1

?INOEOOO IAAeAAIA?EE AII OE?A?IE

IIAAE?ANUeEA Ethaeieea Aieiaeeie??aia

OAeE 37(09)(477)

I?INA?OIEOeUeEA Ae?ssEUeI?NOUe? IAAeAAIA?*I? IIAEssAeE IEAIE I*?EEE

13.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiyeaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee Aioiiaoeue Ieoaeei sseiae/, ?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee AII
Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi??? oai??? oa ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Cae/aiei ?aai
Aaneeueiae/, *a?i?a?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee, ineoieia?? ? iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy
iaoaiaoeee

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee O?eiiaiei
Na?a?e Ieeieaeiae/, I?ae?aa?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii,
i?i?aeoi?

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: A?iieoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao
?iai? Ieoaeea Eioethaeinueeiai

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 27 » ea?oiy 1999 ?. i 1400 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 26.452.03 a ?inoeooo? iaaeaaia?ee AII
Oe?a?ie. (252054, i.Ee?a, aoe.A?oaia, 52a).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e /anoei? ?inoeoooo
iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 27 aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaiie a/aii? ?aaee i?io.Eaaeee I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue ? nooi?iue aeine?aeaeaiino? oaie. Ia iei?oiueiio aoai?
noaiiaeaiiy Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae ia?aae ia?iaeiith ina?oith iinoathoue
aaaeeea? e a?aeiia?aeaeuei? caaaeaiiy. sse cacia/a?oueny o Aea?aeaai?e
iaoe?iiaeuei?e i?ia?ai? “Ina?oa (Oe?a?ia OO? noie?ooy)”, caii?oea ?o
oni?oiiai ae??oaiiy iieyaa? o iiaeieaii? “aeaaaeueaaoe??
caaaeueiiethaenueeeo aoiai?noe/ieo oe?iiinoae oa iaoe?iiaeueiiai
i?a?e?cio, a?ae??aaiino? ina?oe a?ae iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?oioo”. Naia oiio
aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue o aea/aii? iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie ieioeiai, ui
i?noeoue nea?aieoeth ina?oiuei-aeoiaieo ?aeae, ye? iiaeooue aooe oai?/i
?icaeioo? ? oni?oii canoiniaai? a no/anieo oiiaao. Caaaeueiia?aeiii, ui
iaoooaaoe caeiaooeaie iiia?aaeiee?a — icia/a? ao?a/aoe ca’ycie i?ae
iieie?iiyie, ?iaeoe iaiiaiioe?iiei iaeaooi?. A?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaaeaaiue
a?o/eciyii? iaaeaaia?ee aeanoue iiaeeea?noue c?icoi?oe ?icaeoie ina?oe
oa iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee a Oe?a?i?, aeiiiiiaea ciaeoe oeyoe ? caniae
?aae?caoe?? iia?oi?o eiioeaioe?e iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy.

Aeooaeueiei ? aea/aiiy ae?yeueiino? ? iiaeyae?a oe?a?inueeeo iaaeaaia?a
— i?ina?oeoae?a, o/aieo, ienueiaiiee?a, ui o ieioe? aeanyoee?ooy
iani?aaaaeeeai caiia/oaaeeny, oaeueneo?eoaaeeny. Ca ?iee ?nioaaiiy
Oe?a?ie ye naiino?eii? aea?aeaae iaaeaaia?/ia iaoea c?iaeea iaaiee
iinooi oia?aae o aeine?aeaeaii? oai?/i? niaaeueie oeo ae?y/?a oeiee,
ina?oe ? iaaeaaia?ee, ye? ni?eyee ?o ?icaeoeo (A.A??i/aiei,
I.Ae?aaiiaiia, ?.Ia/oe-Eaaeoeueeee, ?.Ia??iei. N. ?oniaa, ss.*ai?aa oa
?i.). Aiaeii/an ae?yeuei?noue ? iaaeaaia?/i? ?aea? aeayeeo c ieo ua ia
aea/ai? ? ia nenoaiaoeciaai?. O ca’yceo c oeei ia?aae ?noi?eeaie
oe?a?inueei? iaaeaaia?ee iinoa? iaiaeee ianya ?iaioe, iia’ycaiee c
iiaa?iaiiyi ?iai ethaeae, ye? caaeey aeooiaiiai caaaa/aiiy naiai ia?iaeo
a?aeaeaaaee aeani? neee, caei?ia’y, a ia??aeei e aeeooy.

Aei ieayaee ae?y/?a, ye? c?iaeee cia/iee aianie a oe?a?inueeo ina?oo ?
eoeueoo?o, iaeaaeeoue Ieueaa Iao??aia Ae?aaiiaiiaa-Eina/ (1849-1930),
a?eueoa a?aeiia i?ae inaaaeii?iii Ieaia I/?eea. Aaaaea?oueny, ui ia aoei
oaei? noa?e aoiai?oa?ii? iaoee ? eoeueoo?e, aea a aiia ia i?iyaeea naaa
ye aenieiiaaea?iaaia iniaeno?noue.

Ia i?aaaeeeee aeaeue, ?i’y Ieaie I/?eee ye iaaeaaiaa-i?ina?oeoaey iaeaea
iaa?aeiia oe?ie?e iaaeaaia?/i?e a?iiaaenueeino?. ?? i?eiaa?aeii
caaaeoaaee eeoa ye iao?? Ean? Oe?a?iee ? nano?o I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa. ?ieue
ienueiaiieoe? o eoeueoo?iiio ? e?oa?aoo?iiio aeeoo? Oe?a?ie iacaneoaeaii
caiia/oaaeany. A aioeeeeiiaae?yo ?aaeyinueeeo /an?a i?inoaaeo?oueny oaea
?? oa?aeoa?enoeea: noiyea ia “ao?aeoacii-iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneie iiceoeee
(ANY), ?? oai?e — “iicia/ai? aieeaii e?aa?aeueii-ia?iaeieoeueeeo ?
eoeueoo?ieoeueeeo ?aeae” (O?AN).

Aiaeii/an c iiaeyaeo nueiaiaeaiiy iiaeia aeciaoe, ui Ieaia I/?eea ye
naiiaooiy, oai?/a, oe?eani?yiiaaia iniaeno?noue, aeoeaiee caoeniee i?aa
naiai ia?iaeo aienaea a ?noi??th oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaia?eio/o noi??ieo. Noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? oeiee,
?icaeoie ina?oe a Oe?a?i? ia i?eioeeiao aoiai?cio ? aeaiie?aoecio,
ao?eaiiy a aeeooy eiioeaioe?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy, ina?oe ?
iaa/aiiy niiioeathoue aei iiaiai i?aeoiaeo o aea/aii? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?
? oai?/i? niaaeueie oe??? iaia?an?/ii? iniaenoino?. Aiae?c ?? ooaeiaei?o
oai??a, ioae?oeenoe/ieo noaoae, ai?noiey?ii? niaaeueie,
a?iiaaenueei-i?ina?oieoeueei? ? iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? aea?
iiaeeea?noue ia’?eoeai?oa i?aaenoaaeoe aaaaoia?aiio oai?/o
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue iai?aeeia?ii? iinoao? Ieaie I/?eee ? caaaaoeoe
?noi??th oe?a?inueei? ina?oe ? iaaeaaia?ee aei?iaeii aeaeaoii? oe?a?iee,
yeo ca ??aiai ? ianyaii i?ina?oieoeueei? ?iaioe no/ani? aeine?aeieee
noaaeyoue ia iaeei uaaaeue c O?enoeiith Ae/aanueeith oa Nio??th
?oniaith.

Ia?o? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?i Ieaio I/?eeo c’yaeeeny o 60-o ?ieao. ?o
cae?eniea o/aiee-e?oa?aoo?iciaaaoeue A.*a?ieoia, iaae?oeoaaaoe e?eueea
noaoae o iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo oa e?oa?aoo?ii-ooaeiaei?o aeo?iaeao. Aea
oe? i?aoe?, ye ? an? ianooii? (I.Aeoiaanueea, I.Aiaothe, I.Noaaeoeueeee,
?.Oaae?ianueeee), i?enay/ai? ia?aaaaeii e?oa?aoo?iiio aei?iaeo
ienueiaiieoe?. A iniiaiiio — oea ia?aaeiiae aei aeaeaiue ?? ooaeiaei?o
oai??a.

Cia/iei aianeii o c’ynoaaiiy ieoaiiy i?i iniiai? aoaie aeeoo?aiai oeyoo
? oai?/ino? ienueiaiieoe? noaee aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy
E.Ae?ioaiue “Oai?/?noue Ieaie I/?eee a eiioaeno? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e
ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX — ii/aoeo XX noie?oue” (1992) oa iiiia?ao?y
A.Aoeyea “Ieaia I/?eea. Ia?en aeeooy ? oai?/ino?” (1996) . Oe? aaoi?e
c?iaeee ni?iao ii-iiaiio inieneeoe aeeooy ? oai?/?noue ienueiaiieoe?,
aeaoe c iiceoe?e nueiaiaei?oiueiai aeiy ioe?ieo ?? e?oa?aoo?ii? i?aoe?.
Aiae?coth/e aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue, ooaeiaeith niaaeueio Ieaie I/?eee,
iacaai? iaoeiaoe? oi?eathoueny oaeiae ?? ?ie? a eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiio
?on? Oe?a?ie. Iaeiae oea ia?aaaaeii eiinoaoaoe?y, oiai ui aiia aaea
aeoeaio aeaeaaie/o ae?yeuei?noue, cae?aea ia?iaeiiiiaoe/io oai?/?noue,
i?aoethaaea a e?oa?aoo?ieo oiaa?enoaao, caeiaeany iaaeaaia?/iith
ae?yeuei?noth a ?iaeeiiiio eie?.

