EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

Nieieianueea ??eia Iao??aia

OAeE-330.32

I?IOeAN EAI?OAEIOAI?AIIss A O?AINOI?IAOe?EI?E AEIIII?Oe?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.01.01 — Aeiiii?/ia oai??y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo
iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aeiiii?/ii? oai??? Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aaceeaae/ A?eoi?
Aeieo?iae/,

Ee?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aiaaeueii-

aeiiii?/iee
oi?aa?neoao, i?i?aeoi?,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
aeiiii?/ii? oai???

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? I?eieaiei TH??e Aaneeueiae/,
Aeaaeai?y ioi?oeeiaeueiiai oi?aae?iiy, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeiiii?ee

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Ee?eeaiei Aieiaeeie? ?aaiiae/,
Ee?anueeee a?enueeiaee aoiai?oa?iee ?inoeooo, ia/aeueiee eaoaae?e
a?enueeiai? aeiiii?ee ? iaiaaeaeiaioo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

?inoeooo aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e o?iainiai-e?aaeeoiiai
?aaoethaaiiy, i.Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 8 aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.001.13 Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith:252022, i.Ee?a, aoe. Aaneeuee?anueea,
90-A, aoae.704.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252033, i.Ee?a,
aoe.Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58, e?i. 10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 8 aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee (i?aeien)
EAIIAIEI I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?ioean ?eieiaiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy
oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee aeiaaa? aeeaieiai oai?aoe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
?nioth/eo iae?i- oa i?e?iaeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai. Neooaoe?th, ui neeaeany ia
aeaiiio aoai? a iaoe?iiaeuei?e aeiiii?oe?, oa?aeoa?eco? noia?a/eeaa
ii?aeiaiiy iaaieo iiceoeaieo aeiiii?/ieo ci?i a iaeieo noa?ao oa
iiaeeaeaiiy aeano?oeoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e a ?ioeo. I?ney caaa?oaiiy
ia??iaeo ia?oeo ?ie?a ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe??, yeee noi?iaiaeaeoaaany
no??ieei iaae?iiyi ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa, iaaeaenieeie oaiiaie ?ioeyoe??,
a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie a?aeaoeeny aeaye? iiceoeai? ci?ie ia oeyoo
e?aa?ae?caoe?? ainiiaea?nueeeo a?aeiinei, ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy aeaniino?,
ii?iae?caoe?? a?ioiaiai ia?ao. Oea noai?eei ia’?eoeai? ia?aaeoiiae aeey
ia?aoiaeo aei iiaiai aoaio ?aoi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee,
iniiaiith iaoith yeiai iiaeiii noaoe oi?ioaaiiy iae?i- oa
i?e?iaeiiii?/ieo oiia aeey aeinyaiaiiy aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy.

Iaeiae, a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie i?iaeiaaeothoue iiaeeaethaaoenue i?ioeane,
ui no?eiothoue ?aae?caoe?th ia?aoiaeo aei iiai? o?a?eoi???
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo. Iaeaieiai?oith na?aae ?nioth/eo aeano?oeoeaieo
oaiaeaioe?e, ia iaoo aeoieo, ? a?aenooi?noue oiia aeey c?inoaiiy
aioo??oi?o caiuaaeaeaiue oa iecueea ?iaanoeoe?eia aeoeai?noue
noa’?eo?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Iiaeaeueoa iiaeeaeaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eii? e?ece,
a ye?e ia?aaoaa? aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie, iiaea iaoe iaea?eueo iaaaoeai?
aeiaaino?ieia? iane?aeee, ine?eueee /a?ac iino?eia nei?i/aiiy ii?ie
aaeiaiai iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy iniiaiiai eai?oaeo a no?oeoo?? noaoae
aeei?enoaiiy AAI a?aeaoaa?oueny ?oeiaoe?y iaoe?iiaeueiiai i?iieneiaiai
iioaioe?aeo. Oey aeano?oeoeaia oaiaeaioe?y iiai?noth ocaiaeaeo?oueny c
yaeuaie ui??/iiai iaae?iiy noeoiieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo aeo?ao, ye? i?ioyaii
1990-1998 ?.?. nei?ioeeeny ia 77,3 %. A iniia? oaeiai no??ieiai
cai?oaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? eaaeeoue i?iaeaia aino?i? ianoa/?
eai?oaeo a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie oa a?aenooiino? ni?eyoeeaeo oiia aeey eiai
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy. Oiio iaa?aeeeaaeiei caaaeaiiyi ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeiiii?ee ia no/aniiio aoai? ? oi?ioaaiiy iae?i- oa i?e?ina?aaeiaeua,
ni?eyoeeaiai aeey aeoea?caoe?? i?ioeano eai?oaeioai?aiiy, ui
ia?aaeaa/a? aeinyaiaiiy aca?iiocaiaeaeaiino? o?iainiaeo aeaea?ae
iaoe?iiaeueieo caiuaaeaeaiue c ?o ?iaanoeoe?eiith o?ainoi?iaoe??th.

Oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy nooiino? i?ioean?a caiuaaeaeaiiy oa
?iaanooaaiiy iathoue aeiaaio?eaaeo ?ao?iniaeoeao a ?icaeoeo na?oiai?
aeiiii?/ii? aeoiee. Aaaiiee aianie o c’ynoaaiiy i?e?iaee caiuaaeaeaiue
oa ?iaanoeoe?e, /eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia ?o ??aaiue, aoa c?iaeaiee
i?aaenoaaieeaie eeane/iiai iai?yieo (A. Ni?o, Ae. ??ea?aei, AE.-A.Nae),
iaieeaneeaie (E.A?enaeeue, A.Ia?oaee, ?.Nieio), a/aieie
?inoeoooe?iiaeueii? oeiee (Ae.Aianii), Aeae.I.Eaeinii oa eiai
iine?aeiaieeaie (?.Aeiia?ii, ?.Oa??iaeii, A.Oainaiii) oa ?i.

?ic?iaea i?iaeai i?aeaeuaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eii? aeoeaiino?, caeo/aiiy
aioo??oi?o oa ciai?oi?o aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy ciaoiaeeoue iino?eia
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a i?aoeyo a?o/eciyieo a/aieo. Na?aae ieo iaoeia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy iae?iaeiiii?/iiai ni?yioaaiiy A.Aaeoey, I.Aa?anei/oea,
A.Aoanueeiai, A.Eaanithea, ?.Eoe?iiaa, TH.Iaeiaiia, TH.I?eieaiea,
TH.Iaoiiiaa, A.Iaianthea, A.Ia?anaaee, A.Ooena, A.*a?iyea oa ?ioeo. A
ca’yceo ?c ni?eueieie oaiaeaioe?yie o ?icaeoeo iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo e?a?i
?ic?iaea ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c iiaeieaiiyi ?iaanoeoe?eii? e?ece,
ciaoiaeeoueny a oeaio?? oaaae a/aieo aeecueeiai ca?oa?aeaey. Na?aae ieo
i?aoe? ?.Aaeaoeueeiai, I.Aiaeyiiaa, N.Aeacue?aa, ss.Aeoaaiaoeueeiai,
A.Eoeeeiaa, I.?aneiaa, I.Iooaoae?iiai? oa ?ioeo.

Iaeiae, ia iao iiaeyae, ??aaiue oai?aoe/ii? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie
aeoea?caoe?? i?ioeano eai?oaeioai?aiiy ia aeaiiio aoai? ana ua ia a
iiai?e i??? a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai i?aeoeee. ?aae?? ?icaeoeo
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee aeiaaathoue iiaeaeueoiai iiaeeaeaiiy aiae?co
i?iaeai caiuaaeaeaiiy oa ?iaanooaaiiy. Ia nueiaiaei? a?aenooi?
oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? a ocaaaeueithaaee a?o/eciyiee oa
ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae oi?ioaaiiy eai?oaeo c iaoith aeyaeaiiy ni?eueieo
caeiiii??iinoae oa i?iaiicoaaee a ?o ?icaeoie a oiiaao iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeiiii?ee. Caoaaaeeii oaeiae, ui oe?eee ?yae ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c
?aae?caoe??th ?iaanoeoe?eieo iiaeeeainoae aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, iineoue
aeeneon?eiee oa?aeoa?. Oea noino?oueny, cie?aia, ioe?iee aioo??oiueiai
iioaioe?aeo iaoe?iiaeueieo caiuaaeaeaiue, c’ynoaaiiy iiaeeeainoae
o?iainiaeo ?eie?a uiaei ?iaanoeoe?eii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? ?ano?n?a,
aecia/aiiy i??i?eoao?a no?oeoo?ii-i?iieneiai? no?aoaa??, a oaeiae
ooieoe?e aea?aeaae a ?aaoethaaii? ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?.

Iiooe oeyo?a ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie ianoa/? eai?oaeo aeiaaa? ioiieaiiy
a?eueo oe?ieiai niaeo?o iae?iaeiiii?/ieo /eiiee?a c iaoith a?aooaaiiy
iane?aee?a ?o aieeao ia ?iaanoeoe?eiee i?ioean.

Ie?aneaia eiei i?iaeai iaoiiaeei aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Naia
c’ynoaaiiy cia/aiiy, nooiino? oa no?oeoo?ieo eiiiiiaio?a i?ioeano
eai?oaeioai?aiiy aeicaieeoue, ia iaoo aeoieo, cae?enieoe iaea?eueo
eiiieaeniee aiae?c /eiiee?a o?eaath/i? ?iaanoeoe?eii? e?ece oa
iaa?oiooaaoe iaoiaee ?? iiaeieaiiy, ui ? iaiao?aeiith oiiaith ia?aoiaeo
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie aei iiai? o?a?eoi??? ?icaeoeo.

