,
i?e ca?eueoaii? caci?o a c’?aeiaii? /an noeneo ? ?icoyao a iiaiiio
oeeee? iaaaioaaeaiiy ciaioo?oueny, a /an a?aeii/eieo (a?aeiia?aea? /ano
aeai?o c?aceii caci?o) – c?inoa?. Ioaea, aiie?ooaea iai?oaeaiue a?eueoa,
ine?eueee oeeee iaaaioaaeaiiy ? ?icaaioaaeaiiy ?aae?co?oueny iiai?noth.
I?e i?ioiaeaeaii? caci?o i?enei?aiiy c?acea aoaea iaeneiaeueiei ?
aeeiai?/ia neeaaeiaa iaaaioaaeaiiy aei iiiaioo eiioaeoo oaeiae aoaea
ca?eueooaaoeny. Ii??aiyiiy oaeaeeinoae noeneo ? ?icaaioaaeaiiy
eieaeueieo ianya?a (oa?aeoa?eco?oueny eooaie iaoeeo ( ? ( ia ?en. 9) a
oiiaao aac ?ic?eao eiioaeoo (?en. 9a), aac ?ic?eao eiioaeoo, aea c
aeeiai?/iei iaaaioaaeaiiyi (?en. 9a) ? c ?ic?eaii eiioaeoo i?e oaea?? c
i?ineiacoaaiiyi (?en. 9a) iieaco?, ui a ?ac? aeeiai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
ca?eueoo?oueny oaeaee?noue noeneo i?e ??aiino? oaeaeeinoae
?icaaioaaeaiiy (iiaa?iaiiy). Iai?oaeaiee noai o cii? eiioaeoo caeaaeeoue
a?ae aieeao ciai?oi?o oiia iaaaioaaeaiiy oaeeo ye oaiia?aoo?a, oene o
eiioaeo?, aiie?ooaea eieeaaiue, o?eaae?noue aei?iaoaaiue. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
aieeao oeeo ia?aiao??a ia ciiooaaiiy iaoa??ae?a iieaco?, ui a oiiaao c
?ic?eaii eiioaeoo eiao?oe??io ?ioaineaiino? ciiooaaiiy a 3,75 – 7,02
?ac?a aeua a ii??aiyii? c oiiaaie aac ?ic?eao eiioaeoo. Ie??i oeueiai a
?ac? oaea?o c i?ineiacoaaiiyi ia? i?noea aeene?aoiee oa?aeoa? ci?ie
noia?iiai ciino a caeaaeiino? a?ae e?eueeino? oeeee?a iaaaioaaeoaaiiy,
yeee na?ae/eoue i?i ia??iaee/ia iaeiie/oaaiiy iioeiaeaeaiue a iaoa??ae?,
ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?oeioaaiiy iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o. O?eaae?noue oeeeeo
iaeiie/oaaiiy oa ?oeioaaiiy iaoa??aeo ci?iia ? caeaaeeoue a?ae eiai
i?e?iaee (ia?o ca ana a?ae e?euee?niiai neeaaeo ( /-oace oa nooiaiy ??
eiaaoeyoe??), a oaeiae oeneo a eiioaeo?. I?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e
aei?iaoaaiue i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai ?iceeaeo cia/aiue o?eaaeino?
oeeeeo, ui iia’ycaia c i?aeneeaiiyi ieenethaaeueieo i?ioean?a.

Aieea ia?aiao??a iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy iiaea aooe
ae?aaeaia iaoaiaoe/iith caeaaei?noth, io?eiaiith iaoiaeii a?oiiaiai
o?aooaaiiy a?aoiaio?a (?ic?iaeaii ?acii c ni?a?ia?oieeaie eaoaae?e
iaoaei??caeueiiai ?ino?oiaioo IOOO “EI?”. Aeey nieaao AEN6O oaeith
caeaaei?noth aoaea:

,

aea JV – ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy, ii3/oeeee;

Ae – aiie?ooaea eieeaaiue c?ace?a, ii;

t – oaiia?aoo?a aei?iaoaaiue, iN;

? – iaaaioaaeaiiy a eiioaeo?, I.

Aiae?c io?eiaii? caeaaeiino? aeicaiey? aecia/eoe iaea?eueo iaaacia/i?
ae?aiaciie iaaaioaaeaiue ? aca?iiae?? iaaaioaaeoaaeueieo ia?aiao??a.
Oae, o aei-e?eoe/i?e iaeano? oaiia?aoo? oaeeie ? P ? t, o aeie?eoe/i?e
iaeano? oene?a – P ? Ae.

Ioe?iaii /anoeo oaea?o a ciiooaaii? i?e oaea?? c i?ineiacoaaiiyi oeyoii
c?noaaeaiiy ?ioaineaiinoae ciiooaaiiy nieaa?a AEN6O ? AAEE-2, io?eiaieo
ii aeaio noaiao iaaaioaaeaiiy – «/enoiio» oaea?? e oaea?? c
i?ineiacoaaiiyi. E?eoa???i ii??aiyiiino? oiia iaaaioaaeaiiy aoea
i?eeiyoa ??ai?noue oaea?ieo ?iioeuen?a o ii??aithaaieo noaiao. Aianie
oaea?o a i?ioean? ciiooaaiiy neeaaea? a?ey 75% aeey nieaao AAEE-2 ? 55 –
60% aeey AEN6O. A?eueo aeniea /anoea oaea?o aeey AAEE-2 iaoiiaeaia
iaioei iii?ii oaea?iiio ciiooaaiith e?eoeeo oac nieaao. Aeeiai?/ia
(oaea?ia) iaaaioaaeaiiy noai?th? oiiae aeey ?iceiethaaiiy ?
?icae??aiaiiy iniiaii? ea?a?aeii? oace nieaao, ui ci?oeith? (?en. 10) ,
?ioaineo?eoth/e oei naiei i?ioean ciiooaaiiy.

I?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy ciinino?eeino? iaoa??ae?a i?e i?ia?aiiaai?e
ci?i? iaaaioaaeoaaeueieo ia?aiao??a, i?iaaaeaiiy eio?eo iiaeeeaa eeoa
i?e aeio?eiaii? oaeeo iniiaieo i?eioeei?a ? e?eoa???a iiaeaethaaiiy
aea?aaeaioieo noai?a o?eaieia?/ieo ia?:

— iiae?ai?noue iaaaioaaeoaaeueieo ?aaeei?a o iiaeaeueieo ? iaoo?ieo
oiiaao (aecia/aeueieie ? e?eoa??? Aoea ? Iuethoiia);

— iiae?ai?noue aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a (??ai?noue a?aeiioaiue iiaa?oiiue
oaieia?aeaea/?, ??ai?noue aei?noeinoae ? ?i.);

— iiae?ai?noue oiiia?ao?? ciioaieo iiaa?oiiue (??ai?noue ona?aaeiaieo
cia/aiue iaeneiaeueieo aeeaei iioeiaeaeoaaiino?, ??ai?noue e?eueeino?
ooeiaeaeaiue ia iaeeieoeth ieiu? e ?i.);

— iiae?ai?noue no?oeoo?ieo ? oaciaeo ci?i o iiaa?oiaaiio i?ioa?eo a
i?ioean? ?iaioe (??ai?noue ni?aa?aeiioaiue ?ici???a ( / — oace aei ?
i?ney ia?ia?oeo, a?aeiioaiiy ia?aiao??a iniiaiiai oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio);

— aea?aaeaioi?noue iai?oaeaieo noai?a, yea aecia/a?oueny noiith
iai?oaeaiue a?ae iaoai?/iiai i?eeeaaeaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue oa iai?oaeaiue,
ye? aeieeathoue a iane?aeie o?ceei-o?i?/ii? ae?? (a ia?oo /a?ao,
oaiia?aoo?ii?);

— aea?aaeaioi?noue ?ioaineaiinoae ciiooaaiiy, yea iieyaa? a
i?iii?oe?iiaeueiino? ciiooaaiiy a iiaeaeueieo (JVi) oa iaoo?ieo (JVi)
oiiaao:

JVi = EJVi ,

aea eiao?oe??io aea?aaeaioiino? E>1. Iiae?ai?noue aeine?aeaeoaaieo
i?ioean?a iiaea aooe io?eiaia ca oiiae ?aeaioe/iino? i?ia?aeieo
iaoai?ci?a ciiooaaiiy i?ea?iaeo oa iiaeae?;

— i?eioeei i?aenoiiaoaaiiy ooeiaeaeaiue (o i?eiouaii? e?i?eii? a?iioace
i?aenoiiaoaaiiy ooeiaeaeaiue e?eoa???i ? aea?aaeaioi?noue /enea oeeee?a
iaaaioaaeaiiy). Ine?eueee aaee/eie ?ioaineaiinoae ciiooaaiiy i?e
aei?iaoaaiiyo a iiaeaeueieo oa iaoo?ieo oiiaao ??ci?, oi ?iia??i?noue
iaeiie/aiiy iioeiaeaeaiue aoaea ??ciith. Nooi?iue a?aei?iiino?
iaeiie/aieo iioeiaeaeaiue iiaea aooe ioe?iaia ye:

aea dn – e?euee?noue oeeee?a iaaaioaaeaiiy aeey aeinyaiaiiy aeaiaioa?ii?
/anoee ciino;

noe – e?euee?noue oeeee?a iaaaioaaeaiiy;

n?AO – e?euee?noue oeeee?a iaaaioaaeaiiy aeey aeinyaiaiiy noia?iiai
ciino i?e aiie?ooae? A, iaaaioaaeaii? a eiioaeo? ? oa oaiia?aoo?? O.

Iaea?eueo aeecuee? oiiae ciiooaaiiy ne?ae i/?eoaaoe i?e (=1. A ?ac?
iaaeeiiaiiy oe??? oiiae aa??aoe??th ?aaeei?a iaaaioaaeaiiy iiaeia
i?ae?a?aoe oae? ?o cia/aiiy, i?e yeeo nooi?iue a?aei?iiino? aoaea
aei??aithaaoe iaeeieoe?.