Oe?iiee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae ciaoiaeeii o ?ic?iaeao a/aieo oe?a?inueei?
ae?anii?e (E.Ae?aaeaanueea, I.Eina/-E?eaeithe, ?.Eina/-Ai?eniaa,
A.Eaca?aanueeee, I.Iaea?/aiei, ?.*aeeianueeee), ui cia/iith i??ith
onoaathoue iaaeinoaoith ia’?eoeai?noue ie?aieo aeine?aeaeaiue, a yeeo,
cie?aia, iaaeiioe?ith?oueny iaaeaaia?/iee oaeaio Ieaie I/?eee ? ?? ?ieue
o aeoiaaii? ae?oae. Oae, I.Aaaeoe?i, A.Eo?aoiaa, ?.Oeiainueea
iaaiioeaiaaii i?eiaiooaaee aieea iaoa?? ia oi?ioaaiiy oa?aeoa?o ?
na?oiaeyaeo Ean? Oe?a?iee, a?aeaeath/e iaeueio ia?oino? aeyaeueeia? —
I.Ae?aaiiaiiao. Iaeiae anaa?/iee ? ia’?eoeaiee aiae?c aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?
?iaeeie Eina/?a na?ae/eoue i?i iacaia?a/i? ia?aaaae iaoa?einueei? oeiee
Ieaie I/?eee, ?? aieea ye neeueii? ? ioaeiuei? iniaenoino? ia oa?aeoa? ?
iiaeyaee Ean? oa ?ioeo ae?oae. Oaei? ae aeoiee aeio?eiothoueny
aeine?aeieee aeeooy ? oai?/ino? Ean? Oe?a?iee I.Ae?ae-Oia?a ? I.Ca?ia,
ye? ua o 20-o ?ieao cacia/aee, ui o?eueee caaaeyee iaoa?? aeiiueea noaea
aeaeaoiith oe?a?inueeith ienueiaiieoeath, aeineiiaei iaieiae?ea ??aeiith
iiaith. Cae/aeii, ?o i?aoe? aoee a?aeii? I.Aaaeoe?io, A.Eo?aoia?e oa
?ioei ?aaeyinueeei iaoeiaoeyi, iaeiae o oiae?oi?e oiiaao ?o ia a?eueii
aoei aeei?enoiaoaaoe.

Iaeiei ?c ia?oeo aei aea/aiiy e?oa?aoo?ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie Ieaie
I/?eee caa?ioany I.Iaea?/aiei. A?i iniaenoi aoa ciaeiiee c
ienueiaiieoeath ? iacaaa ?? i?iia?ii o iaoe?iiaeueiiio aeoiaaii? ae?oae.

Cia/ii c??n ?ioa?an aei iniaenoino? Ieaie I/?eee a inoaii? ?iee
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy. C’yaeeiny /eiaei noaoae ia
eeoa i?i ?? e?oa?aoo?io oai?/?noue, iaoeiao oa a?iiaaenueeo i?aoeth
(O.Ai?enthe, A.?aaiaiei, A.?nei?ei-Aiaoaiei, E.Iaoiaiei, E.No?oaaiaoeue,
I.Oaeai/oe oa ?i.) aea e iaaeaaia?/io ae?yeuei?noue (A.Aa?aoia,
E.Eiiae?aoaiei, A.Nayoiaaoeue oa ?i.). Iniaeeaee ?ioa?an na?aae no/anieo
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue aeeeeea? aeine?aeaeaiiy A.Iaeianueei? “I?aeoeea ?
aeina?ae aeoiaaiiy o ?iaeei? Eina/?a” (1996). Iaeiae ana ae ne?ae
cacia/eoe, ui iica oaaaith iaoeiaoey, ye ? ?? iiia?aaeiee?a, caeeoeeiny
/eiaei iaiioae?eiaaieo a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a, a naia aiie ? aeiiiaiththoue
aeei?enoai? aeine?aeieeaie oaeoe, aeathoue iiaeeea?noue aeeaoa ?ice?eoe
iaaeaaia?/i? iiaeyaee ienueiaiieoe? ? ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ??
i?ina?oieoeueeo ae?yeuei?noue.

Iacaaaeath/e ia iayai?noue cacia/aii? e?eueeino? i?aoeue, oe?e?niiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?i Ieaio I/?eeo ye iaaeaaiaa-i?ina?oeoaey iiee ui iaia?.
Aeooaeuei?noue ? iaaeinoaoiy iaoeiaa ?ic?iaea oe??? i?iaeaie coiiaeee
aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?? “I?ina?oieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue ? iaaeaaia?/i?
iiaeyaee Ieaie I/?eee”.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aoiaeeoue aei ieaio iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?inoeoooo iaaeaaia?ee
AII Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy — aena?oeeoe ? iaoeiai iaa?oiooaaoe aianie Ieaie
I/?eee o i?ina?oieoeueeee ?oo a Oe?a?i? ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O — ii/aoeo
OO noie?oue, i?iaiae?coaaoe ? ocaaaeueieoe ?? iaaeaaia?/i? iiaeyaee.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

 c’ynoaaoe oiiae oa ianoaaeie ca yeeo a?aeaoaaeiny oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai na?oiaeyaeo Ieaie I/?eee, ui aecia/ea ia ni?yiiaai?noue
?? i?ina?oieoeueei-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?;

 ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe a?iiaaenueei-i?ina?oieoeueeo ae?yeuei?noue
ienueiaiieoe? a oea?ei? a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? ina?oe, iaoee,
eoeueoo?e, iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? ia?iaeo;

 i?iaiae?coaaoe i?aeoe/iee aeina?ae Ieaie I/?eee o noaiiaeaii? iniia
oe?a?inueei? iaoa?einueei? oeiee, ?iaeeiiiai aeoiaaiiy;

 ?ice?eoe nooi?noue iaaeaaia?/ieo iiaeyae?a Ieaie I/?eee;

 iieacaoe cia/aiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie Ieaie I/?eee aeey no/anii?
ina?oiuei-aeoiaii? oai??? ? i?aeoeee.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy: iaoeiai-?noi?e/iee, ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iee,
i?iaeaiiee ? eia?/iee aiae?c. O i?ioean? ?iaioe aeei?enoiaoaaeenue:
oai?aoe/iee aiae?c iaaeaaia?/ii?, ?noi?e/ii?, ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e,
a?o?aieo aeaea?ae, i?aoeue a?o/eciyieo iiaiciaaoe?a, e?oa?aoo?iciaaoe?a;
nenoaiaoecaoe?y oaeo?a oa yaeu, o?iiieia?/iee, ii??aiyeueiee oa
?ao?iniaeoeaiee iaoiaee.

Iniiaieie aeaea?aeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee:

 e?oa?aoo?ii-ioae?oeenoe/i? oai?e, iaoeia? i?aoe? Ieaie I/?eee, ??
aaoia?ia?ao?/i? iioaoee, iioae?eiaaiee ai?noiey??e, a oaeiae ?oeiiene
oai??a, eenoe, iaoa??aee, ui caa??aathoueny o oiiaeao ?oeiieniiai
a?aeae?eo ?inoeoooo e?oa?aoo?e ?i. O.A.Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie, iaoa??aee
?inoeoooo ?oeiien?a Iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ioaee Oe?a?ie ?i. A.?.
Aa?iaaenueeiai, Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao Oe?a?ie o
i. Ee?a?, Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao Oe?a?ie o i.
Eueaia?, ?oeiieniiai a?aeae?eo Euea?anueei? iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee ?i.
A.Noaoaieea IAI Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae oe?a?inueea ia??iaee/ia i?ana e?ioey
XIX — ii/aoeo XX no.;

 ?iaioe aeaeaoieo a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo iaaeaaia?a A.A??i/aiea,
ss.Eiiainueeiai, N.?oniai?, E.Ooeinueeiai, A.Nooiieeinueeiai oa ?i.,
i?enay/ai? ??ciei aniaeoai oai??? ? i?aeoeee aeoiaaiiy oa iaa/aiiy
ae?oae ? iieiae?;

 aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui aaciina?aaeiuei ia oi?eathoueny aeaii? i?iaeaie,
iaeiae neoaeaoue ci?noiaei eiioaenoii, aaeaeaaoiith iaoiaeieia??th
aena?oeaiiy oaie. Oea e?oa?aoo?a c ieoaiue i?ina?oieoeueeiai ?ooo
(E.Aiae, E.?anaeaanueeee, A.Eanueyiia, I.Eiiiaaoeue, N.Oa?eia, I.Oei oa
?i.), c ?noi??? ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee (A.Ai?enaiei, ?.Cae/aiei,
I.Eiieeaiei, I.Nooiieeinueea, N.O?eiiaiei, I.ss?ia/aiei oa ?i.), c
i?iaeai ?iaeeiiiai aeoiaaiiy (E.Ai?aie?c, A.Ai?ioiae/, I.Aeieoe?ia,
A.Eatheia, A.Eocue, I.Noaeueiaoiae/, ?.Nyaaaei oa ?i.), c ?noi??? ?
o?einio?? (I.A?ooaanueeee, Ae.Aei?ioaiei, I.Caaoaeei, ?.E?ei’yeaae/,
I.Iieiinueea-Aaneeaiei, I.Iiiiae/, I.Noaoaeueiee, oa ?i.), c
iiaiciaanoaa (O.Aeii/aiei, A.AEaeai?iiie, A.E?einueeee, E.Iaoeueei,
?.Ia??iei oa ?i.), c e?oa?aoo?iciaanoaa (I.Aiciye, N.?o?aiia,
I.Ae?ae-Oia?a, ?.O?aiei oa ?i.);