Ca’ycie c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ?
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith aea?aeathaeaeaoii? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? oaie
“Nioe?aeueia ia?oia?noai a ia??iae o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie
Oe?a?ie”, ui ?ic?iaeaia eaoaae?ith aeiiii?/ii? oai??? EAeOAO. Iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? o?nii iia’ycai? c o/aiaeie ieaiaie eaoaae?e oa
aeei?enoiaothoueny a i?ioean? aeeeaaeaiiy ii?iaoeaieo eo?n?a c
“Iae?iaeiiii?ee”, “Aeiiii?/ii? oai???”, “Aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aeiiii?ee”.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?? ? iaa?oiooaaiiy
nooiino? i?ioeano eai?oaeioai?aiiy oa eiai aieeao ia aeiiii?/iee
?icaeoie, aecia/aiiy aioo??oi?o aeaea?ae eai?oaeioai?aiiy oa ?ic?iaea
nenoaie ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia aeoea?caoe?th ?iaanoeoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe aeena?oaioii aecia/ai? ianooii?
aeine?aeieoeuee? caaaeaiiy:

— ?ice?eoe iae?iaeiiii?/iee ci?no i?ioeano eai?oaeioai?aiiy oeyoii
aiae?co ?noi?eei-aeiiii?/ii? aaiethoe?? iiaeyae?a ia i?iaeaie
caiuaaeaeaiiy, ?iaanooaaiiy oa iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy eai?oaeo;

— aeyaeoe caaaeuei? oaiaeaioe?? oi?ioaaiiy eai?oaeo a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei c iaoith a?eueo aaeaeaaoiiai ?icoi?iiy niaoeeo?ee
oeeo i?ioean?a a iaoe?iiaeuei?e aeiiii?oe?;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe no/aniee noai, iniiai? /eiieee oa ia?niaeoeae
iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo caiuaaeaeaiue
ye iniiaiiai ?ano?niiai aeaea?aea eai?oaeioai?aiiy a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie;

— aeine?aeeoe iniaeeaino? ae?? oa oeyoe iioei?caoe?? caeo/aiiy
o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a a ?iaanoeoe?? ?aaeueiiai naeoi?o /a?ac ?inoeoooe
o?iainiai? nenoaie;

— aecia/eoe iniiai? iai?yiee aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? c iaoith caaacia/aiiy ocaiaeaeaiino? i?ioean?a
oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo caiuaaeaeaiue oa iiaeieaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eiiai
niaaeo;

— ?ic?iaeoe eiie?aoi? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei ci?i a aea?aeaai?e
?iaanoeoe?ei?e iie?oeoe?, ni?yiiaai? ia aeoea?caoe?th i?ioeano
eai?oaeioai?aiiy ye aieiaiiai /eiieea i?eieiaiiy ae?iaie/iai niaaeo oa
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ianooiieo
iieiaeaiiyo aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

— aaoi?ii aia?oa i?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy nooiino? oa
iai?yie?a aeoea?caoe?? i?ioeano eai?oaeioai?aiiy a Oe?a?i?, ui iieyaa? o
caaacia/aii? aeeiai?/ii? aca?iiae?? oa aca?iiocaiaeaeaiino? i?ae
i?ioeanaie caiuaaeaeaiiy, ?iaanooaaiiy oa iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy eai?oaeo;
cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee i?aeo?ae aei ?icoi?iiy i?ioeano eai?oaeioai?aiiy,
yeee ?icaeyaea?oueny ye oe?e?niee iae?iaeiiii?/iee i?ioean aeoioeyoe??
caiuaaeaeoaaieo noa’?eoaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy ?ano?n?a oa noai?aiiy
ia?aaeoiia aeey ?o iiaeaeueoiai ia?aoai?aiiy a ?aaeuei? ?iaanoeoe?ei?
aeo?aoe;

— ia i?aenoaa? ocaaaeueiaiiy na?oiaiai aeina?aeo oi?ioaaiiy eai?oaeo a
e?a?iao, ui ia?aaoaaee ia noaae?? noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo aeiiii?/ieo
ca’yce?a aeiaaaeaii, ui iaoai?ci oa oaiie oi?ioaaiiy eai?oaeo
ae??oaeueiei /eiii aieeaathoue ia o?a?eoi??th iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo
aeiiii?ee;

— aeyaeaii i?yiii?iii?oe?eio caeaaei?noue ??aiy aeoeaiino? i?eaaoieo
?iaanoi??a a?ae ianya?a ?iaanoeoe?eieo aeo?ao aea?aeaae, ni?yiiaaieo ia
?icaeoie i?iieneiaino? oa ?io?ano?oeoo?e; aecia/aii no?aoaa?/ia cia/aiiy
?icaeoeo aioo??oi?o aeaea?ae eai?oaeioai?aiiy ii??aiyii ?c caeo/aiiyi
ciai?oi?o ?ano?n?a aiane?aeie ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiceoeaii? ei?aeyoe?? i?ae
ianyaaie aioo??oi?o ?iaanoeoe?e oa iaaeoiaeaeaiiyi ?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo;

-aecia/aii iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy oa oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo
iaoe?iiaeueieo caiuaaeaeaiue ye ?ano?nii? iniiae i?ioeano
eai?oaeioai?aiiy: anoaiiaeaii aecia/aeueio ?ieue i?eaaoiiai naeoi?o
(aeiiiainiiaea?noa, iao?iainiaeo ei?ii?aoe?e) o oi?ioaaii?
?iaanoeoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee; cai?iiiiiaaii
oeyoe aaeineiiaeaiiy aeioiaeii?, aii?oecaoe?eii? oa iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee
c iaoith iie?auaiiy oiia oi?ioaaiiy caiuaaeaeaiue aeiiiainiiaea?noa oa
i?aei?e?inoa; aeyaeaii aeano?oeoeaiee aieea, ui cae?eniththoue a?aec?ii?
caiuaaeaeaiiy aea?aeaae ia oi?ioaaiiy ?ano?nii? aace eai?oaeioai?aiiy oa
cai?iiiiiaaii iaoai?ci iaeo?ae?caoe?? “aoaeoo aeo?niaiiy” i?eaaoieo
caiuaaeaeaiue;

— aeine?aeaeaii /eiieee, ui no?eiothoue i?ioean ?iaanoeoe?eii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? caiuaaeaeoaaeueieo ?ano?n?a a Oe?a?i?: iaa?oioiaaii
iieiaeaiiy i?i ae??oaeueio ia aeaiiio aoai? ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai
o?iainiaiai ?eieo ?ieue aaie?anueei? nenoaie o aca?iiocaiaeaeaii?
?ioa?an?a aeaniee?a o?iainiaeo eioo?a, c iaeiiai aieo, oa
?iaanoeoe?eiiai iiieoo ae?iaie/iai naeoi?o, c ?ioiai; ?ic?iaeaii
i?iiiceoe?? ii aaeineiiaeaiith ?iaanoeoe?eieo iia?aoe?e eiia?oe?eieo
aaie?a ia oiiaeiaiio ?eieo oa oeyoii ?icaeoeo aeiaaino?ieiaiai
e?aaeeooaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a, a oaeiae i?iiiceoe?? uiaei
aea?aeaaiiai noeioethaaiiy i?ioeano eai?oaeioai?aiiy;

-cai?iiiiiaaii eiioeaiooaeueii iia? i?aeoiaee aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee, ni?yiiaaii? ia aeoea?caoe?th i?ioeano
eai?oaeioai?aiiy oeyoii cieaeaiiy iiaeaoeiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy,
canoinoaaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?euea, ia?ioeyoe?eiiai
i?aeaeuaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith e?aaeeoii-a?ioiaeo aaaeae?a ?iaanoeoe?eiiai
iiieoo ia iice/eia? eiooe, oi?ioaaiiy athaeaeaoo ?icaeoeo ia iniia?
aecia/aiiy no?oeoo?ii-i?iieneiaeo i??i?eoao?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy
cai?iiiiiaaieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie, ui i?eeiathoue
o/anoue a ?ic?iaoe? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?iaanoeoe?eii? iie?oeee oa ??
caeiiiaeaa/i? aace.

Eiie?aoi? i?iiiceoe?? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ii aaeineiiaeaiith
?iaanoeoe?eieo iia?aoe?e o?iainiai-e?aaeeoieo onoaiia iiaeooue aooe
a?aoiaai? a ae?yeueiino? aaie?anueei? nenoaie Oe?a?ie.

?ic?iaeai? ia iniia? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
noiniaii ?icoe?aiiy oi?i oa aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiae?a aeiaaino?ieiaiai
e?aaeeooaaiiy, aeoea?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? aaie?a ia ?eieo ei?ii?aoeaieo
oe?iieo iaia??a, iineeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? a?ioiai-e?aaeeoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
a?aoiaai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? i?eioeei?a iiiaoa?ii? iie?oeee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aaieo Oe?a?ie ( aeia?aeea ? 13-213/ 2450 a?ae 13.10.1998),
ai?iaaaeaeaii? caoiae?a I?i?noa?noaa aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie ii aeoea?caoe??
oiia eai?oaeioai?aiiy a i?aei?e?iieoeueeiio naeoi?? ( aeia?aeea ?
68-331593 a?ae 8.12.1998 ?.), neeaaeaii? no?aoaa?/iiai ieaio ?icaeoeo AO
“Oe?a?inueeee ?iiiaaoe?eiee aaie” ( aeia?aeea ? 04/1151 a?ae 12.06.1998
?.), aeoe?iia?iiai eiia?oe?eiiai aa?ii?iieneiaiai aaieo “Oe?a?ia” (
aeia?aeea ? 24/1826 a?ae 16.09.1998 ?.), aeoe?iia?ii-eiia?oe?eiiai
Aeaeo?iiaaieo, i. Euea?a ( aeia?aeea ? 12-4 a?ae 14.10.1998 ?.).

Oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaothoueny
a i?ioean? aeeeaaeaiiy eo?n?a “Aeiiii?/ii? oai???”, “Iae?iaeiiii?ee”,
niaoeeo?n?a oa i?iaaaeaii? eiinoeueoaoeaii? ?iaioe (aeia?aeea ? 237/29
a?ae 22.02.1999 ?.).

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue oa iaaiai?thaaeenue ia
can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii? oai??? EAeOAO; ia i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoiaee/i? i?iaeaie aeeeaaeaiiy
aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe” (i.Ee?a, 1996 ?.), iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“I?iaeaie oa?eoi??aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy oa i?aeo?eiee i?aei?e?inoa o
i?neyi?eaaoecaoe?eiee ia??iae” (i. Aeiiaoeuee, 1996 ?.), iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ? ani??aio?a EAeOAO
(1997 ?.), i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oi?ioaaiiy
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei oa i?iaeaie ?o a?aeia?aaeaiiy a eo?nao aeiiii?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i” (i. Iaeana, 1997 ?.), Anaoe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe??
“Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i? i?iaeaie ?iaanoeoe?eii? oa ?iiiaaoe?eii? iie?oeee
aea?aeaae”(Ee?a, 1997 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii 10
i?aoeue caaaeueiei ianyaii 2,8 ae?oe. a?e.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 186 i.ae.a., neeaaea?oueny
?c anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae c
253 iaeiaioaaiue ? 5 aeiaeaoe?a, i?noeoue 12 oaaeeoeue, 17 ?enoie?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

Caaino?aiiy i?iaeaie ianoa/? eai?oaeo a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie,
a?aenooi?noue oiia aeey eiai iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy iaoiiaeththoue
iaiao?aei?noue aiae?co no/aniiai noaio oa ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo i?ioeano
eai?oaeioai?aiiy ye aieiaii? i?iaeaie o a?aeiiaeaii? ?iaanoeoe?eiiai
iioaioe?aeo aeiiii?ee.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Caaaeueiioai?aoe/i? oaiaeaioe?? i?ioeano
eai?oaeioai?aiiy” ?ice?eaa?oueny ci?no oa aaiethoe?y iiaeyae?a ia
i?ioeane caiuaaeaeaiiy, ?iaanooaaiiy oa iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy eai?oaeo, ui
aea? ciiao c?icoi?oe i?e?iaeo i?ioeano eai?oaeioai?aiiy; c’yniao?oueny
eiai ?ieue o iiaeieaii? aeiiii?/iiai niaaeo a oiiaao ?eieiai?
o?ainoi?iaoe??. I?e oeueiio ia a?aei?io a?ae o?aaeeoe?eiiai aecia/aiiy
i?ioeano eai?oaeioai?aiiy, yea iaaiaeeoueny a oa?i?iieia?? i?aeia?iaeii?
nenoaie iaoe?iiaeueieo ?aooie?a oa i?aoeyo ie?aieo a/aieo (?.Aa??)
aaoi?ii i?iiiio?oueny a?eueo oe?iea iae?iaeiiii?/ia ?icoi?iiy i?aaeiaoo
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a ?iaioe, i?ioean eai?oaeioai?aiiy ia
caiaeeoueny eeoa aei ia?aooaaiiy aeo?ao ia aii?oecaoe?th, iia? nii?oaee
oa iaeaaeiaiiy, /enoeo ci?i iaoa??aeueieo caian?a oa ?ioeo ae?iaeaieo
aeoea?a ae?iaiee?a. Eai?oaeioai?aiiy ? oe?e?niei aeiiii?/iei i?ioeanii
oi?ioaaiiy caiuaaeaeoaaeueieo ?ano?n?a iniiaieo iae?iaeiiii?/ieo
noa’?eo?a (aeiiiainiiaea?noa, i?aei?e?inoa, aea?aeaae) oa iiaeaeueoiai
ia?aoai?aiiy oeeo ?ano?n?a a ?aaeuei? ?iaanoeoe?ei? aeo?aoe.