Aei?iaoaaiiyie ciinino?eeino? aea?ii?oeieo nieaa?a a oiiaao
i?ia?aiiaaii? ci?ie ?aaeei?a iaaaioaaeaiiy ca ??cieie i?ia?aiaie
(i?eeeaae aeey nieaao AEN6O iaaaaeaii a oaae. 1) iieacaii, ui:

— ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy i?e aei?iaoaaiiyo o oeeee? «ione – coieiea»
o na?aaeiueiio a 1,8 ?aca aeua, i?ae i?e aei?iaoaaiiyo ia ona?aaeiaieo
noaeeo ?aaeeiao;

— i?e i?ia?aiiaai?e ci?i? ?aaeei?a iaaaioaaeaiiy o?eaieia?/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee aei?iaiaoaaieo iaoa??ae?a a?eueo aeecuee? (o ii??aiyii? c
aei?iaoaaiiyie ia noaeeo ?aaeeiao) aei io?eiaieo i?e aei?iaoaaiiyo ia
iaoo?ieo aeaeaoiao. Nooi?iue iaaeeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny /eneii a?aoiaaieo
ci?i ia?aiao??a iaaaioaaeaiiy (neeaaei?noth i?ia?aie);

— ?iceeae cia/aiue ?ioaineaiino? ciiooaaiiy i?e i?ia?aiiaai?e ci?i?
?aaeei?a iaeaea ia ii?yaeie iaioa, i?ae i?e aei?iaoaaiiyo ia iaoo?iiio
aeaeaoi?.

Oaaeeoey 1

Ciinino?ee?noue nieaao AEN6O ca oiia i?ia?aiiaaii? ci?ie ia?aiao??a

iaaaioaaeaiiy ? a noaeiio ?aaeei?

Iaaaioaaeaiiy ca i?ia?aiith Ia?aiao?e

iaaaioaaeaiiy ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy, ii3/oeeee A?aeiinia

ciinino?ee?noue

Ione –

aei?iaoaaiiy – coieiea ?=240-564I

Ai=0,039-0,169ii

T=20-800iN

0,907·10-6

0,88

Ione – coieiea

1,446·10-6 0,55

0,8·10-6

1

Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?e i?ia?aiiaai?e ci?i? ?aaeei?a
iaaaioaaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaii iaoiae i?enei?aieo aei?iaoaaiue. Nooue iaoiaeo
iieyaa? o aei?iaoaaii? ciinino?eeino? eiioaeoieo iiaa?oiiue aeaoaeae ia
niaoe?aeueiiio aaciaeeiai?/iiio noaiae? (AeEI-2), o yeiio ?aaeeie
aei?iaoaaiue (aiie?ooaea aca?iieo ia?ai?uaiue c?ace?a , oene o eiioaeo?
, oaiia?aoo?a) ci?iththoueny ca aaniethoiith aaee/eiith a i?ioean?
aei?iaoaaiue. Ci?ia eiaeiiai iaaaioaaeoaaeueiiai ia?aiao?a i?e oeueiio
cae?enith?oueny ca caaeaiith i?ia?aiith. I?ia?aia neeaaea?oueny ia
i?aenoaa? aeine?aeaeaiue ?iai/eo ?aaeei?a ae?iao a aenieoaoaoe?? ?
aecia/aiiy oeiiaiai oeeeeo eiai ?iaioe . Aeey aacioo?a?iiiai aeaeaoia
oaeei ? oeiiaee iie?o e?oaea. A?aeiia?aeii aei oeiiaiai oeeeeo ?iaioe
ae?iao neeaaea?oueny oeeee ci?i ?aaeei?a ia noaiae?. ?aaeeie
aei?iaoaaiue iiaeii? aooe aea?aaeaioieie ?iai/ei a aenieoaoaoe??. Ci?ia
?aaeei?a iaaaioaaeaiiy a i?ioean? aei?iaoaaiue ?aae?co?oueny ca
aeiiiiiaith ono?ith c /eneiaei i?ia?aiiei ea?oaaiiyi. I?e aei?iaoaaiiyo
i?ney eiaeiiai oeeeeo ci?ie iaaaioaaeoaaeueieo ia?aiao??a i?iaaaeeoueny
aei?? noia?iiai ciino ia?e c?ace?a, aac ciyooy inoaii?o c? noaiaea. Ca
io?eiaieie ?acoeueoaoaie aei??o aoaeo?oueny a?ao?e caeaaeiino? noia?iiai
ciino a?ae e?eueeino? oeeee?a ci?i ?aaeei?a iaaaioaaeaiiy,
aeno?aiieyoe??th yeiai aecia/a?oueny ?ano?n ?iaioe o?eaiaocea.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?noeoue ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue eiioaeoii?
aca?iiae?? iaoa??ae?a i?e oa?o? a oiiaao i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo? ?
aaciaiai na?aaeiaeua. C? ca?eueoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e iiaa?oiiue, ui
eiioaeoothoue, a?aeaoaa?oueny, ye i?aaeei cieaeaiiy oaeeo o?eaieia?/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee, ye e?i?eiee ciin, ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy ? eiao?oe??io
oa?oy. I?e oeueiio ? ?ioa?aae oaiia?aoo?, o yeiio cieaeaiiy
a?aeaoaa?oueny iaea?eueo ?ioaineaii. Cieaeaiiy o?eaieia?/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee aecia/a?oueny oiiaaie ooai?aiiy ? ?oeioaaiiy caoeniiai
i?ioa?eo, ui ? iane?aeeii ieenethaaiiy iiaa?oi? c ianooiiei iaoai?/iei
ou?eueiaiiyi i?iaeoeo?a ciiooaaiiy (ye o?, ui ooai?eeeny ciiao, oae ?
/anoeiai ieeneaieo ?ai?oa) ? ieneae?a. E??i oiai cieaeaiiy
o?eaioa?aeoa?enoee ?c c?inoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e iiaea aooe iiyniaia c
iiceoe?e aaeaac?iiii? aca?iiae?? iiaa?oiiue, eiee neee aaeaac??
i?iii?oe?ei? e?eueeino? oi/ie noiieaiiy. Oae /enei oi/ie eiioaeoo aeey
nieaao AEN6O i?e oaiia?aoo?? 400 ? 8000N neeaaeaei a?aeiia?aeii, 109.
107 ? 80. 107 i?e iaaaioaaeaii? 564I. Iaeii/anii c ooai?aiiyi caoeniiai
i?ioa?eo c i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e a i?eiiaa?oiaa?e cii? ?aeooue
i?ioeane eiaaoeyoe?? ?ioa?iaoae?aeii? ( /-oace oa ?iciaae ea?a?aeii?
oace. C i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e aei 900iN ie??i eiaaoeyoe??
a?aeaoaa?oueny /anoeiaa ?ic/eiaiiy oa iiaoi?ia aeae?eaiiy ( /-oace. Oe?
i?ioeane ? aeueoa?iaoeaieie i?ioeanai ooai?aiiy caoeniiai i?ioa?eo ?
ni?eythoue ca?eueoaiith ?ioaineaiino? ciiooaaiiy.

Eaaoaaiiy nieaa?a Mo ? W ?c iaoith ca?eueoaiiy ciinino?eeino? i?e
i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?ao a oiiaao aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue naaa ia
aei?aaaeiao?, oiio ui aaeeea e?euee?noue iie?aaeaio ? aieueo?aio
(iai?eeeaae, o nieaa? AAEE-2) ? ooai?aiiy ia ?oi?e aac? aieiaieo
ci?oeithaa/?a oa?i?/ii ianoaa?eueieo iiaea?eieo ea?a?ae?a oeio I6N,
oiane?aeie ?oiueiai ?iciaaeo, i?ecaiaeeoue aei ??ceiai cieaeaiiy ai?noo
iie?aaeaio a i?eiiaa?oiaa?e cii?. Oea iiynith?oueny iecueeith eiai
no?ee?noth a ieeniiio na?aaeiaeu?. I?ioa, ine?eueee Ii ? c’?aeioaa/ai o
ciinino?eeeo iaoa??aeao, oi ca?aei?iiy iei iiaa?oiaaiai i?ioa?eo ni?ey?
ca?eueoaiith ?ioaineaiino? ciiooaaiiy.

I?e oa?iioeeeeoaaii? a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 20 ( 900iN i?ioean
ciiooaaiiy iaoiiaeaiee /a?aoaaiiyi aeaio iniiaieo i?ioean?a o ia?aa?a
iaeiiai oa?iioeeeeo: aoiieaiino? i?e oaiia?aoo?ao ieae/a oaiia?aoo?
ia?aoiaeo a?ae neeueiiai ciino aei iii??iiai (i?e aei?iaoaaiiyo a
?cioa?i?/ieo oiiaao) ? ieenethaaeueiiai – i?e oaiia?aoo?ao aeua
oaiia?aoo? ia?aoiaeo. Oaea /a?aoaaiiy aeeeeea? ca?eueoaiiy ciino iaeaea
ia ii?yaeie, o ii??aiyii? c? ciinii i?e iino?ei?e oaiia?aoo??, yea
aei??aith? iaeneiaeuei?e oaiia?aoo?? oa?iioeeeeo. Iniiaia /anoea
noia?iiai ciino, ia iao iiaeyae, iaeaaeeoue ciino ca oaiia?aoo? a?eueo
iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? ia?aoiaeo, ine?eueee iieiaeia /ano eiioaeoii?
aca?iiae?? i?eiaaea? ye?ac ia oe? oaiia?aoo?e. A oeueiio ?ac? ieneaee
yeui ? c’yaeythoueny, oi a aeineoue iacia/ieo e?eueeinoyo, iaaeinoaoi?o
aeey ooai?aiiy caoeniiai i?ioa?eo. Oiio eiioaeo a iniiaiiio
a?aeaoaa?oueny ii thaai?eueieo iiaa?oiyo. sse ? a ?ac? ciiooaaiiy ca
noaeeie oaiia?aoo?aie, a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy iiaeeea?
aaeaac?ei? i?ioeane, ine?eueee i?e oa?iioeeeeoaaii? niinoa??aa?oueny
ia?aianaiiy iaoa??aeo c iaei??? iiaa?oi? ia ?ioo.