 niiaaaee no/aniee?a oa ae?oae Ieaie I/?eee i?i ?? aeeooy, oai?/?noue ?
iaaeaaia?/io ae?yeuei?noue.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o oe?e?niiio
?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiio aiae?c? i?ina?oieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? ?
iaaeaaia?/ieo iiaeyae?a Ieaie I/?eee, cie?aia: o aecia/aii? iniiaieo
iai?yi?a ? ?ice?eoo? ci?noo ?? ae?yeueiino? ye iaaeaaiaa-i?ina?oeoaey,
aeoeaii? a?iiaaenueei? ae?y/ee, iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiii? iniaenoino? a
eiioaeno? ?icaeoeo i?ina?oieoeueeiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i? ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O
— ii/aoeo OO noie?oue, ni?yiiaaiiai ia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?
oeiee, ??aeii? iiae, a?o/eciyii? eoeueoo?e; a ocaaaeueiaii?
iaaeaaia?/ieo iiaeyae?a, ui ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy o ooaeiaei?e,
ioae?oeenoe/i?e oai?/ino?, ai?noiey???, aeaeaaie/?e ?iaio?; a
a?aoiaioiaaiiio iaa?oiooaaii? iieiaeaiiy, ui Ieaia I/?eea ni?eyea
noaiiaeaiith iniia oe?a?inueei? iaoa?einueei? oeiee. ?? iiaeyaee
i?aaenoaaeai? ye i?aai?/ia ?aei?noue aoiai?noe/ieo oe?iiinoae
oe?a?inueei? aoiiiaaeaaia?ee ? i?ia?aneaieo
i?ina?oieoeueei-iaaeaaia?/ieo ?aeae, a ?? iniia?: caaacia/aiiy iaa/aiiy,
aeoiaaiiy, ni?eeoaaiiy ae?oae ? aei?ineeo ??aeiith iiaith, ?aae?caoe?y
anaa?/iiai ? aa?iii?eiiai ?icaeoeo iniaenoino? a?aeiia?aeii aei
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo, nenoaie aeooiaieo oe?iiinoae naiai
ia?iaeo, oi?ioaaiiy o ae?oae ? iieiae? iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino?,
yeinoae iao??ioa, aeaiie?aoa, aoiai?noa. Aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao aaiaeyoueny
iaeia?aeii? oa iaa?aeii? a?o?ai? aeaea?aea, ui oi?eathoueny
i?ina?oieoeueei-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? Ieaie I/?eee.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o iiaeeeaino?
oai?/iai canoinoaaiiy oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo, iniiaieo iieiaeaiue ?
aeniiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoeiaoeyie, ye? i?aoeththoue a aaeoc? ?noi???
iaaeaaia?ee, ia?iaeii? iaaeaaia?ee, ?noi??? i?ina?oieoeueeiai ?ooo a
Oe?a?i?. C?a?aia ? ocaaaeueiaia a aeena?oaoe?? ?ioi?iaoe?y ni?eyoeia
iiaeeaeaiith ? caaaa/aiith ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee, aeiiiiiaea o
?ic?iaoe? eaeoe?eieo eo?n?a, niaoeeo?n?a, niaoenai?ia??a. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? iaaeaaiaaie, ineoieiaaie,
aeoiaaoaeyie aeioe?eueieo caeeaae?a, ?noi?eeaie, e?oa?aoo?iciaaoeyie,
iiaiciaaoeyie, a oaeiae c i?ina?oieoeueeith iaoith.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeeny ? ae?noaee iiceoeaio ioe?ieo a
eaai?aoi??? oai??? oa ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee ?inoeoooo iaaeaaia?ee AII
Oe?a?ie. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue ia i?aeaoc?anueeeo
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo: “I?iaeaie i?aeaioiaee o/eoaey
iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee” (Oiaiue, 1995), “Oe?a?inueea aeioe?eey: i?iaeaie,
iiooee, oai?/? ciao?aeee” (Oiaiue, 1996), “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
ii/aoeiai? oeiee oa i?aeaioiaee o/eoae?a” (Ee?a, 1998), ia O?ao?o
Anaoe?a?inueeeo iaaeaaia?/ieo /eoaiiyo “Aaneeue Nooiieeinueeee ?
no/ani?noue” (Ee?a — *a?eane -Oiaiue,1996) , ioae?eoaaeeny o oaoiaeo
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo /aniienao “Ii/aoeiaa oeiea” (1997), “??aeia oeiea”
(1998), “Iai’youe noie?oue” (1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii o /ioe?ueio
noaooyo o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao ? iaoa??aeao /ioe?ueio eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo ? a?o?aieo aeaea?ae (262
iaeiaioaaiiy), aeiaeaoe?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie, aecia/aii iaoo ?
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeacai? aeaea?aea ? iaoiaee, ?ice?eoi iiaecio
? i?aeoe/io cia/ei?noue ?iaioe, iiaeaii a?aeiiino? i?i ai?iaaoe?th
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “A?iiaaenueei-i?ina?oieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue Ieaie
I/?eee” i?inoaaeo?oueny i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai na?oiaeyaeo
Ieaie I/?eee oa ?icaeyaeathoueny iniiai? iai?yie ? ci?no ??
i?ina?oieoeueei? i?aoe? a eiioaeno? eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeiai ?ooo
oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe?? a ??cieo aaeocyo noni?eueiiai aeeooy.

O ?icae?e? a?aecia/a?oueny, ui iniaeeai aeoea?coaaeanue ae?yeuei?noue
oe?a?ioe?a ca iaoe?iiaeueio ina?oo, iaoeo, eoeueoo?o o ae?oa?e iieiaei?
XIX — ia ii/aoeo OO noie?oue, eiee aei ai?ioueae ca aeooiaia
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ia?iaeo i?aeiyeanue ?ioae?aaioe?y. O.Oaa/aiei, I.Eoe?o,
I.Ae?aaiiaiia, I.AEeoaoeueeee, N.?oniaa, A.A??i/aiei oa ?i. caeeaaeaee
canaaee oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?. Iaei??th c iaeaeoeai?oeo
ae?y/ie eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeiai ?ooo oeueiai ia??iaeo aoea Ieaia
I/?eea.

O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui oaiiaeeaa noaaeaiiy aei
oe?a?inueei? iiae, ?noi??? ia?iaeo, onii? ia?iaeii? oai?/ino?, yea
iaioaaei a ?iaeei? Ae?aaiiaiiaeo, noaei i?ae??oioyi aeey oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? o iaeaooiuei? ienueiaiieoe?. Ni?eyea
oeueiio oai?/?noue ?.Eioey?aanueeiai, O.Oaa/aiea, I.Aiaiey, a caiaeii
na?oiaeyaeia iiceoe?y Ee?anueei? A?iiaaee, cie?aia I.Noa?eoeueeiai,
I.Eenaiea, I.AEeoaoeueeiai, I.*oaeinueeiai, A.Aioiiiae/a, Ieaenaiae?a oa
Nio?? ?oniaeo, I.?oae/aiea (Iaiana Ie?iiai). Ac??oeai /ano?, a?aeiino?,
iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? aoa aeey ia? a?ao Ieoaeei Ae?aaiiaiia.
A?aea?aeoaaiiy ?a?iiaenueeeo oeaio??a, ciaeiinoai c a?aeiieie
e?oa?aoi?aie oa a?iiaaenueeeie ae?y/aie Aaee/eie (?.O?aieii, I.Iaaeeeii,
I.Eia?einueeith, I.Ao/einueeei, N.Ieoiaanueeith) iiaeeaeei, ooaa?aeeei
?? ia?aeiiaiiy a?aenoithaaoe oe?a?inueeo iaoe?iiaeueio ?aeath.

Iniaeeaa i?noea a aeena?oaoe?? i?eae?ey?oueny aiae?co i?ina?oieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? Ieaie I/?eee. Aecia/athoueny, cie?aia, oae? i?ia?aei? ??
iai?yie: iaoeiaa oieueeei?ii-aoiia?ao?/ia ?iaioa, e?oa?aoo?ia ?
aeaeaaie/a ae?yeuei?noue, aaciina?aaeiy o/anoue o
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeeo oiaa?enoaao, ai?ioueaa ca ina?oo ? noaiiaeua
ae?iee a noni?euenoa?.

A?aecia/a?oueny, ui a aoiinoa?? c?inoath/iai ?ioa?ano aei iiaooo,
cae/a?a oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo Ieaia I/?eea aea/a? ia?iaeio oai?/?noue,
cae?a? c?acee ia?iaeiiai i?iaiaioo, oci?e-aeoeaee. ?? ia?o?
oieueeei?ii-aoiia?ao?/i? caiene aeei?enoiaoaaee A.Aioiiiae/,
I.Ae?aaiiaiia, I.AEeoaoeueeee, I.Eenaiei, I.*oaeinueeee, a caiaeii
iaea?aeaee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a aaoi?nueeeo iaoeiaeo ?ica?aeeao a/aii?:
“Oe?aeineee ia?iaeiee i?iaiaio” (1876), “I/a?ee iaoeeiiaeueiuo oeiia a
oe?aeineie ia?iaeiie neiaaniinoe” (1883), “Oe?aeineea eieyaeee” (1903),
“Oe?a?inueea aoii?enoeea” (1911), “Iaeiae?? oe?a?inueeeo ia?iaeieo aeoi”
(1911), “Oe?a?inueea naeyinueea iaethaaiiy ia no?iao” (1929) oa ?i., o
ioae?eaoe?yo iaoeiai-i?ciaaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o ia noi??ieao aeo?iae?a
“Eeaaneay noa?eia” oa “??aeiee e?ae”. ?? i?aoey a oeueiio iai?yi?
aeeeeeaia ?icoi?iiyi oiai, ui ia?ciai?noue c eoeueoo?ith, ?noi???th,
e?oa?aoo?ith, iiioey?ecaoe?y aeoai??a ia?iaeiiai ienoaoeoaa ni?ey?
i?iaoaeaeaiith o ia?iaeo ii/oooy naiiiiaaae ? a?aeiino?. Iaoeiaeie
i?aoeyie ? ioae?oeenoe/ieie ?ica?aeeaie c i?iaeai aoiia?ao?? ?
oieueeei?o Ieaia I/?eea i?aaioea i?aeiyoe c caiaiaaeo oe?a?inueea
iaoe?iiaeueia ienoaoeoai, aeiaanoe aoiia?ao?/io naiiaooi?noue Oe?a?ie,
aeoiaoaaoe iiaaao aei eoeueoo?ieo oe?iiinoae naiai ia?iaeo.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeiaiaeeoueny, ui e?oa?aoo?ia ae?yeuei?noue ienueiaiieoe?
? iaeiei c iai?yi?a ?? i?ina?oieoeoaa, ine?eueee, aeei?enoiaoth/e
i?ciaaaeueii-aeoiaio ooieoe?th ooaeiaeiueiai neiaa, Ieaia I/?eea
i?aaioea i?aeianoe caaaeueiieoeueoo?iee ??aaiue oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo,
ioiieoe ?aeayie iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaeoe?o? aa?noae
ianaeaiiy. O ooaeiaei?o oai?ao “I?aiae?ii”, “*aae”, “Na?oei aeia?a ?
ethaia?”, “Oiaa?eoee”, “Nieiaeiaee ni?a”, “Ca i?aaaeith”, “A?ea
eeoeueea” oa ?i. Ieaia I/?eea iieacoe? ia?o? ia?inoee
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieoeueeiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?, a oaeiae ni?iae
caeeaeaiiy ?ioae?aaioe?? ? ia?iaeo, iiooee oeyo?a caoenoo a?ae
iaoe?iiaeueiiai e nioe?aeueiiai e?eaaeaeaiiy.