A?aeiia?aeii aei cai?iiiiiaaiiai ?icoi?iiy i?ioeano eai?oaeioai?aiiy a
?iaio? cae?enith?oueny aiae?c iniiaieo eiai no?oeoo?ieo eiiiiiaio?a —
caiuaaeaeaiiue, ?iaanoeoe?e oa iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy eai?oaeo.

I?iaaaeaiee ?noi?eei-aeiiii?/iee aiae?c eiioeaioe?e oi?ioaaiiy eai?oaeo
aeaa ciiao i?ine?aeeoaaoe aaiethoe?th iiaeyae?a ia i?iaeaio
caiuaaeaeaiiy, ?iaanooaaiiy oa iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy eai?oaeo a caeaaeiino?
a?ae ci?i nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai na?aaeiaeua. ?icaeaath/enue a?ae
?aea? iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy aaaaonoaa a nooi a?ioia?e oi?i? (O.Iai, A. aea
Iiie?aoue?i oa ?i.), aei ?icoi?iiy ?ie? aioo??oi?o caiuaaeaeaiue o
ca?eueoaii? ?aaeueiiai eai?oaeo iaoe?? (A.Ni?o) oa aei iiyniaiiy
noia?a/eeaiai aieeao, ui caeaoia cae?enieoe iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy eai?oaeo ia
aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie (Ae.??ea?aei), iinooiiai i?aeaeuoaaany ??aaiue
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie, caaaa/oaaeinue oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy ??
ca’yceo c? noaiii iae?iaeiiii?/ii? eii’thieoo?e.

Oneeaaeiaiiy aeiiii?/ii? ae?eniino? i?ioyaii O?O no., iaiao?aei?noue
aiae?co ia’?eoeaieo ci?i a i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy eai?oaeo niiioeaee aei
aecia/aiiy oe?ei? nenoaie /eiiee?a, ui cae?eniththoue aieea ia
aeeiai?eo ? ianyae caiuaaeaeaiue, ?iaanoeoe?e oa ?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy.
Cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?eyeanue aeine?aeaeaiith ineoieia?/ieo iioea?a o
iiaaae?ioe? noa’?eo?a caiuaaeaeaiue (A.Ia?oaee, Aeae.I.Eaein),
caeaaeiino? ??aiy ?iaanoeoe?eieo aeo?ao a?ae oiai /e ?ioiai aoaio
aeiiii?/iiai oeeeeo (I.?.Ooaai-Aa?aiianueeee, A.Oi?oaio, A.Eannaeue).

O oi?ioaaii? iiaeo oyaeaiue a?ae?a?aei naith ?ieue ? cia/ia iineeaiiy
aeoeaiino? aaie?a o noa?? a?ioiaiai ia?ao, ae?yeuei?noue yeeo iiaea
ni?e/eieoe iiaeeaeaiiy iaa?aeiia?aeiino? i?ae caiuaaeaeaiiyie oa
?iaanoeoe?yie. Ie??i oiai ?iaanoeoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue ii/aea ana a?eueoa
caciaaaoe aieeao ?ioeyoe?eieo i?ioean?a. Iaaia cia/aiiy aeey ??
?ioaineaiino? iaei oaeiae aeei?enoaiiy caiuaaeaeaiue aeey o?iainoaaiiy
aeao?oeeoo aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo ca aeiiiiiaith aioo??oi?o iicee. Oea
iaoiiaeei ?icaeoie ?aea? i?i noia?a/eeaee aieea caiuaaeaeaiue ia
aeinyaiaiiy iae?iaeiiii?/ii? ??aiiaaae (E.A?enaeeue) oa i?iaeaie iaae?
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy eai?oaeo a aeeiai?/i?e aeiiii?oe? (Ae.Aianii ? i?ci?oa —
?.Nieio), yea iiaeiia a?aeiia?aeaoe iioeiaeueiiio ??aith niiaeea/eo
aeo?ao noni?euenoaa.

Caaino?aiiy iaa?aeiia?aeiinoae i?ae ianyaaie caiuaaeaeaiue oa
?iaanoeoe?e oa oneeaaeiaiiy nenoaie /eiiee?a, ui cae?eniththoue aieea ia
i?ioean eai?oaeioai?aiiy, iinoaaeee i?iaeaio iaiao?aeiino? cae?eniaiiy
ciai?oiueiai ?aaoethth/iai aieeao ia aeiiii?/io ae?yeuei?noue c iaoith
i?aeo?eiee oiia ??aiiaaae (Aeae.I.Eaein, ?.Oa??iae, ?.Aeiia? oa ?i.).
Oaeei /eiii, ae?noaea ?icaeoie ?aeay i?i iani?iiiaei?noue ?eieiaeo
?aaoeyoi??a (??aiy oe?i oa ii?ie i?ioeaioa) caaacia/eoe iaiao?aeiee
aeey aeinyaiaiiy iiaii? caeiyoino? ??aaiue ?iaanoeoe?e: iaaei??ia
?iaanooaaiiy aaaea aei o?ii?/ii? ?ioeyoe??, a iaaeinoaoi? aeeeeea?
nei?i/aiiy ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa, noai?th? iaaeeeoeia? iiooaeiino?,
aac?ia?ooy oa iaae?iiy aeia?iaooo iaoe??. Oiio caaaeaiiy aea?aeaae
iiaeiii iieyaaoe o cae?eniaii? ?aaoethth/iai aieeao ia oi?ioaaiiy
?iaanoeoe?eiiai iiieoo ca aeiiiiiaith ?ino?oiaio?a
athaeaeaoii-o?iainiai? oa e?aaeeoii-a?ioiai? iie?oeee.

I?iaaaeaiee a ?iaio? aiae?c ?noi?eei-aeiiii?/ii? aaiethoe?? iniiaieo
iiaeyae?a ia i?iaeaio oi?ioaaiiy eai?oaeo aeaa ciiao i?ine?aeeoaaoe
eia?/iee ?icaeoie no?oeoo?ieo eiiiiiaio?a i?aaeiaoo aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy — i?ioeano eai?oaeioai?aiiy, i?ae yeei aaoi? ?icoi??
aeoioeyoe?th a?ioiaiai oa iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy ?aaeueiiai eai?oae?a a ?o
aca?iiae??. Oaeeie no?oeoo?ieie eiiiiiaioaie, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, ?,
ii-ia?oa, caiuaaeaeaiiy iae?iaeiiii?/ieo noa’?eo?a, ye? oi?iothoue
o?iainiaee iioaioe?ae aeey c?inoaiiy ?aaeueiiai eai?oaeo; ii-ae?oaa,
?iaanoeoe??, ye? ? aeeaaeaiiyi caiuaaeaeaieo a?ioiaeo ?ano?n?a a
?aaeueio noa?o aeiiii?ee; ii-o?ao?, i?ioean iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy eai?oaeo, ui
a?aeia?aaea? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaanooaaiiy a aeiaaino?ieiaiio ia??iae?. I?e
oeueiio a ?iaio? aeoeaioo?oueny oaaaa ia oiio, ui iiiyooy
eai?oaeioai?aiiy ia ? i?inoei ia’?aeiaiiyi ?icaeyiooeo no?oeoo?ieo
eaoaai??e, a ia?aaeaa/a? iayai?noue o?nii? aca?iiocaiaeaeaiino? i?ae
ieie ia iniia? iaoai?cio aoaeoeaiiai ni?yioaaiiy a?ioiaeo iioie?a a
?aaeueiee naeoi? aeiiii?ee c iaoith aeinyaiaiiy iae?iaeiiii?/ii?
??aiiaaae. Oaeei /eiii, aaoi?ii ?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i oa, ui eaoaai??y
eai?oaeioai?aiiy ? no?oeoo?ii iaiaeii??aeiei, aea aioo??oiuei ?aeeiei
iiiyooyi, ui ?ice?eaa? cia/aiiy aeeiai?/ii? aca?iiae?? i?ioean?a
caiuaaeaeaiiy, ?iaanooaaiiy oa iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy eai?oaeo aeey
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo.

Neeaaei?noue no/aniiai aoaio ?aoi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee
iio?aao? ia eeoa iiaiai oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co i?iaeaie eai?oaeioai?aiiy a
Oe?a?i?, cae?eniaiiai ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiiy iniiaieo iai?yie?a
?icaeoeo na?oiai? aeiiii?/ii? aeoiee, a e ocaaaeueiaiiy i?aeoe/iiai
aeina?aeo ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue c iaoith eiai aeei?enoaiiy a oiiaao
o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? aeiiii?ee. I?e oeueiio iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy a
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? iaaoei aeine?aeaeaiiy i?eioeei?a aeiiii?/ii?
iie?oeee a i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo ?inoeoooe?iiaeueieo no?oeoo? oa
iiaeieaiiy e?eciaeo yaeu a oiiaao iecueeiai ??aiy eai?oaeioai?aiiy. A
ca’yceo c oeei a ?iaio? i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c ie?aieo a?oi e?a?i oa
ia??iae?a ?o ?icaeoeo:

— O?I oa ssiii?? i?ioyaii i?neyai?iiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy aeaniiai
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo;

— a?oie e?a?i, ui ?icaeaathoueny, aeiiii?/ia iie?oeea yeeo ni?yiiaaia
ia aeoea?caoe?th eai?oaeioai?aiiy;

— iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo e?a?i Oeaio?aeueii? oa No?aeii? ?a?iie, ui iaaoee
iiceoeaiiai aeina?aeo a i?ioean? ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee.