C i?aeaeuaiiyi ye iaeneiaeueii?, oae ? na?aaeiuei? oaiia?aoo?e oeeeeo
ciin an?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo nieaa?a ia? oaiaeaioe?th aei cieaeaiiy, ui
iaoiiaeth?oueny yeinoyie caoeniiai ieneaeiiai i?ioa?eo, eio?ee
ooai?th?oueny i?e oa?iioeeeeoaaii? oi/a ? iaio ?ioaineaii, i?ae i?e
t=const. Oaeaee?noue cieaeaiiy ciino aeayeeo nieaa?a, iai?eeeaae AEN6E,
aeae?eueea iaioa a ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? 20 – 700iN ? iaa?oue ci?ith?
na?e ciae i?e 20 – 900iN, ui iaoiiaeth?oueny noeeuei?noth aei ooai?aiiy
a?eueo e?eoeiai noaio oeueiai nieaao a iaeano? oaiia?aoo? 700 – 800iN. A
oea, a naith /a?ao, a ?ac? aeeiai?ee iaaaioaaeaiiy ni?ey? ?oeioaaiith
a?ae aoiieaiino? a iane?aeie ae/a?iaiiy caiano ieanoe/iino?. Aieea
ia?aiao??a oa?iioeeeeo (tmax, tn?, ?ioa?aae oaiia?aoo? o oa?iioeeee?) ia
ciinino?ee?noue iaoa??ae?a aeyaey?oueny /a?ac iai?oae, ui c’yaeythoueny
ye o ?acoeueoao? oaieici?i, oae ? /a?ac iai?oae, ui aeieeathoue i?e
ieenethaaii?.

A ?ac? oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy niinoa??aathoueny ci?ie – aeiaaeaiiy neeaaeieo
ea?a?ae?a, a iniiaiiio ii iaaeao ca?ia, ? ca?aeiaiiy eaaoth/eie
aeaiaioaie, ui ciaioo? ia?aiao? e?enoae?/ii? ?ao?oee nieaao, a oaeiae
ni?ey? ca?eueoaiith e?eoeino? nieaao. Inoaii? aeeeeea? cieaeaiiy
o?eaaeino? oeeeeo «ci?oeiaiiy – aeaci?oeiaiiy» oa ianooiia a?aeoa?oaaiiy
/anoeiee ciino. sse ? a ?ac? aei?iaoaaiue ca ?cioa?i?/ieo oiia i?e
oa?iioeeeeoaaii? ia? i?noea c?inoaiiy ?ici??o ( /-oace, ?? eiaaoeyoe?y,
ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei caaaeueiiai ca?oaeaiiy no?oeoo?e. C?inoaiiy ?ici???a
( /-oace niinoa??aa?oueny ye i?e i?aeaeuaii? e?eueeino? oa?iioeeee?a,
oae ? ca?eueoaii? ?ioa?aaeo oeeeeo, a oaeiae ca?eueoaiiy iai?oaeaiino? (
/-oace oa ciaioaiiy ?? oii?yaeeiaaiino?, ui ia iiaea ia a?aeaeoeny ia
o?eeoe?ei?e aoiieaiino?. I?e ciiooaaii? ca oiia oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy
ooai?th?oueny neaaei?ico?aaethaaia, ca?aeiaia eaaoth/eie aeaiaioaie
ciia, yea ia? aenieo oaa?ae?noue ? a i?ioean? eiioaeoii? aca?iiae??
a?aeaoaa?oueny ?? iino?eia ?icae??aiaiiy oa aeaeaeaiiy. Oaieici?ie i?e
aenieeo tmax oeeeeo aeeeeeathoue a?eueo oaeaeea noa??iiy iaoa??aeo.
Acaaae? no?oeoo?i? ? oacia? ci?ie a i?eiiaa?oiaaeo i?ioa?eao iaoa??aeo
i?aeoe/ii o? ae, ui ? a ?ac? aei?iaoaaiue ciinino?eeino? ca ?cioa?i?/ieo
oiia, aea oe? ci?ie a?aeaoaathoueny cia/ii oaeaeoa.

A oiiaao aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai aaciaiai iioieo, yeee neeaaea?oueny c
i?iaeoeo?a cai?yiiy iaeeaa, iaea?eueo ?noioiee aieea ia ciinino?ee?noue
aeyaeythoue aiie?ooaea aca?iiiai ia?ai?uaiiy, iaaaioaaeaiiy a eiioaeo?,
oaiia?aoo?a aaciaiai iioieo ? eiai oaeaee?noue. I?e oeueiio an?
ia?a?aoiaai? ia?aiao?e iathoue e?eoe/i? cia/aiiy, i?e yeeo
?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy ci?ith?oueny a cia/i?e i???. Iayai?noue
e?eoe/ieo cii iaoiiaeaia ci?iith aieiaieo iaoai?ci?a ciiooaaiiy, a
oaeiae ii?ooaiiyi aaeaino oaeaeeinoae ooai?aiiy ? ?oeioaaiiy caoeniiai
i?ioa?eo. O?i?/iee aieea aaciaiai iioieo ia ciinino?ee?noue
i?iyaey?oueny a iniiaiiio /a?ac noeueo?aeio ei?ic?th oa ieeneaiiy
iiaa?oiiue oa?oy. Aiane?aeie oiai, ui noeueo?aeia ei?ic?y ? iaeiei c
iaea?eueo nooo?aeo i?ioean?a, ye? o?aaeathoue iiaa?oith ? cia/ii
cieaeothoue aeiaaia?/i?noue aeaoaeae i?e oa?iiaoiieaiino?, ne?ae aoei a
i/?eoaaoe iii?oiiai cieaeaiiy ciinino?eeino? iaoa??ae?a c i?aeaeuaiiyi
ai?noo n??ee a aaciaiio iioioe?. Iaeiae, ye iieacaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, c
i?aeaeuaiiyi ai?noo n??ee ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy ca?eueoo?oueny
iacia/ii. I/aaeaeii noeueo?aeia ei?ic?y ia iiaea i?iyaeoenue a
aeinoaoi?e i???, ine?eueee eiioaeoi? iiaa?oi? iino?eii a?aeiiaeththoueny
? ei?ic?y ia anoeaa? o?aaeaoe ae?eyiee iiaa?oi? ia aeinoaoith aeeaeio. A
oie aea /an niaoeeo?ea eiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? a ?ac? aeeiai?/iiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy (iayai?noue caci?o a c’?aeiaii?) ca oiia
aenieioaeaee?niiai aaciaiai iioieo aeicaiey? i/?eoaaoe nooo?aiai eiai
aieeao ia ciinino?ee?noue iaoa??ae?a. Ii??aiyeuei? aei?iaoaaiiy
ciinino?eeino? ?yaeo aea?ii?oeieo nieaa?a iieacothoue, ui ae?y
oaeaee?niiai iioieo i?aeaeuo? ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy a na?aaeiueiio a
1,4 – 2,6 ?ace. Oaea i?aeaeuaiiy coiiaeaia a?ic?eiith ae??th aaciaiai
iioieo, eio?a aeyaey?oueny aeaiyei. C iaeiiai aieo i?enei?ththoueny
ei?ic?ei? oa ieenethaaeuei? i?ioeane ca ?aooiie a?eueo ?ioaineaiiai
iiaeaaaiiy aa?aneaieo eiiiiiaio?a oa eenith iia?o?y ? c ae?oaiai –
iieaaoaiiy oiia aeiino i?iaeoeo?a ciiooaaiiy c ciie eiioaeoo. C iaoith
ia?aa??ee nooiaith aieeao a?ic?eii? ae?? i?iaiaeeeenue aei?iaoaaiiy
ciinino?eeino? iaoa??ae?a o oaeaee?niiio iia?o?yiiio iioioe?, yeee
iiaeaaaany a caci?, iiia?aaeiuei i?ae?a??oee aei 600iN. Aiane?aeie
aenia?eiaio?a anoaiiaeaii cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy ?ioaineaiino? ciiooaaiiy,
ui iaaeeaea?oueny aei oaeiai, ye ? i?e ae?? aaciaiai na?aaeiaeua. I?e
oeueiio i?aeaeuaiiy oaeaeeino? iioieo iia?o?y aei 0,4I nii/aoeo aeeeeea?
ciaioaiiy ?ioaineaiino? ciiooaaiiy, a iio?i ?? ca?eueoaiiy. Iiaeeeai, ui
a ii/aoeiaee ia??iae i?aaaeththoue i?ioeane ieenethaaiiy ? ooai?aiiy
caoeniiai i?ioa?eo. C i?aeaeuaiiyi oaeaeeino? iia?o?yiiai iioieo
e?euee?noue eenith, yeee iiaea?oueny a ciio eiioaeoo, oaeiae
i?aeaeuo?oueny, oiaueia ieneaeiiai i?ioa?eo ca?eueoo?oueny, i?e oeueiio
eiai oiaueia c?inoa? oaeaeoa i?ae a?i ciioo?oueny. Aiane?aeie
a?aeaoaa?oueny ne?eoeeaiiy oa a?aeoa?iaoaaiiy ciai?oi?o e?eoeeo
i?ioa?e?a. ?acoeueoaoii ? noiieaiiy ae?eyiie iiaa?oi? ? ia?aianaiiy
iaoaeo, a oaeiae eiai ieenethaaiiy. Ii?yae c oeei ia? i?noea ca?aei?iiy
iiaa?oiaaiai i?ioa?eo eaaoth/eie aeaiaioaie ca ?aooiie ?oiueiai
ieenethaaiiy a ?acoeueoao? aeeooc?? eenith, a oaeiae ci?ia ii?oieia?? (
/-oace, ?? ceeooy ? aeoyaoaaiiy.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue ciinino?eeino? aea?ii?oeieo nieaa?a o
??ciiiai?oiiio ii?aeiaii? oiia aeeiai?/iiai neeiaiai ? oaieiaiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy (?en. 11) iieaco?, ui iaea?eueoee aianie o
iioeiaeaeoaai?noue iaoa??ae?a aiinyoue oaeoi?e, i?e yeeo
?ioaineo?eothoueny i?ioeane noiieaiiy e yaeua, aeanoea? eiioaeoi?e
oa?iiaoiieaiino?.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy eiino?oeoi?nueei
– oaoiieia?/ieo oaeoi??a ia ciinino?ee?noue aeaoaeae, a oaeiae
cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue ciiooaaiiy aea?ii?oeieo nieaa?a a aeno?aiaeueieo
oiiaao, ui iiaea aooe iiaeaia ye ?oeioaaiiy aiane?aeie aoiieaiino?
iiaa?oiaaiai i?ioa?eo. I?aenoaaith aeey oaeiai oaa?aeaeaiiy ?
aeeiai?/iee oa?aeoa? iaaaioaaeaiiy a eiioaeo?, oeeee?/ia ci?ia
iai?oaeaiiai noaio a i?eiiaa?oiaa?e cii?, aeene?aoiee oa?aeoa? ci?ie
?ioaineaiino? ciiooaaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae e?eueeino? oeeee?a
iaaaioaaeaiiy, iiae?ai?noue o?aeoia?ai iiaa?oiiue neieo eieaeueii?
/anoeiee ciino ? ceii?a i?e aoiieaiino?. Oeae i?ioean ?i?oe?th?oueny
aeae?eaiiyi ? eiaaoeyoe??th ?ioa?iaoae?aeii? ( /-oace oeio Ni3(Al, Ti).
I?e oeueiio, oiia?eueithaa/ai i?ioeano ciiooaaiiy aenooia? caoeniee
i?ioa?ie, yeee neeaaea?oueny c eiiaeiia?aoo ieneae?a ? /anoeiai
ieeneaieo ? ou?eueiaieo i?iaeoeo?a ciiooaaiiy. C o?aooaaiiyi aieeao ia
o?eaieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoa??ae?a o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
iiaa?oiaaiai i?ioa?eo, aaee/ei iaaaioaaeoaaeueieo ia?aiao??a,
aaeaac?eieo yaeu o cii? eiioaeoo, ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy iiaea aooe
aecia/aia c caeaaeiino?:

,

aea A – aiie?ooaea aca?iiiai ia?ai?uaiiy eiioaeoieo iiaa?oiiue;

Poae – ieoiiee oene o eiioaeo?;

(0 – oiaueia ieneaeii? ie?aee;

L – oeyo oa?oy;

n – /enei oeeee?a iaaaioaaeaiiy;

(aaea – i?oei?noue c/aieaiiy ie?aee c iniiaiei iaoaeii;

V0 – oaeaee?noue ooai?aiiy ieneaeii? ie?aee;

Veci – oaeaee?noue ciiooaaiiy ieneaeii? ie?aee;

I – i?e?ioaa?ae?noue iiaa?oi?;

H / — i?e?ioaa?ae?noue iniiaiiai iaoaeo;

B0, B1, ( – eiinoaioe, ui caeaaeaoue a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ?iai/iai
na?aaeiaeua;

E, N – iino?ei?, ui caeaaeaoue a?ae oaeaeeino? eiioaeoii? aca?iiae??
iiaa?oiiue.

I?iaaaeaieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie caeiiii??iinoae ciiooaaiiy aea?ii?oeieo
nieaa?a ? ?yaeo ciinino?eeeo iie?eoo?a ioe?iai? iiaeeeaino? i?aeaeuaiiy
ciinino?eeino? aeaoaeae aa?y/i? /anoeie AOAe.

Oae? iiaeeeaino? aeieeaathoue c:

— aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao oa?aeoa?o c’?aeiaiiy ia ciinino?ee?noue
o?eaiaoce?a (cie?aia aaiaeaaeieo iieeoeue ?iai/eo eiiaoie AOAe), yeee
aecia/a?oueny /a?ac oene o eiioaeo?. Aeyaeoe naaa oene iiaea aeaiyei: c
iaeiiai aieo i?aeaeuaiiy oeneo aeeeeea? ca?eueoaiiy ciino, c ae?oaiai –
i?aeaeuaiiy oeneo (iaoyao) ciaioo? aiie?ooaeo ni?aoaea??a ? aiie?ooaeo
i?ineiacoaaiiy, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy ciino. C aiae?co
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao oa?aeoa?o c’?aeiaiiy ia ciiooaaiiy
iaoa??ae?a (oaae. 2) aeyaey?oueny aeioe?eueiei aeae?eaiiy /ioe?ueio
ia??iae?a a ?ioaineaiino? ciiooaaiiy. Ia?oee ia??iae aecia/a?oueny
iaeneiaeueiith ?ioaineai?noth ciiooaaiiy ? coiiaeaiee caci?ii a
c’?aeiaii?. A oeueiio ?ac? ia? i?noea iaeiaaeaaii?e?ii?oee ?aaeei
?iaioe, yeee aeeeeea?oueny ni?aoaea?aie aca?iiae?th/eo iiaa?oiiue c
?oi?i ianooiiei i?ineiacoaaiiyi. C? ca?eueoaiiyi caci?o i?aeaeuo?oueny
aeeiai?/ia neeaaeiaa iaaaioaaeaiiy, yea noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny c?inoaiiyi
aiie?ooaee eieeaaiue. Noi?nia aca?iiae?y oaeeo oaeoi??a, ye aiie?ooaea ?
iaaaioaaeaiiy ? aecia/athoue iaeneiaeueio ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy. A
ae?oaiio ia??iae?, eio?ee ? ia?ao?aeiei a?ae caci?o aei iaoyao, ??aaiue
aiie?ooaee iaeneiaeueieo iai?oa cieaeo?oueny aei naiai iaeiaioiai
cia/aiiy ? i?e iaeiaioiio iaoyc? oi?ia eieeaaiue, yea iia’yco?oueny c
eieeaaiiyie a ieiuei? iaeiaioi? aei?noeino?, iiai?noth caaeaiioiaaia. C?
ca?eueoaiiyi iaoyao (III ia??iae) ca?eueoo?oueny noaoe/ia neeaaeiaa
iaaaioaaeaiiy ? ciaioo?oueny aiie?ooaea i?ineiacoaaiiy, ye? aeeeeeathoue
i?aeaeuaiiy ciino, iaeiae iaio ?ioaineaia, i?ae a ia?oiio ia??iae?.
Iiaeaeueoa ca?eueoaiiy iaoyao (IV ia??iae) iaeaea iiai?noth iiaeaaey?
ae?th aiie?ooaee i?ineiacoaaiiy, ui ni?ey? cieaeaiith ?ioaineaiino?
ciiooaaiiy. I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeathoue ciiao noai?thaaoe
iioeiaeuei? oiiae iaaaioaaeoaaiiy a eiioaeo?, ui iiaea aooe aeinyaiooa
oeyoii iioei?caoe?? oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a neeaaeaiiy (e?eoa???i
iioei?caoe?? ? iaoya);

Oaaeeoey 2

?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy nieaao AEN6O i?e ??ciiio oa?aeoa?? c’?aeiaiiy

Ia??iae

Oa?aeoa? c’?aeiaiiy Aaee/eia caci?o aai iaoyao, ii ?ioaineai?noue
ciiooaaiiy, ii3/oeeee

I caci? 0 – 0,1 0,82 – 1,35

II iaoya 0,2 – 0,45 0,1 – 0,12

III iaoya 0,45 – 0,65 0,12 – 0,83

IV iaoya 0,65 – 0,9 0,83 – 0,22

— aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ci?oeiaiiy iaoiaeaie iiaa?oiaaiai ieanoe/iiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy ia ciiooaaiiy iaoa??ae?a ca aeno?aiaeueieo oiia. Iaeiae,
ye iieacaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, aoaeo a?ae ci?oeiaiiy, ui ia? i?noea i?e
ii?iaeueieo oaiia?aoo?ao, ca oiia i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo? ia aeyaey?oueny
aiane?aeie aeeooc?eii? ?ooeeaino? aoii?a i?e aeaoi?iaoe?eiiio ci?oeiaii?
? ?aeaenaoe?? oaoiieia?/ieo caeeoeiaeo iai?oa noeneo;

— aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ciinino?eeeo iie?eoo?a ia ciiooaaiiy aeaoaeae.
Ci?oeiaiiy iiaa?oiiue oa?oy ciinino?eeeie iie?eooyie ? iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaiei a oiiaao aeeiai?ee iaaaioaaeaiiy i?e i?aeaeuaieo
oaiia?aoo?ao. I?e oeueiio aecia/aeueiei oaeoi?ii, ui aieeaa? ia ii??
ciiooaaiith, ? no?oeoo?a iaoa??aeo. O aea?ii?oeieo nieaaao, ui
aeenia?n?eii oaa?ae?thoue, ciinino?ee?noue aecia/a?oueny e?euee?niei
neeaaeii ci?oeithth/i? ?ioa?iaoae?aeii? ( /-oace a ieo (aeea. oaae. 3).
I?ioa iaa?oue i?e iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaiio ai?no? ?? ciin caeeoa?oueny
aenieei ca aaniethoiith aaee/eiith, ui ia caaeiaieueiy? aeiiaai
aeiaaia?/iino? aeaoaeae. Ie??i oiai, ci?oeithth/a ( /-oaca ia ?
noaa?eueiith ? ni?iiiaeia eiaaoethaaoe a i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe??. Ioaea,
aeenia?n?eiee iaoai?ci ci?oeiaiiy nieaa?a aeey oe?eae i?aeaeuaiiy
ciinino?eeino? a oiiaao aeeiai?ee iaaaioaaeaiiy iaaeinoaoiuei
aoaeoeaiee. A?eueo aenieith ciinino?ee?noth aieiae?thoue no?oeoo?e c
ea?eaniei oeiii ci?oeiaiiy (ieanoe/ia iao?eoey, a?iiaaia ea?eanii ?c
aenieii?oeieo ooaiieaaeeo c’?aeiaiue). Ciin aaoaeoe/iiai nieaao nenoaie
12O18ITHO – OiB2 – CrB2 ?c oaeei oeiii ci?oeiaiiy ia ii?yaeie iaioee,
i?ae o nieaa?a ?c aeenia?n?eiei iaoai?ciii ci?oeiaiiy AEN6E ? OI77OTH?.
Iiae?aiee oei ci?oeiaiiy ?aae?ciaaiee o nieaaao nenoaie Co-TiC-Nb ?c
caaaoaeoe/iith no?oeoo?ith OOI-37 ? OOI-61 (?ic?iaea aeeiiaia ?acii c
ni?a?ia?oieeaie eaai?aoi??? oaciaeo ??aiiaaa ?inoeoooo iaoaeio?ceee AI
Oe?a?ie), ye? iathoue ciinino?ee?noue o 4-6 ?ac?a aeua a ii??aiyii? c?
nieaaii AAEE-2, ui na??eii canoiniao?oueny ye ci?oeithth/ee iaoa??ae
aeey aaiaeaaeieo iieeoeue ?iai/eo eiiaoie aa?aoe?eieo AOAe.