Aaaeeeaa i?noea o i?ina?oieoeuee?e ae?yeueiino? Ieaie I/?eee iaeaaeeoue
aeaeaaie/?e i?aoe?, yea ?aae?coaaeanue o aeaoooaaii? aeaeaaieoeoaa IAA
(Iaaaeeeee Ao?oie Aieeinueeee, 70-? ?iee O?O noie?ooy), i?aeaioiaoe? ?
aeaeaii? ?acii c I.Noa?eoeueeei aeaio aeione?a e?oa?aoo?iiai aeueiaiaoo
“?aaea” (1883, 1884), ni?eueii c I.Eia?einueeith — ae?ii/iai aeueiaiaoo
“Ia?oee a?iie” (1887), /aniieno “??aeiee e?ae” (1907-1916) ? aeiaeaoeo
aei iueiai — aeo?iaeo aeey ae?oae “Iieiaea Oe?a?ia” (1908-1914) oa
“Aacaoe Aaaeyoeueeiai cainoaa” (1917-1919). sse iaaeaaia-i?ina?oeoaeue,
Ieaia I/?eea ?ice?eeany o aeaeaii? /aniien?a. Aea?? oaiaoeee
ioae?eaoe?e, ienueiaiieoeueea ? ?aaeaeoi?nueea iaenoa?i?noue, a?aooaaiiy
ineoieia?? /eoa/?a ?iaeee oe? aeaeaiiy iaaecae/aeii aieeaiaei caniaii
i?aeaeuaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai ??aiy ethaeeie c ia?iaeo, /eiieeii
aeoiaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? e ethaia? aei iaoa?einueei?
iiae. Cie?aia, aeo?iae “??aeiee e?ae” aeaaaa oe?ieo ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia aeeooy, a?iiaaenuee? ni?aae, ae?oeoaaa
e?oa?aoo?ii-ooaeiaei? oai?e, ioae?oeenoe/i? noaoo?, ?ica?aeee c
ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, aoiia?ao??, oieueeei?o, ii?oooaaa ieoaiiy
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o oeieao ??aeii? iiae, i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei?
e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae, iiaeaaaa ?aoeaic?? ia uieii aeaeai? eieae, ?icaeoie
o/eoae?a i?i iaaaeuei? oe?euei? i?iaeaie.

O aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeth?oueny o/anoue Ieaie I/?eee a ?iaio?
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeeo oiaa?enoa, ui ae?yee iai?ee?ioe? XIX —
ii/aoeo XX noie?oue, cie?aia Ee?anueeiai E?oa?aoo?ii-a?oenoe/iiai
oiaa?enoaa (1895-1905), Ee?anueeiai Oe?a?inueeiai Eeoao (1908-1912),
ao?oea “Ieayaea” (1889-1900), oiaa?enoaa “Aiyi” (1903-1905), ee?anueei?
(1906-1910) ? aaaeyoeueei? (1917-1919) “I?ina?o”, Ao?oea oe?a?iiciaanoaa
aaaeyoeueei? oe?a?inueei? oe?eueii? iieiae? (1917-1919). sse a?eueo?noue
i?aaenoaaiee?a oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe??, aiia ?iiae? a?aea o/anoue
iaeii/anii a ae?yeueiino? e?eueeio oiaa?enoa. Ienueiaiieoey i?aoethaaea
a ??cieo eii?n?yo, ui ?nioaaee i?e oiaa?enoaao: aoiia?ao?/ieo,
e?oa?aoo?ieo, eaeoe?eieo, oaao?aeueieo, aeaeaaie/eo oa ?i.

Iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy Ieaia I/?eea iaaeaaaea ?iaio? c ae?oueie oa
iieiaeaeth. Oeieith aeoiaaiiy iieiaei? ci?ie, na?aeiiiai i?eeo/aiiy ??
aei iao??ioe/ieo oe?a?inueeeo ?aeae noaa ao?oie “Ieayaea”, yeee
ienueiaiieoey-i?ina?oeoaeueea ni?ai/iethaaea c I.Eenaieii oa
I.Noa?eoeueeei. Ao?oie ?nioaaa ye aaeeea aeooiaia ?iaeeia, ui noaaeea ca
iaoo oi?ioaaoe iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiio iniaeno?noue. C ?i?oe?aoeae Ieaie
I/?eee i?e aaaeyoeuee?e “I?ina?o?” ae?yea eii?n?y c iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy ae?oae, yea ?aaoey?ii aeaooiaoaaea aeeoy/? ?aiee, i?eeo/ath/e
ae?oae ? aaouee?a aei naiai ??aeiiai, caaaa/oth/e ?oi? ciaiiy ia?iaeii?
oai?/ino? oa ?noi?e/iiai ieioeiai Oe?a?ie. Ieaia I/?eea noaea
caniiaieeii Ao?oea oe?a?iiciaanoaa, yeee i?aai?ciaoaaa oaa/aie?anuee?
nayoa; /eaie oeueiai ao?oea aiooaaee ? /eoaee ?noi?e/i? oa e?oa?aoo?i?
aeiiia?ae?, ?inoeai?coaaee ae?aiaoe/i? oai?e oe?a?inueeeo ienueiaiiee?a.
C eaeoe?yie, ii?aaeaie o/iyi, ye? i?eoiaeeee ca aeiiiiiaith aei ia?,
aenooiaea Ieaia I/?eea.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaei, ui Ieaia I/?eea iino?eii oe?eaaeeany ae?ii/ei
?ooii, yeee aeoea?coaaany iai?ee?ioe? XIX no. Iieaciaeie a oeueiio
a?aeiioaii? aoee: aeaeaiiy ae?ii/iai aeueiaiaoo “Ia?oee a?iie” (1887),
o/anoue o ?iaio? iieoaanueeiai a?aeae?eaiiy Ni?eee ??aiioi?aae?iiy
ae?iie (1906), a?aenoithaaiiy i?aaa ae?iie ia iaa/aiiy ? caeiaoooy aeui?
ina?oe ia noi??ieao /aniieno “??aeiee e?ae” oa iia?no? “Oiaa?eoee”.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iaaeaaia?/i? iiaeyaee Ieaie I/?eee” c’yniaothoueny
aeoiai? canaaee iaoa?einueei? oeiee Ieaie I/?eee, ?ice?eaa?oueny
nooi?noue iiaeyae?a ia ??aeio iiao ye iniiao iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe,
ia?iaeiiai a/eoaey, ieoaiiy aeeoy/i? e?oa?aoo?e ? aeeoy/iai /eoaiiy.

O aeena?oaoe?? a?aecia/a?oueny, ui a n?i’? iaeiaeiai aaaeeeaa ?ieue
iaeaaeeoue ? aaoueeia?, ? iaoa??, iaeiae o an?o ia?iae?a iaoe ia?
a?eueoee ? neeuei?oee aieea ia ae?oae. Naia oiio ss.Eiiainueeee iacaaa
iaoa?einueeith oeieith oo iine?aeiai?noue oa noio ciaiue ? ai?iue, ye?
io?eio? aeeoeia a n?i’? o ia?o? n?i ?ie?a c ono iaoa??. *a?ac iao??
aeeoeia ni?eeia? oaanue iaaeieeoi?e na?o, a yeei aiia eiai iiaa/eoue ?
ye c?icoi?? — aecia/athoue ethaia iaoa??, ?? a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
iaeaooi? aeeoeie ? cae?aiino? aeoiaaoaey. I?ae oaeei eooii ci?o
aiae?co?oueny aeina?ae aeoiaaiiy ae?oae a ?iaeei? Eina/?a ?
aeiaiaeeoueny, ui Ieaia I/?eea ni?eyea noaiiaeaiith oe?a?inueei?
iaoa?einueei? oeiee, ?iaeeiiiai aeoiaaiiy. Iniaeeaee aeoeaio c?iaeaii ia
?ie? ae?iee-iaoa?? o aeoiaaii? ae?oae.

Na?e iaoa?einueeee iaia’ycie Ieaia I/?eea aaa/aea o caeeaaeaii? iniia
aeeoy/eo ciaiue ? ai?iue, o iaaeaii? ia?oeo o?ie?a ethaia?, i?aoe?,
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, /ano?, ii?yaeiino?. A?oioiai? ciaiiy ? iino?eia
naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy aeaee ciiao caaacia/eoe ii/aoeiao ina?oo ae?oa?
aeanieie coneeeyie. A?ae i?e?iaee iath/e iaaaeye? iaaeaaia?/i?
cae?aiino?, aiia noaaeeany aei ae?oae, ye aei ??aieo nia?, ii?aeioth/e
iaoa?einueeo ethaia c aeiiaeeaith i?eioeeiia?noth. Ieaia I/?eea
aeineiiaei ? iaenoa?ii aieiae?ea ??aeiith iiaith, aoea /oaeiaei
iiia?aea/ai, ai?ea iaethaaoe, a?aea ia oi?oai?aii, ni?aaea, aa?ii
oaioethaaea, iaea aeoi?nuee? cae?aiino?, acaaae? aoea oai?/i
iaaea?iaaiith iniaeno?noth. Oe? ?ene iaoe iaiaaaeany ia?aaeaoe nai?i
ae?oyi, aeoiaoth/e ?o aeaniei i?eeeaaeii.

?iaeeio Ieaia I/?eea aaaaeaea oei aeeoo?aeaeiei ina?aaeeii, a yeiio
oi?iothoueny iaoe?iiaeuei? ii/oooy, caeeaaea?oueny i?ae??oioy
iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? ? naiina?aeiiino?. Naia ?iaeeia ia? ni?eyoe
iaieiae?iith aeeoeiith, e?aueie aeooiaieie caeiaooeaie naiai ia?iaeo,
ieaeaoe ii/oooy ai?aeino? ca i?eiaeaaei?noue aei iueiai. Ia oae?
i???ioe?e ni?yiiaoaaea iaoe aeani? coneeey. Ieaia I/?eea niaoe?aeueii
aiceea ae?oae aei aieeinueeeo n?e, aae aiie iiaee iini?eeoaaoeny
??aeiith iiaith c naeyinueeeie ae?oueie, /anoi iiaei?iaeoaaea c ieie
Oe?a?iith, uia aiie e?aua i?ciaee ?? i?e?iaeo ? iiaoo, iineooaee
ia?iaei? i?ni?, ia?aeace, eaaaiaee, iiaa/eee ia?yaee. An?o ae?oae iaoe
i?eeo/eea aei cae?aiiy oieueeei?o.