O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?ii aoei c’yniaaii, ui a oiiaao a?aenooiino?
aai iaaeineiiaeino? ?eieiaeo iaoai?ci?a o?iainoaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eieo
aeo?ao (?eieo oe?iieo iaia??a, e?aaeeoii? nenoaie), neaaeiai
o?iainiaiai iioaioe?aeo iniiaieo noa’?eo?a caiuaaeaeaiiy (i?aei?e?ioe?a
oa o?ce/ieo in?a), aa?aioii oni?oiiai ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie
eai?oaeioai?aiiy ? oe?eani?yiiaaia ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaae. I?e oeueiio
iniiaiei caaaeaiiyi aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee, ni?yiiaaii? ia aeoea?caoe?th
i?ioeano eai?oaeioai?aiiy, ? noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaiai iae?ina?aaeiaeua
aeey iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy i?eaaoieo eai?oae?a. Aaoi?ii i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui
nooi ?aaoethth/? ooieoe?? aea?aeaae a cacia/aieo oiiaao iiaeii?
i?aai?/ii aeiiiaithaaoenue ae?yeuei?noth aea?aeaae ye aaciina?aaeiueiai
?iaanoi?a, ui aeicaieeoue i?iaanoe no?oeoo?io ia?aaoaeiao aeiiii?ee oa
caaacia/eoue ?icaeoie ?io?ano?oeoo?e . Ia iniia? aiae?co cacia/aieo
e?a?i a ?iaio? iaa?oioiao?oueny iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui naia aea?aeaai?
?iaanoeoe?ei? aeo?aoe, ni?yiiaai? ia ?icaeoie aeiiii?/ii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e, iathoue iaeaeuee aoaeo /a?ac caeaoi?noue eoioeyoeaiiai
aieeao ia ??aaiue i?eaaoieo ?iaanoeoe?e.

Ia aac? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co c’yniaaii, ui ??aaiue aeoeaiino?
aeiiii?/ieo noa’?eo?a (i?eaaoieo in?a oa o??i, o?iainiaeo ?inoeooo?a oa
aea?aeaae) a i?ioean? ooai?aiiy eai?oaeo ia ? noaeei ? caeaaeeoue a?ae
aoaio ?icaeoeo oa caaaeaiue, ye? ae??oothoueny noni?euenoaii i?ioyaii
oiai /e ?ioiai ia??iaeo. A ca’yceo c oeei a ?iaio? aiae?co?oueny
oaiaeaioe?y c?inoaiiy ?ie? i?eaaoiiai naeoi?o (aeiiiainiiaea?noa oa
iao?iainiaeo ei?ii?aoe?e) a i?ioean? eai?oaeioai?aiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae
??aiy ?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo ?inoeooo?a. Oae, /anoea i?eaaoieo eiiiai?e
i?iieneiai ?icaeiooeo e?a?i a caaaeuei?e noi? ?iaanoeoe?e neeaaea?
50-80%, a aeiiiainiiaea?noa — a?ae 9 aei 31%.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy caaaeueiiaeiiii?/ieo oaiaeaioe?e i?ioeano
eai?oaeioai?aiiy aeicaieeei ae?eoe aeniiaeo i?i ae??oaeueio ?ieue
oi?ioaaiiy aioo??oi?o caiuaaeaeoaaeueieo ?ano?n?a oa ?o caeo/aiiy a
?aaeueio noa?o aeiiii?ee ii??aiyii c iaaeoiaeaeaiiyi ?iicaiiiai
eai?oaeo. A ?iaio? iaa?oioiao?oueny iieiaeaiiy i?i iaiao?aei?noue
noai?aiiy ??aieo aeiiii?/ieo oiia aeey a?o/eciyieo oa ?iicaiieo
?iaanoi??a oa a?aecia/a?oueny iayai?noue iiceoeaii? ei?aeyoe?? i?ae
ianyaaie aioo??oi?o ?iaanoeoe?e oa iaaeoiaeaeaiiyi ?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo.
Naia i???ioaoe?y ia aioo??oi?e ?iioeuen, ye na?ae/eoue aeina?ae e?a?i,
ui eaeooue oeyoii ?icaeoeo, aeicaieeoue ae??oeoe i?iaeaio iaaeinoaoiuei?
i?iiiceoe?? ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ano?n?a, yea ? ni?eueiith aeey aeiiii?e, ui
?icaeaathoueny.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iiceoeaiiai aeina?aeo iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo e?a?i aeaei
iiaeeea?noue iaa?oiooaaoe iiaea?eio ?ieue aea?aeaae o oi?ioaaii?
eai?oaeo a oiiaao ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee. C iaeiiai aieo,
aea?aeaaa iiaeiia aeeiioaaoe ooieoe?th eaoae?caoi?a i?ioean?a
caiuaaeaeaiiy oa ?iaanooaaiiy /a?ac i?yi? oa iiina?aaeeiaai? iaoiaee
aieeao, a, c ?ioiai, i?iaiaeeoe iie?oeeo “iiaeeaeaiiy” o?iainiai?
nenoaie, ui icia/a? ni?eyiiy ?icaeoeo a?aeiia?aeieo o?iainiaeo
?inoeooo?a, ye? a ciiaee a iaeaooiueiio iinooiiai ia?aeeanoe ia naaa
ooieoe?th o?ainoi?iaoe?? iaoe?iiaeueieo caiuaaeaeaiue a
noni?eueii-iaiao?aeia aoaeoeaia ?iaanooaaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ?iaioe “I?ioean eai?oaeioai?aiiy ye iniiaa
?iaanoeoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie” aeine?aeaeaii oiiae
noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie iaoe?iiaeueieo caiuaaeaeaiue, aeyaeaii iniiai?
oaiaeaioe?? ?o ?icaeoeo, aecia/aii ooieoe?? o?iainiaeo iina?aaeiee?a o
c?inoaii? ?iaanoeoe?eieo iiaeeeainoae aeiiii?ee, iaa?oioiaaii iai?yiee
oa cai?iiiiiaaii iaoai?ci aaeineiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
?iaanoeoe?eiith ae?yeuei?noth.

Aacoth/enue ia ?icoi?ii? eai?oaeioai?aiiy ye ?aeiino? i?ioean?a
caiuaaeaeaiiy oa ?iaanooaaiiy, aaoi? ?icaeyioa iniiai? eiiiiiaioe
nenoaie iaoe?iiaeueieo caiuaaeaeaiue, aei neeaaeo yeeo a?aeianai?:

— caiuaaeaeaiiy ianaeaiiy, ui ? /anoeiith iniaenoiai aeei?enoiaoaaiiai
aeioiaeo;

— caiuaaeaeaiiy i?aei?e?inoa, ye? neeaaeathoueny c aii?oecaoe?eieo
a?ae?aooaaiue oa /anoeie i?eaooeo;

— caiuaaeaeaiiy aea?aeaae, ui aecia/athoueny ??cieoeath i?ae o?yaeiaeie
iiaeaoeiaeie iaaeoiaeaeaiiyie oa o?yaeiaeie aeaeaoeaie.

Aieiaieie /eiieeaie, ui cae?eniththoue aecia/aeueiee aieea ia
oi?ioaaiiy caiuaaeaeaiue ianaeaiiy, ia aeoieo aaoi?a ? : ??aaiue oa
no?oeoo?a aeei?enoaiiy aeioiae?a o?ce/ieo in?a; ??aaiue i?ioeaioii?
noaaee; no?ee?noue a?ioiai? iaeeieoe?; ??aaiue iiiaeaoeoaaiiy oa
nioe?aeueia noaa?euei?noue o noni?euenoa?. I?e oeueiio a ?iaio?
i?aee?aneth?oueny i?ia?aeia ?ieue aeeiai?ee niiaeeaaiiy oa ??aiy
aeioiae?a o aecia/aii? ianya?a caiuaaeaeaiue aeiiiainiiaea?noa. Aiae?c
??aiy aeioiae?a o?ce/ieo in?a a Oe?a?i? i?ioyaii 1992-1998 ??. aeaa
ciiao c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i ?o ae?ae iacaaeia?eueiee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy
iniaenoeo caiuaaeaeaiue, a, ioaea, ia ?ano?nio aaco eai?oaeioai?aiiy. A
oe?eiio iniaeno? caiuaaeaeaiiy nyaathoue eeoa 0,95% a?ae na?aaeiueiai
iieacieea AAI ca 1995-1998 ??. O ca’yceo c oeei aaoi?ii i?iiiiothoueny
caoiaee, ni?yiiaai? ia ?o noeioethaaiiy. Cie?aia — iiaoaiia cae?eniaiiy
no?oeoo?ii? ?aoi?ie nenoaie iieaoe i?aoe?, a?aeo?ae a?ae iiaeae?,
ci???ioiaaii? ia iecueeo oe?io ?iai/i? neee aac o?niiai ca’yceo c
?acoeueoaoaie i?aoe? oa c?inoaiiyi ?? i?iaeoeoeaiino?. ??aaiue
ca?ia?oii? ieaoe iiaeiai caaacia/oaaoe ii?iaeueia a?aeoai?aiiy ?iai/i?
neee (ia aeaiiio aoai? aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie na?aaei?e ca?ia?oie
ii aaeocyi i?iieneiaino? neeaaea? eeoa 30-50% aa?oino? i?i?iaeueiiai
niiaeea/eo aeo?ao).

Iniaeeaino? iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee, ui iieyaathoue a noeoii?e ae??
??ciini?yiiaaieo /eiiee?a, ia aeicaieeee aeyaeoe /?oei? ei?aeyoe?? i?ae
eieeaaiiyi i?ioeaioieo noaaie ii aeaiiceoao o?ce/ieo in?a oa ianyaaie
aeeaae?a. Oiio aieea oeueiai /eiieea ne?ae aeine?aeaeoaaoe, ia aeoieo
aaoi?a, a o?ni?e caeaaeiino? a?ae ci?i ?ioeyoe?eieo i/?eoaaiue oa
oaeoi??a, ui oi?iothoue ia?aaaae e?ea?aeiino? o ianaeaiiy. Caa?aaeaiiy
aenieeo ?ioeyoe?eieo i/?eoaaiue, ?ic?eae a n?iaeieo athaeaeaoao /a?ac
ianoaa?euei?noue a?ioiaeo aeieao, aenie? o?ainaeoe?ei? aeo?aoe oa
?eceee, iia’ycai? c ia?aaaaeaiiyi aio?aee a caiuaaeaeaiiy o aeaeyae?
oe?iieo iaia??a, cae?eniththoue no?eioth/ee aieea ia ??aaiue
?iaanoeoe?eii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? ?nioth/eo caiuaaeaeaiue aeiiiainiiaea?noa.