Oaaeeoey 3

Ciin aea?ii?oeieo nieaa?a o caeaaeiino? a?ae ai?noo ( /-oace

(toe=20(7000C; ?oae=27IIa; n=0,5. 106oeeee.)

Nieaa E?euee?noue ( / — oace, % Ciin, ii

OI62IAETH 9

15

27 0,165

0,135

0,112

AEN6E 37

44 0,098

0,100

O oinoiio ?icae?e? ia i?eeeaae? aaiaeaaeieo iieeoeue ?iai/eo eiiaoie
oo?a?ie AOAe ?icaeyioo? ieoaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy i?aoeacaeaoiino?
o?eaic’?aeiaiue oeyoii aaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioean?a neeaaeaiiy aeaoaeae ?
a?aeiiaeaiiy ciioaieo iiaa?oiiue. Ciinino?ee?noue ii?aeiaieo iiaa?oiiue
iiaea aooe ca?eueoaia oeyoii oe?eueiaiai oi?ioaaiiy oiia ?iaioe a
eiioaeo? (iaaaioaaeaiiy, aiie?ooaea aca?iiiai ia?ai?uaiiy). Oae,
noai?aiiy iioeiaeueiiai iaoyao i?ae aaiaeaaeieie iieeoeyie a ia??
eiiaoie (aei 0,45ii) aeicaiey? onoiooe eiiaoee c i?aeaeuaiei ciinii (25
– 27%) ? cieceoe a?a?iiai?oaeai?noue ?o iaeaea aaea?/? o 20% ia?
eiiaoie.

O ?acoeueoao? oaoiieia?/ieo aenia?eiaio?a ?c canoinoaaiiyi iaoiaeeee ?o
ieaioaaiiy iaea?aeaia caeaaei?noue e?i?eiiai ciino a?ae ia?aiao??a
i?ioeano a?aeiiaeaiiy iaieaaeaiiyi (iiaiiii? aia?a??, eooa iaoeeo
iaeueieea, e?eueeino? ia?a?a) iioeiaeaeaieo iiaa?oiiue aeaoaeae aa?y/i?
/anoeie AOO. Iioei?caoe?y i?ioeano a?aeiiaeaiiy ca e?eoa???i
ciinino?eeino? c o?aooaaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a eiiieaeniiai aiae?co yeino?
iaieaaeaieo i?ioa?e?a (ca oaeeie ia?aiao?aie ye iai?iaa?e, o??ueie,
i?e?ioaa?ae?noue, a?aeiiniee ai?no iniiaieo oac, aeiaaia?/i?noue i?e
oa?iioeeeeoaaii?, iai?oaeaiee noai) aeicaieeee aecia/eoe iaea?eueo
ni?eyoeea? ?aaeeie iaieaaeaiiy, i?e aeo?eiaii? eio?eo ciaioo?oueny
aeenia?n?y ciino ia 18 – 20%.

Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue oaeineiiaeai? oaoiieia?/i?
i?ioeane neeaaeaiiy oa a?aeiiaeaiiy ?iai/eo eiiaoie oo?a?i aa?aoe?eieo
aeaeaoi?a, ye? ia?aaeai? ?yaeo i?aei?e?inoa aeey canoinoaaiiy.

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE ? AENIIAEE

Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aeiaaia?/iino? o?eaic’?aeiaiue, ui aenieoaoothoueny a
aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao, aecia/ai? caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino? oa?oy ?
ciiooaaiiy, ia i?aenoaa? yeeo i?iaaaeaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii o ae?iaieoeoai
?yae iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo, ?ic?aooieiai-oai?aoe/ieo ?
eiino?oeoi?nueei-oaoiieia?/ieo ?ia?o, ui iathoue iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie ?iaioe iiaeia c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee:

1. No/aniee noai aeine?aeaeaiue ciiooaaiiy iaoa??ae?a a iniaeeai
neeaaeieo oiiaao iaoai?/iiai, oaieiaiai e o?i?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui
iinyoue aeeiai?/iee oa?aeoa?, ia aeicaieythoue c aeinoaoi?i nooiaiai
aeinoia??iino? aea?aoe (aai ?ic?iaeoe) o? aai ?io?
eiino?oeoi?nueei-oaoiieia?/i? caoiaee, ni?yiiaai? ia i?aeaeuaiiy
ciinino?eeino? aeaoaeae o?eaic’?aeiaiue. Iaiiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy
?acoeueoao?a iiia?aaei?o aeine?aeaeaiue iia’ycaia c oei, ui aiie
i?iaaaeai? aai a oiiaao ii?iaeueieo oaiia?aoo?, aai i?e
iaeiiiai?yieaiiio /e ?aaa?neaiiio oa?o? (aac ?ic??aaiiy eiioaeoo) ? ia
a?aoiaothoue aeeiai?/iee oa?aeoa? eiioaeoiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy,
ii?iaeueiiai aei iiaa?oi? oa?oy. E??i oiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?oioothoueny
ia ?icae?eueiiio aea/aii? aieeao iaeiiai aai ae?ae iaiaaeaiiai /enea
oaeoi??a aac o?aooaaiiy ?oiuei? aca?iiae??.

2. Aecia/aii iniaeeaino? aoce?a oa?oy aa?y/i? /anoeie AOO, yeeie ? ?oiy
eiino?oeoe?y, e?iaiaoeea aca?iiiai ia?ai?uaiiy iiaa?oiiue, ui
eiioaeoothoue, oiiae ?iaioe, ui aeeth/athoue aenie? oeeee?/ii i?ieea?
oaiia?aoo?e (aei 1000iN), oa?aeoa? ciai?oi?o iaaaioaaeaiue (iayai?noue
oaea?o c ianooiiei i?ineiacoaaiiyi), a?ic?eii-ei?ic?eiee aieea
oaeaee?niiai aaciaiai iioieo. O iaea?eueo aei?noeeo oiiaao iaaaioaaeaiiy
ciaoiaeyoueny aaiaeaaei? iieeoe? ?iai/eo eiiaoie oo?a?i, ciin yeeo
cia/ii ciaioo? ?ano?n eiiaoee ? iiaea i?ecaanoe aei a?aeiiae aeaeaoia a
oe?eiio.

3. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeee ? eiiieaen onoaoeoaaiiy aeey aei?iaoaaiue, ui
aeicaieythoue aeine?aeaeoaaoe i?ioeane oa?oy ? ciiooaaiiy iaoa??ae?a a
oiiaao: aaciaiai na?aaeiaeua; aeeiai?ee iaaaioaaeaiiy a oe?ieiio
ae?aiacii? eiioaeoieo oene?a (?oae – aei 100IIa), aiie?ooae (Ae=0,1 –
2,25ii), oaiia?aoo? (20 – 1000iN) ye iino?eieo, oae ? oeeee?/ii
i?ieeaeo; i?e i?ia?aiiaai?e ci?i? ia?a?aoiaaieo iaaaioaaeoaaeueieo
ia?aiao??a.

4. Anoaiiaeaii caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino? oa?oy ? ciiooaaiiy i?e
aeeiai?/iiio iaaaioaaeaii?, aenieeo oaiia?aoo? oa aaciiia?o?yiiio
na?aaeiaeu?. Cie?aia iieacaii, ui:

— oaiia?aoo?a iiaa?oiiue, ui eiioaeoothoue aieeaa? ia aaniethoiee ?ici??
ciino, ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy ? eiao?oe??io oa?oy iaea?eueo ?noioii
?, ye i?aaeei, i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?o ciaioaiiy. I?e oeueiio ia? i?noea
e?eoe/ia oaiia?aoo?a ia?aoiaeo a?ae ?ioaineaiiai cieaeaiiy aei
iii??iiai;

— ii?? ciiooaaiith aea?ii?oeieo aeenia?n?eii-ci?oeiaieo nieaa?a, a
oaeiae oa?aeoa? ci?ie eiao?oe??ioa oa?oy a iniiaiiio aecia/a?oueny
oiiaaie ooai?aiiy ? ?oeioaaiiy caoeniiai iiaa?oiaaiai i?ioa?eo, ui ?
?acoeueoaoii ieenethaaiiy iiaa?oi? c ianooiiei iaoai?/iei ou?eueiaiiyi
i?iaeoeo?a ciiooaaiiy e ieneae?a;

— a oiiaao oa?iioeeeeoaaiiy aaee/eia ciino iaeaea ia ii?yaeie ia?aaeuo?
ciin i?e iino?ei?e oaiia?aoo??, ??ai?e iaeneiaeuei?e oaiia?aoo?? oeeeeo,
ui iaoiiaeaii /a?aoaaiiyi aeaio iniiaieo i?ioean?a o ia?aa?a iaeiiai
oa?iioeeeeo: aoiieaiino? – i?e oaiia?aoo?ao ieae/a oaiia?aoo? ia?aoiaeo
a?ae neeueiiai ciino aei neaaeiai e ieenethaaeueiiai – i?e oaiia?aoo?ao
aeua oaiia?aoo? ia?aoiaeo;

— a oiiaao aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai aaciaiai na?aaeiaeua iaea?eueo ?noioiee
aieea ia ciinino?ee?noue ia? a?ic?eia ae?y aaciaiai iioieo aiane?aeie
?ioaineo?eaoe?? ieenethaaeueieo i?ioean?a ?c ca?eueoaiiyi oaeaeeino?
iioieo, a oaeiae iieaaoaiiy aeiino i?iaeoeo?a ciiooaaiiy c ciie
eiioaeoo;

— iniiaiei iaoai?ciii ciiooaaiiy aea?ii?oeieo iaoa??ae?a ? ?oeioaaiiy
eieaeueieo ia’?i?a iiaa?oiaaiai i?ioa?eo a?ae aoiieaiino?, yea
?i?oe?th?oueny ci?iith ii?oieia?? ci?oeithth/i? ?ioa?iaoae?aeii? (
/-oace. Ca oaiia?aoo?, ui ia?aaeuothoue e?eoe/i?, i?aaaethth/ei
iaoai?ciii ? ieenethaaeueiee, yeee noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny c? ca?eueoaiiyi
aiie?ooaee i?ineiacoaaiiy noiieaiiyi iaoa??ae?a oa ?o aaaaoi?aciaei
ia?aianaiiyi c iaei??? iiaa?oi? ia ?ioo. Ia?aianai? ia’?ie iaoa??aeo
?oeiothoueny aiane?aeie iaeioeeeeiai? aoiieaiino?.