Ieaia I/?eea aaaaeaea, ui ii/aoeiao ina?oo ae?oe iiaeii? io?eioaaoe
??aeiith iiaith. Iniaeeaa ?ieue a oeueiio iaeaaeeoue iaoa??, aaeaea aiia
iaea?eueoith i??ith iiaea iaaeeoiooe ia ethaia ? iiaaao aei nai?? iiae.
Naia oiio Ieaia I/?eea a?aeaeaaaea ia?aaaao oe?a?inueeiio na?aaeiaeuo.
Aiia coi?ea i?euaieoe ae?oyi aeiyoeiaa /oooy ??aeii? iiae ? nayoo oaio
aei ia?, aea, ye ioae?a iaoe, aeia?a ?icoi?ea, ui aeoiaaoe ae?oae
na?aeiieie oe?a?ioeyie ia iiaeia, yeui ia i?aeiyoe ?o aei ??aiy
?a?iiaenueei? ina?/aiino?, ia iaa/eoe ?iicaiieo iia, ia iciaeiieoe c?
caeiaooeaie na?oiai? eoeueoo?e, ine?eueee iaoe?iiaeueiee oa
caaaeueiiethaenueeee ?aeaaee iathoue aooe aca?iiiia’ycaii iaoiiaeaieie.
Nai???aeiei iaaeaaia?/iei aenia?eiaioii ia aeanieo ae?oyo Ieaia I/?eea
aeiaaea, ui oni?o?a o aea/aii? ?iicaiieo iia iiaeia aeinyaoe eeoa oiae?,
eiee ??aeia iiaa ionoeoue aeeaiea ei??iiy a aeooiaio i?e?iaeo aeeoeie.

Ca na?ae/aiiyi no/aniee?a, ae?oe Eina/?a, oi/ ? ia a?aea?aeoaaee oeiee,
ana ae aoee a?oaeiaaieie, a?eueii ii/oaaeeny o aoaeue-ye?e noa?? iaoee,
aeineiiaei aieiae?ee ye ??aeiith, oae ? ?iicaiieie iiaaie, ciaiiyie c
e?oa?aoo?e. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui ae?oae a/eee aeiia /eoaoe, ienaoe
oe?a?inueeith iiaith, o a?iiac??, eoaee aiie anooiaee aei noa?oeo
eean?a, ca ciaiiy ?in?enueei? iiae iaee iaee?au? ioe?iee, /anoi iaa?oue
aeia?aaeaeaee nai?o ?iaaniee?a.

Iaeiei c aoaeoeaieo iaaeaaia?/ieo i?eeii?a, ui ni?ey? e?auiio
iiaioaaiith iaae/eaie aieiae?iiy neiaii, caaacia/o? iiaeeaeaiiy ciaiue,
Ieaia I/?eea aaaaeaea caeo/aiiy ae?oae aei e?oa?aoo?ii? oai?/ino?.
Iinooiiai, oa?iey/a aeiiiiaaaea aiia ?i o ia?oeo e?oa?aoo?ieo ni?iaao,
caaaeaee aoea ia?oei e?eoeeii ? ii?aaeieeii. Caaaeyee noa?aiiyi Ieaie
I/?eee a e?oa?aoo?o oa?eoee o?i? noa?oeo ?? ae?oae — Ieoaeei Iaa/iee,
Eany Oe?a?iea, Ieany C??ea.

Iaoe iino?eii niiioeaea ae?oae aei ?icoiiai? ae?yeueiino?, ia aeciath/e
aacaeoinoaa ? ianeaiino?. Aiia a/eea ?o /?oei aeeeaaeaoe nai? aeoiee,
i?aoethaaoe c eieaith, oaeineiiaethaaoe oai?/? ?iaioe, ieaioaaoe
iiaeaeueoa aeeooy, a ?acoeueoao? /iai ae?oe iino?eii ia?aaoaaee a
aoiinoa?? ?icoiiaeo iiooe?a. ?a?e oa caaaae, ioi/aiiy n?i’? Eina/?a
oaeiae ni?eyee ?icaeoeo ?ioaeaeoo oa oai?/eo cae?aiinoae ae?oae.

Ieaia I/?eea aoea iaaecae/aeii oaaaeiith aei iaoee?a oa oiiaeiaaiue
ae?oae, caaaeaee i?aeo?eioaaea aeyaeai? ieie ?ioa?ane aei ioceee,
aeeaiieno, e?oa?aoo?e oiui.O iaoa?einuee?e oeie? Ieaie I/?eee iaioaaa
aeoo naiaiaee, ?icoi?iiy iio?aa aeeoeie, a?eueiiai aeai?o caiyoue ?
oai?/ino?, ine?eueee ana oea neoaoaaei ?? naiiaeyaeaiith, caaaa/aiith ?
anaa?/iiio ?icaeoeo.

Ieaia I/?eea iino?eii caioi/oaaea ?o aei o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino?. I?aoey
caaaeaee ii?aeioaaeany c a?ith oa oai?/?noth ? ?icoi?eany ye ii?ia
ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy, ye o?oaeiaee aianie o aeaaiiieo//y ? aeinoaoie
an??? ?iaeeie. O iaoa?einuee?e oeie? Ieaie I/?eee ae?oe a/eeeny
ona?aeiiethaaoe, ui eiaeai caeaaeeoue a?ae i?aoe? aaaaoueio ethaeae, o
i?aoe? aiie caaaa/othoueny, ?icaeaathoueny, ooaa?aeaeothoueny, iathoue
iaaaeyeo iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaoe anoaoe/io ianieiaeo. O ae?oae aoea
aeoiaaia aeeaiea na?aeii?noue oiai, ui iaa/aiiy — oea oaeiae uiaeaiia,
nenoaiaoe/ia, iaiieaaeeaa i?aoey. Noi?iiaai? ua a aeeoeinoa? iaae/ee
naiino?eii? ?iaioe, i?aoeueiaeo?noue, a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue aeiiiiiaee
ae?oyi Eina/?a oi?iaeiaae onueiai aeeooy ?icoe?thaaoe e?oaic??, noaoe
aenieiina?/aieie ethaeueie.

O ae?yeueiino? iaoa?einueei? oeiee iaeiiai?oa ?ice?eeeny iiaeyaee Ieaie
I/?eee ia ina?oo ? aeoiaaiiy ae?oae a n?i’?. Aiae?c ?? i?aeoe/iiai
aeina?aeo aeicaieea c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui aeoiaaiiy ae?oae — oea
ia eeoa iniaenoa ni?aaa aaouee?a, a ? ?oi?e a?iiaaenueeee iaia’ycie.
Naia a ?iaeei? iathoue noi?ioaaoeny o? iniiai? iiiyooy, iiaeyaee,
ii/oooy, cae/ee, ii?ie ii?ae?, ye? caiaeii noaiooue i?aeaaeeiaie
aeooiaiiai noaiiaeaiiy iniaenoino?.

O aeena?oaoe?? a?aecia/a?oueny, ui iniaeeaa i?noea a nenoai?
iaaeaaia?/ieo iiaeyae?a ienueiaiieoe? iin?aea? iiaia ieoaiiy.

Canoaeaeoth/e iie?oeeo oea?nueeiai o?yaeo ii a?aeiioaiith aei iiae
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, Ieaia I/?eea aaaaeaea, ui oey iiaa ia? an? i?aaa
ia ?nioaaiiy, ia aecia/aiiy ?? i?aaicaeaoiino? a eoeueoo?iiio,
aeiiii?/iiio, iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? ianaeaiiy, a iniaeeai a iaoe?iiaeuei?e
oeie?. O aeiiia?ae?, i?aaenoaaeai?e i?ai’??-i?i?no?o A?ooa (n?/aiue 1905
?.), Ieaia I/?eea a?aecia/aea: yeui c ii/aoeiai? oeiee ??aeiith iiaith
aoaeooue iaoooaaoe ye /eiinue iaa?aeiei, oi ae?oe i?ea/aoeiooueny
aeeaeoeny ia ia?, ye ia uinue i?ace?eeaa ? c oaeei aea i?ace?noaii
noaaeoeny aei an?o, ooi ?iciiaey? oe??th iiaith. Aei oiai ae iaa/aiiy
ia??aeiith iiaith i?eiineoue aaeeeo oeiaeo, oiio ui ia a?aeiia?aea?
i?e?iaeiiio ?icoiiaiio neeaaeo aeeoeie, aieeaa? ia ?? ineo?eo,
ni?e/eiyth/e iaaiaaiai?noue o/i?a o nai?o neeao, noii?ae o ciaiiyo. Oiio
iaa/aiiy o oeieao iiaeiia cae?enithaaoeny iaoa?einueeith iiaith.

Ieoaiiy cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ??aeii? iiae a oeieao Oe?a?ie ia?aaoaaei o iie?
ci?o Ieaie I/?eee ? a ia??iae noai?aiiy OI?. O aeanieo ioae?eaoe?yo ia
noi??ieao “Aacaoe Aaaeyoeueeiai cainoaa” “Oe?a?i?caoe?y oe?e”, “Oeei a
i?oeo”, “*iai iai ?aae?oe?”, “Neieoey” (1917) aiia ianoith?
oe?a?i?caoe?th oe?e.

Aeoiaaia ia aeineiiaeeo e?oa?aoo?ii-ienaiieo aeaea?aeao, ia?iaeieo
o?aaeeoe?yo, cae/ayo, oieueeei??, Ieaia I/?eea ia eeoa a?aenoithaaea
i?aaa oe?a?inueei? iiae, yea iaea aaaaoia?eiao ?noi??th, a e aeaaea i?i
caaaa/aiiy ? ?icaeoie ?? e?oa?aoo?ii? oi?ie, ine?eueee aoea ia?aeiiaia,
ui iiaa ? caniaii ?icaeoeo noni?eueiiai aeeooy, iaoa??aeueiiai oa
aeooiaiiai i?ia?ano, caniaii aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? oa caeo/aiiy ?? aei
aeinyaiaiue iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e.