A oeueiio ca’yceo aaoi?ii i?iiiiothoueny caoiaee, ni?yiiaai? ia
c?inoaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eii? neeaaeiai? a no?oeoo?? caiuaaeaeaiue i?eaaoieo
in?a /a?ac ?icaeoie nenoaie no?aooaaiiy aaie?anueeeo aeaiiceo?a
ianaeaiiy ca oiiae aeinyaiaiiy oa?iieoe? aianeo oa aeaaeiea?ecaoe??
noa?e caiuaaeaeaiue, ui aeicaieeoue nooo?ai ciaioeoe ianyae
iicaaaie?anueeiai ia?ao.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy caiuaaeaeaiue i?aei?e?inoa i?ioyaii
80-o-90-o ??. aeaei i?aenoaao c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i iaiaaeoaaeueiee aieea
athaeaeaoii? oa iiaeaoeiai-aii?oecaoe?eii? iie?oeee ia ?iaanoeoe?eiee
iioaioe?ae ?aaeueiiai naeoi?o. Ia iniia? e?eoe/iiai aiae?co ae?th/iai
caeiiiaeaanoaa (cie?aia, Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i iiiaeaoeoaaiiy i?eaooeo
i?aei?e?inoa”) aaoi?ii aenoaathoueny ?yae i?iiiceoe?e, a?aooaaiiy yeeo
aeicaieeoue cia/ii ?icoe?eoe aeani? aeaea?aea eai?oaeioai?aiiy ia
i?aei?e?inoaao.Oae, ia?ao?ae a?ae ni?iuaiiai iiae?eo iniiaieo oiiae?a
eeoa ia o?e a?oie oa anoaiiaeaiiy eeoa o?ueio ii?i aii?oecaoe?? aei
aecia/aiiy ?? aaeocaaiai ??aiy ia iniia? niaoeeo?/ieo iniaeeainoae
ae?iaieoeoaa ni?eyoeia, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, i?iaiiciaaiei ?ici??ai
?iaanoeoe?eieo aeo?ao o ??cieo noa?ao ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino? oa
iieaaoeoue i?ioean aaeaioaoe?? i?aei?e?inoa aei ?eieiaeo oiia
ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c cana?ae/ea, ui aac ci?i o aecia/aii? ae?th/i? aace
aeey ia?aooaaiiy aii?oecaoe?eieo eioo?a, inoaii? ia ciiaeooue aeeiioaaoe
ooieoe?th aeaea?aea caiuaaeaeaiue i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai naeoi?o, a eiai
noa’?eoe ia o?eueee ao?aoyoue eaaiao /anoeo aeaniiai o?iainiaiai
?ano?no, a e iicaaaeyoueny aeiiii?/ieo noeioe?a aei iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy
iniiaiiai eai?oaeo. Oiio ia ci?io ?nioth/?e iaoiaeeoe? aecia/aiiy
aii?oecaoe?eieo a?ae?aooaaiue ca?oiiai ia??iaeo oeyoii canoinoaaiiy ii?i
aii?oecaoe?? aei ?o caeeoeiai? aa?oino? ( ia ii/aoie ca?oiiai ia??iaeo)
i?iiiio?oueny aaanoe ?ic?aooiie noie aii?oecaoe?? ia aac? ii/aoeiai?
aa?oino? (c o?aooaaiiyi iaiao?aeii? ?iaeaenaoe??). Oea aa?aiooaaoeia
i?ney cae?i/aiiy ii?iaoeaiiai oa?i?io aii?oecaoe?? iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy noie,
iaiao?aeii? aeey i?eaeaaiiy iiaiai aiaeia?/iiai ia’?eoa.

Ie??i oeueiai a ?iaio? i?iiiio?oueny ?icoe?eoe noa?o canoinoaaiiy
i?enei?aii? aii?oecaoe?? (ca?aeii ae?th/iai Caeiio aiia
?iciianthaeaeo?oueny eeoa ia 3-th a?oio oiiae?a) oa aaanoe caai?iio ia
aeeo/aiiy aea?aeaaith eioo?a aii?oecaoe?eiiai oiiaeo o aoaeue-ye?e oi?i?
(iiieaeoth/? eiao?oe??ioe ? o.ae.), ine?eueee ?o ?iaanoeoe?eia
aeei?enoaiiy ia ? aa?aioiaaiei.

Ia iniia? aiae?co oi?ioaaiiy caiuaaeaeaiue i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai naeoi?o
a ?iaio? ?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i oa, ui iacaaaeath/e ia neeaaei? oiiae
?icaeoeo i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a o?ainoi?iaoe?ei?e aeiiii?oe?, naia aeani?
o?iainia? ?ano?ne i?aei?e?inoa neeaaeathoue iaeaeuo /anoeo a
?iaanoeoe?eieo aeaea?aeao (aeecueei 65%). Oea na?ae/eoue i?i cia/i?
aioo??oi? iiaeeeaino? i?iieneiaino? o oi?ioaaii? caiuaaeaeaiue. Oiio
aieiaia caaaeaiiy aea?aeaae iieyaa? o noai?aii? ni?eyoeeaiai iae?i- oa
i?e?ina?aaeiaeua aeey ia?iuoaaiiy aioo??oiueiai iioaioe?aeo
eai?oaeioai?aiiy ia i?aei?e?inoaao.

O ca’yceo c? no?eeei caa?aaeaiiyi a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie athaeaeaoiiai
aeao?oeeoo caiuaaeaeaiiy aea?aeaae i?eeiathoue a?ae’?iia cia/aiiy. A
?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaeo ca’yce?a i?iaeaie
iaaei??ieo aea?aeaaieo aeo?ao a ?iaio? aiae?co?oueny nooi?noue oa oeyoe
iaeo?ae?caoe?? aoaeoo aeo?niaiiy ?iaanoeoe?e, yeee ? i?iyaii iaaaoeaiiai
aieeao a?ae’?iieo aea?aeaaieo caiuaaeaeaiue ia iioaioe?ae
eai?oaeioai?aiiy i?eaaoiiai naeoi?o (aeiiiainiiaea?noa oa i?aei?e?inoa).
I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c no?oeoo?ieo ci?i aeo?ao aea?aeathaeaeaoo i?ioyaii
1994-1998 ??. cana?ae/ea, ui ?niothoue iaaeei?enoai?
iiaeeeaino? aeinyaiaiiy caaeainiaaiino? noaoae athaeaeaoo /a?ac
?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?th oa nei?i/aiiy aeo?aoii? /anoeie inoaiiueiai, a oaeiae
?icoe?aiiy athaeaeaoieo iao?neaeueieo iaaeoiaeaeaiue. Aaoi?ii
i?iiiio?oueny ciaioeoe ianyae i?aeo?eiee aea?aeaaith ia?aioaaaeueieo,
caeoeiaeo i?aei?e?inoa oa aaeocae (8% caaaeueiiai ianyao aeo?ao),
nei?ioeoe aeaeaoee ia oo?eiaiiy i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a oa iiaeaoeiaeo
neoaea, o?iainoaaiiy i?aai?a caeiiiaeaa/i?, aeeiiaa/i? oa noaeiai?
aeaaee, a oaeiae ciaioeoe ianyae aea?aeaaieo caiice/aiue, ui aeicaieeoue
ia ia?iuoaaoe a iiaeaeueoiio aeo?aoe ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai
ai?ao ( inoaii? neeaaeaee 15,8% a?ae iiaeaoeiaeo iaaeoiaeaeaiue 1998
?.). Oaeei /eiii, on? iioi/i? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aei athaeaeaoo
i?iiiio?oueny ni?yioaaoe, a ia?oo /a?ao, ia o?iainoaaiiy caoeuaieo
noaoae (nioe?aeuei? aeieaoe, ca?ia?oio ieaoo, ioi?iio caei?ia’y,
ina?oo), a oaeiae ia i??i?eoaoi? caoiaee, iia’ycai? c aeinyaiaiiyi
aenieeo oaii?a ?icaeoeo eeth/iaeo aaeocae aeiiii?ee, noai?aiiy
o?iainiaeo iiaeeeainoae aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy ae?iaie/i? ?io?ano?oeoo?e.
Ii?yae c oeei iaiao?aeii aaeeoe caoiaee ii ciaioaiith o?i?caoe??
aeioiae?a noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? oa iiaa?iaiith
aeaacaieo ca iaae? e?a?ie eai?oae?a, ui ?icoe?eoue iiaeeeaino?
ia?ioeyoe?eiiai o?iainoaaiiy athaeaeaoiiai aeao?oeeoo oa iiceoeaii
aieeia ia oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo caiuaaeaeaiue.

O oiae? iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?ii aeyaeaii, ui c?inoaiiy ??aiy
iaoe?iiaeueieo caiuaaeaeaiue ? iaiao?aeiith, aea iaaeinoaoiueith oiiaith
cae?eniaiiy eai?oaeioai?aiiy. E??i noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaiai na?aaeiaeua
aeey iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a noa’?eo?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy
iaiao?aeii caaacia/eoe ooieoe?iioaaiiy aoaeoeaiiai iaoai?cio
o?ainoi?iaoe?? caiuaaeaeaieo eioo?a a ?iaanoeoe?? ?aaeueiiai naeoi?o. A
ca’yceo c oeei a ?iaio? aiae?cothoueny oiiae cae?eniaiiy aacia?a?aiiai
?ooo a?ioiaeo eioo?a a?ae caiuaaeaeoaa/?a, ye? oi?iothoue i?iiiceoe?th
eai?oaeo, aei iice/aeueiee?a, ye? i?aaenoaaeythoue iiieo ia eai?oae, oa
aeine?aeaeothoueny ooieoe?? o?iainiaeo iina?aaeiee?a o caaacia/aii?
oeueiai i?ioeano. Iayai?noue oa aoaeoeaia ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?icaeiaii?
ia?aae? ?inoeooo?a o?iainiai? nenoaie ? iaiao?aeiith oiiaith
o?ainoi?iaoe?? iioaioe?eieo caiuaaeaeaiue a ?iaanoeoe?ei? ?ano?ne.

Aacoth/enue ia iieiaeaii? i?i o?nio ei?aeyoe?eio caeaaei?noue i?ae
??aiai caaaeueiiai ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee oa ?icaeoeii o?iainiaiai ?eieo,
aeena?oaio aeae?ey? ia’?eoeai? oa noa’?eoeai? no?eioth/? oaeoi?e, ui
iaoiiaeththoue neaae?noue ? iaaei?icaeiai?noue iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?eieo
aeiaaino?ieiaeo eai?oae?a. Aiae?c ae?yeueiino? a?o/eciyieo
iaaaie?anueeeo o?iainiaeo iina?aaeiee?a aeia?a iaiaaeai?noue ?o aieeao
ia ?iaanoeoe?eiee i?ioean. O ca’yceo c oeei a ?iaio? ?iaeoueny aeniiaie
i?i oa, ui a no/anieo oiiaao ooieoe?iioaaiiy o?iainiaiai ?eieo Oe?a?ie
naia aaiee caeaoi? noaoe iniiaiith eaieith i?ae a?eueieie a?ioiaeie
eiooaie, c iaeiiai aieo, oa ?iaanoeoe?eieie iio?aaaie ?aaeueiiai
naeoi?o, c ?ioiai.

Cia/iee iioaioe?ae eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a a ?icaeoeo ?iaanoeoe?eieo
iia?aoe?e iaoiiaeaiee iiaeeea?noth ae?yoe iaeii/anii a aeaio aaaeeeaeo
iai?yieao — ia ?eieo oe?iieo iaia??a oa ia e?aaeeoiiio ?eieo. Aiae?c
ae?th/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa aeicaieea ae?eoe aeniiaeo, ui a no/anieo oiiaao
anoaiiaeai? caeiiiaeaa/? ii?ie i?ecaiaeyoue aei no?eioaaiiy aieeao
aaie?anueei? nenoaie ia aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie e?a?ie. Iiae?aia ooo/ia
?cieyoe?y eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a a?ae ae?yeueiino? ia oiiaeiaiio ?eieo ?,
ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, aacia?niaeoeaiith ? iani?eyoeeaith aeey
iiaeaaaeaiiy i?ioeano eai?oaeioai?aiiy. Oiio a ?iaio? i?iiiiothoueny
caoiaee, ni?yiiaai? ia ?icoe?aiiy aaie?anueeeo iiaiiaaaeaiue oa noeioe?a
o ?icaeoeo iia?aoe?e c aeoe?yie i?eaaoeciaaieo i?aei?e?inoa, cie?aia,
aaaaeaiiy i?eueaiaiai ?aaeeio iiiaeaoeoaaiiy i?eaooeo, io?eiaiiai a?ae
iia?aoe?e c oe?iieie iaia?aie, ui ciaoiaeyoueny o aeaniino? aaieo
a?eueoa 6 i?nyoe?a. Oeae cao?ae, iiceoeaiee aeina?ae ?aae?caoe?? yeiai
iathoue I?ia//eia oa ?io? ?a?iiaenuee? e?a?ie, ni?eyoeia cae??ieaiith
aaie?a ye ?iaanoi??a ca i?aei?e?inoaaie.