5. ?ic?iaeaia c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeo a?oiiaiai o?aooaaiiy a?aoiaio?a
iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue, ui a?aoiao? aieea aiie?ooaee ia?ai?uaiue, oeneo a
eiioaeo? ? oaiia?aoo?e ia ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy aea?ii?oeieo
nieaa?a, yea aeicaiey? ioe?ieoe aca?iiaieea iaaaioaaeoaaeueieo
ia?aiao??a ? aeyaeoe iaea?eueo iaaacia/i? ae?aiaciie ?oi?o ii?aeiaiue.

6. Noi?ioeueiaaii iniiai? i?eioeeie ? e?eoa??? iiaeaethaaiiy
aea?aaeaioieo noai?a o?eaieia?/ieo ia?, ui aeeth/athoue o?eaieia?/i?,
iaoaeio?ce/i?, e?iaiaoe/i?, iaaaioaaeoaaeuei?, aaiiao?e/i? ?
o?ceei-iaoai?/i? e?eoa???.

7. Aenia?eiaioaeueieie ? oai?aoe/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui
i?e i?ia?aiiaai?e ci?i? ?aaeei?a iaaaioaaeaiiy:

— ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy i?e aei?iaoaaii? a oeeee? «ione – coieiea» o
na?aaeiueiio a 1,8 ?ace aeua, i?ae i?e aei?iaoaaiiyo ia ona?aaeiaieo
noaeeo ?aaeeiao;

— o?eaieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aei?iaoaaieo iaoa??ae?a a?eueo aeecuee?
aei io?eiaieo i?e aei?iaoaaiiyo ia iaoo?iiio aeaeaoi?. Nooi?iue
iaaeeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny /eneii a?aoiaaieo ci?i ia?aiao??a
iaaaioaaeaiiy (neeaaei?noth i?ia?aie);

— ?iceeae cia/aiue ?ioaineaiino? iaeaea ia ii?yaeie iaioa, i?ae i?e
aei?iaoaaiiyo ia iaoo?iiio aeaeaoi?.

8. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiae i?enei?aieo aei?iaoaaiue ciinino?eeino?
aea?ii?oeieo nieaa?a, canoinoaaiiy yeiai aeicaiey? ia ii?yaeie nei?ioeoe
o?eaae?noue aei?iaoaaiue ? a 16 – 22 ?ace ciaioeoe ?iceeae iaea?aeoaaieo
?acoeueoao?a o ii??aiyii? c o?eaaeeie noaiaeiaeie aea?aaeaioieie
aei?iaoaaiiyie oaoiieia?/ieo aeaeaoi?a.

9. Oaeineiiaeaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii o ae?iaieoeoai oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane
neeaaeaiiy oa a?aeiiaeaiiy ?iai/eo eiiaoie oo?a?ie aa?aoe?eieo
aacioo?a?iieo aeaeaoi?a.

10. Anoaiiaeaii ia i?aenoaa? eiiieaenieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui aeey oe?eae
i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? aea?ii?oeieo iaoa??ae?a a aeno?aiaeueieo
oiiaao aeenia?n?eiee iaoai?ci ci?oeiaiiy iaaeinoaoiuei aoaeoeaiee.
A?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei ? ea?eaniee oei ci?oeiaiiy.

11. ?ic?iaeai? e ai?iaaaeaeai? o ae?iaieoeoai nieaae ia Fe – iniia? c
ea?eaniei ci?oeiaiiyi iiaea?eieie ai?eaeaie o?iio ? oeoaio – OOI-23 ?
nieaa o aeaio iiaeeo?eaoe?yo ia iniia? eiaaeueoo (OOI-37,OOI-61),
i?ecia/aiee aeey iaiathaaiiy ia aaiaeaaei? iieeoe? eiiaoie AOAe, ui
ca?eueoothoue ?ano?n ?iaioe eiiaoie o 4 — 6 ?ac?a.

NIENIE IOAE?EAOe?E II AeENA?OAOe??

Iiiia?ao?y

1. Iiauoaiea ianouae niiniaiinoe aeaoaeae iaoei aeiaciui auaeaaeeaaieai
/ A.E. ssoeaiei, A.C. Caeoeaa, A.O. I?eo/aiei, E.E. Eauaiei – I.:
Iaoeiino?iaiea, 1985. – 232n.

Noaoo? a iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo

2. A.E. ssoeaiei, E.E. Eauaiei, A.O. I?eo/aiei, A.E. Aeeue/ae, A.A.
Ayeee. Aeeyiea aeiaciiai auaeaaeeaaiey ia eciininoieeinoue aeaoaeae
yia?aiiai?oaeiaaiey // O?aiea e eciin. 1984. o.5, ?6. – N.1025 – 1033.

3. E.E. Eauaiei, A.I. Eaeaoieeia, A.A. Ieeina?aeia. Eciininoieeinoue
iie?uoee a yeno?aiaeueiuo oneiaeyo // Caueoiua iie?uoey ia iaoaeeao,
1992. ?26. – N.86 – 89.

4. E.E. Eauaiei, TH.I.Aioeia. I caeiiiia?iinoyo eciaoeaaiey aea?ii?i/iuo
iaoa?eaeia i?e aeeiaie/aneii eiioaeoiii iaa?oaeaiee // ?acaiea e
eino?oiaio a oaoiieiae/aneeo nenoaiao. – Iaaeae. iao/i. – oaoi. nai?iee.
– Oa?ueeia: OAIO, 1995 – 1996, aui. 50. – N.90 – 96.

5. E.E. ?auaiei, A.A. Aiae???iei Iaoiae o?eaieia?/ieo aei?iaoaaiue ca
oiia oeeee?/iiai neeiaiai ? oaiia?aoo?iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy //
Iaoaeiciaanoai oa ia?iaea iaoae?a, 1996, ?3. – N.62 – 65.

6. E.E. Eauaiei. Eciaoeaaiea iaoa?eaeia a oneiaeyo oa?iioeeeee?iaaiey //
I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee, Iaoea ? ina?oa, 1997, ?15(27). – N.21
– 24.

7. E.E. Eauaiei, N.A. Naeniiia. Iiaeaee?iaaiea i?ioeannia eiioaeoiiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey aeaoaeae, ?aaioathueo a yeno?aiaeueiuo oneiaeyo // Iia?
iaoa??aee ? oaoiieia?? a iaoaeo?a?? oa iaoeiiaoaeoaaii?, 1997, ?1-2. –
N.102 – 104.

8. E.E. Eauaiei, E.E. Eiaaeaaa, N.A. Eai Iai?yaeaiiinoue iiaa?oiinoiiai
neiy eciaoeaathueony oae e iiaeaee?iaaiea eiioaeoiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey n
o/aoii aeeiaieee iaa?oaeaiey // O?oaeu VI Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee «Iaoeiino?iaiea e oaoiinoa?a ia ?oaaaea
XXI aaea», Aeiiaoee, o.1. – N.289 – 291.

9. E.E. Eauaiei. Enneaaeiaaiea o?eaieiae/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee
aea?ii?i/iuo iaoa?eaeia a oneiaeyo aeeiaie/aneiai iaa?oaeaiey. // Iia?
iaoa??aee ? oaoiieia?? a iaoaeo?a?? oa iaoeiiaoaeoaaii?, 1997, ?1-2. –
N.10 – 12.

10. E.E. Eauaiei, N.A. Eai. Onei?aiiua eniuoaiey eciininoieeinoe
aeaoaeae o?eainii?yaeaiee // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee, Iaoea ?
ina?oa, 1998, ?50(117). – N.7 – 12.

11. E.E. Eauaiei. Iniaaiiinoe eciaoeaaiey eiioaeoiuo iiaa?oiinoae a
ia`?aiaiiii oaiia?aoo?iii iiea e aaciauo n?aaeao // I?aoe? i?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “I?ia?aneaia oaoi?ea ? oaoiieia?y
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy ? caa?thaaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa”,
Ee?a, IOOO “EI?”, 1998, o.1. – N.100 – 103.

12. E.E. Eauaiei. Onoie/eainoue aea?ii?i/iuo iaoa?eaeia eiioaeoiiio
eciino a aaciaii iioiea // Problems of Tribology (I?iaeaiu o?eaieiaee).
1997, ?4(6). – N.108 – 110.

13. E.E. Eauaiei. Ioeaiea eciaoeaaiey eiioaeoiuo iiaa?oiinoae eiiaoie
oo?aeiu n o/aoii aeeiaieee iaa?oaeaiey // Problems of Tribology
(I?iaeaiu o?eaieiaee). 1997, ?1(3). – N.3 – 6.