Ienueiaiieoey aoea ia?aeiiaia, ui ethaeeia, yea aeineiiaei aieiae??
iiaith, iiaea cia/ii eaaoa ? iiai?oa ?aae?coaaoe nai? cae?aiino?,
?ioaeaeooaeueiee iioaioe?ae, oaeaeoa iaeaaiaeeoe noinoiee c ?ioeie
ethaeueie, ine?eueee iiaa ? aaaeeeaei caniaii ia eeoa ni?eeoaaiiy, a e
ieneaiiy, caeiaoooy ciaiue, naii?icaeoeo ? naiiae?aaeaiiy. Nai? iiaeyaee
ia ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? iiae a/aia aeeeaea o ia?aaeiia? aei
aeanieo ia?aeeaae?a oai??a I.Aiaiey (1889), noaoo? “Iaoa e?oa?aoo?ia
iiaa” (1909), o ?aoeaic?yo ia iia? eieaeeia? aeaeaiiy, ui ?aaoey?ii
ae?oeoaaeeny o “??aeiiio e?a?a?” (1907-1916), o iaiioae?eiaai?e
aeiiia?ae? “I?i ?iicaii? aieeae ia oe?a?inueeo iiao”, aeaieioaio a
Oiaa?enoa? Caoiaeiciaanoaa AI O?N? (1924), a eenoao aei ?.O?aiea,
A.Iaoiaiea, Ae.ssai?ieoeueeiai, I.Ai?eianueeiai.

O ia??iae aeeneon?? oe?a?inueeiai a?iiaaeyinoaa i?i oe?aeeea?noue aeey
oe?a?inueei? iiae iiaiooai?aieo ne?a, ye? iaceaaeenue “eiaaieie”
(e?iaoeue O?O — ii/aoie OO noie?oue), Ieaia I/?eea, yea naia oai?eea
oae? neiaa, cacia/aea, ui eiaeia e?oa?aoo?ia iiaa ia iiaea caeeoaoeny
noaeith, a iiaeiia ?icaeaaoeny ? aaeineiiaethaaoeny. Caaaa/aiiy
e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae ca ?aooiie iiaiooai?aieo ? caiice/aieo ne?a — oea
caeiiii??iee i?ioean ?icoe?aiiy neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo iiae, ui
coiiaeth?oueny iio?aaaie ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa.

A?aeaeath/e ia?aaaao i?ina?oieoeuee?e ?iaio? na?aae ia?iaeo, Ieaia
I/?eea o oai?/iio aei?iaeo /eiaei i?noey a?aeaiaeeea oai? o/eoaeuenoaa.
Ia noi??ieao nai?o oai??a aiia ?iciia?aeaea i?i ia?iaeieo o/eoae?a, ye?,
ia oeiaeoth/e i? /ano, i? aeaniiai caei?ia’y, ianee ina?oo ia?iaeia?.
Oe? iniaenoino? ?iiiioaaee ienueiaiieoe?, a?aeiia?aeaee ?? ?aeaaeia?
ia?iaeiiai iaaeaaiaa. I?e oeueiio, c iaeiiai aieo, a ia? aeeeeea?
caoiieaiiy ?oiy a?aeaeai?noue nai?e ni?aa?, a c ?ioiai — aiia an?eyei
a?aeiaaeiao?oueny a?ae aeiaiaoe/ii?, eacaiii? oe?eueii? nenoaie, yea
iaiaaeo? ?icoiiaee oa ii?aeueiee ?icaeoie aeeoeie. Aeineoue iieaciaeie o
oeueii? a?aeiioaii? ? iiia?aeaiiy “Cieioa ienaiea”, “Noaooaoea”,
“I?aoi?a inaeaaeoey“.

O/eoaeue ye oai?/a iniaeno?noue, aaaaeaea Ieaia I/?eea, iiaeiai aooe
a?eueiei a?ae ??ciiiai?oieo i?eien?a oa iaeac?a ? iino?eii i?aoethaaoe
iaae i?aeaeuaiiyi aeaniiai iaoeiai-i?ioan?eiiai ??aiy. Oeiea aac
oai?/iai, iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiiiai a/eoaey aoaea ii?iaeaeoaaoe eeoa
“aeooiaieo eae?e-ia?aaa?oi?a”, aanoe aei aeiiii?/iiai oiaaeeo, ai ia
aeaaaoeia iniaenoinoae anaa?/ii ?icaeiooeo, caeaoieo aei e?aui? i?aoe?
ia ei?enoue iniaenoo ? noni?eueio.

O iaaeaaiaia? ienueiaiieoey aaa/aea noa?oiai oiaa?eoa ? ioae?iai
ii?aaeieea, ianoaaieea, yeee c aeia??ith ? aca?iiiiaaaith noaaeoueny aei
o/i?a, aeio?eio?oueny ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo aei eiaeii? aeeoeie,
i?aaia ?icaeaaoe oa iniaeno?nia, ui o?eueee ?e i?eoaiaiia. Eiai
caaaeaiiy — i?iaoaeeoe, caaaaoeoe, ci?noiaii noi?ioaaoe aeeaa ieneaiiy
aeeoeie.

O nenoai? aeoiaaiiy i?ae?inoath/iai iieie?iiy Ieaia I/?eea aaaeeeaiai
cia/aiiy iaaeaaaea ci?noo ? ni?yioaaiith oai??a, ui i?ecia/aeeny aeey
aeeoy/iai /eoaiiy. Aiia ia aeciaaaea eieaeie oaeiai ci?noo, yeee
i???iooaaa eeoa ia ianeaia ni?eeiyooy ae?eniino?, canoaeaeoaaea
“eenei-nieiaeea nthntheaiiy”, ui ia?aaaaeaei a oie /an o oai?ao aeey
ae?oae. Aeeoy/a eieaeea iiaeiia a/eoe aeoiaoe, noeioethaaoe naiino?ei?
aeniiaee, oi?ioaaoe na?oiaeyae, anoaoe/i? niaee, ii?aeuei? ia?aeiiaiiy
iieiaeiai iieie?iiy ? aiaeii/an a?aeiia?aeaoe eiai caieoai oa ?ioa?anai.

Aei eiea aeeoy/iai /eoaiiy iathoue aoiaeeoe ye oai?e a?o/eciyieo
aaoi??a, oae ? oeo, /e? ?iaia ? ie?anith na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e.
Aeoeaiooth/e oaaao ia caaaeueiiethaenueeeo aoiai?noe/ieo oe?iiinoyo,
ooaeiaeiy e?oa?aoo?a aeey ae?oae ia? aeoiaoaaoe iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiio
ethaeeio, yea oaio? ?noi??th, o?aaeeoe??, cae/a? ia?iaeo ? a?ae/oaa?
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca eiai aeieth. Iaaecae/aeii oe?iieie a oeueiio
ieai? ? oai?e ?noi?e/ii? oaiaoeee ? oieueeei?o.

O aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiae?ciaaii aeina?ae Ieaie I/?eee ye ?aaeaeoi?a ?
aeaeaaoey ?aeeiiai ia oie /an a Iaaeaei?i?yinuee?e Oe?a?i? aeeoy/iai
aeo?iaeo “Iieiaea Oe?a?ia” (1908-1914) oa ?? e?oa?aoo?ia niaaeueia a
oea?ei? aeeoy/i? e?oa?aoo?e. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui aeo?iae ? aeoaea
oe?iiei ci?noiaii, /oaeiaith iiaith, oi?ei ae?a?aiei, oe?eaaei
iia/aeueiei iaoa??aeii ? iiaea c oni?oii aeei?enoiaoaaoeny nueiaiaei? a
ina?oii-aeoiai?e ?iaio?.

Aeeoy/? oai?e ienueiaiieoe? iicaaaeai? oi?iaeueiiai aeeaeeeoecio, ?o
ia’?aeioa i?aaiaiiy ?icaoaeeoe o ae?oae ethaia aei ??aeiiai e?ath,
aeoiaoaaoe e?au? ii?aeuei? ii/oooy, iaa/eoe aa/eoe i?ae?ania a
iaaeieeoiueiio na?o?. Oai?/?noue Ieaie I/?eee aeey ae?oae i?ieiyoa
ethaia’th ? iiaaaith aei aeeoeie, ?icoi?iiyi ?? aioo??oiueiai na?oo, a
oiio ? aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith aeoiaaiiy i?ae?inoath/eo iieie?iue.

A E N I I A E E

1. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaei, ui Ieaia I/?eea (Ieueaa Iao??aia
Ae?aaiiaiiaa-Eina/) c?iaeea cia/iee aianie aei aeooiaii? nea?aieoe?
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ia eeoa ye ienueiaiieoey, aea ? ye
iaaeaaia-i?ina?oeoaeue, ni?eyth/e nai?th oai?/ith niaaeueiith ?
i?aeoe/iith ae?yeuei?noth noai?aiith iniia iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe ?
aeoiaaiiy. C ?? ooaeiaei?o oai??a, ioae?oeenoe/ieo noaoae, ai?noiey??th
oa i?aeoe/iiai aeina?aeo iinoa? /?oea nenoaia iaaeaaia?/ieo iiaeyae?a,
ui a?oioothoueny ia ?aeayo aoiai?cio, aeaiie?aoecio ? ia?iaeiino?.
Ae?yeuei?noue ? oai?/?noue Ieaie I/?eee a?aeiia?aeaea iio?aaai
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ia ?oaaae? O?O ? OO noie?oue, aoea
i?aeii?yaeeiaaia ?ica’ycaiith aaaeeeaeo eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o caaaeaiue ?
? oe?iiei iaaeaaiiyi aeey no/anii? iaaeaaia?ee.

2. Na?oiaeyae iaeaooiuei? ienueiaiieoe?-i?ina?oeoaeueee oi?ioaaany i?ae
aieeaii aeniei? aeooiaiino? ?iaeeie Ae?aaiiaiiaeo, iiiceoe?eieo iano?i?a
/eai?a Ee?anueei? A?iiaaee aei ?oneo?eaoi?nueei? iie?oeee oea?nueeiai
o?yaeo, iniaenoi I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, I.Eenaiea, I.Noa?eoeueeiai,
I.AEeoaoeueeiai, I.*oaeinueeiai, ?.O?aiea oa ?ioeo oe?a?inueeeo
?ioae?aaio?a, ye? ni?yiiaoaaee naith ae?yeuei?noue ia i?iaoaeaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? ia?iaeo, iioe?aiiy ina?oe, ?icaeoie iaoee.
I?ia?aeiith ?aea?th na?oiaeyaeo a/aiiai-iaaeaaiaa noa? iaoe?iiaeueia
?aeay, yea aecia/eea ni?yiiaai?noue, niene ? ci?no onueiai ?? aeeooy,
ae?yeueiino? ? oai?/ino?.