Ie??i oiai, c iaoith aea?eueiaiiy aeaniiai eai?oaeo aaie?a aeioe?eueii
aoei a aaanoe i?eueaia? ii?ie iaia’yceiaiai ?aca?aoaaiiy a caeaaeiino?
a?ae noi eioo?a, aeeaaeaieo a ei?ii?aoeai? oe?ii? iaia?e. A ?iaio?
aiae?co?oueny aeano?oeoeaiee aieea, ui cae?eniththoue caeiiiaeaa/?
iineaaeaiiy c aieo IAO oa o?yaeo ii iia?aoe?yo eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a c
iae?aaoe?yie aioo??oiuei? aea?aeaaii? iiceee (IAAeI) oa anoaiiaeaiiy
aeniei? aeioiaeiino? inoaii?o ia i?ioean eai?oaeioai?aiiy. (Na?aaei?e
iieaciee aeioiaeiino? IAAeI noaiiaea ia ii/aoie 1998 ?. 47,9 % i?e
i?ioeaioi?e noaaoe? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a 47,2 %). C?inoaiiy /anoee IAAeI
a no?oeoo?? e?aaeeoii-?iaanoeoe?eiiai ii?ooaeth aaie?a Oe?a?ie ni?ey?
aeeo/aiith e aac oiai iaiaaeaieo ?ano?n?a c ?iaanoeoe?eii? noa?e. Oiio
?acii c a?aeiiaith a?ae iie?oeee noeioethaaiiy aioo??oi?o caiice/aiue,
ui ni?yiiaothoueny ia iie?eooy iai?iaeoeoeaieo aeo?ao athaeaeaoo,
aeena?oaioii ?ic?iaeai? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei ?icaeoeo iia?aoe?e c
aeiaaino?ieiaeie e?aaeeoaie.

Aiae?c /eiiee?a, ui no?eiothoue a no/anieo oiiaao ?icaeoie e?aaeeoii?
ae?yeueiino? aaie?a, a oiio /ene? ii iaaeaiith aeiaaino?ieiaeo iicee,
aeicaieea ae?eoe aeniiaeo i?i iaiao?aei?noue cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ie?aieo
noeioethth/eo caoiae?a. Na?aae inoaii?o a ?iaio? i?iiiio?oueny aaanoe
i?eueaiaa iiiaeaoeoaaiiy i?eaooeo, ca oiiae, yeui na?aaeiuei- oa
aeiaaino?ieia? e?aaeeoe neeaaeathoue a noi? ia iaioa 50 % noeoiiiai
e?aaeeoiiai ii?ooaey aaieo, oa ca?eueieoe a?ae iiiaeaoeoaaiiy aeioiaee
aaieo, io?eiai? a?ae iia?aoe?e ii na?aaeiuei- oa aeiaaino?ieiaiio
e?aaeeooaaiith.

C iaoith ?icoe?aiiy aeaea?ae na?aaeiuei- oa aeiaaino?ieiaeo iicee
aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeai? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei iiaeeeaino? o?ainoi?iaoe?? ii
oa?i?io /anoeie ei?ioeino?ieiaeo aeeaaeaiue, ye? oaeoe/ii ciaoiaeyoueny
a aeiaaino?ieiaiio ?icii?yaeaeaii? aaieo.

Ie??i oeueiai a ?iaio? aiae?cothoueny iaoiaee o?iainoaaiiy
?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a ye iaea?eueo aoaeoeaii? oi?ie aeiaaino?ieiaeo
e?aaeeo?a oa iniaeeaee noaoon Iuaaeaaieo o iaaeaii? i?aeaaie?anueeeo
iicee oiiaiiaaaeaiei aea?aeaaith aaieai, ui cae?eniththoue
e?aaeeooaaiiy aoaeoeaieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a.

A oiiaao ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee, yea noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny a
Oe?a?i? ii?aeiaiiyi ?iaanoeoe?eii? e?ece ?c no?oeoo?ieie
aeeni?iii?oe?yie, iacaaa?oai?noth ?inoeoooe?iiaeueieo ia?aoai?aiue,
?iceaaeii ieao?aeii? oa athaeaeaoii? nenoai, iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa?
aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?ioean?a. O ca’yceo c oeei a
?iaio? aeae?eai? oa i?iaiae?ciaai? aeaa aieiaieo iaoiaee aieeao
aea?aeaae ia ?iaanoeoe?eio aeoeai?noue:

— i?yiee aieea /a?ac c?inoaiiy aea?aeaaieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo aeo?ao;

— oi?ioaaiiy ni?eyoeeai? ?iaanoeoe?eii? eii’thieoo?e /a?ac iai?yi?
iae?iaeiiii?/i? ?aaoeyoi?e — iiaeaoeiao, aii?oecaoe?eio,
a?ioiai-e?aaeeoio oa i?iieneiao iie?oeeo.

Ia ci?io i?yiei aeioaoe?yi oa noaneae?yi, ui ni?yiiaoaaeenue a caeoeia?
noa?e aeiiii?ee, a ?iaio? i?iiiiothoueny iia? iaoiaee aea?aeaaii?
?iaanoeoe?eii? iie?oeee: o/anoue o ni?eueiiio c i?eaaoiei eai?oaeii
o?iainoaaii? i?iaeo?a, iaaeaiiy e?aaeeo?a ca i?eueaiaeie i?ioeaioieie
noaaeaie, o?iainoaaiiy i?iaeo?a ca ?aooiie aeioneo aea?aeaaieo oe?iieo
iaia??a. Aieiaiei e?eoa???i aea?aeaaieo aeeaaeaiue a aeiiii?eo ia
no/aniiio aoai? iiaeii? noaoe ?o i??i?eoaoi?noue, aoaeoeai?noue oa
oaeaeea ieoii?noue.

Iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy a oiiaao aeao?oeeoo o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a iaaoaa?
/?oea aecia/aiiy iai?yie?a ?iaanooaaiiy a o? aaeoc? aeiiii?ee, ye?
caaacia/aoue ?icoe?aia a?aeoai?aiiy, oaeaeeo a?aeaea/o oa i?aeaeuaiiy
aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy. Aiae?c ?nioth/i? aaeocaai? no?oeoo?e
aea?aeaaieo i?iieneiaeo ?iaanoeoe?e aeicaieea ae?eoe aeniiaeo i?i oa, ui
aiie ia ocaiaeaeai? c iio?aaaie ?aaeueieo no?oeoo?ieo ci?i a aeiiii?oe?.
A ca’yceo c oeei a ?iaio? i?iiiio?oueny i???ioaoe?y ia oae caai? “oi/ee
c?inoaiiy”, yeeie ia no/aniiio aoai? iiaeooue noaoe oae? aaeoc?, ye
eaaea oa oa?/iaa i?iieneia?noue, aeeoeiaa aoae?aieoeoai,
aaoiiia?eaaoaeoaaiiy, eiiaa?niaaia /anoeia AIE, aea iiaeeeaa
ae?iaieoeoai aenieioaoiieia?/ii? i?iaeoeoe??; aenieiiioaioe?ei?
i?aei?e?inoaa e?oaeiaoaeoaaiiy oa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, iaea?eueo i?eaooeia? ia’?eoe ae?iaie/i? oa
nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e.

Aeio?eiaiiy ?icaeyiooeo a aeine?aeaeaii? i?eioeei?a uiaei cae?eniaiiy
aea?aeaaieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo aeo?ao aeicaieeoue oieeiooe iaaaaeaiiai
i?aeaeuaiiy athaeaeaoiiai aeao?oeeoo a aeiaaio?eaaeiio ia??iae? (/a?ac
?aae?caoe?th ioeueoeie?eaoeaiiai aoaeoo) oa ni?aaeoue noeioethth/ee
aieea ia i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ?iaanoeoe?e i?eaaoiiai naeoi?o.

Na?aae iaea?eueo ae??aeo iaoiae?a aea?aeaaiiai aieeao ia oi?ioaaiiy
ni?eyoeeaiai ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ee?iaoo a ?iaio? iaa?oioiaaii
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo noeioe?a (ciaioaiiy iiaeaoeiaiai oeneo /a?ac
canoinoaaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?euea) oa ci?io i??i?eoao?a
a?ioiai-e?aaeeoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy — a?ae iiiaoa?ieo iaiaaeaiue c iaoith
iiaeieaiiy aenieeo oaii?a ?ioeyoe?? aei iie?oeee, ni?yiiaaii? ia
noeioethaaiiy aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c aeeiai?ee iniiaieo iiiaoa?ieo iieaciee?a i?ioyaii
1992-1998 ??. aeicaieea ia?aeiiaoeny a oiio, ui ?o noeioethth/ee aieea
ia c?inoaiiy ?iaanoeoe?e ia iiaea cae?enithaaoenue aaoiiiiii, aac
ae??oaiiy i?iaeai ia i?e?i??ai?, cie?aia, aac cae?eniaiiy ?aoi?ie
i?aei?e?inoa c iaoith aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy, i?aeaeuaiiy
?aioaaaeueiino? ae?iaie/i? noa?e oa noai?aiiy nenoaie caoenoo i?aa
aeaniino? . ?acii c oei a aeine?aeaeaii? iaa?oioiaaii, ui no/ania
iae?iaeiiii?/ia neooaoe?y iio?aao? iiaeo i???ioe??a o cae?eniaii?
a?ioiai-e?aaeeoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy. Aiie iieyaathoue, ii-ia?oa, o iaaeaii?
i?ioeano o?iainiai? noaa?e?caoe?? aeiaaino?ieiaiai oa?aeoa?o, a,
ii-ae?oaa, o noai?aii? ca aeiiiiiaith iiiaoa?ieo aaaeae?a oiia aeey
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy eai?oaeo a ?aaeueiiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee, c?inoaiiy
i?aai?ciaaieo caiuaaeaeaiue ianaeaiiy oa ?o o?ainoi?iaoe?? a
?iaanoeoe?ei? aeo?aoe, ui aeoea?co? i?ioean eai?oaeioai?aiiy. O ca’yceo
c oeei aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeai? i?iiiceoe?? ii ciaioaiith ??aiy ?aca?aieo
aeiia oa iinooiiaiai cieaeaiiy na?aaei?o i?ioeaioieo noaaie
e?aaeeooaaiiy, ui noeioethaaoeia ia?ioeyoe?eia c?inoaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eiiai
iiieoo ia iice/eia? eiooe.