14. E.E. Eauaiei. I?eioeeiu iiaeaee?iaaiey yeaeaaeaioiuo ninoiyiee
o?eainii?yaeaiee // Aenie? oaoiieia?? a iaoeiiaoaeoaaii?. Ca??iee
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue OAeIO, Oa?e?a, 1999. – Aei 1. – N.121 – 123.

15. E.E. Eauaiei. Eciaoeaaiea eiioaeoiuo iiaa?oiinoae eiiaoie AOO //
I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee, Iaoea ? ina?oa, 1998, ?79(146). –
N.41 – 45.

16. E.E. Eauaiei. I?ioeann ia?aciaaiey caueoiiai neiy i?e eciaoeaaiee
aea?ii?i/iuo nieaaia // Iia? iaoa??aee ? oaoiieia?? a iaoaeo?a?? oa
iaoeiiaoaeoaaii?, 1999, ?1. – N.30 – 31.

17. E.E. Eauaiei. Oneiaey oi?ie?iaaiey iia?aaeaeaiee eiioaeoiuo
iiaa?oiinoae aeaoaeae AOAe // Iia? iaoa??aee ? oaoiieia?? a iaoaeo?a??
oa iaoeiiaoaeoaaii?, 1998, ?2. – N.42 – 45.

18. E.E. Eauaiei, A.E. *a?iue. Iiaeaee?iaaiea eiioaeoiiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey a aaiaeaaeiuo iieeao eiiaoie AOAe // Iiaua
eiino?oeoeeiiiua iaoa?eaeu e yooaeoeaiua iaoiaeu eo iieo/aiey e
ia?aaioee. – E.: OIE AI, 1988. – N.114 – 118.

19. E.E. Eauaiei, A.I. Naciiia Oeieoiua iaoiaeu ia?aaioee
oieioieoaeueiuo iiaa?oiinoae e eo aeeyiea ia eciininoieeinoue // ?acaiea
e eino?oeaio. – Oa?ueeia, OAO, 1990, aui. 43. – N.93 – 96.

20. E.E. Eauaiei, A.I. Eaeaoieeia, I.A. Aiae?ae/aiei E iiaeaee
eciaoeaaiey aea?ii?i/iuo nieaaia i?e aeeiaie/aneii eiioaeoiii
acaeiiaeaenoaee. // Iiaua eiino?oeoeeiiiua noaee e nieaau e iaoiaeu eo
ia?aaioee aeey iiauoaiey iaaeaaeiinoe e aeieaiaa/iinoe ecaeaeee:
Iaoa?eaeu VI Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/i. – oaoie/. eiio. – Caii?iaeuea,
1995. – N.59.

21. A.E. Oo?ei, A.I. Aeieo?eaaa, O.N. *a?aiiaa, I.A. Aiae?ae/aiei, A.I.
Eaeaoieeia, E.E. Eauaiei ?ac?aaioea aunieioaiia?aoo?iiai eciininoieeiai
nieaaa aeey oi?i/iaiey aaiaeaaeiuo iieie eiiaoie AOAe // Iiaua
eiino?oeoeeiiiua noaee e nieaau e iaoiaeu eo ia?aaioee aeey iiauoaiey
iaaeaaeiinoe e aeieaiaa/iinoe ecaeaeee: Oac. aeiee. V Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
iao/i. – oaoie/. eiio. – Caii?iaeuea, 1992. – N.41 — 42.

22. A.E. Oo?ei, E.E. Eauaiei, A.A. Iaia?ei I auai?a eciininoieeeo
iaoa?eaeia aeey ?aaiou a yeno?aiaeueiuo oneiaeyo // Iiaua
eiino?oeoeeiiiua noaee e nieaau e iaoiaeu eo ia?aaioee aeey iiauoaiey
iaaeaaeiinoe e aeieaiaa/iinoe ecaeaeee: Oac. aeiee. II Ananithci. iao/i.
– oaoie/. eiio. – Caii?iaeuea, 1983. – N.165 – 166.

23. E.E. Eauaiei Eciininoieeinoue aea?ii?i/iuo nieaaia i?e aeeiaie/aneii
eiioaeoiii iaa?oaeaiee // Iiaua eiino?oeoeeiiiua noaee e nieaau e
iaoiaeu eo ia?aaioee aeey iiauoaiey iaaeaaeiinoe e aeieaiaa/iinoe
ecaeaeee: Oac. aeiee. Ananithci. iao/i. – oaoie/. eiio. – Caii?iaeuea,
1980. – N.154.

24. A.E. Nieiaaeeeia, E.E. Eauaiei, I.N. Eoeaaei Enneaaeiaaiea iaoiaea
?aaoee?iaaiey oa?aeoa?enoee ?aaioiniiniaiinoe iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy
aeaoaeae // ?acia?iue aiaeec e noaoenoe/aneea iaoiaeu ?aaoee?iaaiey
oi/iuo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia: Iaoa?eaeu ?anioaeee. iao/i. — oaoi.
eiio. – Caii?iaeuea, 1981. – N.132 – 134.

25. E.E.Eauaiei Eciininoieeinoue aea?ii?i/iuo iaoa?eaeia a oneiaeyo
aea?ioaea?iiai iaa?oaeaiey // ?acaiea e eino?oiaio a oaoiieiae/aneeo
nenoaiao – Iaaeae. iao/i.-oaoi. nai?iee – Oa?ueeia, OAIO, 1999, ?53, —
N.60 – 65.

Aaoi?nuee? iina?ae/aiiy ia aeiaoiaee oa iaoaioe

26. A. n. ?847157 NNN? G01N3/56 Onoaiiaea aeey enneaaeiaaiey o?aiey //
E.E. Eauaiei, I.I. Aieaai (NNN?). – ?2534822/25-28;Cayaeaii 13.10.77;
Iioae. 15.07.81, Athe. ?26.

27. A. n. ?647458 Nieaa ia iniiaa aeaeaca // A.E. Oo?ei, A.A. Iaia?ei,
E.E. Eauaiei, A.N. Iiiia (NNN?). – ?2580991/22-02; Cayaeaii 10.02.78.
Iioaeee. a ioe?uoie ia/aoe ia iiaeeaaeeo.

28. Iaoaio Oe?a?ie. I?eno??e aeey aei?iaoaaiiy iaoa??ae?a ia ciiooaaiiy
// E.E. ?auaiei, A.A. Aiae???iei, I.N. THae?i, A.I. ?aeaa. Cayae.
28.06.93, iioae. 25.12.97, Athe. ?6.

29. Nieaa ia iniia? eiaaeueoa. Iaoaio Oe?a?ie UA 8240 N22N19/07 // A.E.
Oo?ei, A.I. Aeieo?eaaa, O.N. *a?aiiaa, I.A. Aiae?ae/aiei, E.E. ?auaiei.
Cayae. 04.11.93, iioae. 29.03.96, Athe. ?1.

Aiioaoe??

?auaiei E.E. I?ioeane eiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? a o?eaic’?aeiaiiyo ?
ciinino?ee?noue aea?ii?oeieo nieaa?a a aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.02.04. – oa?oy ? ciiooaaiiy a iaoeiao. –
Oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao Iiae?eey, i. Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? aeaoaeae
aa?y/i? /anoeie aacioo?a?iieo onoaiiaie. Aeine?aeaeai? iniaeeaino?
eiino?oeoe?? o?eaic’?aeiaiue ? e?iaiaoeee ?o eiioaeoii? aca?iiae??.
Iieacaii niaoeeo?eo oiia ?oiuei? ?iaioe, ui iieyaa? o aenieeo oeeee?/ii
i?ieeaeo oaiia?aoo?ao, aeeiai?/iiio oa?aeoa?? iaaaioaaeaiue (i?e
iayaiino? oaea?o c i?ineiacoaaiiyi), a?ic?eii-ei?ic?eii? ae?? aaciaiai
iioieo. ?ic?iaeaii eiiieaen iaoiaeee ? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai onoaoeoaaiiy,
ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo anoaiiaeai? caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino? oa?oy ?
ciiooaaiiy. Aeine?aeaeai? no?oeoo?a ? aeanoeaino? iiaa?oiaaiai i?ioa?eo
?yaeo aea?ii?oeieo nieaa?a. Noi?ioeueiaaii iniiai? i?eioeeie
iiaeaethaaiiy aea?aaeaioieo noai?a o?eaic’?aeiaiue, ui aenieoaoothoueny
a aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao. Aeine?aeaeaia ciinino?ee?noue iaoa??ae?a i?e
i?ia?aiiaai?e ci?i? ?aaeei?a iaaaioaaeaiiy. Io?eiaii iaoaiaoe/io
caeaaei?noue ?ioaineaiino? ciiooaaiiy a?ae iaaaioaaeoaaeueieo
ia?aiao??a. ?ic?iaeai? iaoiae i?enei?aieo aei?iaoaaiue ? ciinino?ee?
iaoa??aee, oaeineiiaeai? oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane a?aeiiaeaiiy ciioaieo
aeaoaeae oa ?o neeaaeaiiy. ?ic?iaee cieceee aeo?aoo iaeeaa i?e
aei?iaoaaiiyo oaoiieia?/ieo aeaeaoi?a, i?aeaeueee ?ano?n ?oiuei? ?iaioe.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oa?oy, ciin, aeaeaoie, aeno?aiaeuei? oiiae,
iiaeaethaaiiy, o?eaieia?/i? i?ioeane, eiiaoee oo?a?ie, aea?ii?oei?
iaoa??aee.