3. O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui
a?iiaaenueei-i?ina?oieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue Ieaie I/?eee i?eiaaea? ia
e?eueea aeanyoee?oue: 70-? ?iee O?O — 20-? ?iee OO noie?oue, aea
iniaeeai aeoeaiith aiia aoea iai?ee?ioe? O?O — ii/aoeo OO noie?oue o
ia??iae iiaeaaaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? i?ia?aneaii? oe?a?inueei?
?ioae?aaioe?? ca aeooiaia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ??aeiiai ia?iaeo. I?aoey ia
oa?ai? i?ina?oieoeoaa aoea iane/aiith ? ie?aeiith, a ?? iniia?, ye ? a
iniia? ooaeiaeiuei?, iaoeiai? ? ioae?oeenoe/ii? niaaeueie eaaeaoue
yne?aai ae?aaeai? i?iyae oe?a?inueeiai iaioae?oaoo. Iaaoiiiith
a?iiaaenueei-i?ina?oieoeueeith ae?yeuei?noth Ieaia I/?eea i?iaoaeaeoaaea
iaoe?iiaeuei? ii/oooy oe?a?ioe?a, oi?ioaaea o aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy ?
i?ae?inoath/iai iieie?iiy iaoe?iiaeueio na?aeii?noue ? naiina?aeii?noue,
ai?ae?noue ? a?aei?noue, aeeaieee iao??ioeci ? no?eeo a?iiaaenueeo
iiceoe?th, aioiai?noue i?iaeiaaeoaaoe aieaethai? o?aaeeoe?? i?aaee?a.
Aiia aaaaeaea, ui a iie?oe/iiio, aeiiii?/iiio, eoeueoo?iiio ieaiao
Oe?a?ia ioneoue noiyoe ia iaeiiio uaae? c aeniei?icaeiooeie aea?aeaaaie
na?oo, oiio ia?oi/a?aiaee iaia’ycie eiaeiiai oe?a?inueeiai
?ioae?aaioa-iao??ioa aaa/aea o i?aeaeuaii? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiai ??aiy
naiai ia?iaeo, o iino?ei?e oo?aio? i?i eiai aeooiaia caaaa/aiiy.

4. Ieaia I/?eea noai?eea aeanio iaoa?einueeo oeieo ?iaeeiiiai aeoiaaiiy,
yea aoea oi?eaeueiei ina?aaeeii aeooiaiino? ? eoeueoo?e. Nenoaia
aeoiaaiiy a oe?e oeie? a?oiooaaeany ia canaaeao ia?iaeii? iaaeaaia?ee, ?
cie?aia oaeeo ?? i?eioeeiao, ye aoiai?ci, i?e?iaeia?aeiia?aei?noue,
ia?iaei?noue, ?aei?noue aeoiaaiiy ? aeeooy, a?aooaaiiy a?eiaeo oa
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae aeoiaaioey, ii?aeiaiiy iiaaae aei aeeoeie
c aeiiaeea?noth aei ia?. Oaiiiai iaoa?einueei? oeiee iieyaa? o oiio, ui
ae?oe iaa?oue ia a?ae/oaaee, ui ?o ooinue aeoiao?, ine?eueee aeeooy a
?iaeei? aoei aeaooiaaia oae, ui aeoiaoaaea naia aoiinoa?a n?i’?,
ni?yiiaaia ia aeooiaia ?aeiaiiy on?o ?? /eai?a. Aiae?c ae?yeueiino?
iaoa?einueei? oeiee ?ice?ea iiaeyaee Ieaie I/?eee ia ?iaeeiio
iaaeaaia?eo. Aiia aaaaeaea, ui ooiaeaiaio oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino?
caeeaaea?oueny a ?iaeei?, yea ia? aooe aeey aeeoeie iniiaiei ina?aaeeii
ineoieia?/iiai caoenoo, ac??oeai aeey iane?aeoaaiiy, aeey o?ce/iiai,
nioe?aeueiiai oa aeooiaiiai aeoiaaiiy. Aeiyoeiaa ?ieue o ?iaeei?
iaeaaeeoue iaoa??. Aiia ? aieiaiei aeoiaaoaeai, ? naia a?ae ia?
caeaaeeoue iaeaooi? n?i’?, ?iaeo, ethaenoaa.

5. Iaeia c iaeaieiai?oeo i?iaeai, yea oo?aoaaea Ieaio I/?eeo, aoee
ieoaiiy i?aaa ?nioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? iiae, iaiao?aeiino?
iaa/aiiy ae?oae ??aeiith iiaith. Iie?ath/enue ia iiaeyaee E.Ooeinueeiai,
ienueiaiieoey aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui iaa/aiiy /oaeith iiaith, iniaeeai
ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai?, ni?e/eiy? ?iceaae i?ae n?i’?th ? oeieith, ae?iaey?
a o/i?a ciaaaao aei ??aeii? iiae, aaaea aei ii?ooaiiy eia?ee iaa/aiiy,
eiai aaaeeeaiai i?eioeeio — a?ae a?aeiiiai aei iaa?aeiiiai.

I?ia?aneaieie aoee iiaeyaee Ieaie I/?eee ia ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo iiae. Aiia
aaaaeaea, ui eiaeia e?oa?aoo?ia iiaa iiaeiia iino?eii caaaa/oaaoeny ?
aaeineiiaethaaoeny. I?aee?anethth/e, ui iniiaith oe?a?inueei?
e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae ia? aooe caaaeueiiia?iaeia iiaa, Ieaia I/?eea
aeciaaaea iiaia i?aai ca iaieia?ciaie ? caiice/aieie neiaaie,
aaaaeath/e, ui aiie ni?eythoue oe?oiio noee?noe/iiio ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueei? iiae ? ca?eueoaiith noa? ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Iaeei c
iaeaoaeoeai?oeo cania?a ?icaeoeo ? caaaa/aiiy e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae aiia
aaa/aea a ia?aeeaaeao, naia aeoeaii i?aoethth/e ona aeeooy ia oe?e iea?
oai?/ino?.

Oi?ioaaiiy anaa?/ii ?icaeiooi? iniaenoino? Ieaia I/?eea ia ieneeea aac
iaieiae?iiy iath e?oa?aoo?iith iiaith — aeuith ? aeineiiae?oith oi?iith,
i?ae ?iciiaia iiaa. E?oa?aoo?ia iiaa, ia ?? ia?aeiiaiiy, ? iaeiei c
iaeae??a?oeo cia?yaeue ina?oe oa iniiaiei /eiieeii aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo
iniaenoino?.

6. Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ii-ooaeiaeiuei? niaaeueie ? iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino? Ieaie I/?eee aeaa iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui
a iniia? ?? iaaeaaia?/ieo iiaeyae?a eaaeeoue ?aeay ae?aeaeoe/ii?
?aeiino? iaoe?iiaeueiiai ? caaaeueiiethaenueeiai. Ca ia?aeiiaiiyi
ienueiaiieoe?, ??aeia eoeueoo?a, iaoea, aeooiai?noue, e?au? caeiaooee
eoeueoo? ?ioeo ia?iae?a noaiiaeyoue iniiaiee iaoe?iiaeueiee ?
caaaeueiiethaenueeee ci?no ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy. E?ioeaao iaoo aeoiaaiiy
aiia aaa/aea o oi?ioaaii? oai?/i?, aeoeaii? iniaenoino? c aeeaieeie
a?iiaaeyinueeeie yeinoyie: iaoe?iiaeueiith naiina?aeii?noth,
iao??ioeciii, a?aei?noth, neeith aie?, i?aoeueiaeo?noth, aenieith
ii?aeeth oiui. Aeinyaiooe oe??? iaoe aeiiiiiaeooue n?i’y, cie?aia
aeaniee i?eeeaae aaoueea ? iaoa??, iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiiee ? oai?/ee
o/eoaeue, a oaeiae ??aeia iiaa ? eieaa, ye? ? iiaooi?ie aeoiaaoaeyie.

7. Ia no/aniiio aoai? oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, aeooiaiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, eiee ia?aae ina?oith ? aeoiaaiiyi iinoathoue ye?nii iia?
? neeaaei? caaaeaiiy, iaaeaaia?/ia niaaeueia Ieaie I/?eee ni?eyoeia
?ica’ycaiith aaaaoueio aeooaeueieo iaaeaaia?/ieo i?iaeai, cie?aia,
oi?ioaaiith iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiiiai a?iiaaeyieia Oe?a?ie, aeeaoiio
ona?aeiieaiith ?ie? ??aeii? iiae a aeeoo? ie?aii? iniaenoino? ? anueiai
noni?euenoaa, iaaeaaia?/ii ni?yiiaaiiio aeiai?o oai??a aeey aeeoy/iai
/eoaiiy. Iniaeeai oe?iiei ? aaaeeeaei aeey no/anii? ina?oiuei-aeoiaii?
oai??? ? i?aeoeee ? aeina?ae aeoiaaiiy o iaoa?einuee?e oeie? Ieaie
I/?eee. Oeae aeina?ae iiaea aooe oai?/i aeei?enoaiee o nenoai?
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe aaouee?a, o/eoae?a, aeoiaaoae?a aeeoy/eo
naaee?a, a oaeiae o i?aeaioiaoe? nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo aoc?a.