AENIIAEE

I?iaaaeaiee oai?aoe/iee aiae?c oa ocaaaeueiaiiy i?aeoeee ooieoe?iioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? oa ca?oa?aeieo aeiiii?e aeicaiey? c?iaeoe ianooii?
aeniiaee oa aenoiooe i?iiiceoe?? uiaei iiaeaaaeaiiy i?ioeano
eai?oaeioai?aiiy ye iaiao?aeii? oiiae ia?aoiaeo aei aeiiii?/iiai
c?inoaiiy.

Aeey ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie ianoa/? eai?oaeo a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie
iaiao?aeia ?ic?iaea oe?e?nii? aea?aeaaii? eiioeaioe?? ?icaeoeo oa
iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe?? ?iaanoeoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo. Oai?aoe/io iniiao
eiioeaioe?? ia? neeanoe ?icoi?iiy nooiino? i?ioeano eai?oaeioai?aiiy ye
?aeiino? oa iaeiiiai?aaeaiino? i?ioean?a oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo
caiuaaeaeaiue oa ?aae?caoe?? ?iaanoeoe?eii? no?aoaa??.

Aiae?c oi/ie ci?o i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo aeiiii?/ieo oe?e ia i?ioean
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy eai?oaeo aeicaieea i?ine?aeeoaaoe aaaaoioaeoi?io
caeaaei?noue ?iaanoeoe?eii? noa?e a?ae iaaiiai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
na?aaeiaeua oa ia??iaeo ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee. A oiiaao aeiiii?/iiai
niaaeo, coiiaeaiiai e?eoe/iei noaiii ae?iaie/iai naeoi?o oa no?oeoo?ieie
aeeni?iii?oe?yie aeiiii?ee, iaea?eueo ae??aei caniaii aeinyaiaiiy
iiceoeaii? aeeiai?ee ?icaeoeo ? aeoea?caoe?y iaoai?cio eai?oaeioai?aiiy,
yeee iieyaa? o oi?ioaaii? iaoe?iiaeueieo caiuaaeaeaiue, c iaeiiai aieo,
oa noai?aii? iae?i- oa i?e?iee?iaoo aeey ?o ?iaanoeoe?eiiai
aeei?enoaiiy, c ?ioiai.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy na?oiaiai aeina?aeo oi?ioaaiiy eai?oaeo a e?a?iao c
iaaeineiiaei ?icaeiooeie iaoai?ciaie ?eieiaiai naii?aaoethaaiiy
aeiaiaeeoue i?aeoe/io iaiiaeeea?noue ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie ianoa/?
eai?oaeo ca aeiiiiiaith aeeeth/ii ciai?oi?o (?iicaiieo) ?ano?n?a. Oiio
aecia/aeueiei i?eioeeiii i?e ?ic?iaoe? aea?aeaaii? ?iaanoeoe?eii?
eiioeaioe?? iiaeiia noaoe i???ioaoe?y ia aioo??oi? iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ano?ne
oa iaoiaee ?o iia?e?caoe??, ia noai?aiiy ??aieo oiia aeey a?o/eciyiiai
oa ?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo.

I?iaaaeaiee a ?iaio? aiae?c ??aiy oa no?oeoo?e iaoe?iiaeueieo
caiuaaeaeaiue na?ae/eoue i?i cia/iee iioaioe?ae i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai
naeoi?o o ?o oi?ioaaii? (noia?ia /anoea o AAI aii?oecaoe??, /enoiai
i?eaooeo oa ci?oaiiai aeioiaeo neeaaeaea o 1997 ?. 37%).

O ca’yceo c oeei iniaeeaa i?noea a ?aae?caoe?? aea?aeaaii?
?iaanoeoe?eii? eiioeaioe?? iiaeiia caeiaoe iiaeaoeiai-aii?oecaoe?eia
iie?oeea, ni?yiiaaia ia c?inoaiiy iiaeeeainoae eai?oaeioai?aiiy. Oea
aeiaaa? aeio?eiaiiy eo?no ia iinooiiaa cieaeaiiy iiaeaoeiaiai oeneo,
i?eieiaiiy i?aeoeee aeeo/aiiy aii?oecaoe?eieo a?ae?aooaaiue oa
aeei?enoaiiy ?o ia ca i?ecia/aiiyi, aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy
aace oa ii?i aii?oecaoe??.

Nooo?aee noeioethth/ee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy ?ano?n?a i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai
naeoi?o caeaoai ni?aaeoe ia?ao?ae a?ae na?oeo?eaoii? aei a?ioiai?
iiaeae? i?eaaoecaoe??. Iiaeeea?noue i?eaeaaiiy iioaioe?eiei ?iaanoi?ii
eiio?ieueiiai iaeaoo aeoe?e i?aei?e?inoa, ui i?eaaoecothoueny, nooo?ai
?icoe?th? ciai?oi? oa aioo??oi? aeaea?aea eai?oaeioai?aiiy a ?aaeueiiio
naeoi??. Eeoa oi?ioaaiiy ?aaeueieo aeaniee?a caeaoia caae?yoe
iioeaaoe?eio nenoaio caoe?eaaeaiino? o aeiaaino?ieiaiio ?icaeoeo
i?aei?e?inoa, a, ioaea, iaa?iiaaeaeaii? caiuaaeaeaieo oa ?iaanoeoe?eieo
?ano?n?a.

Aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueii? ?iaanoeoe?eii?
eiioeaioe?? iiaeiia noaoe iie?oeea, ni?yiiaaia ia noeioethaaiiy
?iaanoeoe?eii? neeaaeiai? o no?oeoo?? caiuaaeaeaiue i?eaaoieo in?a. Oea
aeiaaa? iineaaeaiiy ae?? oaeoi??a, ui i?ecaiaeyoue ia aeaiiio aoai?
aei caa?aaeaiiy aio?aeiaeo oi?i caiuaaeaeaiue aeiiiainiiaea?noa –
aenieeo ?ioeyoe?eieo i/?eoaaiue, eaniaeo ?ic?ea?a o n?iaeieo athaeaeaoao
/a?ac cao?eiee o aeieao? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe; aaeeeeo o?ainaeoe?eieo aeo?ao
oa ?ecee?a, iia’ycaieo c ia?aaaaeaiiyi aio?aee o caiuaaeaeaiiy o
aeaeyae? oe?iieo iaia??a.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c athaeaeaoiiai i?ioeano a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie aeia?a,
ui a?ae’?ii? aea?aeaai? caiuaaeaeaiiy cae?eniththoue iaaaoeaiee aieea ia
iiaeeeaino? c?inoaiiy o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a i?eaaoiiai naeoi?o. Oiio aac
iaeo?ae?caoe?? aoaeoo aeo?niaiiy ?iaanoeoe?e, ui ia? i?noea /a?ac
c?inoath/? ianyae o?iainoaaiiy aeao?oeeoo athaeaeaoo ca aeiiiiiaith
aioo??oi?o iicee, oi?ioaaiiy i?eaaoieo caiuaaeaeaiue ia iaoeia
ia?niaeoea.

Ioaea, aeey iine?aeiaiiai i?iaaaeaiiy athaeaeaoii? iie?oeee, ni?yiiaaii?
ia aaeaeaaoio oiiaai ianoa/? aioo??oiueiai eai?oaeo ?aoe?iiae?caoe?th
aeo?aoieo noaoae, iaiao?aeii cae?eniaiiy iinoaoaeiiai eiio?ieth ca ?o
oe?eueiaei aeei?enoaiiyi, iiiiaiaiiy aeioiaeii? /anoeie athaeaeaoo
iaaeoiaeaeaiiyie a?ae eaaae?caoe?? o?iueiaeo eai?oae?a, i?eaaoecaoe??
aea?aeaaii? aeaniino? oa iiaeaaaeaiiy ae?eiai? aeoeaiino?.

C?inoaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie iaiiaeeeaa aac
aeoeaiiai ?icaeoeo o?iainiaiai ?eieo, yeee caaacia/o? ni?eyoeea? oiiae
aeey o?ainoi?iaoe?? iaoe?iiaeueieo caiuaaeaeaiue oa ?ioeo a?eueieo
o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a a ?iaanoeoe?? ?aaeueiiai naeoi?o. Iaiao?aeiith
oiiaith cae?eniaiiy oeueiai i?ioeano ? i?iaaaeaiiy iie?oeee
“iiaeeaeaiiy” o?iainiai? nenoaie, ni?yiiaaii? ia ?icaeoie iniiaieo
?inoeoooe?iiaeueieo iaeeieoeue o?iainiaiai ?eieo, ui a iaeaooiueiio
a?cueiooue ia naaa ooieoe?? ?iaanoeoe?eii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? caeo/aieo
eioo?a.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy noaio ye aaie?anueei? nenoaie a oe?eiio, oae
? ?? ie?aiiai no?oeoo?iiai noa’?eoo – AO “Oe?a?inueeee ?iiiaaoe?eiee
aaie”, aeicaieea ae?eoe aeniiaeo, ui ia aeaiiio aoai? ?icaeoeo
o?iainiai? nenoaie Oe?a?ie naia aaiee caeaoi? noaoe iniiaiith eaieith
?iaanoeoe?eiiai iaoai?cio, yeee iiaeiai ii?aeioaaoe ?ioa?ane aeaniee?a
a?eueieo o?iainiaeo eioo?a, c iaeiiai aieo, oa ?iaanoeoe?eiee iiieo
?aaeueii? noa?e, c ?ioiai.

Oea iio?aao? a?aeoiaeo a?ae iie?oeee ooo/iiai noeioethaaiiy ?icaeoeo
?eieo aea?aeaaieo ai?aiaeo ciaia’ycaiue oa noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaiai
caeiiiaeaa/iai iiey, yea /a?ac cai?iiiiiaaio a ?iaio? nenoaio noeioe?a
oa i?euea o noa?? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, ?aca?aieo aeiia, iiaeeeainoae
i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo o?ainoi?iaoe?? caeo/aieo eioo?a a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ia??iaeo ?o aeei?enoaiiy (“oai??y caeeoeo”) ni?eyoeia
c?inoaiith ?iaanoeoe?eieo iia?aoe?e aaie?anueeeo onoaiia ia ?eieo
ei?ii?aoeaieo oe?iieo iaia??a oa o noa?? aeiaaino?ieiaiai e?aaeeooaaiiy.

Aiae?c ?icaeoeo na?oiaeo aeiiii?e ia i?eeeaae? e?a?i, ye? ia?aaoaaee a
oiiaao iecueei? ?iaanoeoe?eii? aeoeaiino?, aeia?a, ui c?inoaiiy
eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue aea?aeaae, ni?yiiaaieo ia ?icaeoie
no?oeoo?ii-i?iieneiaeo i??i?eoao?a, cae?enith? noeioethth/ee aieea ia
ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a ?iaanoeoe?eieo aeo?ao o i?eaaoiiio naeoi??. O
ca’yceo c oeei ?nio? ia’?eoeaii iaoiiaeaia iaiao?aei?noue oi?ioaaiiy
athaeaeaoo ?icaeoeo ia i?ioeaaao ?nioth/?e o a?o/eciyi?e i?aeoeoe?
oaiaeaioe?? i?aeoe/ii iiaiiai iaiaaeaiiy ooieoe?e aea?aeaae ye i?yiiai
?iaanoi?a.