Eauaiei E.E. I?ioeannu eiioaeoiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey a o?eainii?yaeaieyo e
eciininoieeinoue aea?ii?i/iuo nieaaia a yeno?aiaeueiuo oneiaeyo. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.02.04. – o?aiea e eciaoeaaiea a iaoeiao. –
Oaoiieiae/aneee oieaa?neoao Iiaeieuey, a. Oiaeueieoeeee, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaia iiauoaiey eciininoieeinoe aeaoaeae
ai?y/ae /anoe aacioo?aeiiuo onoaiiaie (ia i?eia?a aaiaeaaeiuo iieie
?aai/eo eiiaoie oo?aeiu). Enneaaeiaaiu iniaaiiinoe eiino?oeoeee
o?eainii?yaeaiee e eeiaiaoeee eo eiioaeoiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey. Iieacaia
niaoeeoeea oneiaee ?aaiou, caeeth/athuayny a aunieeo (aei 1000iN)
oeeeee/anee iaiythueony oaiia?aoo?ao (nei?inoue iaa?aaa iiaeao
aeinoeaaoue 250iN/n), aeeiaie/aneii oa?aeoa?a i?eeiaeaiey iaa?ocie (i?e
iaee/ee iaeaieaa aeanoeiai aeaea eiioaeoiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey – oaea?a n
i?ineaeuecuaaieai), y?iceiiii-ei??iceiiiii aicaeaenoaee aaciaiai iioiea,
ninoiyuaai ec i?iaeoeoia nai?aiey oiieeaa. Iieacaii, /oi eciin
eiioaeoiuo iiaa?oiinoae nouanoaaiii aeeyao ia nieaeaiea oa?aeoa?enoee
aeieaiaa/iinoe aeaoaeae AOAe, /oi iiaeao i?eaanoe e ioeaco ecaeaeey.
?ac?aaioai eiiieaen iaoiaeee e yenia?eiaioaeueiiai iai?oaeiaaiey,
iicaieythuea enneaaeiaaoue o?eaieiae/aneea i?ioeannu, eae i?e
?acaeaeueiii aeeyiee iaa?oci/iuo ia?aiao?ia, oae e i?e eo
acaeiiaeaenoaee. Onoaiiaeaiu iauea caeiiiia?iinoe o?aiey e eciaoeaaiey
aea?ii?i/iuo nieaaia a oneiaeyo aeeiaieee iaa?oaeaiey i?e:
acaeiiaeaenoaee iiaa?oiinoae n i?eeiaeaieai noaoe/aneie iaa?ocee,
ii?iaeueiie e iiaa?oiinoe o?aiey, e inoeeeee?othuai oaiaaioeeaeueiui
ia?aiauaieai aac ?ac?uaa eiioaeoa; acaeiiaeaenoaee i?e oaea?a;
acaeiiaeaenoaee i?e oaea?a n i?ineaeuecuaaieai. Iieacaii, /oi a oneiaeyo
acaeiiaeaenoaey aac ?ac?uaa eiioaeoa i?ioeannu iiaeiaiu o?aooeiao. I?e
oaea?a oii?yaei/aiiay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue eioaineaiinoae eciaoeaaiey
aeey ?yaea iaoa?eaeia iaiyaony ia ia?aoioth ii n?aaiaieth n oneiaeyie
aac ?ac?uaa eiioaeoa. I?e acaeiiaeaenoaee a oneiaeyo oaea?a n
i?ineaeuecuaaieai: aaniethoiay aaee/eia eciina a n?aaeiai a 2,5 ?aca
auoa, /ai aac ?ac?uaa eiioaeoa, iineieueeo iai?yaeaiiia ninoiyiea
iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy iaeaieaa neiaeiia, nei?inoue naeaoey eieaeueiiai
iauaia iaeaieaa aunieay e ?aca?ocea eiioaeoa i?ienoiaeeo iieiinoueth, a
oaeaea ec-ca iaee/ey oneiaee aeey ?aneaeuaaiey e aeenia?ae?iaaiey
o?oieie oi?i/iythuae ea?aeaeiie oacu nieaaia; eiaao ianoi aeene?aoiue
oa?aeoa? eciaiaiey eciina a caaeneiinoe io /enea oeeeeia iaa?oaeaiey.
Enneaaeiaaiu no?oeoo?a e naienoaa iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy ?yaea aea?ii?i/iuo
nieaaia.

Aeeyiea iiauoaiiuo oaiia?aoo? ia i?ioeannu o?aiey e eciaoeaaiey a
oneiaeyo aeeiaieee iaa?oaeaiey i?iyaeyaony: a nieaeaiee aaniethoiuo
aaee/ei eioaineaiinoe eciaoeaaiey e eiyooeoeeaioa o?aiey (i?e yoii
eiaaony eioa?aae oaiia?aoo?, a eioi?ii nieaeaiea i?ienoiaeeo iaeaieaa
nouanoaaiii); a eciaiaiee ii?oieiaee ( /-oacu (aa neeyiee e
auoyaeaaiee); a eioaineoeeaoeee ieeneeoaeueiuo i?ioeannia,
niinianoaothueo ia?aciaaieth iiaa?oiinoiiai caueoiiai neiy. A oneiaeyo
oa?iioeeeee?iaaiey aaee/eia eciina ii/oe ia ii?yaeie i?aauoaao eciin i?e
iinoiyiiie oaiia?aoo?a, /oi iaoneiaeaii /a?aaeiaaieai aeaoo iniiaiuo
i?ioeannia a oa/aiea iaeiiai oa?iioeeeea: onoaeinoiiai – i?e
oaiia?aoo?ao ieaea oaiia?aoo? ia?aoiaea io eioaineaiiai eciina e
onoaiiaeaoaiony e ieeneeoaeueiiai – auoa oaiia?aoo? ia?aoiaea. A
oneiaeyo aunieioaiia?aoo?iie aaciaie n?aaeu iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiia
aeeyiea ia eciininoieeinoue ieacuaaao y?iceiiiia aicaeaenoaea aaciaiai
iioiea.

N eniieueciaaieai iaoiaea a?oiiiaiai o/aoa a?aoiaioia iieo/aia
iaoaiaoe/aneay caaeneiinoue eioaineaiinoe eciaoeaaiey io iaa?oci/iuo
ia?aiao?ia, iicaieythuay auyaeoue e ioeaieoue iaeaieaa iaaeaaii?eyoiua
ni/aoaiey iineaaeieo.

Ia iniiaaiee iieo/aiiuo caeiiiia?iinoae eciaoeaaiey aea?ii?i/iuo
nieaaia, eae a ?aaeueiuo, oae e eaai?aoi?iuo oneiaeyo i?aaeeiaeaiu
iniiaiua i?eioeeiu iiaeaee?iaaiey yeaeaaeaioiuo ninoiyiee
o?eainii?yaeaiee, eioi?ua aeeth/atho o?eaieiae/aneea, iaoaeeioece/aneea,
eeiaiaoe/aneea, iaa?oci/iua e oeceei-iaoaie/aneea e?eoa?ee. I?iaaaeaiu
enneaaeiaaiey eciininoieeinoe iaoa?eaeia i?e i?ia?aiie?oaiii eciaiaiee
ia?aiao?ia iaa?oaeaiey, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo onoaiiaeaii, /oi:
o?eaieiae/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee eniuoaiiuo iaoa?eaeia aieaa aeecee ii
naiei cia/aieyi e n?aaeianoaoenoe/aneei, /ai iieo/aiiua i?e
yeaeaaeaioiuo noaiaeiauo eniuoaieyo ia ?aaeueiii aeaeaaoaea; noaiaiue
i?eaeeaeaiey ii?aaeaeyaony eiee/anoaii o/eouaaaiuo niai ia?aiao?ia
(neiaeiinoueth i?ia?aiiu). I?iaaaeaiiua enneaaeiaaiey iieiaeaiu a iniiao
?ac?aaioee iaoiaea onei?aiiuo eniuoaiee.

Eiiieaeniuie enneaaeiaaieyie onoaiiaeaia aania?niaeoeaiinoue
aeenia?neiiiiai iaoaiecia oi?i/iaiey aea?ii?i/iuo iaoa?eaeia aeey oeaeae
iiauoaiey eo eciininoieeinoe. Aieaa yooaeoeaiui aeey ?aaiou a
yeno?aiaeueiuo oneiaeyo yaeyaony ea?eaniue oei oi?i/iaiey. N
eniieueciaaieai oaeiai oi?i/iaiey ?ac?aaioaiu eciininoieeea nieaau
OOI-23, OOI-37 e OOI-61, eioi?ua a 4 – 6 ?ac oaaee/eaatho ?ano?n ?aaiou
eiiaoie oo?aeiu. Ia aaca iniiaiuo caeiiiia?iinoae eciaoeaaiey iaoa?eaeia
oniaa?oainoaiaaiu oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu ainnoaiiaeaiey eciioaiiuo
iiaa?oiinoae e eo nai?ee. ?aaeecaoeey ?acoeueoaoia i?iaaaeaiiuo
enneaaeiaaiee iicaieeea nieceoue ?anoiae oiieeaa i?e eniuoaieyo
aeaeaaoaeae e iiauneoue ?ano?n eo ?aaiou.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: o?aiea, eciin, aeaeaaoaee, yeno?aiaeueiua oneiaey,
aea?ii?i/iua iaoa?eaeu, o?eaieiae/aneea i?ioeannu, eiiaoee oo?aeiu.

Ivchenko L.I. Process of contact interaction in triboconjugates and wear
resistance of heat resistant alloys in exhume conditions. Manuscript.

Dissertation for doctor’s degree by speciality 05.02.04 — friction and
wear in machines. – Technological University Podillya, Khmelnytsky,
1999.

Dissertation is devoted to improvement of wear resistance for components
in heat areas of gasturbine installations. Peculiarities of
triboconjugates design and kinematics of it’s contact interaction are
researched. Particulars of conditions of their operation in high cyclic
changing temperatures, dynamic character of loading (with impact slips)
erosion-corrosive effect of gas flow are shown.

Complex of techniques and experimental equipment is developed with the
help of which general regularities of friction and wear have been
ascertained. The structure and properties of surface layer of a number
heat resistant alloys has been researched. Basic principles of
simulation of equivalent conditions in tribocojugates, working in
extreme condition have been formulated. Wear resistance of materials
with programmed changing in loading duties has been researched.
Mathematical relationship of intensity of wearing to loading parameters
was received wear resistant materials and methods of accelerated testing
have been developed. Technological processes of restoration of worn —
out parts and their assembling have been improved. Research efforts
enabled to decrease fuel consumption when testing tehnological engines
and raised their service life.

Key words: friction, wear, engines, extreme conditions, simulation,
processes, turbine blades, heat-resistant materials.

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