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia i?aoaiaeo? ia iiaia ? anaa?/ia
?ica’ycaiiy ii?ooaieo o iueiio ieoaiue. Aaaaoia?aiia niaaeueia Ieaie
I/?eee caneoaiao? ia iiaeaeueoa aea/aiiy. Cie?aia oea noino?oueny:
aeoiaaiiy iao??ioecio o ooaeiaei?e oai?/ino? i?ina?oeoaeueee,
ia?aeeaae?a ienueiaiieoe? c ?ioeo iia ye caniao aeoiaaiiy iiaii?
eoeueoo?e. Oe?eaaith ? iaaeine?aeaeaiith ? i?iaeaia, ui iiina?aaeeiaaii
iia’ycaia c Ieaiith I/?eeith, aea aeecueea aei ieoaiue, ye? iaie
?icaeyaeaeeny: ocaaaeueiaiiy aeina?aeo aeoiaaiiy ae?oae a ?iaeeiao
oe?a?inueeeo ?ioae?aaio?a: Eenaie?a, Noa?eoeueeeo, ?oniaeo, Ae/aanueeeo
oa ?i., ui ni?eyoeia iie?auaiith noaio no/aniiai n?iaeiiai aeoiaaiiy.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo
aaoi?a:

1. Iaoa?einueea oeiea Ieaie I/?eee // Ii/aoeiaa oeiea.- 1997.- ?9.-
N.47-51.

2. Ieaia I/?eea: /ano?oa aeioi?eaoeny aei ia?iaeiiai aeaea?aea //
??aeia oeiea.- 1998.- ?4.- N.14-16.

3. Iiaeaeaeieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue Ieaie I/?eee // Iai’youe noie?oue.-
1998.- ?3.- N.35-40.

4. Ieaia I/?eea ? oe?a?inuee? ae?oe // ??aeia oeiea. — 1998.- ?11.-
N.8-9.

5. Ieaia I/?eea — iaoe, ienueiaiieoey, iaaeaaia // Iaoa??aee
iaoe.-i?aeo.eiio. “I?iaeaie i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee”.-
Oiaiue, 1995.- N.56.

6. Ieaia I/?eea ? aeoiaaiiy ae?oae a n?i’? // Iaoa??aee iaoe.-
-i?aeo.eiio. “Oe?a?inueea aeioe?eey: i?iaeaie, iiooee, oai?/?
ciao?aeee”.- Oiaiue, 1996.- N.126-127.

7. Ieaia I/?eea ? A.Nooiieeinueeee i?i ?ieue eieae o aeooiaiiio aeeoo?
aeeoeie // Iaoa??aee ??? Anaoe?a?inueeeo iaae. /eoaiue “Aaneeue
Nooiieeinueeee ? no/ani?noue”.- Aei.3.- Ee?a — *a?eane — Oiaiue, 1996.-
N.60-63.

8. Iaoe — ia?oee o/eoaeue ? aeoiaaoaeue aeeoeie // Iaoa??aee
iaoe.-i?aeo.eiio. “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ii/aoeiai? oeiee oa i?aeaioiaee
o/eoae?a”.- Ee?a, 1998.- N.27-28.

Iiaae?anueea E.A. I?ina?oieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue ? iaaeaaia?/i? iiaeyaee
Ieaie I/?eee.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.01 — oai??y ? ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee.- ?inoeooo
iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? cae?eniaii ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iee aiae?c i?ina?oieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? ? iaaeaaia?/ieo iiaeyae?a oe?a?inueei? ienueiaiieoe?,
a/aiiai, iaaeaaiaa Ieaie I/?eee. Iieacaii oi?ioaaiiy ?? na?oiaeyaeo,
aecia/aii iniiai? iai?yie ? ?ice?eoi ci?no ?? i?ina?oieoeoaa a eiioaeno?
a?iiaaenueei-iaaeaaia?/iiai ?ooo oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe?? ca
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe, iaoee, eoeueoo?e, naiina?aeiiino?
ia?iaeo; i?iaiae?ciaaii i?aeoe/iee aeina?ae iaaeaaiaa o noaiiaeaii?
iniia oe?a?inueei? iaoa?einueei? oeiee, ?iaeeiiiai aeoiaaiiy; ?ice?eoi
nooi?noue iiaeyae?a Ieaie I/?eee ia i?iaeaie ??aeii? iiae ye iniiae
iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe, ia ia?iaeiiai a/eoaey, aeeoy/a /eoaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ina?oa, i?ina?oieoeoai, iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiaaiiy,
iaoa?einueea oeiea, ??aeia iiaa, o/eoaeue, aeeoy/a /eoaiiy.

Iiaaeianeay E.A. I?inaaoeoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue e iaaeaaiae/aneea
acaeyaeu Ieaiu I/eeee.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01 — oai?ey e enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee.-
Einoeooo iaaeaaiaeee AII Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeena?oaoeee inouanoaeai enoi?eei-iaaeaaiae/aneee aiaeec
i?inaaoeoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe e iaaeaaiae/aneeo acaeyaeia oe?aeineie
ienaoaeueieoeu, o/aiiai, iaaeaaiaa Ieaiu I/eeee. ?anniio?aii
oi?ie?iaaiea a? ie?iaicc?aiey, ii?aaeaeaiu iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey e
?ane?uoi niaea?aeaiea a? i?inaaoeoaeuenoaa a eiioaenoa
iauanoaaiii-iaaeaaiae/aneiai aeaeaeaiey oe?aeineie eioaeeeaaioeee ca
aic?iaeaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey, iaoee, eoeueoo?u,
naiiniciaiey ia?iaea; i?iaiaeece?iaaii i?aeoe/aneee iiuo iaaeaaiaa a
noaiiaeaiee iniia oe?aeineie iaoa?eineie oeieu, naiaeiiai ainieoaiey;
?ane?uoi nouiinoue acaeyaeia Ieaiu I/eeee ia i?iaeaie ?iaeiiai ycuea eae
iniiau iaoeeiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey, ia ia?iaeiiai o/eoaey, aeaoneia
/oaiea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ia?aciaaiea, i?inaaoeoaeuenoai, iaoeeiiaeueiia
ainieoaiea, iaoa?eineay oeiea, ?iaeiie ycue, o/eoaeue, aeaoneia /oaiea.

Novakivska L.V. Elucidative activities and pedagogical views of Olena
Pchilka.- Manuscript.

Thesis for competition of scientific dergee of candidate of pedagogical
sciences on speciality 13.00.01 — theory and history of pedagogy.-
Institute of Pedagogy of Ukrainian Academy of Pedagogical Sciences,
Kyiv, 1999.

In the thesis the historico-pedagogical analysis of elucidative
activities and pedagogical views of Ukrainian writer, scientist and
pedagogue Olena Pchilka is made. This work determines the conditions and
circumstances in which the write-pedagogue’s world outlook that
influenced the direction of her elucidative-pedagogical activities was
formed; it determines the main directions (scientific folk —
ethnographical work, literary and publishing activities, participation
in cultural-elucidative associations, struggle for education and status
of woman in the society) and opens the contents of her enlihgtenment in
terms of social-pedagogical movement of Ukrainian intelligetsia for
rebirth of national education, science, culture, self-conciousness of
the people in the second half of the XIX — the beginning of the XX
century. As a result the conclusion is made that Olena Pchilka’s work in
the field of enlightenment was saturated and fruitful, in its basis so
as in the basis of her artistic, scietific and publicistic legacy there
are strongly pronounced manifestations of Ukrainian mentality. By her
untiring social-elucidative activity she awoke Ukrainians’ nstional
feelings, formed national conciousness and self-conciousness, pride and
dignity, deep patriotism and firm social position, readiness to continue
freedom-loving traditions of the forefathers both in young generation
and adult population.

The thesis contains the analysis of practical experience of children’s
upbringing in Kosach’s family; it gives the proots that Olena Pchilka
was one of those who made the foundation of Ukrainian motherly school,
of family upbringing. A special accept is made on her role as a
mother-woman in upbringing of her own children. the upbginging system in
motherly school was based on people’s pedagogy, on such its principles
as humanism, accordance with nature, folk character, unity of upbringing
and life, with due regard for age and individual peculiarities of
upbringing, combination of respect to the child with exactingness to
him. By means of analysis of motherly school activity Olena Pchilka’s
views on family pedagogy are opened.

It is marked in the thesis that one of the main problems which worried
the writer-enlightener was the questions of the right of existence and
development of Ukrainian language, of necessity of educating children in
their mother tongue. She thought that education in foreign language was
harmful, becouse it didn’t correspond the natural turn of mind of the
child, it influenced the child’s psychology, brought to
self-unconfidence, doubts in knowledge. That’s why education at schools
should be realized in mother tongue. She had these questions in her
fiald of vision when Ukrainian language was persecuted by tzarist
government and during the formation of UPR. It is known that Olena
Pchilka stood not only for Ukrainian language, but also took care of the
development and enrichment of its literary from. In the language she saw
the way of social life development, of material and spiritual progress,
the way of upbringing a personality and involving it to national
cultural achievements. The person, who knows the language perfectly
well, can realize his own intellectual potential more easily and fuller,
quicker communicate with other people, so as language is not only the
way of intercourse, but also the way of mentality, getting knowledge,
self-development and self-expression.

Stressing that the public language is to be the basis of Ukrainian
literary tongue, Olena Pchilka admitted the right for neologism and
borrowings, considering that they promote the wider stylistic
development of Ukrainian language and broodening the sheres of its
functioning. She considered one of the most effective ways of literary
language development and engichment in translations, working in this
field of activities all her life.

The thesis shows Olena Pchilka’s views on public teacher and children’s
literature and reading, which are reflected in her literary-artistic
legacy. She regarded a teacher as an older comrade, a titor and a wise
adviser, who treats pupils with faith and mutual respect, holds the
individual method of approach to each child, tries to develop his
personal featyres. The teache is called not only to teach children
reading, writing and counting, but also thinking. His tash is to awake,
to enrich, to form the child’s vital thinking.

Ukrainian school without a creative nationally concious teacher will
give birth only to spiritual cripples, will lead to economic decay,
becouse it won’t give intelligent personalities, able for better work
for public and own benefit.

It is being proved that Olena Pchilka considered a book to be a strong
educator. She didn’t admit books which orientated the reader on passive
look of reality. A book for children shoceld teach how to think,
stimulate own conclussions, form the world outlook, aesthetic tastes,
moral persuasion of young generation and at the same time meet its
demands and interests.

The thesis gives analysis of Olena Pchilka’s expereince as an editor and
publisher of the only at that time magazine for children “Young Ukraine”
(1908-1914) in Eastern Ukraine and her own creative worc as a children’s
writer, paying attention to the fact that she was one of the first
writers in Ukrainian literature of the and of the XIX — the begining of
the XX century who began to write for children taking into account their
age peculiarities.

The key words: edukation, enlightenment, national education, motherly
scholl, mother tongue, teacher, children’s reading.

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