I?e oeueiio iaiao?aeii ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe iia? iaoiaee cae?eniaiiy
aea?aeaaieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo aeo?ao – o/anoue o ni?eueiiio c i?eaaoiei
eai?oaeii o?iainoaaii? i?iaeo?a, e?aaeeooaaiiy ca i?eueaiaeie
i?ioeaioieie noaaeaie, aeione oe?iieo iaia??a i?ae o?iainoaaiiy
ia?niaeoeaieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a. Oaeei /eiii caaacia/oaaoeiooueny
iniiai? i?eioeeie aea?aeaaieo aeeaaeaiue a aeiiii?eo – i??i?eoaoi?noue,
aoaeoeai?noue oa oaeaeea ieoii?noue.

Oeueiio ni?eyoeia noai?aiiy a?aeiia?aeieo ?inoeoooe?iiaeueieo no?oeoo?
(ia c?acie aea?aeaaiiai aaieo ?icaeoeo) oa iaa?oioiaaiee aea??
caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aaeocaaeo i??i?eoao?a, ui aeicaieeoue oieeiooe
i?aeaeuaiiy athaeaeaoiiai aeao?oeeoo.

Eiiieaenia aeei?enoaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo ia aac? i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?eioeei?a ?ic?iaee aea?aeaaii? eiioeaioe?? c?inoaiiy
?iaanoeoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo aeanoue ciiao, ia iaoo aeoieo, aeoea?coaaoe
i?ioean eai?oaeioai?aiiy oa aeaanoe iaoe?iiaeueio aeiiii?eo ia
o?a?eoi??th aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoee aena?oeaiiy o ianooiieo
ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a :

1. Nieieianueea ?. Iai?yiee oi?ioaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eieo aeo?ao aea?aeaae.
// Aeiiii?ea. O?iaine.I?aai.-1998.-?4.-N.5-14.

2. Nieieianueea ?. Iaoe?iiaeuei? aeaea?aea eai?oaeioai?aiiy : noai oa
ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo //O?iaine Oe?a?ie.-1998.-?8.-N.69-76.

3.Nieieianueea ?. Aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?ioeano a
oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo ia?aoai?aiue // A?niee
EAeOAO.-1998.-?4.-N.69-76.

4. Nieieianueea ?. ?icaeoie o?iainiaeo iina?aaeiee?a oa aeoea?caoe?y
i?ioeano eai?oaeioai?aiiy a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie //A?niee
EAeOAO.-1999.-?1.-N.66-74.

5. Nieieianueea ?. ?ieue ?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?ioeano o oi?ioaaii? ?eieiaiai
na?aaeiaeua a Oe?a?i? // Oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei oa i?iaeaie ?o
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a eo?nao aeiiii?/ieo aeenoeeie?i. Ca??i. iaoe.
noao.-*.?.-Iaeana: IAeAO,1997.-N.62-65.

6. Aaceeaae/ A., Nieieianueea ?. Aeieaein?ainuee? iiaeyaee ia i?iaeaio
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy eai?oaeo // Aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie. – 1997. — ?11. – N.64-69.
(aaoi?ii i?iaiae?ciaai? eeane/i? oai??? iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy eai?oaeo oa
aecia/aii caeiiii??iino? ?o aaiethoe??).

7. Aaceeaae/ A.Ae., Nieieianueea ?.I. Oeyoe oi?ioaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eiiai
eai?oaeo // Aeiiii?/i? i?iaeaie iaae?iaie/i? noa?e. Ca??i. iaoe. i?. –
E.: EAeOAO, 1998. — N.105-109. (aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaii iniiai? /eiieee
c?inoaiiy aioo??oi?o aeaea?ae ?iaanoeoe?eiiai eai?oaeo oa
i?iaiae?ciaaiee na?oiaee aeina?ae ii ?aoe?iiaeueiiio aeei?enoaiith
?ano?n?a ?icaeoeo).

8. Aaceeaae/ A., Nieieianueea ?. I?iaeaia aeoea?caoe?? aioo??oiueiai
iioaioe?aeo iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy eai?oaeo c iaoith eiai ?iaanooaaiiy //
A?niee EAeOAO. – 1998 — ?1.-N.18-23. ( aaoi?ii aecia/ai? iniiai?
iai?yiee ci?i aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee ii oi?ioaaiith aoaeoeaiiai iaoai?cio
?iaanoeoe?eii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? a?eueieo o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a).

9. Aaceeaae/ A.Ae., Nieieianueea ?.I. Iaoiaeieia?/i? i?iaeaie
aeeeaaeaiiy iae?iaeiiii?/ieo aeenoeeie?i // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
aoiai?oa?ii? ina?oe oa aeoiaaiiy aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e nooaeaio?a o
no/anieo oiiaao. Oace aeiiia?aeae ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e
eiioa?aioe??. – E.:EAeOAO, 1996. – N. 180-182. (aaoi?ii iaa?oioiaaia
aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai ?iaanoeoe?eii? noa?e a i?ioean?
aeeeaaeaiiy iae?iaeiiii?/ieo aeenoeeie?i).

10. Nieieianeay E.I., O?onoae?aa A.A. I?iaeaiu
eiaanoeoeeiiii-eiiiaaoeeiiiie iieeoeee a iinoi?eaaoecaoeeiiiue ia?eiae.
// I?iaeaiu oa??eoi?eaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey e iiaeaea?aeee i?aaei?eyoee a
iinoi?eaaoecaoeeiiiue ia?eiae. Iaoa?eaeu iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie
eiioa?aoeee. – Aeiiaoee.:Ei-o yeiiiieee i?iiuoeaiiinoe IAI Oe?aeiu,
1996.– N.120-123.(aaoi?ii noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? iai?yiee oi?ioaaiiy
?iaanoeoe?eii-?iiiaaoe?eii? iioeaaoe?? ia i?e?i??ai?).

AIIOAOe?ss

Nieieianueea ?.I. I?ioean eai?oaeioai?aiiy a o?ainoi?iaoe?ei?e
aeiiii?oe?.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.01.01 — aeiiii?/ia oai??y.- Ee?anueeee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,Ee?a,1999.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith nooiino? i?ioeana
eai?oaeioai?aiiy a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? aeiiii?ee. ?ice?eoi
iae?iaeiiii?/iee aniaeo i?ioeano eai?oaeioai?aiiy ia aac? aiae?co
no?oeoo?e, aeeiai?ee iaoe?iiaeueieo caiuaaeaeaiue oa iiaeeeainoae ?o
?iaanoeoe?eiiai aeei?enoaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui caaacia/aiiy oiia aeey
aeoea?caoe?? caiuaaeaeoaaeueii-?iaanoeoe?eieo i?ioean?a ? iaiao?aeiei
/eiieeii iiaeieaiiy o?ainoi?iaoe?eiiai niaaeo. Iaa?oioiaaii aaaeo/o
?ieue aaie?anueei? nenoaie a aeoioeyoe?? caiuaaeaeaieo ?ano?n?a.
?ic?iaeaii nenoaio i?iiiceoe?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia c?inoaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo
caiuaaeaeaiue, ?icaeoie ?iaanoeoe?eieo iia?aoe?e aaie?a oa
aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiae?a aea?aeaaiiai aieeao ia i?ioean eai?oaeioai?aiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eai?oaeioai?aiiy, iaoe?iiaeuei? caiuaaeaeaiiy,
?iaanoeoe??, iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy eai?oaeo, o?iainia? iina?aaeieee,
eiia?oe?ei? aaiee, aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy, ?iaanoeoe?eiee iioaioe?ae.

AIIIOAOeEss

Nieieianeay E.I. I?ioeann eaieoaeiia?aciaaiey a o?ainoi?iaoeeiiiie
yeiiiieea. -?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.01.01 — yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey. Eeaaneee
oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa,1999.

Aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth nouiinoe i?ioeanna
eaieoaeiia?aciaaiey a oneiaeyo o?ainoi?iaoeeiiiie yeiiiieee. ?ane?uo
iae?iyeiiiie/aneee aniaeo i?ioeanna eaieoaeiia?aciaaiey ia iniiaa
aiaeeca no?oeoo?u, aeeiaieee iaoeeiiaeueiuo naa?aaeaiee e aiciiaeiinoae
eo eiaanoeoeeiiiiai eniieueciaaiey. Onoaiiaeaii aaaeouoth ?ieue
aaieianeie nenoaiu a aeeoioee?iaaiee ?ano?nia naa?aaeaiey. ?ac?aaioaii
nenoaio i?aaeeiaeaiee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia aic?anoaiea iaoeeiiaeueiuo
naa?aaeaiee, ?acaeoea eiaanoeoeeiiiuo iia?aoeee aaieia e
oniaa?oainoaiaaiea iaoiaeia ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeeyiey ia i?ioeann
eaieoaeiia?aciaaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eaieoaeiia?aciaaiea, iaoeeiiaeueiua naa?aaeaiey,
eiaanoeoeee, iaeiieaiea eaieoaea, oeiainiaua iin?aaeieee, eiiia?/aneea
aaiee, ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea, eiaanoeoeeiiiue iioaioeeae.

SYNOPSIS

Sokolovska I.P. The process of capital formation in the transitional
economy.-Manuscript.

Dissertation conferral of the academic degree of the Candidate of
Economic Sciences, specialisation 08.01.01 — Economic Theory. Kyiv
University named by Taras Shevchenko, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to researching the essence of the capital
formation process in the transitional economy. There has been
investigated macroeconomic aspect of the capital formation process, the
essence of which lies in the unity and interdependence between the
formation of the savings resources of economic subjects and the
conditions of their transformation into investments of the production
sector.

The dissertation summarizes the contents and the evolution of thoughts
of the main economic conceptions regarding the process of accumulation,
savings and investment, as well as the world experience of capital
formation in certain groups of countries.

Based on this, the general economic principles of the capital formation
process have been highlighted in the dissertation, these should be taken
into consideration when developing measures of the economic policy in
the national economy. The research supports the idea that methods and
dynamics of capital formation crucially affect the trajectory of the
economy development. In this connection the need to pursue active state
policy aimed at stimulating the capital formation process in the
economies with insufficient standard of market selfregulation is being
proven. The strategic role of internal sources of capital formation as
compared to the attraction of foreign funds is being emphasized.

The dissertation contains the analysis of the current state and growth
prospects of national savings components (savings of households,
enterprises, and the state) as a resource base for the capital formation
process. The ways to enhance income, depreciation, and taxation policy
aimed at improving the conditions for private sector savings formation
(households and enterprises) are being recommended. Also, the
destructive influence of the minus been revealed and the mechanism of
neutralizing «crowding out effect» of private savings has been
suggested.

In the research there negative savings of the state upon the resource
potential of capital formation has have been developed the
recommendations to improve investment activities of financial
intermediaries and the idea of the crucial role of the banking system in
the investment transformation of the saved funds at the current stage of
economic development of the national financial market has been
backgrounded. The conceptually new approach to the development of
methods of state influence upon the process of capital formation.

Key words: capital formation, national savings, investments, capital
accumulation, financial intermediaries, commercial banks, state
regulation, investment potential.

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